BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

1

2

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
3

4

BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
5

127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

6

UNIT – I 7 .

8 .

of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. 9 . Jainism and their educational implication. Lesson 4. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. In. Lesson 2. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. discusses the regional educational development in India. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Lesson 5. and Jain system of education. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. The need. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era.

10 .

1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.4.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.5 Jain system of education 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.2 1.6 Education during British Era 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.1.LESSON 1.1.6.1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1.1.1.4.6.5.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.3.6.1.6.5.1.5.1.1.1.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.5.6.1 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.1.3.1.1.

India.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.7 1. elucidate the education during British Era.1.1.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1. The history of education passed through Buddhist.1.1.6. That 12 .3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. you will be able to: 1.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. Muslim and British periods.8 1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1. in morals and in the intellect”. Education in India. both present and future. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. 1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. describe the Jain system of Education 4. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.1. in opinion. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. has a long past history starting in vedic education. Indian in blood and colour. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. but English in taste.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.9 1.6. 1.3. “a class of persons. 1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. British system of education presented the modern western model.

the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. 3. to light. however. from darkness. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Method of Instruction. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. 10. not en masse by the class method. It was also moral. 9. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. questioning by the pupil. Where pupils were many. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Method of Study. if they thought fit to do so. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Pupils were taught. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. 13 . 6. Individual Teaching. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. managed entirely by Brahmans. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Free and Accessible. followed by explanation by the teacher. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. There was. Forests as Centres of Education.knowledge was real. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. 11. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. 13. No State Control on Education. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. and to agriculture and trade. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. 4. 14. Teacher as Parents. The immediate aim of education. generally. individually. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. High Status of Teachers. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Education was a private affair of the people. Education of Moral. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. the monitorial plan was followed. It was not merely intellectual. 5. from eternal to immorality 2. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 16. Curriculum. with grants of land or money. Residential Schools. Immediate Aim Vocational. Religious and Spiritual. 8. 12. as it is generally considered to be at present. Role of Travel in Education. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. religious and spiritual.

It was freely available to all those who wanted. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. 1. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3.1. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. It was suited to the needs of the society. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Wide-Spread Education in Women. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . They were very cordial and intimate. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. studied Vedas. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. lived a life of celebacy.17. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India.

etc. partaking of food at prohibited times. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. in which. It was denied only to the ill. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’.C. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. I take Refuge to Dharma. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Right thought 3. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Consequently. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. except the Chandals. the handicapped. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Right memory 8. killing of any living being. the most significant of which were the following 1. Right activity 5. the student remained in a state of Shramana. use of cosmetics.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. every class in society. I take Refuge to Sangh. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. 1. Education was imparted through the. use of intoxicating things. taking things without being offered.1. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Right means of livelihood 6. impure conduct. disease and death of the human beings.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. had the right to receive education. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. medium of Pali. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. watching dances or listening to music.4. 2. Right endeavour 7. 15 . he was qualified to become a monk. After attaining the age of 20. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. Right knowledge 2. the student had his head shaved of all hair. Right speech 4. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. which included abstaining from theft. Right contemplation 1.

As reality is becoming. depth and range. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. arithmetic and religious discussion.. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. cottage industries. It comprehended education in writing. Later on. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. women occupied a position inferior to men. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. aspirations and. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. On this occasion. a continuous change creating 16 . changing the goals. commerce. has no metaphysical value for life. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. animal husbandry. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. Initially. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. agriculture. meaning. approach. elephant lore. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. After this ritual. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. the presence of the monks was essential. medicine. education was impart in art. along with education in script writing. nature. 7. archery. wear three items. of clothes. Hence. magic.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious.3. 4. handicrafts. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. Life is in a flux. it is regarded as true”. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. 5. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. These are called later Buddhist schools. objectives of human life. beg for alms. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. control over sensuous activities. assumptions. Even at this stage. etc.4. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. 3. geology. so long as it successfully does so. however. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. etc. 2. military science. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. 6. eat food thrice a day. a change is not only total but also perpetual. therefore. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. bodily gestures. Whatever its nature and extent. the science of taming and training animals. 8. knowledge of reviving the dead. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. nothing is of any permanent consequence. etc. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. 1. be considered the aim of education It. and. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. archery.

Jainism insists 17 . however. Its chief feature. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. it is much older than the latter.5. its pessimistic outlook on life. and its refusal to believe in supreme God.1. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. i. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. 1. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet.. such as. However. goes to Vardhaman. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and to give it a shape that it has today. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. Write Eight fold path .e. whatever works are true and good. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. therefore. In fact.new and peculiar situations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. 5. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Education must. Validity is effective and consequences. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter.

As such. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. 7.5. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. e) To renounce the world. rather than the interpretation of the universe. c) Not to steal. 8. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Development of personality as an individual. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma.1. 6. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. 2. 3. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. d) To lead a celibate life. and is to be redeemed and liberated. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. 18 . 1. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. it has a foot in both the words. c) Right conduct. 4. more stress on individual aims. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 2. and believe in happiness to all. They are: a) Not to injure. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Hence. b) Right knowledge. 5. 10. 1. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. 3. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. but on both.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 9. thought and deed. b) Not utter falsehood.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul.

practised and not only aspired for. education should develop sense of discrimination. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Hence.5. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. 8. 3. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Teaching should be social and tolerant. 19 . 5.5.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.4. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 1.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Jiva is essentially karmic. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. success and love. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. and should bring happiness to all. that would be socially desirable. 2. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Teaching must develop these faculties. education must be action based and ideally oriented. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. therefore. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. 1. 4. 3. Belief in transmigration of soul. here and now. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are Triratnas ? . 2.

1.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools.6.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.6.6. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854).2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. 1. North West Province and Punjab. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. 1. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. and not for life. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. Madras. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. primary 20 .1. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. 2. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. 1.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts.6. 1953). Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. To set up separate departments of.1. science. with rally and rout. Bombay. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. However. philosophy and literature of Europe. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler.

1. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. • Secondary education. namely. The universities dominated the secondary education. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education.6. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. At that time M.education was neglected. Then the prevalent education was anti-national.6. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission).K.6. 1. secondary education became a step towards university. To ensure qualitative improvement. 1. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. Later on. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. at the primary level.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. self-respecting and competent. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. • Universal free primary education. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. In 1882. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. all children are to have a common curriculum. 10.At the primary stage (6-11 years). commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. After this stage. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.1. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. The report suggested development of adult education scheme.

arithmetic and religious discussion. 4.1.. It was suited to the needs of the society. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. Right activity. geology. b. 3. 23 . questioning by the pupil. handicrafts. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. a. establishment of universities. 6. 3. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. etc.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. 5. education was impart in art. Right contemplation. science and English language. Right means of livelihood. Right thought. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. the science of taming and training animals. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. archery. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. Right knowledge.1. along with education in script writing. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. followed by explanation by the teacher. 4. 2. 1. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. military science. The immediate aim of education. The system of education was well-organised. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. During the Buddhist period. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Right memory. Right endeavour. 1. Right speech.education of European literature.

Development of personality as an individual. (1984). Right conduct.K. Hence. Y. Right knowledge. History of Indian Education System. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. (2009). Improvement of Literature. b. 9. Right faith. b.7. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. c.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Y. a. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.K. J. (2007). Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Sargent report 12. Singh. R. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. and Nath. 1937 1. 24 . Ltd.C. Development of Educational System in India.C. a. (2005).1. 11. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Aggarwal. 10. 1882. J. more stress on individual aims. Sharma. 8.

Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.1 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.LESSON 1.2 1.2.2.1 University Education Commission 1.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1. The 25 .2.6 1.5 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.2.3.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.2.7 1.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.4 1.8 1.9 1.2.2.2.3.3.2.2.3.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.

Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 2. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. expansion of vocational. 1.2. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. you will be able to: 1. vocational education. There had been vast institutional expansion. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement.2. 1. curriculum. S.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. diversification of courses of studies. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. girls and women education besides primary. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3.3. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. Post-graduate 26 . explosion of enrolment. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. National Council for Women’s Education 5. analyse the progress of education in free India. medical and legal education.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. New Educational Policy. National Board of Teacher Education 10. standard of teaching. 1986 1.conditions of the teachers. examination system. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. technical. technological engineering.2. Kothari (1964-66) 8.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. secondary and higher education.

2. material and spiritual. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. Problems of access. 1. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 .3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. the chairman of University Grants commission. Government of India. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1986. Education is the key to our allround development. Kothari.3. quality. accumulated over the years. in January 1985. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. A meaningfully Partnership. 4. quantity. Finally. research et. The national system of education envisages common educational structure.2. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation.3. A. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. 3. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. 1. 2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23.teaching. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. Education for Equality.3. the New National Policy on Education. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency.S. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. 1966. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. The Essence and Role of Education. National System of Education. 1. D.2. 1952. However. Therefore. utility and financial outlay.

4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. By working with hands.” Thus. the minorities and the handicapped. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. the concepts of work experience. The UNESCO Report. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It can train practical aptitudes. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Thus. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. 28 . Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. attitudes. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools.2. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world.

the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. if he wishes. With adequate planning. “The aim of these colleges. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. According to. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. The Education Commission. co-ordinations." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. the Commission. In 1955. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. “It may be described.” the Kothari Commission mentioned.” The Mudaliar Commission. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. As such. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. The Radhakrishnan Commission. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. Besides. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. it will conduce self. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education.employment and promote economic independence of the youth.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions.

the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. With a view to relating education to the life. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). the. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. Therefore. the rigid streaming of courses. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. raising the special facilities. In addition. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. the semester and credit system. etc. The Central Advisory Board of Education..ot her.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. Subsequently. for quality of life in the rural areas. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. admission requirements to vocational courses.

and the world of work. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. etc. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. In short. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. 1. The Father of Nation. meaningful. under the diversified curricula of seven streams..defined S UP W as “purposive. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred.2. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. technological courses including Agriculture. meaningful. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. Commerce. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. giving importance to productivity in the national development. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. aimed at this goal. manual work resulting in either goods or services. who conceived the System of Basic Education. The wave of Basic Education. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. which swept the country for over two decades. felt that education should be centred around a craft. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. preferably spinning and weaving. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. which offer scientific. 31 . which are useful to the community. According to committee. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji.

Culture and recreation 6. Productive 2. 3. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. 32 . Educative and 3. so that it is educational in essence. Clothing 5. as far as possible. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Some Hints to Teachers 1. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. 2. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. 4. Food 3. Community work and social service. Experimentation with materials. Work practice. Health and Hygiene 2. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. tools and techniques and 3. Shelter 4. be that the work involved is: 1. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. The teachers should make use of. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. locally available materials and tools. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom.The aim of SUPW according to the committee.

inculcate a faith. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Such activities may include projects of village uplift.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. 1. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. the local community should be actively associated. To make education more realistic. removal of illiteracy. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. Productive Work 33 . Check on educated unemployed 4.5. Education through work The SUPW should. Merits of the Programme 1. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. etc. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. 6. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. as far as possible. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility.2. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. It can become an instrument to build character. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. slum clearance. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. Community Service In-1972. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. improve discipline.

helping the adults-in productive work. if not productive. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. in turn. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The community. AICTE was set up in year 4. should involve itself in the educational effort.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. skills and better future for the children. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . etc. traffic control. Define SUPW 34 . It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. offering first aid.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. What are the work areas in SUPW 6.

Write short note on SUPW. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 1. 1. e. a. 6.2. meaningful.1.2. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. d. Radhakrishnan 2. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. manual work resulting in either goods or services. f.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. c. 3. 2.2. 1955 4.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 35 . 1952 3. Dr. which are useful to the community. b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.

(2005).1.H.K. History of Indian Education System. and Nath. Y. R. V. B.(2005). Amala. 36 . : Sharma.P. Ltd. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.K. Rao. Publishing Corporation.P. History of Education. Singh. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. A. Development of Educational System in India.C. Anupama.. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. (2007). History and Problems of Indian Education.2. P.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.K. New Delhi: A. Y. and Rao. J. (2009). New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007).D.

and liberty.3. democratic republic.3. directive principles and duties of citizens.3.3. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. assuring its citizens of justice. there is an official Hindi translation. procedures.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.7 1.3.3. Being the supreme law of the country.6 1. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.2 1. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. establishing the structure. equality. it came into effect on January 26.3.3.4 1. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. containing 395 articles.3.9 1. for a total of 117.8 1. 1950.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.1 Significance of DPSP 1.3. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. 1949.1 1.369 words in the English language version. 37 .5 1. Besides the English version. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.3.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3.3.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.

the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 4.3. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution.3. Through them. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. understand our Indian constitution. 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1947. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. The Assembly met. 2. for 166 days. social.3. political. 38 .In the August 14. administrative. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. in sessions open to public. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. 1950. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. spread over a period of 2 years. On August 29. 1947. economic. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. After many deliberations and some modifications.3. 1. Dr. the Drafting Committee was appointed. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. Two days later. 1. According to the constitution. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. legal and environmental. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. learn the role of central and state government on education. 3. with Dr. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. you will be able to: 1.

to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Article 41. No abuse of children. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Article 42. Equal pay for both sex. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. Right to work. Article 43. and in other cases of undeserved want. Equal justice and free legal aid.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. for workers. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. provide free legal aid. sickness and disablement. Article 39A. old age. and shall. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. The State shall endeavour to secure. Liking wage etc. Minimising inequalities in status. The State shall. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. on the basis of equal opportunity. in particular. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Protecting health of the workers. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. make effective provision for securing the right to work. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Article 40.government. Appropriate concentration of wealth. 39 . The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. men and women. Organisation of village panchayat. Protecting children from exploitation. That the health and strength of workers. Condition for dignity of children.

in particular. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. The State shall take steps. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Article 43A. See also Article 21A). Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Article 49. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. in particular. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 48A. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Article 45. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. and. Article 48. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Article 46. work. industrial or otherwise. to all workers. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. a living wage. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Article 44. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. in particular. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. The State shall endeavour to provide. by suitable legislation or in any other way.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Participation of workers in management of industries. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. 2002 for “45. [declared by or under law made by 40 . (Original Article 45. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Note: Subs. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. agricultural. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. Article 47.

and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. destruction. disposal or export. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. 2. 1. Article 45 . as the case may be. Article 50. 2002.Parliament] to be of national importance. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. from spoliation. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. may be law determine”. Separation of judiciary from executive. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. disfigurement. Article 51. Promotion of international peace and security.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . removal. Article-21A Right to Education.

6. language or any of them”. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. and. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. 8. caste. 3. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. 4. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. from justice and all forms of exploitations. his guardian has given his consent thereto. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. race. iii. 2002. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. if such person is a minor. 5. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. ii. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”.” 42 . 7. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. in particular. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. and shall protect them.

It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. & 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 351 gives importance to 6. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. 43 . Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. for its vocabulary. wherever necessary or desirable. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Educational Reforms From time to time.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. the forms. and by drawing. The central government determines targets and promotes education. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. 2. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule.9. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5.

Promoting Inter-state understanding g. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). 8. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. By starting these projects. Production of suitable for children and adults f. 7. to achieve the desired ends. 5. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 .. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. The following pilot projects. So as to encourage education on right lines. 4. So that they may work well. the state governments. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. All India Council of Medical Science. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Local bodies and private enterprise. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. 6. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. etc.3. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. private agencies etc. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e.

for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. etc. 12. books. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. 1. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. 11. training and statistics. research.3. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. reports etc.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. 1. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. 9. 3. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. 10. are published by it. is the state responsibility. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. 4. The 45 . education for women. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. handicapped.

recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Explain Directive principles 2. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 46 4. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. 1.3. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. 46 . 1. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. articles in the Directive principles. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Write short notes on a.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Article 21A c. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8.3. Article 45 b.

(Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Article 29 and 30 7. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Development of Hindi Language 6. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Clearing House function 9. b.5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2002. 47 . Article-21A Right to Education. a. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. a. Dr. 3. Article 46 5. 2002. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 4. may be law determine”. Ambedkar 2.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Article 45 .3. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 1. The Directive Principles of State Policy. b. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Describe the educational role of State Government. a. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.

New Delhi: Shipra Publications.3. Bhatia. S. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. (2004). L. Education in Emerging Indian Society.1. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. N. B. S. (2009). New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2008). Ghosh. K and Narang C. K. 48 . Dash. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. (2007). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.

4.1 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4 Moral education 1. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.3.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4.4.2 1.4.4.5 1.4.3. Students should be 49 . Jainism.3.4.4.4. Buddhism etc.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.6 1. religious education should be broad based.4. Christianity.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4. Islam.4.4.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.7 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.8 1.

Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. religious education and the concept of secularism. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. beauty and goodness so that 50 . India' can produce men of character.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. know the position of religious education in our country 3. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. you will be able to: 1. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. integrity. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. Thus. "In A multireligious society like ours.and dedication. 1. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world.4. state meaning and need for moral education 1. According to E.” Education broadens human outlook. duty-consciousness. In the complicated and complex society of today. As result of which. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).. understand the relationship between religion and education 2.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.D.4. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life.

Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education.” From the above. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. 1. castes and creeds. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. Thus. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. at least occasionally. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. As our country is a country of diverse religions. rancour. According to Article 22. 1947 we achieved our freedom. They thought that any kind of narrow. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. As a matter of fact. through religious practices and 51 .1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August.3. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. No religious tax can be imposed on them. Viewing the defects of religious education.4. "In view of the provision in the Constitution.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. if not regularly. it is clear that the State has no religion. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. religion and democracy are same. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full.4. Hence. all citizens are free to follow any creed. realizes God in himself.3. In short. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. According to Article 19. Children attend these organizations.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. 1. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes.

From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. intellectual and physical faculties of children. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. aggressive. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. It helps to modify habits attitudes.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment.. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. and what is evil.teachings. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. which help him for the development of his character. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. which can mould. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. for the development of the individual and the society. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. Good education. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. one fully developed. when he becomes an adult. If unreleased. It is religious education. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. what is done and what is not done etc. moral and spiritual values. He also learns about social. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. temperament etc. As a result of which. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge.

Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. 1. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. which is the basic need of a democratic life. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. 53 . Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument.4. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. This should not be allowed to happen. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual.3. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Therefore. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. If we open the pages of history. towards the society.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. 3.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. 2. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society.

Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. For this. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8.4.5. 10. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Life histories of great persons of the world. 11. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. therefore. 9. Since all religions have virtues. fellow-feeling. Write Article 22 2. they should be discussed in the right earnest. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. examples of patriotism. stories of moral greatness. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Gurudwara as. churches and mosques 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

acquisitiveness). the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Self sacrifice. Satyam (truth). students. Service to others. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. They will play their role effectively. in the home. Cultivation of emotions. 8. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Fearlessness. 7. 1.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 4. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Non-injury.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. 7. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. the methods of teaching. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 5. 1. Ahimsa (Non-violence). 3. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. It they learn what morality is in their early years. 6. Purity. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. 2.4. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Aparigarha (Non. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. The content of the curriculum. let men see well of one another. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. “Let all be happy and free from disease. 2. 8. therefore. 5. 55 . 4. Without moral values. Moral education. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Patriotism. Brahmacharya (celebacy). 6. Asvada (Control of palate).4. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 3. is that which develops moral values. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration).

In the school programme. loyalty and self-sacrifice. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. The School Assembly should be held for a few. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 10. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. 11. Discipline. Asatyam (Non-thieving). Integrity. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography.4. 56 . The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. 3. Sharivashram (Physical work). Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Secondary Stage 1.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Simple texts and stories concerning different.9. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. discipline. National unity and Spiritual values. 4. 1. religions may be included in the syllabus. Unity of mankind. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Good manners. Good temper. 3. Efficiency. minutes in the morning for group singing. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). 2. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship.

Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. In other words. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. 3. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. should form a normal part of school programme. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. love of humanity. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year .4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. University Stage 1. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Silent meditation should be encouraged. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. patriotism and self-discipline. 4. 57 . 2. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. In this connection. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme.

a. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. The School Assembly should be held for a few. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. 1.4. 1. For this.4.4. In short. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3.1. b. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. a. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. Training of Character 3. b. 2. 4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. the. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 1959 5.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. Sri Prakasa 6 . Discuss the aims of Religious education. minutes in the morning for group singing. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. a. 2. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. 58 . The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. (2004).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.P. N. New Delhi : Siddiqui. Anmol Publications Pvt.C. (2003). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. K and Narang C. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J.H. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. P. L.4. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Theory and Principles of Education. Pahuja.1. K. Dash. B. M. 59 . Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ltd. (2008). Bhatia. (2007). New Delhi: A. (2008).H.

Although.5.10 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also. i.4 1.9 1.5.5.5.12 1.7 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5.5.8 1.6 1.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5. 60 . Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.5..5.1 1.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.11 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3 1.5.5.5.e. disparities between provinces/States.2 1.5 1.

4. This leads to separatist movements. 1.5. work hard towards this end. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. understand the regional educational development in India 3. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. for example. They therefore.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. 8. energy.5. know the education suited to different environments. they take appropriate measures. you will be able to: 1.5.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. 61 . Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. Accordingly. Selfishness of the regional political leaders.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. waters. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 7. 2. 1. 1. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.1. roads. 6. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.5. 3. etc.

while others remained educationally backward.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. some average. Tight security arrangements should be made. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1.5. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. 4. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. • Separate States (of course viable States). and. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only .6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. 3. some States became educationally far advanced. 2. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. Therefore. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. on the basis of regional development may be formed. 62 . Secularism.

Tezpur.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005.g. the Union Government. Mizoram. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. academic buildings.5.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. the State Governments. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Guwahati. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. Jammu and Kashmir. Regional Centres of IGNOU. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Central Universities of Assam. and provision of informal education to enable those. However.480. In the Central sector. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. remained under developed. scholarships. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. Funds amounting to Rs. NIT. Silchar. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. Nagaland and NEHU. 1. since its inception in 1998-99. NERIST.392. Even in each State. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. etc.14. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. books. approved proposals worth Rs. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. Itanagar. 63 .After the Planning Process has originated. Out of this.84 crore was released in 2005-06. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Rs.. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. These projects are in various stages of implementation. library buildings. while some States like Bihar. After the attainment of independence. etc.

187. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. Out of this an amount of Rs.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.500. Government expenditure on education.261. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.501. During 2003-04. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.57 crore and Rs. too.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). while the northern region has only 20 per cent. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Tezpur University. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.8 per cent in 05). the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.5. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. A provision of Rs.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.40. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).05 crore and Rs. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Moreover. 64 .

too. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. notes the study.5. for instance. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. To add to the woes. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Karnataka. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. Moreover. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. pharma. engineering and R&D.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . too. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Kerala and Gujarat. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Karnataka. telecom. for which 16 sites. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. Andhra Pradesh. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. too. Medical education. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. English. 1. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. The Chandigarh Administration. Listing the positives. Tamil Nadu. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states.

people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. the teaching methods. the interests. which a non-tribal person cannot do. even actually looking at the watch. when he will not be sure of time. the working days: an academic . which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. The living conditions. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. For a learner living in a rural area. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. life-oriented and environment slanted. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. Then education become realistic and idealistic. In the same manner. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. 66 . Of course. the socio-physical conditions. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. and so on. The working hours of educational institutions. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. while the former does not. the curricular subjects. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such.year. Hence it is called as need-based. taking the average in the middle. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. the needs. in which the learners live. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the vocations.

What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.5. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . 67 . Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. to suit education to different environments? 1. 2.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.5. 2.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.5. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. 1.

Education Scenario in India. (2008). New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. some States have become more developed than others b. Educational Development in India. S.K. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. and Nair. Dubey. during the British rule. C. remained undeveloped 3. Giridhar.H. New Delhi: Authors press.5. (2002). a.G. A. (2001). 68 .13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S. R. some of areas which were under the native rulers. Salim. 60% 1.N. Education in Developmental Arena. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. (2001).2.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

National Integration. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. school community and mass media. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. community development. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. secularism and democracy through Indian education. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. 71 . Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education.

1.1.1.LESSON 2.1.1 2.5.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.6 Education for Secularism 2.1.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.6.4 2.7 2.1.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.1.8 2.2 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.5.6.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .3 2.9 2.6.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.1.1.1.1.

In the matter of admitting students in schools. understand the concept of democracy. for the people by the people”. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. Abraham Lincoln. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic.2. 3) Provision of Manual Work. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. creed. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. there should be made no distinction of caste. 73 . 2. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.1.1.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. 2.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. you will be able to: 1. The students may be associated with the management of the school. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.1. This is the political aspect of democracy. socialistic and secular state. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. colour or wealth. socialism and secularism 2.1. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. socialism and secularism 2. Democracy thus means power of the people.

5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching.. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. 11) Student Parliament. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. may be planned. 74 . There are different brands of socialism. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. declamation contest etc. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. Democracy means 2. it soon spread all over the world. debates. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 2. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. service and cooperation.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. the wealthy and the poor.1. oppression and disparity. none high”. 2. the prince and the peasant. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 75 . In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. Under it. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.1.5.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 7) Special facilities for girls. free from exploitation. but on the path of non-violence. 2.5. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work.

1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 2. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. Everyone says. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. "which seeks the development of physical. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. 5.” In every political and educational corner. 76 . “India is a secular-country. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. secularism is being propagated. According to Holydake. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. Write any two main features of socialism. 11) State schools.

Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. people started believing in regionalism. “Webster further says. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. liberty. Equality. That is why. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life.6. During the recent past. There is need of making the people open minded. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 2) It permits freedom of religion. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. people have narrow mindedness. the belief that the state morals.opposed to religious education. should be independent of religion. In this type of prevailing situations. education etc. fraternity. 8) It believes in co-existence. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state.1. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. 2. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. 77 . 9) It stress free inquiry. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. Moral values have to be imbibed.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. 3) It permits freedom of worship. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights.1. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities.6. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. 5) It implies tolerance. A large number of people is uneducated.

there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. In the hands of such teachers. students belonging to different religions should be associated. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. tours and trips may be organized. education. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. There should be some internal checking of the material being. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. In the celebration of each such function. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. 2. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Religious Education. No doubt.1.6. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. While doing so. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.Corruption and disbelief are rampant.presented by the students in the gathering. 1) Moral Education. Patiala. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. that the central string of all religions is one. The very sight of the building. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance.

The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The word “Seculum” means 7. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. No doubt. The term secularism was first used by 8. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. Define Secularism 9.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved.1.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For.

George Jacob Holydake 80 . 3. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. there should be made no distinction of caste. 3. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. Socialism aims at social justice. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. In the matter of admitting students in schools. b. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 6.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Abraham Lincoln. Tuition free education b. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. Power of the people 2.1. 4. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. a. a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. creed. 4. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Socialism aims at equality. Since socialism stands for equality. This present age 7.1. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Equal Opportunities for Admission. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Respect of Individual Personality. 5. 5. a.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. d. c. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. for the people and the people”. colour or wealth. Provision of Manual Work. 2. b.

K and Narang C.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. the belief that the state morals. (2007). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Modern Trends in Indian Education. N.C. Bhatia. should be independent of religion. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : Pahuja. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Theory and Principles of Education. B. (2005). education etc. (2008). N. Ltd. It permits freedom of religion. Mohanty. (2003). Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. J. (2004). b.1. K.” 9. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. L. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Anmol Publications Pvt. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Ltd. Dash. P. a. J.8. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 10. b. 81 . a.

LESSON 2.9 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.6.2.2.1 2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2.2 2.5.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.8 2.10 2.4 2.7 2.3 2.2.2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.2.2.2.6.5.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.

therefore. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. a r e 1.generation to another. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. 2. It involves physical. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. social. moral. The developmental roles of children. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. emotional.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. 2. development. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. and 4. mental. skills.2. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. as workers.2. as learners. 3. who are placed in his custody. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is.an instructor of school children. 83 . you will be able to: 1. application. 2. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. as citizens. aims and objectives of the school. A teacher is first and foremost. social and moral aspects. as persons. as it is t he aim o f modern education. understandings. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values.

motivated. culturally confident. 3. intellectually. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. emotionally. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. a part of their day in 84 . member of his community at the outset. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. inquisitive. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. He has to look after their physical. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. mental. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. Teacher as a Citizen Next. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. 2.2. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. 1. He is to become an active member. 2. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. physically fit for socially efficient. The following are some of such roles described in brief. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. and aesthetically to become. experiences and acceptance. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. The students live. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social.All education should lead to better behavioural development. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. socially. morally. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. economically effective. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. mentally. morally. social and emotional health. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y.

the school being under the custody of teachers. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. creeds.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. science club. They will be spending with their parents. languages and religions. Dr. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. It 85 . helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2. fine art associations. List out the role of teachers towards community development . photographic clubs. faiths. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. and most of hours. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. India is a land of many castes.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. solve them. 4.2. activities of the society into which he is born. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. Unless. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened.

‘We should not become parochial.is. social studies.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. stand up straight. c. Sampurnanand remarked.” 2. national anthem and other national songs. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. the citizens of the Republic of India. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. folklore and teaching of social studies.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. therefore. this integration of the Indian people. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. The only process is the process of education. At the primary stage the importance of stories. 1. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. b. It should broaden the outlook. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. the study of language and literature. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. and make into one strong national unit. poems. should be emphasised.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. with straight backs and look up at the skies.5. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. Radhakrishnan. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform.” Regarding the role of education. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. a. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. Nehruji has explained this as. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. narrow-minded provincial. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr.2. Let us.

Textbooks. tours. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Student Camps. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Celebrations of National Days. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. ACC. educational excursions. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. t he st udent s and t he community. National Days—January 26. 7. Taking Pledge. 8. 5. Uniform for School Children. Singing of National Anthem. debates. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. dramatics and youth festivals. 4. militar y training like the NCC. 3. Co-Curricular Activities. Scouts and Guides. 87 . symposia. 10. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. and picnics. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.different social sciences. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. 2. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. 6. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. languages and literature. 9. sports. Reverence of National Flag.

5. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. language. 12. 15.2. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. v. colour. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. ways of thinking and doing things. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Recognition of Institutions. Students Exchange and Tours. 2. iii. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 13. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another.11. region or religion. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. Educational and Travel Documentaries. Open-Air Dramas. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. 88 . Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. School Projects. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . iv. 16. Admissions to schools. flora and fauna. Admissions. 14. ii.

camps. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. cultures and races on equal bases. Community dinners. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. vii. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . ix. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. 2. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. viii. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Define National Integration 3.vi.2. irrespective of national boundaries.

6.” 2. often in connection with anniversaries. 3. (c) fairly tales.F. therefore. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes.6. the international level. patriotism is not enough. This. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. that war.2. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. C. 2. Radhakrishnan states. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. 5. if it happens. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. Organising of debates and. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. of his body and mind. and the healthy development. Strong has observed. Teachers 90 .” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. Dr. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 2.e. 4.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.as important as that of a national citizenship. (b) stories of children of other lands.friendships between children of different countries. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it..2.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live.6. Therefore. In a very real sense. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Impartial in their Treatment. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. They should not be propagandists.” Well Informed About World Situations. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. an Englishman. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 .should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Russian. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. Indian and American. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. a German. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race.

leading to.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. It does not prepare students for life.2. majority of people are. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. Wide Spread Frustration . Defects of the educational System . 4. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. there is wide spread frustration among all people. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. Devaluation of Values .7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . understand and indiscipline: 1. which results in agitation and aggression language. and help the students to over .2. 2.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. If this is done. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. the education function can be carried. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . 3. 5. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students.Another major. As the school is but a miniature society. Chronic Poverty .

93 . Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. 3. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. etc. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. fellow feeling. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. 2. co-operation. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development.2.2. 4.democratic nature. sympathy and good will among the nations. community development. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. 2. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. love. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. List out the factors causing social tension in schools .

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

94

LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
95

2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
96

9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
97

16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

98

2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

99

To make them achieve their aim. During the course of time. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Hence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Crow and Crow write. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Define community. Moreover.V. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. led to the printing of books. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Then came newspapers. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. art galleries. periodicals. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. are increasingly used in education. Now internet is being used. books. In fact. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them.3. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. He taught his students orally. Museums.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. 2. “All the citizens of the community. the invention of the printing press. Emphasising this thing. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T.

A lot of work by way of pre. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Effective means of presenting music. Reynolds. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. In collaboration with the experts. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. social studies. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. politics. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media.6. 2. It is also an important source of entertainment. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. art. It stimulates curiosity and interests. the place of importance. Thus. Important happening inventions. current affairs and other areas.telecast. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. 101 . music. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. languages. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. Students listen various talks. It enlightens public opinion. In the emphasis is on sound. 2. rather than on picture.3. “Listening participation” in current history. dram appreciation. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Various talks.classroom teachers. Thus. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. for the teacher through school broadcasts. the teacher still occupies.G.

projects or creative activities. At present. plays. informal and non-formal education. mathematics. audibility and presentability. at play. development of lessons. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. Team-teaching demonstrations. Before presenting the programme. travel talks. fol classical music. Making learning an open system. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Participation of local teachers and pupils. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. style. 4. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. at recreational centers. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. at any place. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. 5. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. School concerts. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. at drawing room. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. 102 . There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. 3. speech. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

103

Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

105

For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

106

Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
107

2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
108

Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.3.5 2.4.3.4.4.4.7 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.3.4.4.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4.LESSON 2.6 2.4.4.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.2 2.4.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.8 2.1 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.3.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.4.4.4.4.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.

2. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 110 .. School is. To realize this objective of education. imparted at the residence of the teacher. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. the temple. 2. the community. his mental alertness. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 7. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises.4. compare formal and non formal system of education. 8. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. 2.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness.4. say the Government or the private enterprise.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. it was mostly. 3. open school. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. Education. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. the most important agency of formal education.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. the learner are acquainted. 5. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. 9. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. 6. the family. 4. you will be able to: 1. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. open university. 2. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. starting and ending at -a particular age. In ancient time in India. his moral excellence and his social adjustment.4.2. 4. the mass media et. Education organised by some agency.4. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 2.

the elements of language are first learned. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection.2. or post secondary education. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Through early formal education.3. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. In general. also called tertiary.3. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. depending on the jurisdiction. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.4. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. diplomas. Concepts of proportion. capacity. as well as vocational education and training.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. third stage. Higher Education: Higher education. structured education. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Some education systems have separate middle schools. or academic degrees.4. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools.a secondary education. such as a high school or secondary school.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. 2.

3. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Write any two characteristics of formal education? .4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. 2.4.4. Agencies can be classified as 2. 2. 4. is an important agency of formal education. and remote dwellers.3.which will help for nation's development. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. What are levels of formal educational system? . children with disabilities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. late beginners etc. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.

Non-formal education includes adult education.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. adding up to a true learning society. etc. admissions.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. curriculum. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. Adiseshiah. to help themselves. systematic. place of instruction. Thus. planned. open learning.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. it is a more effective tool for rural development. financially supported life formal education. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. until 1970 it had not been defined. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.e.. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work.formal education. i. It is functional. Open university. systematic. It unlocks the doors of development plans. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. According to Malcolm A. It is deliberate. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. “Non-formal education should 113 . unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. continuing education and on the job oriented education. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. one could say that non-formal education is an active. adults as well as children.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. it has its own valid claim to reality. Therefore. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. staffed. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. It is much more responsive to needs and change. However. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word.learning client take some learning objectives.

admissions. international understanding. 114 .4.S. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. socialism.be marketable and vocationalised. 4. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things.” According to H. co-curricular activities.S. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.4. 2.4. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. modes of teaching. Part-time education. evaluation etc. Lawrence. curriculum. exploring. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. To help industrial workers to better their skills. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. 6. Covering life span of an individual. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. self.learning pattern. age.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To develop in the student. Flexibility in various aspects of education. i.e. Preparation for future needs. 3. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them.4. 2.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. 5. the Ideas of citizenship. It should lay emphasis on the self. place of education. national integration. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter.renewal.” 2. 7. Process of sharing. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.

• 2. in villages and those who live in towns. 9. 2. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. To offer Secondary. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. Senior Secondary. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 7. 10. working adults. Meeting the omissions of formal education. 4.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. publication and information dissemination. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. 2. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 4. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. Eradication of adult literacy. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 3. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. Technical. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 115 . school dropouts. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. 8. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society.4. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Universalisation of primary education.4. 6. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live.4. 5. 3. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2.4. 5.

farm. 2. 3. To better qualifications.4. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . Therefore.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. others are formal and informal. public libraries. To increase knowledge and 2. self-employment iii. Radio and television. etc. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.4. Institutions for formal education.2. if organised in isolation. To make if. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. 4. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. factory. training centres in factories. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. library. centres of correspondence education. 2. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. All-round development i. Again. etc. open space. effective in modern societal context..full time to learners – can be home. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii.4.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 7.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. radio. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. 117 . . Give examples of non formal education? . Correspondence lesson. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Teaching to face teaching. Define non formal education. List out any two aims of non formal education. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Written tests. . Lecturing T. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Face Contact programmes.V. 6. institution. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. 7. School 3. 2. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. 3.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. 4. Pre-school level. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Primary level. the college and the university come under this category. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.4.2. b. 4. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. a. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. 2. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. The school. a. adults as well as children. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Formal and Non Formal 2. systematic. 118 . Higher Secondary level and University level. Secondary level. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. 2. Open School. Open University.” 6. b. 5. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned.4.4.

New Delhi : 119 . Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2003). Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2008). Dash. Pahuja. K and Narang C. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. P. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. L. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. N. (2005).C. S. K. B. Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt.2. (2004).4. Gupta. Bhatia. (2007). (2008).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Education in Emerging India. N. J. Mohanty.

4.2 2.1 2.7 2.4.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.5.4.3.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.5.6 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.4.5 2.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.3 Objectives of Open University 2.5.5.4.5.5.5.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5.5.5.4 Open University 2.4 Need for Open University 2.5.5.3.3.3.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.LESSON 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.

Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. For them.5. Any person. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. give the meaning. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. It is a lifelong process. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. you will be able to: 1. industries.5. farmers. 2. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.5.2. It is a continuous process. economic field or such other fields. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. continuing education is a boon.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. However. characteristics of open university 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Thus. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. labourers and half educated individuals. 2. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. know the need and objectives of open university. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. 2.5.3. Under these circumstances. This knowledge may be in political field. understand the meaning of continuing education 2.

Radio and T. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Radio. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. 2. On the other hand. deteriorating to his character and personality. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Block Development Officers. Persons engaged in health services. On the other hand. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening.V.3. For them too continuing education is essential. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Throughout the country. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. T. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. are also contributing their might for the purpose. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action.directly related to his job. After the achievement of independence. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. Cinema. cultured and progressive. Thus.5. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans.V. Doctors.literate person. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education.

It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. 2. (15) music. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons.3. (13) psychology of child behaviour. especially women. 6. 5. (2) basic religious matters. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (10) first aid. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. Of course.5. 3. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (7) folk songs. 7.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. habits of people of other lands. These books are not very useful.3. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. we have not been able to achieve our targets. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. (14) information about bringing up young children. 4. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (1) ancient history. (8) psychology of adults. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. Inspite of the great efforts. 2. (16) liking. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories.. (17) modern international and national events.5.V. 123 . (9) fundamentals of philosophy. and Radio. (6) folk stories. 2. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases.

2. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.4. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. attendance restrict ion.5. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. NLM was launched in the year 2. of educational opportunities. lack of time etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the objectives of NLM? 3.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 .1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.

3. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . No one is too old or too late to learn.unobserved. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. c. 5. Which was the first open university in India? . It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. d. b. Education is not a once for-all process. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. it makes use of educational techno logy.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. IGNOU was established in the year 6.5. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. 4.4. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. e. 2. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. and in teaching. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. its education is not class room based but home based. the higher the degree of openness. 2. but 125 .

supplementing the existing provision. who were deprived of t he same earlier. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 6. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. or who realised too late that they need it. 3. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 2.5. Mo re o ver. 2. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 4. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. 2. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n.who did not get it. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n.4. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n.4. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n .5. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 2. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. cho ice o f co ur ses. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. it a ims at wider and hig her. 126 . T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 4. 3. 5. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Correspondence tuition. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. 4. List out any four methods of Open University? . school drop outs. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Laboratory works.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates.5. 6. 5. In the present day world.2. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. 7. you have learnt the concept. semi – literates. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. 3. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n .4. 2. Every day. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 1. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 127 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Self instructional materials. a society. 8. cha ng e t heir life compet ence.5. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Tutor Comments. a state or nation. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. 8. 2. Therefore. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living.

(1) ancient history. 1988. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. youth. 2. a. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 6. 2. its education is not class room based but home based.ambitious learners. 8. d.5. aspirants for continuing education.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 9. a. (4) the fundamentals of economics. agricultural and industrial workers. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. Explain the objectives.5. 7.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. unskilled workers and other professionals. 128 . 4. a. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 3. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. Broad casting lectures c. b. P r int med ia b. b. 1985. which may include house wives. 8. Television Lessons. (2) basic religious matters. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 7. need and characteristics of Open University.

Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. Reddy. K and Narang C. Ltd. 129 . (2004). Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.. (2001). R.2. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Udaiveer. (2007). (2004). Modern Problems of Education. K.K.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. L. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.5.S. S.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. Training teachers for all levels of education. Examination reform. its causes and remedial measures. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. 133 .CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. All which is the need of the hour. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. In Lesson 2. the education of women. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. and teacher education. wastage and stagnation. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. examination. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. which may claim the attention of those concerned.

134 .

1 3.1.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2 EFA – How? 3.1.8 3.1.5 3.1.1.4 3.1 EFA – For whom? 3.3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.7 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1.3 New initiatives. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.1.3. 135 .LESSON 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1.1.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1.6 3.3.2 3.

2. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. On the other hand. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. therefore. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. economic or cultural. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. (EOI) 2.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Continuing Education (CE) 1. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. may be political. 3. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE).1. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). education received added importance and significance. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3.1. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. directed that. social. Therefore. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. you will be able to: 1. “The State shall 136 . understands the country. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986.3. Eradication of Illiteracy.

3. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world.endeavour to provide. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Due to the adoption of democratic system. After the attainment of independence.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. Universalization of Enrolment. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Continuing Education (CE). the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Therefore. the national Government under. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. 137 . Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. rights and responsibilities. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. It enables the parents to send their children to School. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Universalization of Retention. Three Stages for Universalization. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls .

Therefore. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. 1990. present and future. 3. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. educational enterprise. UNESCO Bulletin states. It is safe to assure. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. 138 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. Write Article 45.3. This target had to be revised to 1970. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. later to 1988.1.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. then to 1976. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. 1995 (for upper primary stage). all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education.

Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 12. slum areas. To implement the programme of education for all UEE.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. creed. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. 3. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. 10. By undertaking survey. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Education of the Impaired. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). sex. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas.3. adolescent and adult. 139 . Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. rural areas. 5. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Emphasis must be given on health education. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. 3. 11. their enrolment and retention.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. and Women’s education programme should be improved. problem of literacy. the art of preparing fruit-juice. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. etc. FELF. 8. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. The Social Education. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Disabled. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. nutrition education and sports and games. Education of Girls. 6. 9. NAEP. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Jams and Jellies. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Apart from primary education.1. Early childhood education should be streamlined. their social economic status and occupations.

3 NEW INITIATIVES. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3.3. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.1.3. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. 4.e. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Expand MLL and SSA . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.1. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Wastage and Stagnation.

School Factors . Familial Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .first stage of education. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . Personal Factors . Social Factors . it is considered as wastage.

Enumerate the causes of Wastage.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. . can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Define Wastage. 142 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6.

a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.1. Personal Factors . are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. Family Factors . rural or urban 3.The following factors.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. relating to home.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. in his home. School Factors . Societal Factors .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. They are described hereunder :1.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .3. school or society.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Stagnation? 9. uniforms. 144 . appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. stationary. mid-day meals. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? .

The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. 4. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. Hartog Committee. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Universalization of Enrolment c. 3. “The State shall endeavour to provide. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. 3. 145 . a. 4. a. b.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.1.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. a.” 3.1. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA.1. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. therefore. 3.3. Universalization of Retention 2. improvement of curriculum. 2. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Universalization of Provision b.. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. directed that. 6. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.

(2008). improve examination system.1. 3. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers.7. Social Factors 8. Hemchand. a. T. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. b.K. introduce graded curriculum. Sharma. (2007).K. 9.N. Familial Factors c.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Problems of Elementary Education. School Factors d. New Delhi: 146 . Crescent Publishing Corporation. a. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Personal Factor b. (2001). Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. S. S.

4.5 New evaluation procedures 3.2.7 Open book examination 3.2.2.5.LESSON 3.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.5.6.2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.4.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.3.2.2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2.2.2.5.5.2.2 Grade System 3.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.3.5.2.5.5.2.4 Question banks 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.2.2.1 Problems of examination 3.2.7 Let us sum up 147 .1 3.2.

1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.8 3. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. 3.3. 3. 4. 3.2.9 3. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.2.2. but on the other. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.2. you will be able to: 1. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . 3. Besides.3.2.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. suggest the new evaluation procedures.

They may cause problems relating to discipline. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. They develop secondary sex characteristics.3. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. roadside Romeoism.2. etc. schools for them wherever necessary. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. If the students are in sufficient number. 3. The following steps should be taken up. etc. which the educational authorities have to face. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. 149 . specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours..2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. etc. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. hostel facilities. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. waiting rooms for girl students. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement.

the examination system has an important role to play. assessment and Finance. It is considered as a major sub-system. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.2. Instruction. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. public administrators and statesmen.4. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. appointment of paper-setters. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. 150 . teachers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. conduct of internal examinations. 3. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. public interested in education. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.

The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. examiners. etc. 3. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. tabulators. etc. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. introducing objective-based testing. training of examiners. invigilators.2.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. values. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. etc. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. validity and practicability. scrutinizers. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts.4. etc.printing and distribution of question papers. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. etc. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. announcement of results. establishing reliability. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness.

it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. halo-effect. 3. Vagaries in making.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. it s a common experience that subjectivity. lack of objectivity etc. Subjects. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. stereotyped questions. 7) In connection with the question papers. 2) From the angle of content of education.. takes the place of comprehensive learning.. Rote memorisation. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made..4. 3) With respect to method of teaching. do not appeal to the students and parents. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. 152 . it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. which they are expected to study. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public.2. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. may also discredit them. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books.

153 . 4. etc. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.. List any two merits of examination. . What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon.a part of internal assessment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.develop true love for education. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. may be introduced. re-numbering of answer scripts. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Spot valuation. revaluation. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools.

This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Every paper is treated equal. The students can take any course offered in any department. The new scheme of assessment. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. When a person chooses to work extra. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. In this system. 3. attitudes. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. In actual practice. It is complicated. skills are given importance. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination.3.5. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3.5. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. he is given extra credit points.2. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times.2.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.2.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. Their interests.

poor. While designing syllabus. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. poor.5.discipline. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. Groupism is encouraged. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. courses can have weightages defined. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. This system reduces comparison of marks. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. only the total credits to be earned is specified. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects.good. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. An example is a seminar. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. These weightages are called credits. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. or as a 4 credit course. v. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 .2. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. 3. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. In the new system.

Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. However.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.2.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.2. 3. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. 156 . The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.5. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.5. 3. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. the need for re-evaluation should not arise.2. 3.5. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. 3. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Therefore. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. However. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. 6.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. List any four new evaluation procedures.2. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships.2. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • .3. There are no proper procedures for selection. recruitment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. . Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.5. In the hierarchy.

submitting of the inspection reports. 1. etc. wherever necessary. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures.6. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. library books. finding out whether the prescribed text.. inspecting the class-room teaching. requirements. complaints and compliments.2. taking up the follow-up programmes. 158 . Separation of Inspection and Supervision. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. whether the syllabus has been covered. When they are fully realised.qualified personnel. etc.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. They are. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. in a sense. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. laboratory equipment. staff. playgrounds. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. finding out the adequacy of. disciplinary problems.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. 3. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. interpersonal relationships and so on. school buildings. Academic inspection. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. books are followed. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. qualifications. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. being realised as two different functions.. in contrast. of late.

M. aptitude. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. modern. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively.. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. at least. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. once in five years.Ed.Ed.. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. or. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. In the case of departmental candidates. Similarly. course in either educational. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. their professional knowledge. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. courses. 159 . 3. Insistence on specialisation in the B. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. In the light of these conceptualisation.2.

2. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. 3. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. d. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Administration. 3. b. 3. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Instruction. 3.2. Grade System. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. a. a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 160 . b. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 3. b. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 4.2. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. a. 5. assessment and Finance. c. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.

7. a. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. c. K. 3. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. a. (2004). Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . K. R and Sharma. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. New 161 .10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma.4.a part of internal assessment. b. b. b. (2005). S. a. Open book examinations. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Problems of Education in India. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Educational Reforms. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Vaidya. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma.2. 5. Multiple sets of question paper. Question banks. History and Problems of Education in India. (2002).

1 3.3. you will be able to: 1. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. analyze the general and vocational spectra.5 3.3.3.4 3. identify the needs of rural India and social. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3. 4.3.LESSON 3. 3.3. 2.3.3.3. 3.3.10 3.8 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.7 3. 162 .3. 5.3.3.6 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.9 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 3.

2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. in Andhra Pradesh. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education.. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. and 3 years of First Degree Course. i. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country.e.. Similar is the case with some other States.3.3. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. the Banaras Sanskrit College. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i.specialisation programmes 3.e. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. Consequent on the recommendations. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines.g. The. etc. Commission emphasised to continue. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . e. The Calcutta Madras. 8 years of general education. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education.. 2. 10 years of general Secondary Education.. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. University Education.

It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. 7. to prepare. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. who desire to change from one stream to another. habits of hard work and develop . to imbibe. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . social. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. 6. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. 8.confidence in students.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. economical and political. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage.3. b. However. educational channels. 5) to help for the social. 10. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 3. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . historical. and. 5. cultural and economic development of the country. Provision for transfer of credits to students.a sense of dignity of labour. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. is also a plus point .

There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. cooperativeness. cultural and' religious tolerance. social justice. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X.3. at the other. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. Psychologically. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . to develop national character. etc. Philosophically it is not the conception. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. 3. Sociologically it is undesirable.national integration. and. 1.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing.. The General Educational Spectrum. democratic living. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. and that required to enter the tertiary level. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. on one hand. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. international understanding. Here the choice of subjects is provided for.

they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. medical plants. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Commerce and other disciplines. and vocations based on dairy-farming. horticulture.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. the rural areas have suffered very much. 166 . physics or mathematics. 3. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. technological. Agriculture is the main occupation. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. industrial agricultural production is growing. commerce. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. 2. technical. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. In our country. Science. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. In the matter of language.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. fish culture.— tube-wells. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities.3. vegetable growing. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. or other machinery. educational and cultural services. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. In the vocational spectrum. chemistry. Biology. rural health. professional. All these need for an. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. commerce. such as Agriculture. India is a land of villages. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage.

In time. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. interests and aptitudes of the students. the local resources available. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. etc. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. 3. and 5. There had been favourable reaction from the students. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. social justice. In this way. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits..3. 4..etc. can be ensured. In this it may be concluded.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. and the needs. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely .

New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. to imbibe. a. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.K. Mohanty.3. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.a sense of dignity of labour. 3.C.3. Ltd.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. B. 3. b. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4.3. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. N. a. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. we studied the history. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. J. b. (2007). Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. objectives. (2008). habits of hard work and develop . New Delhi : 168 . 3.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 2. General Educational Spectrum and b. Dash. Anmol Publications Pvt.3. S. J. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Calcutta University Commission 2. (2005). a. 3. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Vocational Sepctrum. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2001).3.

8 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4.4.4.4.4.4.12 3.4.6 3.7 3.4. social and 169 .14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4.4.4.2 3.4.9 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.13 3.10 3.1 3.4.5 3.4.LESSON 3.4.4.4.4.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3. but the lighting of a fire”. Education contributes to human development.11 3.3 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.

A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. While women constituted only 9. analyze the women and distance education. 3.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Education .economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. For the first time in the history of India. although we have miles to go.4. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. particularly 170 . cultural and political development of the individual. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. Dr. higher education of girls developed immensely. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. During the year 1937. family. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. The relevance of women’s education to social. Nursing. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. Home Economics. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. economic. community and nation is universally acknowledged. There is a close connection between education and development. In the post —independence period.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. you will be able to: 1. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom.higher education in particular. Teaching and Fine Arts. These courses were. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way.

women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.0 32. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.D.9 14.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.65 lakhs in 1994-95. 3.N. Yet. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. Kodaikanal. we have more than 1200 institutions. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .1 31. 3. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. Even today. In the rest of the country.2 29.4. Mumbai. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.0 16.1 24.0 43. out of 9200 and odd colleges.T Women University.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Mother Teresa Women University. in our country.0 Today. The idea of women’s education for equality. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.4. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. In 1950-51. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.9 27. levels and professions. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. Coimbatore.2 22.women.4.

53 34. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.27 89.4.47 65.73 10. 3.66 66.4%) prefer Arts subjects. 2. 3.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.63 Female % 34.4. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.1 and 14.44 35.4.83 47. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .that of boys.36 3. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.54 12.46 82.1 respectively.17 52. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.56 64. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.34 33.

In every third family. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. marriage is a very common I factor. They gave up their studies to enter home life. The major hurdles. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. Also. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it.hinders the girls from getting higher education. promoted and increased. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. financial difficulty of the parents. In college. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. According to a survey. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. she will only learn fashion. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. 173 . most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. what is the need for higher education for her. distance of the college or university from home. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Thus. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. irrelevance of the content of education. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. etc.4. Book banks should be established. and coeducation may spoil her character. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. 3. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. curriculum not suited to their requirements. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. particularly.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas.

is the only tool for realising empowerment.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. It is a productive investment. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests.4.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development.economic disabilities faced by women. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Full-time employment. resources and socio . Empowerment in a nutshell. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. 3. Education. space. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. and the limitations of the conventional education system.4. It enables to study. 3. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Distance education is a boon to women.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. There are constraints of time. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. It also brings about 174 . Geographic distance of educational institutions.

multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society.4. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . The major objectives of women's higher education. legal awareness and economic independence.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. for full development of our human resources. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. This can be achieved through reflection. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. on their own. education of women must be given priority in national plans. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. Women are partners in development. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. higher learning. empowerment means being assertive. 3. education of women is of paramount importance. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. Empowerment is an active. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. But their number is small. 3. will encourage them to venture new grounds. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. 176 . may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. who are eager to take up courses. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. Reservation for women. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. has to be implemented at the earliest. Scholarships and concessions for women.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. especially so in the developing countries. which is pending for a long time. Better opportunities. The educational institutions. The local administration. which had been the sole domain of men.4.

Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. talents.8%). and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests.4. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.1%) and architecture and building (38. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. engineering and related technologies (16. capacities etc. Australia. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.3 percent. But. According to Lindy Hyam. especially in developing countries like African countries. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9%). IDP Education.000 women in the country. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. Also. Chief Executive.. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? .11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 .

Pattanaikj. SNDT Women’s University. a.4. (2007). 3. S. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. create the right attitude towards life. (2000). 4. Annakodi.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Mother Teresa Women University. 3. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. R.K. 4. 43% 6. Centre for Women’s Studies. 178 . individuals and society b. R. Rao. Coimbatore. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Mumbai.4. Mumbai. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. A. SNDT Women’s University. community and the nation. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. S. (2005). Women Education.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Kodaikanal. Women and Education. 2. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Mishra. R. Coimbatore. 3. and Swain. Women Education.R. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Rajasthan 5. (2008).C. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development.to the family. A. and Suryalatha. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.4.

3 3.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5.5.personality of children in and out of school.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.6 3.5. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. They should be trained.5.2 3.5.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.10 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.11 3.5 3.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.1 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.8 3.5.5.LESSON 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.7 3.9 3.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5.5.5.4 3. whole. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.

understand the training teachers for Primary. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. equality and justice. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. know the pre service and in service training facilities.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. Shorter working hours. Lack of physical facilities. social and emotional integration. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. 180 . It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. 4.5. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country.5. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. understanding and strong desire for international peace. 5. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. you will be able to: 1. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. and national character. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. 3. list out the agencies of teachers education 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. national consciousness. international.

it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. and M. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. higher secondary teacher education.. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. the primary teacher education. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors.. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . 3. the centre.Less qualified teacher educators. levels. the secondary teacher education. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. inservice and extension education programmes.Ed. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . it is called the Extension teacher Education. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers.5.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. and the collegiate teacher education. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. 3. Depending on the levels. Lop-sided curriculum. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. (NCERT) New Delhi. a Diploma course and a Degree course. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. Inadequate training in practical skills.5. it is called the In-service teacher education. At the diploma level. If the student teachers are working teachers. etc. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. students. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. the state Government.Ed. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. who have not been trained earlier.

5. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . extensio n service. Also Guidance Bureaux. non-formal. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . 3.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Expand NCERT 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. depart ments etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. are established.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Evaluation unit. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. collegiate cells. Education cells. state Institutes of Educat ion. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Educational teehnology cells.. Science Education units.

to offer consultative services. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . and so on. should be improved on a top priority basis. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. audio visual aids. and 183 .. schools and sister institutions. which should include experience in the primary schools too.. to ensure teacher competence. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and .Ed.Ed. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. primary and secondary school teachers.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified .post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. laboratories. which help breaking isolation from one another . despite its vast expansion. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. material conditions relating to libraries. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B.. to improve curricular programmes. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. degree. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . to prescribe conditions for recognition.

Meanwhile. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Induction Courses. Modern Techniques of Teaching. To meet this exigency. etc. not came up once again. Workshops. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. though no pre-service training. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. 184 . efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. etc. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. Organisation of Content Courses. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. The problem.secondary education. methodology and evaluation. Agriculture. Hence. Psychology of Students. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. and XII. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. whether they should have professional education or. Modern Methods of Evaluation.

. courses and M.Ed. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.Ed.Ed. (Education) and M.A.Ed. 3. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. training.. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.S.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a..5. Ajmer. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.Ed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. All B Ed. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Post-Graduates also undergo B. Pre-service training is for those.. in Education. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. These facilities are available for regular students. M.’s are elig ible for M.’s for Ph. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. (Education) are organized by 185 .D. Courses leading to B... Degree.Ed.A.. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. State Institutes of Education. Degree and M. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. For re-orienting the teachers. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.

).8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . they should be conscientious . 3. (Ed.. (Ed). . code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned.A. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics.A. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. established by tradition and teachers of the past. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . 4. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. of conduct—written or unwritten. and B. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned.5. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. What is the role of ERIC? . Hence the employability of M. 6. 186 . this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and .. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. However.

11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Dearth of new technology of teaching. The necessity is however this. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 5. 187 . 2. However. Shorter working hours. b.5. b. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Bhopal. 2. Explain code of conduct for teachers. 4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Ajmer. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time.3. a. 3. a. 3. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations.5. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 3. Discuss the problems of teacher education. a.5. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. 6. 4. they should be conscientious. 3. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. these problems are not as such cannot be solved.

Teacher Education. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. A. Corporation. and Teacher Education. (2009).3.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. B.D. P. (2010). J.5. Publication Pvt. Mohanty. (2003). Teacher Education. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . Ltd Aggarwal.N. Tewari.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

our attention shifts to physical education – its need. Since food is the source of nutrients. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. economic and educational developments. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. nutritional deficiency diseases. consuming the right amounts becomes important. The person’s environment is equally important. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. objectives. preservation of nutrients. 191 . the focus is on the school health programmes. In lesson 1. communicable diseases and their prevention. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. If the diet is poor. objectives and role of the physical education. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. objectives. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. In lesson 4.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. common ailments of children.

192 .

mental.LESSON 4.1.5 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important. 193 . emotional and social.4 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.1. physical.9 4.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody.1.1.1.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.3 4. It is a miniature society. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.2 4.1.1.10 4.1 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.e.6 4.8 4.7 4.1.11 4.1.

to his family and to the community at large. you will be able to: 1. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health.. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. 7.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 3. 8. 2. To develop healthy health habits among children. understand school health programmes 2. Instruction. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 5. training in first aid and etc. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. 4. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. To develop certain skills concerning health. 10. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. know the need for sex education.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. 11. cleanliness and healthful living. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases.1.1. 4. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. training of teachers and evaluation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. e. list the common ailments of children 3. 9. 6. To give information regarding health rules. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.g. 194 . explain the importance of First aid 5. 4. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. content of health education.

. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. B. (ii) communit y healt h. (xl) mental health.coming or absence. There should be regular water supply.4. There should be good drainage facilities. Triple Antigen Vaccination. 4. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. The flooring should not be damp. (viii) first aid. (vi) nutrition education. is imperative. suitable furniture. 5. etc. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . B. vaccination. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. 2. 2. organisation of school health days. The school buildings should be spacious. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. minimizing the travelling distance.1.G. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. First aid facilities should be made readily available. (v) safety education. typhoid. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. “Play-for-all” programmes. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. proper doors and windows. play festivals. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. as described below 1. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. ( iii) sanit at io n.. Vaccination for small pox. excusing late. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. Arranging better transportation facilities. direct lighting. (xii) smoking education etc. (vii) physio logy o f exercises.C. 3. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. inoculation against cholera. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. The surroundings of schools should be clean. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. cleanliness weeks. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases.

• Take nutritious food. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. burns. cuts. and other accidents. D. C. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. if epidemic is wide-spread. isolate and notify. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. • When sleeping in groups. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. • Find out the cases. sports and games in the interest of their health. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. wounds. • Close the schools. fractures. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. bleeding. poisons. • Keep all rooms clean.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • Have adequate rest and sleep. insect stings. fainting (epileptic fit). 196 . Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. etc. scalds. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing.. drowning. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. dislocations. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains.

They have less resistence to diseases than adults. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. 4. 2.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. tuberculosis. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses.1. measles etc. polio. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. 4. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. fever. They are: i) The incubation stage. Once these germs get into the body.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people.1.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. backache. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. headache. List out the Health curriculum 3. which are – cold. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Mention the school health programmes. There are three stages in any communicable disease. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . cough. So they easily get illnesses. chicken pox. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage.. water or bodily contact. pain in the joints. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. These diseases are called communicable diseases. asthma. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease.

One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting.It is caused by measles virus.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Some suffer cold due to allergy.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Tonsilitis . The symptoms include cold.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Measles . Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. 198 . Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Hence it is called a killer disease. unhygienic living conditions. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Hence liquid diet is recommended. unhygienic bottle feeding. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Throat is affected.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Children catch cold from persons having cold. sugar and water.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. The child may have fever. etc.When a child suffers from scabies. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children.This disease is caused by bacteria. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. The following are the common communicable diseases. Common Cold . This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. After three or four days of fever. Ear Infections . head-ache and cough. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Scabies . Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. eating food which is not clean. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. This is caused by cold virus. Diarrhoea . cough and fever. Others make the children very weak. Mumps . Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow.

The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Expand DPT . face and waist. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. 5. the child is not able to breathe. the child may die. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The child may also have diarrhoea. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. raised pink spots appear on head. As the disease progresses. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Diphtheria . It begins with fever. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Shortly. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. separate. 199 . The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Enlist the common ailments of children. If proper treatment is not given. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. By scratching he causes secondary infections. What are communicable diseases? 6.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Typhoid .This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.• • • • Chicken Pox .

bruises. exciting and body-oriented.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. It is both biological and psychological.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. scorpion stings. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. films and jokes. Cuts and Bruises .Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment.1.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. 3. 2. wounds. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. fiction. simple fractures. 4. head injury.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. eye injury. man-woman behaviours.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. fainting. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups.g. 200 . Drowning . dislocation. swelling. it is a subject of art. bleeding. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. drowning. snakebites. Sprains . which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.1. etc. 4. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. It has its rightful place in education too. 5. and films.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. Sex is popular. In such cases. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. so-called sex books and periodicals. cuts. sprains. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. and Community Work and Social Service. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. sprains.4. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. Wounds .

B. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. The home. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. celibacy are age.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. sex education is being recommended in schools. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together.old values. The values of life. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. In today's liberal and interactive society. 2. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. the school. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. 3. try experimenting with their bodies. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. in their ignorance. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . Sex education has the major components as follows: 1.. In secondary schools. Hence. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. but preserve them from disaster and disease.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. the religious organisations. health. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Should the boys and girls. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. they would be treading the path of sure doom.

the school health programmes. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. first aid and sex education. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. 202 .1) 2) 3) as a separate course. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. hence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Teacher education institutions are. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. C. when the courses are already overloaded. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. common ailments of children.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. What are the major components of Sex Education. there will no crisis in its implementation. 4. communicable diseases and their prevention. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values.1.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

203

4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

204

LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

205

4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

206

Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

207

Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

208

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention the food nutrients 2. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. 209 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6.

vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . 210 . U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . But how do we select these foods? The major aim.4. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . If you look at the definition carefully. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. minerals.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.2. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. Let us talk about each of these aspects.2. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned.

A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age).g. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. People in the east of our country prefer rice. moderate or heavy work. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. the social and religious practices of that region. A balanced diet is specific firstly. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. There is no point. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals.one in the morning and the other at night. These are: region where the person resides and income. dosa are typical of the south. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. for example. In the case of adults. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress).6. Even within given States there is considerable variation. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning.sedentary. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. sex. Preferences/customs are also important.g. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. construction labourer). it is also specific to a given activity level . This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. In other words. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. activity level and physiological stress. 4. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . paratha and poori. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex).2.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet.

Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. fat and sugar tend to increase. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. One must. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. nuts and dry fruits. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. Among the social factors. These determine the acceptability of foods. Including these 212 . for example. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. In addition to these. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. vegetables and fruits. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. As you read this discussion. however. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. taboos related to food may play an important role. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems.planning the diet. however. as important for the rich as for the poor. As income increases. Having more money. while another may hate them. customs. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. income plays a vital role. however. However. One person may be fond of milk products. Even among flesh foods. Judicious selection of food is. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. If you think of your own religious group. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods.

8) Walk a while after eating. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. but they should be thrown away. Define balanced diet. 17. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. fruits. 8. meat. 7) One should eat what is needed to live .milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. over-eating or under. green leaves. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. For this. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. List out any two healthy food habits. 213 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.eating is hazardous. etc. if the teachers have good food habits. mouth. eggs . 2) Food should be consumed after eating well.

planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits.2. When the diet is inadequate. Discuss good food habits. good nutrition is essential for good health. b. In fact. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. d.4. Conjuctival xerosis. Night blindness. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life.2. 4. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Keratomalacia 3. e. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Vitamin D 5. Beri Beri 4. a. preservation of nutrients.2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. 4. Corneal xerosis. Explain food nutrients 4. Bitot’s spots.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. c. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 .10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

R. a . (2008). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. (2008). A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Nutrition and Dietetics. S. 7.C. P.M. b. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. Chopra. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. (2009). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . Food should be consumed after eating well. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. b. A Text Book of Foods. Health and Nutrition Education. (2004).2. 4. Sri Lakshmi B. (2005). U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s .N. R. mouth. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Nutrition Science. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. Food and Nutrition Education. Hands.6. Food and Nutrition Education. minerals. a. 8.

3.8 4.9 4.3.3.3.2 4.LESSON 4.4 4.3.3.3.13 4.10 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.2 Impact on economic development 4. 216 .3 4.3.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.3.1 Impact on social development 4.6.7 4.5 4.1 4.6.12 4.3.3.3.3.3 Impact on Education 4.6.3.11 4.

The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. It is a much wider co ncept. 4. objectives and need for population education 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. characteristics and changes for himself. and the consequences of these processes. Whenever we talk of sex education. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. community.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. aims at providing the younger generation. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. It is not sex education. his societ y and the world. Population Education. There is some difference. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. economic and educational development 3.3. understand the importance of small family norm 5. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. 4.3. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. his family.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control.4.3.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. you will be able to: 1. state the meaning. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. the stress is. the causes of population change. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. population characteristics. family planning and sex education etc. 217 . describe the impact of population growth on social. therefore.

4. the family. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Define Population Education 2.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .3. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. List out any two objectives of Population Education.4. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. the nation and the world.

219 . which will not be possible without population control.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. 4.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Every second two thousand children are being born. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. 4. With the larger families. Family is considered as a social unit. economic and educational development of the country.3. social welfare schemes can be implemented well.6. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country.3. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. When the family is small. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. the family programmes are also handicapped. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. health and happiness of its citizens.

3.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets.e. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’.. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. teacher index.6. in parks and other places of public gatherings.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. Many students herded in a small room. in buses and trains.6. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. 4. pollution of the environment. unemployment. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. heavy intern I migration etc. in cinema halls and theatres.3. toilets. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. and so on. 220 . are the results of demographic pressures on social life. In developing countries. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. lack of proper health care. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. 4. facility for drinking water. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. The gulf between them is widening further. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. Swollen cities. i. organization index and material index.

221 . less administrative initiative and leadership talents. and laboratory equipments. less budget for education. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. reproduction. thus. can be taken up. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. bar graphs etc. Hindi and English. even text books would be in short supply. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. family planning etc. There would be very few audiovisual aids. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. less space facilities. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. blank verses etc. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies..3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. can be studied in science and health education. Regional Language. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. essays. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. there will be lacuna in many other spheres.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. Social Studies Statistics on population education. There would be poor library facilities. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme.

Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. 15. 9. Bihar.3. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 13. area and average density of population. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Children with the help of parents. Uttar Pradesh. 11. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1.4. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 8. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. West Bengal. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. causes of deaths etc. 5. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 7. deaths. 4. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 14. Brazil. 10. Children may compare two families. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. China. 12. United States of America. Canada. They may arrange them as per average density of population. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. 3. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 2. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves.

preferences for sex. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. 18. 17. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. we have no right to stop 223 . values and role children etc. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Comparing life in various respects in two families. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. The question. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village.be opened in their schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. age at marriage.3. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. 16. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size.

fertility levels have declined throughout the country.were implemented 224 . India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .their entry into the world”. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. on an overall basis. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. 4. The Family Welfare Program. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. Since the program's inception.3.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. which education can only do.to emphasize family planning services. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. especially the expansion of child immunization services . Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. and the child survival components of the news: program.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. “He who is responsible for population growth. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). More than 45 years ago. at varying places in different regions.. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. however. continued .4-6.

and nominal fees for services. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. In April 1996. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. In October 1997. expansion of services to unmarried women. Local programs vary in their approaches. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. Moreover. reliance on local women as community health workers. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. At these meetings. and the World Conference on Women. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better.earlier than the safe motherhood components. men. a focus on health promotion. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. the community appears willing to pay for services. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. Therefore.

The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. involving the community. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. nation and the world. family. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. Describe the impact of population growth on social. economic and educational development 4. 226 . What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.emphasizing the needs of the client. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. community.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. What are the goals of RCH? 4. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. Its main purposes are to create awareness. 1997).3.

7. 4. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. his society and the world. his family. 6.4. Brazil.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. the causes of population change. b. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. 5. and the consequences of these processes. characteristics and changes for himself. a. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. bar graphs. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. population characteristics. Canada. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. b. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. area and average density of population. a. 3. less space facilities. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. China. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. 227 . less budget for education. a. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. United States of America.3. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.” 2.

Modern Trends in Indian Education. N. Changing attitudes to Education in India. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Ltd. Jayapoorni. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development.4. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. T. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. (2005). (2005). Bhende.3. 228 . (1992). Principles of Population Studies.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Modern Problems of Education. A. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004). Centre for Women’s Studies.K. J. Udaiveer. Coimbatore. V. Kantikar. Reddy. (2002). Ltd.

4 Lead up games 4.4.5 4.7 4.4.1 4.4.4.8.1 Minor games 4.4.3 Indigenous games 4.LESSON 4.3 4.2 Major games 4.2 4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .10 4.4 4.4.4.9 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.11 19.8.4.8.4.4.4.4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.6 4.4.8.

full records of physical activities should be maintained. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. understand the importance of Physical Education 4.4. as it should 230 . 4. social fitness. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. mental alertness. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. perseverance. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. you will be able to: 1. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. The concept of physical education has been made broader. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education.4. which forms its most valuable assets.4. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.4.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. 4. leadership and balance in defect. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. classify the different types of games. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. moral fitness and emotional fitness.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the youth of the country. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. team spirit.

team spirit. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Therefore. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . The educational efforts at home. Every individual is a part of society. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. They go hand in hand. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. leadership. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. They are inseparably united together. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. To be more precise. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. obedience to rules. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education.

ment al. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency.4. H. Regarding the significance of physical education. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. Physical exercises. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. pleasing manners.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. “Physical education does neither train up the soul.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. game and sports. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences.” The Secondary Education Commission. mo ral. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.” Montaigue writes. 4. Rousseau states. C. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. Buck has observed that 232 . Just like Education. a sound health. nor body but the whole man.

happiness. elegance. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. strength.” 4. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.4. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. “If we wish to develop the whole being. efficiency and character. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively.” In brief. etc. coordinative abilities. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. 233 . It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. flexibility and power.a properly directed physical education should result in health. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. speed. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. endurance. resourcefulness and smartness.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. Froebel says. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. we must exercise the whole human being.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. initiative. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life.

Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. in greater or lesser degree. these fundamental things have always been present. plagues and famines. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Every age has its artists. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. 234 (i) (ii) . Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. Tournaments foster this sentiment. should help in the spiritual development of the student. poetry and painting. If no opportunity is provided to the students. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. systems of government.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. While wars. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. its adherents and its enemies. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. they may form gangs. including all racial groups and historical ages. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes.

(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. to develop tolerance.sacrifice. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Write any two importance of Physical Education. self. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. 235 . Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline.\ to develop perseverance. bravery and interest in games and sports. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. respect for rules. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. etc. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. obedience. 2. 3. B. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination .

students. and.H. Keep the field ready for the activities. and readmission after they have recovered. Be sportive. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Haag. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 2. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. 3. 9. 11.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 236 1.4. injuries among pupils should be made. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Be self-confident. Usually parents. 8. Inform health principles. 5. Be punctual. 12. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J.4. 7. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 14. Be well-prepared. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Always keep the whistle ready. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Be in the uniform. 6. 16. 13. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Act as a leader. 4. . 10. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. defects. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. is essential. 4.4. Posture screening should be done. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 15. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured.

Moreover. 2. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. 3. 4. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.4.8. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. Such inst incts as imitation. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. frolic and jo y. 4. 4. 237 . the play. As such they are well enjoyed by children. chasing.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. 1. their development is handicapped. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely.4. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Lead up games. less equipment and less expense. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Indigenous games.

muffling. Tennikoit. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. These games require varied skills such as running. skipping. Tennis. over ball pass Relay. Soft Ball. Basket Ball. 4. The dimension of the posts and nets. trapping. catching. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. They are rules approved by the International Associations. with implements or without implements. the play equipment. spiking. under ball pass Relay. Shuttle Badminton. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Dodging. Ball Badminton. bowling etc. boosting. wherever the kids assemble. the number of players and substitutes.. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. hitting. Throwing. some of them are played indoors. on hard courts. women take part most of the games. zig zag relay. Volley Ball. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Except a few games. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. on mountain tops and on river beds. Hockey. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. For each game the rules are many. heading. driving. Jump the stick clay and so on. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. stopping. Khokho. finding the partner.4. snatching the kerchief. Hopping. couple tag.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. benefit in playing minor games. Cricket. dribbling.With a very few rules. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging.8. They are played for a shorter duration. pitching. Jumping. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. While many of them are played in the open playfields. the games can be modified according to convenience. Kabaddy etc. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. 238 . on sea-shore. On lawns.

On occasions like marriage. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. All the fundamental tactics. For example. festivals connected with religion and public functions. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. Kho-kho. Games may be classified as 6.4. and . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. birth. List out some major games. 4. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. While observing the players in action.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. 7. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. They have an abundant social value. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8. these games being popular. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. An example for indigenous game is 8. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. they are in existence.8. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. death.4. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes.

Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.4. d. c. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. b. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. 2. 4. physically and emotionally fit and alert. 4. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. Posture screening should be done. b. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. 4. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. 4.4. Minor and Major 240 .4. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. to develop physical stamina. 2.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. 3. a. 5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual.4. Briefly discuss the different types of games. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. a. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. a. to secure physical health b. b. aims and objectives and need of physical education. 3. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. the role of physical education teachers and types of games.

Khokho 8.K. Volley Ball.C. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. (2009). Health. Krishna murthy. Tennikoit. J.6. Khokho. J. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Kabaddy 7. G. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Shuttle Badminton. (2008). Mohanty.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. (2008). Foot-ball. Basket Ball. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. 4. Cricket. Ltd. J. 241 . Hockey. Aggarwal. Physical Education and Sports. Tennis. Handbook of Physical Education. Soft Ball.4. Ball Badminton. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005).

5.5.5.5.5.11 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.1 Natural Environment 4.6 4.8 4.5.5.1 4.5.5.10 4.5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.7 4.5.2 4.5.4 4.3 4.9 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.LESSON 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.5.5.

list out the types of environment 3. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 3. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. economic. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2.5. Participation. 2. political. population explosion and resource depletion could be. Knowledge. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. 2. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 5. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. you will able to: 1. education about the environment and education through the environment. 4. Awareness.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. Broadly. aesthetic and educational factors. 4. 6.5. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 243 . Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Evaluation Ability.5. The best place to start such learning is school. it covers the following elements: 1. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Details are given below: I.educat ion for the environment. Essential knowledge about the Environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. social. Skills. 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Attitude. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological.

Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle.B. 244 . Oxidants Other pollutants. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. 2. F. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. • Biological magnification E. D. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. a. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes.

Sterilisation. economic.3. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Control of population growth a. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. c. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. The pill ii. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. B. Socio-economic measures. Abortion iv. The human ecosystem II. Use of medical science i. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . III. 4. 2. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Family planning ii. Intrauterine device iii. Persuasion: i. Birth control through education b. 2. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. 3.

Water pollution abatement. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1983). Define Environmental Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. 3.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. e) Recycling. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 246 . 2. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. (UNESCO. Air pollution abatement ii. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3.

He modifies according”.5. -other. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4.5. A change in one brings about a change in the other.5. telex. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. They interact with each.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . animals and other organisms (biotic). Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. to his needs.other components of the environment. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. 4. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. These are biotic components. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. includes the plants. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. Any constituent or condition of the environment.4.5. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .5. way is called environmental or ecological factor. Biological environment The biological environment. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.5. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. a. b. fax agricultural apparatus.

ozone depletion. wars and hazards of war. air pollutants from industries. greenhouse effect. social studies. explosion deforestation. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. supplying timber for various uses. over exploitation of ground water. use of medicinal plants. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. sources of pollut ion. effects o f CFC. solar cookers. water scarcity. preserving the watersheds. etc. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. excellent recreation sites. acid rain. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . population. alternate sources of energy. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. mineral survey. need for bio-diversity. desertification 248 . are the topics which may find place in Zoology. river systems. change in climate may be added. windmills. relation between population and pollution. nuclear energy. trees reducing noise pollution. importance of nitrogen cycle. maintaining the ecological diversity. noise pollution. need for conservation. food chain and food-web. biogas plants. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. balance of nature. nuclear warfare. t heir role in preventing pollution. reasons.. (ii) Air pollution. History The rise and fall. etc.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. natural way of controlling pests. use of pesticides. noise control. sources. ozone layer deplet ion. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. are the topics which may be taught in History. evolution. extinction of species. preventing siltation of dams. industrial survey. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. industrial pollut io n. role of trees in building economy. of civilizations. effects.

Developing awareness about environmental issues. 3. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 4. 11. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. group discussions and seminars. 12. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 4. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 9.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’.may be inc ded in Geography.5. 249 . 13. 8. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Providing. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 6. Organising conferences. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. 7. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Peepal and Tulsi. 10. 2. aims and scope. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. 14. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 5. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. animal and plants. Developing habits of cleanliness among students.

as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.Send their waste oil. Reuse carrier bags. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Don’t burn any waste. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. especially plastics. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it will cause pollution. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. If it is done. Use public transport wherever it is possible. 6. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Never put any left over chemicals. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. used oils down the drain. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. all these can cause serious pollution. World Environmental falls on 250 .

4. The groups may exchange. diversity and stability. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio .5. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil.mat erials. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. developing desirable attitudes. nuclear wars. rather than conquest and mastery. Att itudes of balance towards nature. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Concern for species. dest roying nat ural habitats. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. viz. To provide reference materials for children’s use. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. Conservation of natural resources. loss of bio-diversity. etc. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. deforestation. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. (cleanliness. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources.). Harmony with the nature . According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. etc. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. To arrange visits or expeditions. To provide materials needed for practical work. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. concern for others). Social responsibilit y (common good. To arrange for visiting speakers. potable water.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. CFCs. values and habits. orderliness and beauty).. and 251 . depletion of ozone. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere.

5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.5. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. 8. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. 4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. preserving natural cycles. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. 4. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. 252 .

Organising conferences. a. reasons. Y. sources of pollution. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. over exploitation of ground water. b. sources. 3. (2007). effects. air pollutants from industries. a. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. new problems from science and technology. Environment and Human Rights.K. Knowledge. b. S. relat ion between population and pollution. Ltd.. (ii) Air pollution. explosion deforestation. a. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. June 5 7. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. b. Anmol Publications Pvt. Social responsibilit y (common good. Modern Problems of Education. population. (1997). 6.\ 4. Udaiveer. Kuldeep. S. concern for others). 5. Awareness. New Delhi : Anmol 253 .K.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. group discussions and seminars. greenhouse effect.5. To provide reference materials for children’s use. To provide materials needed for practical work. 8. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Ltd. Providing. 4. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Environmental Education.K. water scarcity. Education for values. (2007). Nanda. T. New Delhi : Authors Press. acid rain.K. ozone layer deplet ion. b. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Environmental Education. (2004). New Delhi : Sharma.2. importance of nitrogen cycle. Rapid population growth. a. Publications Pvt.

254 .

UNIT – V

255

256

PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

257

258

LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

259

5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
260

2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. Universal Education. should be universal in nature.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. enrichment and transmission of culture. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. According to Rusk'. Education according to idealism. the emancipation of spirit. moral. in fact. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. Spiritual Development. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments.1. Education must contribute to development of culture. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. It is self-realisation.” 5. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. The universe is regarded as a thought process. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. man is essentially a moral being." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage.our life. Therefore. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve.3. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. promote and transmit it to rising generation. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm.

So health. The plant can grow. So he should embody.3. Learning through reading.” He is thus. affecting (feeling).1. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 .” 5. subjects like Languages. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. So cognition (knowing). He carries the child from darkness to light. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. For intellectual development. According to Frobel. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. Philosophy. 5. 2. no doubt. a spiritual guide for the child. should be there. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. For this no particular method has been suggested. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. and collation (striving) should find due place. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. friend and guide. He sets the environment in which education takes place. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Learning through discussion.the spiritual qualities of mankind. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. Science. However. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. Herbert advocated instruction method. hygiene. Ethics.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. History. Learning through lecturing. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. According to idealism. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. It considers teacher as.3. an indispensable necessity. 5. the school is a garden. Learning through imitation. so subjects like Religion. Learning through questioning.1. 3. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. 4. Mathematics etc.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types.

In the words of Ross. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. text books.1. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. 5. Perfection of Human Machine. 2.preservation. Ross explains. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. time tables. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.perfection and beauty. 5.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. formal lessons or examinations. "Education should make 263 • . whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. curricula. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.1.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.4. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.

rational harmoniously balanced. Chemistry. Therefore. It emphasises physical and health education 5. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. geography should also be included in the curriculum. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. subjects like history. Education also aims at helping the individual t. useful and mature child. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience.1. “Education finds its purpose. Literature. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Botany etc Language. Arithmetic. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Naturalistic curriculum. his interests and inborn tendencies 2.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. is based on the nature of the child. • 5. education should develop the child into Joyous.4.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. There is no place for religious and moral education. therefore. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. It is based on the psychology of the child. In all. Biology. 4. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. 264 . Education should. Zoology.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. It stresses basic sciences.

Learning through observation. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. he should be taught by experience alone. Rousseau says. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .1. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Learning by doing. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. 3. 2. a supplier of materials and opportunities.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Heuristic method.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. the stage.4. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. It discards all rigid. 5. Here the emphasis is on the individual method.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. 4.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. Learning through experience.1. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. In the . It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism.4.1. Dalton Plan. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. a provider of an ideal environment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development.

Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning.absolutism of idealism. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. is true. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Physical training. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences.5. Sciences. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. The aim of educational development. Social Efficiency.1. Geography. diversified and flexible. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Social Science. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. social and moral aspects. Vocational and 266 . The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. All Round Development of an Individual. The individual has not only to adjust himself.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses.1. Agriculture. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. 5. 5. Continuous Growth. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. intellectual. Subjects. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. History.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. of human personality is in terms of his physical.5. Personal Social Adjustment. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems.

” 5. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. The subjects. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Learning by Doing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a senior partner and a sincere guide.Technical Education. 5. He has to be active. alert and resourceful. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles.5. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment.5. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. He must be trained.1. should find proper place.1. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. a teacher occupies an important position.

intellectual.6. practical. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. specific. literary or humanistic education. Music and Dance.1. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Biography Philosophy. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. 3. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Crafts. Art.6. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. 5. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. It favours child-centered. Education is preparation for a complete living. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Psychology. Study of Subjects like Language.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Literature. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Biology.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. 4. rich and happy. 2. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. 3. Astrology. Sex Education. 5. Population Education. Geography are unnecessary 268 . 2.1. Mathematics. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Chemistry. 4. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist.1. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. scientific and psychological education. 5.5. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. History. liberal.

1.6.5.1.6. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. easily and pleasantly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. certainly and clearly.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.

Languages. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Geography. e. 5. Learning through reading.1. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. 5. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. 3. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. b. Learning through questioning. 5. has no end other than growth. Learning through lecturing. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. naturalism. Social Science. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Child centered c. Physical training.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Learning through experience b. pragmatism and realism. Demonstration and Observation 270 . a.5. Rousseau 5. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Universal Education 2. 6.1. Learning through imitation. Vocational and Technical Education.1. Tours / Excursion e. Self preservation & Self expression 4. a. Agriculture.7 LET US SUM UP We have. in this lesson. Education according to pragmatism. d. Learning through discussion. a. Experimentation d. & curriculum. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. c. Self Realisation b. History. Sciences. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization.

Pahuja. (2007). Publishing corporation. N.5.P. New Delhi : Bhatia.P. L. 271 . (2004). Ltd. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. (2007). (2003).1. Foundations of Education.H. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. R. P. New Delhi : A. Theory and Principles of Education. Narang C. Anmol Publications Pvt. O. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. of Pathak. K. P.

2 Curriculum 5.2.5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.3.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.3 Methods of Teaching 5.2.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2.4 Views about teacher 5.3.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2.5.LESSON 5.4.2.2.3.3.2 Curriculum 5.2.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.4.4.4.3 Methods of teaching 5.2.2.3 Methods of teaching 272 . TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.4 Views about teacher 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.3.3.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.2.5.2.2.2.2 5.2.4.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.1 5.

2. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.8 5.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.6 5.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.2.2.2.4 Role of the teacher 5. 2. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. Tagore was a poet.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. 5.2. you will able to: 1. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.5. economic and political reconstruction in our country. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. 5. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.7 5. Gandhiji was primarily a social. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. mind and spirit.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2.2.5. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. 3. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. 273 . a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. content and methods. an artist. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.

righteousness. through life and for life. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education.supporting. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. nor the gross animals body. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. 'Man is neither mere intellect. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. 274 . His scheme of education is life centred. 5. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. In the words of Gandhiji.2. it is education of life. "I attach more. self-restraint and service of humanity. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage.3. It really provides opportunity for character building. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. mind and soul of children He further observed. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education." Dignity of Labour.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. strength of mind. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body.

The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. metal work. Drawing and Hindustani. leather work have been suggested. Only good individual forms a better society. 5. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. development of the whole all were directed: towards. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.3. Art.2. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. wood work. According to Gandhi. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Individual and Social Aims. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. "Development of the moral character. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development .Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. gardening.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. Music. the realization of the ultimate reality. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. General Sciences. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies.Training for Leadership. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 .the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Mother-tongue.

It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. men of 276 .2. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.trained. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Basic education is other wise known as 4. proficient.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.2.3.

men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist.knowledge. That is why. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.3.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Education must be child centered. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. 3. 5. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. He also advocates freedom for the child. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.2. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

2.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.3. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. • Education should involve manual work.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He was a true patriot. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.2. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.4. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. 5. • Ideal of citizenship. 5. he was a true Vedantist 5. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. • Cult of non-violence.K. Gandhi in 1937. He believed in the oneness of humanity. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.” Like all other ideals.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He was deadly against untouchability.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.

Zoology. he said. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. That way only. Music. stronger in power than ever before.4. etc. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Civics.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Religion and Psychology. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination.Language and Literature . He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. It should help the learner have good physique. (vi) Philosophy. sentiment. wider in range. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. It should help. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Geography. Therefore. them solve problems of day to day life. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding.2.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. the more dedicated and devoted. deeper in. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. International Understanding. Dance." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. complete manhood could be attained. Purposeful and Meaningful Education.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. International understanding. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. 279 . Chemistry. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Tagore said. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. "Mankind must realise a unity. Botany. could help in forging unity among all.

4.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. 5. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.2.” He further says. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. 5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. 280 .4." 5. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.4. In 1921. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.2.2. Activity Method Heuristic Method. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. Tagore rightly says.

Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1.g. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. 10. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. 281 . Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. race. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. 9. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. It is open to all irrespective of country. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore.

" He was against the theoretical type of education. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 .” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Purity of thought.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. He believed in to learning or selflearning. 4. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Book learning. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual.” 5. 3. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. man making.5.2. Education for Self-reliance. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. According to him.2.5. work and deeds come out of it. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. 2. Freedom. Education should make a person self-reliant. Concept of Education. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Education for strong Moral Character. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Education for Self-realization.

That will serve the purpose of education fully. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.the learners on different students in the discussion. 5. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. 5. A physically strong person is the need of the society. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. 283 .5. Discussion Method. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Education for Physical Development. Religion. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Thirdly he wished that games. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Philosophy and Theology. engineering and technical subjects. And above all. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. 6. Secondly he wanted Science. philosopher and guide to the students He. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. 5. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Swami.2. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Of course. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses.5.5.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study.2.2. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. The teacher should be the facilitator.5.

In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. 3.2.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. We have seen that Tagore. 284 . broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. 2.Substantiate your answer. and pragmatist . Their educational ideas. naturalist. 12. in this lesson. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. Write short notes on Basic education.2. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. 5. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims.6 LET US SUM UP We have. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. ears and eyes. legs. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. of course. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. Gandhiji as a Idealist.

c. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Education should involve manual work. 11. Activity Method d. Basic education. Explain Vishwabharathi. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. metal work. e. f. Learning by Doing c. a. 3. Activity Method b. a. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. 1937 7. d. a. Heuristic Method. Nai Talim 4. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Technique of Correlation 6. Self realization. gardening. Teaching while Walking b. Discussion Method 285 . leather work have been suggested. Meditation and concentration c. 2. b. Where the whole world forms its one single nest.2. Debate and Discussion Method. 5. Cult of non-violence. 5. 9. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Ideal of citizenship. Self-Study b.4. c. 10. a. 8. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 5. wood work.

B. C. Foundations of Education. Theory and Principles of Education. N. K and Narang C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.5. New Delhi : Aggarwal. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. (2007). Pahuja. J. K. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2003).P. Dhiman. on Bhatia.2. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. L. 286 . P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Publishing Corporation. (2007).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ltd.H. O. New Delhi : A. P. (2002). (2004).

3.3.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3.3 5.1 5.LESSON 5.3.3.9 5. In this lesson.3.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.3.6 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.10 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.7 5.5 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 . we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.11 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.2 5.3.4 5.3.8 5.

“It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways.S.under the direction of the school. Since the demands. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. state the meaning of curriculum 2. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. While education is a process. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. living in the hilly area. in fact .. From the latter point of view. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. maintained or eliminated. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. Then in a big country like India.3. new behaviour may be acquired.3. curriculum signifies situations for learning. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. Both the processes are integrated. the plain area. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. While education is learning. there is a large number of communities. it is identical wit h socializat ion. 5. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. the plateau area and 288 . In it. curriculum. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. in Russia or in Japan. in the form of new experience. the desert area. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. is a means to the process.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Curriculum is intimately related to education. A g o o d curricu lu m.A. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. in the U. In the words of Kerney and Cook. present behaviour may be modified. you will be able to: 1. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. In the former sense.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India.3. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture.

democratic and socialistic country. environment. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. differs from individual to individual. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. However. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. Besides craft. Again. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery.3. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. 5. it is. It must differ from locality and from society to society. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. the learning capacity of children. customs and needs. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. studying therein. and 289 . (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. therefore. too. From a slave-country we became secular. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. according to modern trends in the educational process. In fact . irrespective of their needs and environment. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment.

unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed.g. 2. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. general or specific. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. which may or may not be attained. moral. Vocational Efficiency. Application Objective. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. unsatisfactory. e. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes.. 4.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . 3. National Integration. They speak of immediate purposes of education. social. remote or immediate. They are achievable. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. 5... eg.. e. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. Goals of Secondary Education. Self Realisation. aims. social. They are visionary goals e. individual or Social and so on. of classroom. emotional. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1.3. aesthetic and spiritual development. etc. uninspiring and unscientific. etc. Understanding Objective.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. unambiguous and functional. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. in instructional objectives. they depend on the political. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students.. Goals of Primary Education. The word “Curere” means 2.g.g. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. They speak of perfect goals. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Knowledge Objective. 290 . Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. So it is inadequate. They may be ultimate or proximate. specific. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. tangible.

in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. but it includes the totality of experiences.3. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. abilities.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. needs. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. The interests. on the playing fields. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. in the class rooms. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children.” 291 . finding them very interesting and captivating. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. According to Crow and Crow. capacities. heavy fire. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. Crow and Crow remarks. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. educationists. Raymont rightly says. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children.5. The old and prevalent curriculum is under.

and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. aptitudes. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. urges. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. moral. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. They often waste it or rather kill it. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. mental. tendencies. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . time in a useful manner. Due to these variations and differences. capacities and abilities. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests.

produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. administrative programme need be planned. development of professional capability at all levels. 3. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. phased preparation.curricular. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. analysis and concretise the curricular elements.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. Similarly. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. 2. organized. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. 293 . To ensure success of the process.

Relation with Life c. Run. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 .9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. workshop. 5. in the class room. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. Child Centred Education b. 18. 17. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. library. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 1937 19.3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. 10. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. principles of curriculum construction. 11. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.3. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. a.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 12. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. 5. laboratory.

Lakshmi. D. Bhalla. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. P. (2007).12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Curriculum and Instruction. and Sarita Kumari.K. S. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited.3. New Delhi : Authorspress. Curriculum Development. (2007). New Delhi : Isha Books. (2007). Innovations in Education.S. S. 295 .5. (2001). N.

4.10 5.4 5.8 5.4.4.3 5.4.4.1 5.4.7.7.2 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.6.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .9 5.7.6.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.LESSON 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4.5 5.4.7.4.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4.4.

By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. know the importance of science education. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. 4.4. 2. 5. 5. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.during the second half of this century. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. you will be able to: 1. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. in the economic reconstruction of society. newer and newer industries started growing. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . 3. tolerance for the opinions of others. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. We mean curiosity.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. Gradually.4. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age.4. explain the concept of scientific attitude. superstition or emotion. 297 .1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. open-mindedness. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. honesty.5. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners.

Organisation of science fairs. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Through newspapers. stipends and appreciations in various ways.4. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. as well as of the society.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Schemes of teaching science.So that.4. After such experience and training. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Promotion of science clubs. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 5. Principles are formulated. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. 2. 6. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 5. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Thinking and memory develops. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Selection for science education. 7. Central science workshop. Devotion towards nature increases. Through examinations. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. 6. Love for truth enhances. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. 5. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. seminars and symposiums. 4. 3. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 2. 4. 3. 5.

Write any two advantages of Science Education. objectivity. essential that teachers. 5. They experience natural phenomenon. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. In the inquiry approach.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. They encounter many social events as they grow.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. should provide opportunities to. Enquiry teaching is. Training of science teachers. therefore. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. It is. They ask many questions about the objects they see. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. sex or religion. each child to “enquiry skill building”. 7. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.needs and conditions. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 .6. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. After presenting the problem. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. For laboratory and workshop techniques. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. 5.4.

2. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Evidence.books. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1.4. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. to ask questions and experience things. if they like.4. .7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Social sciences. 3. 5. 6. . 300 . test. Adopting creative models of teaching. It requires consistent thinking. 3. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. 5.Herma Wouk.6. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. 4. Giving less directions. Appreciating pupils ideas. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. commands or orders. stern pursuit of accurate data. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.

Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. keen observation. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. For instance. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. (Vaidya 2007). see and feel the need of developing this attitude. neighbourhood. To achieve this we should understand what it means. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. to develop among the learners. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts.4. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. These include open mindedness. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . 5. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. practiced. friends. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. school and society at large. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions.7. it must be encouraged. The students observation. therefore should be unbiased and objective. critical thinking and suspended judgments.(Smith 2008). Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. and emphasized during the learning process .1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. of vast resources running waste. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents.

He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. The intention to respect another’s point of view. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. think and work it”. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. In considering a situation or a problem. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. he studies all aspects of it. 5. rumor. understanding and logic. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education.4. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. 302 . Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes.7. 2007). (Das. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. intuition or wishful thinking”. or superstitions. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge.

Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .7.7. • 5.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. but to begin only after careful planning. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.4.4. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. 5.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.

8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. it must be encourages. 5. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. 5.4. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 304 . Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook.

Study of superstitions d.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. (2000). 16. 2. Reflections on Scientific attitude.B (2008). Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Love for truth enhances. 305 .4. Vaidya. 5.4. 3. Wide reading b. Yadav. 4. a. M. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. S. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Adopting creative models of teaching. Proper example of the teacher c. 5. Discuss the importance of science education 14. (2006). (2008). Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. N. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. a.4. a. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. D.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Planning of activities 5. a. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools.5. b. objectivity. b. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Rao. b. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.S.

9 5.5.5.8 5.5. 2. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5. areas of institutional planning.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.6 5.5.2 5.4 5.5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3 5.5. 5.10 5.11 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.5 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.1 5.7 5.5. state the concept.5.5.LESSON 5. actively. 306 .5. you will be able to: 1. objectives and characteristics.5.

Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. every teacher. executive as well as public. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. which become the bases for further planning at the district.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. 5. and every student in the process of educational planning. • To make institutional planning more successful. and.3. each teacher.5. Institution should be regarded as the unit. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. every parent. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 .3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. and supplement planning from above. • to involve teachers and school administrators. • to make planning development-oriented. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. and each student are regarded as separate entities. State and national levels from below. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. teachers and students is not lost sight of. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. in the task of educational planning.5. 5. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.

Classwork. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.• implemented. 308 . having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. it becomes the basis for school inspection.curricular Activities. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.5.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. Co-curricular activities. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. (3) TeachingLearning Aids.5. and Personnel services. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. Syllabus. which will be discussed in the general. council and. Examinations. (2) Co. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. 5. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. approved after making necessary modifications. etc. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion.

Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Organising play-for-all programmes. scientific and historical excursions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Running science clubs. Fair distribution of syllabi. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Preparation of audio-visual aids. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Editing the school magazine. etc. Courts. etc. Organisation of class-room libraries. Organisation of Pupils. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. etc. Celebrating of national and international festivals. etc. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. 1. Preparation of instructional material. Undertaking remedial instruction services. 2. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. hobby-centres.No. etc. Organisation of Self-Government Days. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Organisation of Students’ Association. Preparation of models. Conducting of educational. Improving the subject competence of teachers. charts and apparatus. Equipping of laboratory and library.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Improving the internal assessment.

The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. and solidarity. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. teacher-teacher. and —pupil-pupil.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. parent-teacher associations. etc. teachers. Administrator-State. teacher-State. administrator-supervisor. administrator-pupil. which are divided as the in. understanding. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. administrator-administrator. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships.” The human relationships in.5. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. pupil310 . teacher-pupil. parents. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. students’ associations. ii. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. co-operation. pupils.5. science teachers’ associations. teacherinspector. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. teacher-managing body. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. involving mainly human materials.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. headmasters associations. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. pupil-parent.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. pupil-inspector. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. supervision and superintendence. administrator.5. to accomplish. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. organisation and management. It relates to administration of a single educational institution.State. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. etc. control. superintendence. teacher-community leader. It covers personnel and material management. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. organisation. social sciences and other disciplines. It is also being modernized to become a technique. V. 311 . Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. pupil-non-official functionaries. now-a-days. and to serve. to attend. According to C. supervision. To administer means to manage. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. Good. to carry out. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. pupil-community leader. teacher-parent." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer.

He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 7. Communication . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. The relationship should change from master.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. 8.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . 6. 12.Of all the approaches. 10. Democratic Management .lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . Economic Management . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. 3. 9. Cost-Benefit Analysis . 4. Leadership . Decision Making . 5. 2.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. who occupy the managerial positions. low. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. If it is more. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. This is the latest democratic trend in management. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. 13. Liasion with the Public .He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner.Any good management will always have good public relations. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. Those.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. If the cost benefit ratio is less. it is not worth-while.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. He should be an artist in human relationships.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow.The manager should have leadership traits. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. Rapport between the Management and Employees . Better Human Relationships .The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Socio-Scientific Approach . 11. Worker Participation . He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. Motiviation .Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. without this the efficacy will be handicapped.

reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.too.5. and cooperative performance should be ensured. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . enrichment of curricula. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.These two are. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. 19. 5. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained.g. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. to improve the quality of education it provides. improvement of teaching methods.5. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. 313 . 14. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. objective. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. 18. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept.

12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Communication 5. S. Decision Making b. H.5. 4. b. a. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Syllabus. In group and Out group 5. Educational Administration. (1995). Examinations. a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Leadership c. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Tarachand and Prakash.5. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. b. (2001). it becomes the basis for school inspection. 314 . 2.K. e. APH Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. f. Co-curricular activities. R. Instruction. d. and Personnel services. a.M. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Classwork. Motiviation d. Fundamental of Educational Management. b.5. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. (2003). c. a. NUEPA. Singh.

higher education. women education and teacher education in India. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. School.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.1 School Health Programme. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Communicable diseases . Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. 4.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.CORE PAPER .2 Nutritional deficiencies. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Preservation of nutrients.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.5 Regional Educational Development in India . Sex-education 4. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Examination reforms. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. New evaluation procedures.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. First Aid. Balanced diet. Economic 315 . physical education and environmental education 5.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.Article 45 .Imbalances and Variations in different environment.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. population education.1 Gurukula system of education. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.3 Educational Influences of Home.Preventive measures.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .Pre-service and In-services facilities. Healthy Food Habit 4.1 Inculcation of Socialism.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . 2. social Impact 3.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. nutritional requirement. Inspection and Supervision 3.teachers should have : 1. Code of conduct for teachers.4 India's Secular Policy . UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.1 Primary Education : Education for all.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.I. Realized the problems of school education.Religious and Modern Education 1. 1. Community and Mass Media 2.3 Directive Principles . Common ailments of Children. wastage and Stagnation 3. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.

Sharma. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. and Mohanty R.R. Curriculum and national goals . Saraswathi T. (1999) Culture. B.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.4 4. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5.N. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.C.K. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.N. Mahatma Gandhi. and Dash B.4. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. R.Aim. 5. Tagore 5. Kalan Paper Packs 10.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Realism. Socialization. Pandy V. Ghanta R. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. 7. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Prof.S. and Human Development.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Ram S. REFERENCE 1.K. New Delhi: NCERT 3.1 Idealism. Hemchand.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. (2005) Foundations of Education. (2004) Problems of Education in India.K. Delhi : University Publications 2. Naturalism and Pragmatism .5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. T.K. Taneja V. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. and Sharma R. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Mishra. 316 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful