SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I
we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. discusses the regional educational development in India. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. Lesson 2. Lesson 4. Lesson 5. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. and Jain system of education.
. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. In. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Jainism and their educational implication. The need.
2 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.6.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.6 Education during British Era 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 126.96.36.199.5 Jain system of education 1.LESSON 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206
EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD
STRUCTURE 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.6.5 Hartog Committee (1929)
.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 220.127.116.11 Methods of Jain system of Education 18.104.22.168.1 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.5.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 22.214.171.124.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.6.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1.1.
8 1. 1.6. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 184.108.40.206. in morals and in the intellect”. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.6. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. describe the Jain system of Education 4.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. Muslim and British periods. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. British system of education presented the modern western model.1.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. “a class of persons. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.1. That
. elucidate the education during British Era. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. but English in taste.1. The history of education passed through Buddhist. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. Education in India. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 220.127.116.11 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1. Indian in blood and colour. 1. in opinion.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. both present and future.7 1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. has a long past history starting in vedic education. 1.1. you will be able to: 1.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. India.9 1.
to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. 14. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. however. with grants of land or money. 5. Individual Teaching. Role of Travel in Education. managed entirely by Brahmans. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. followed by explanation by the teacher.knowledge was real. There was. Forests as Centres of Education. Residential Schools. religious and spiritual. Method of Instruction. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. 4. 10. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. Religious and Spiritual. It was not merely intellectual.
. generally. Where pupils were many. if they thought fit to do so. Teacher as Parents. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. from eternal to immorality 2. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. questioning by the pupil. No State Control on Education. 8. Education of Moral. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. 6. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. the monitorial plan was followed. Immediate Aim Vocational. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Curriculum. Pupils were taught. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. The immediate aim of education. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. not en masse by the class method. from darkness. It was also moral. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 9. 11. Education was a private affair of the people. and to agriculture and trade. as it is generally considered to be at present. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. 3. Method of Study. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. 12. to light. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. 13. individually. High Status of Teachers. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. 16. Free and Accessible. Self-Control and Self-Discipline.
It was suited to the needs of the society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. It was freely available to all those who wanted. lived a life of celebacy. besides preparing for worldly pursuits.17. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education?
. studied Vedas. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education?
. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education?
3.1.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They were very cordial and intimate. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection.
1. Wide-Spread Education in Women. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils.3.
Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles.4
BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B.1. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. taking things without being offered. 2. impure conduct. which included abstaining from theft. Right thought 3. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Consequently.
. in which. killing of any living being. use of intoxicating things. Right activity 5. etc.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. partaking of food at prohibited times. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. use of cosmetics. disease and death of the human beings. Right contemplation 1. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. I take Refuge to Dharma. Right means of livelihood 6. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Right memory 8. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. It was denied only to the ill. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. the most significant of which were the following 1. the student had his head shaved of all hair. medium of Pali. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Right speech 4. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. watching dances or listening to music. every class in society.4. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely.C. the student remained in a state of Shramana. the handicapped. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. I take Refuge to Sangh. Right knowledge 2. Education was imparted through the. 1. he was qualified to become a monk. Right endeavour 7. had the right to receive education. except the Chandals. After attaining the age of 20. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms.
These are called later Buddhist schools. cottage industries. approach. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. agriculture. commerce. of clothes. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. nature. therefore.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. control over sensuous activities. the presence of the monks was essential. eat food thrice a day. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. Later on. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. 8. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. archery.. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. women occupied a position inferior to men.4. etc. etc. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. a continuous change creating
. etc. has no metaphysical value for life. however. Initially. along with education in script writing. Whatever its nature and extent. a change is not only total but also perpetual. As reality is becoming. it is regarded as true”. medicine. and. be considered the aim of education It. objectives of human life. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. It comprehended education in writing. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. Hence. wear three items. 7. 3. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. so long as it successfully does so. bodily gestures. 6. On this occasion. nothing is of any permanent consequence. 5. beg for alms. assumptions. Even at this stage. depth and range. Life is in a flux. aspirations and. changing the goals. the science of taming and training animals. 2. knowledge of reviving the dead. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. handicrafts. military science. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1.3. elephant lore. 1. arithmetic and religious discussion. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. meaning. animal husbandry. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. archery. magic. 4. After this ritual. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. education was impart in art. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. geology. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education.
therefore. However. i. such as. In fact.5. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Its chief feature.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism.. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. Education must.new and peculiar situations. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Jainism insists
. however. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. goes to Vardhaman. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals?
6. 1. whatever works are true and good. it is much older than the latter. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. Validity is effective and consequences. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. its pessimistic outlook on life.e. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Write Eight fold path . Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education?
1. and to give it a shape that it has today.
more stress on individual aims. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. b) Right knowledge. 10.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. 2. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 5.1. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. 3. 8. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. it has a foot in both the words. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. 4. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. 3. 7. 1. Hence.5. 2. thought and deed. 1. 6.
. and is to be redeemed and liberated. and believe in happiness to all. rather than the interpretation of the universe. but on both. e) To renounce the world. b) Not utter falsehood.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. c) Right conduct. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Development of personality as an individual. 9. They are: a) Not to injure. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. As such. d) To lead a celibate life. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. c) Not to steal.
Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. therefore.5. 1. 3. 2. Hence. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education?
. What are Triratnas ?
. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
1. 2. Belief in transmigration of soul. here and now. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.4.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
1. Teaching should be social and tolerant.
1.5. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. education must be action based and ideally oriented. 4.
‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories.
Knowledge is through senses and meditation. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world.
. and should bring happiness to all. practised and not only aspired for. 3. that would be socially desirable. 8. success and love. Teaching must develop these faculties. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. Jiva is essentially karmic. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. education should develop sense of discrimination. 5.
1. 1.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods.6. 2. North West Province and Punjab. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.6. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. science. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. However. 1953). To set up separate departments of.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.1.6. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. Bombay. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. primary
. with rally and rout.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). Madras.1.6. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler.
1. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. and not for life. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. philosophy and literature of Europe. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. 1.
godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. 1.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929)
Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. In 1882. secondary education became a step towards university. namely. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. At that time M. To ensure qualitative improvement. • Secondary education.education was neglected. • Universal free primary education. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.K. The universities dominated the secondary education. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. 1. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education.6. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. Later on. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. 1. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. self-respecting and competent. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission).6. The broad outlines of the report are as follows:
.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. at the primary level. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools.6. Then the prevalent education was anti-national.
Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. After this stage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813?
. The report suggested development of adult education scheme.At the primary stage (6-11 years). The objective of education was to provide
. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. all children are to have a common curriculum. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year
1. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission?
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. 10.1.
Right activity. It was suited to the needs of the society. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. Right knowledge. 3. Right memory. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. handicrafts. the science of taming and training animals. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools.education of European literature.1. The system of education was well-organised.1. military science. Right speech. 2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. b. 3.
. etc. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. 2. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Right thought. establishment of universities. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 1. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. arithmetic and religious discussion. Right means of livelihood.. education was impart in art. Right contemplation. archery. 5. During the Buddhist period. Right endeavour. 6. 4. questioning by the pupil. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. followed by explanation by the teacher. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. The immediate aim of education. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. science and English language. along with education in script writing. a. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. geology.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.
a. a. Right knowledge. (2009). 11. Right faith. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (1984). 8. 10.C. Y. J. Right conduct. Development of personality as an individual. b. Improvement of Literature.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva.K. Ltd.1. Sargent report 12. Y. b. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. 9.
. J. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. History of Indian Education System. Aggarwal. Ltd. Development of Educational System in India. R. (2005). Sharma. c. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education.C. 1937 1.K. Singh. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007).7. more stress on individual aims. 1882. Hence. and Nath.
2.1 University Education Commission 1.3. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.3.2.8 1.1 1.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.6 1.5 1.4 1.2.2
THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA
STRUCTURE 1.2.2 1.7 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.3.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1. The
.2.2.3 Kothari Commission 18.104.22.168 National Policy on Education 1.LESSON 1.2.9 22.214.171.124.2.3.
medical and legal education.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES
The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. explosion of enrolment. 1. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. New Educational Policy.2. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. There had been vast institutional expansion. expansion of vocational. vocational education. National Board of Teacher Education 10. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1986
. girls and women education besides primary. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. technological engineering. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. 2. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. examination system.3. S. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. diversification of courses of studies. you will be able to: 1. analyse the progress of education in free India.2. secondary and higher education. 1.2. National Council for Women’s Education 5. curriculum. standard of teaching. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.conditions of the teachers. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. technical. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. Kothari (1964-66) 8.
This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. Education for Equality. Therefore. 1966. Kothari. National System of Education. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.3. 2.2. quantity. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission.3. research et. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. 4. material and spiritual. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. Government of India. 1. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. quality. in January 1985. All possible efforts will be made on the removal
.3. 1. the chairman of University Grants commission.
1. The national system of education envisages common educational structure.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964.teaching. Education is the key to our allround development. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. Finally. However.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. 1986. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.2.2. Problems of access. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. A. 1952. 3. D. accumulated over the years. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. utility and financial outlay. The Essence and Role of Education. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. A meaningfully Partnership. the New National Policy on Education.S.
understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. attitudes. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. the minorities and the handicapped. It can train practical aptitudes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. the concepts of work experience. The UNESCO Report. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year
1. By working with hands. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life.” Thus. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Thus. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women.2. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty.
According to. if he wishes. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X.” The Mudaliar Commission. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the
. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. With adequate planning.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. “The aim of these colleges. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. “It may be described. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. As such. co-ordinations.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. In 1955. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. The Radhakrishnan Commission. The Education Commission. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. it will conduce self. the Commission. Besides.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started.
cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. Subsequently. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. the semester and credit system. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). for quality of life in the rural areas. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. etc. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. the rigid streaming of courses. The Central Advisory Board of Education. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. With a view to relating education to the life. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. admission requirements to vocational courses. raising the special facilities. T h is Co mmit t ee
.. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. Therefore. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. the.ot her. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. In addition. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly.
manual work resulting in either goods or services. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. preferably spinning and weaving.defined S UP W as “purposive. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. Commerce. meaningful. 1. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000.2. which offer scientific. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. aimed at this goal. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. The Father of Nation. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum.
. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education.and the world of work. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. felt that education should be centred around a craft. who conceived the System of Basic Education.. which are useful to the community. which swept the country for over two decades. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. etc. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. According to committee. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. meaningful. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. technological courses including Agriculture. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. The wave of Basic Education. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. giving importance to productivity in the national development. In short.
Culture and recreation 6.The aim of SUPW according to the committee.
Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Work practice. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. The criterion for selection of activities should thus.
. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Educative and 3. so that it is educational in essence. tools and techniques and 3. Shelter 4. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Health and Hygiene 2. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Productive 2. 4. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. be that the work involved is: 1. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Some Hints to Teachers 1. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Experimentation with materials. 3. 2. Clothing 5. The teachers should make use of. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Food 3. as far as possible. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Community work and social service. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. locally available materials and tools.
Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. To make education more realistic. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Check on educated unemployed 4. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Merits of the Programme 1. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. improve discipline. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Productive Work
. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. Community Service In-1972. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. removal of illiteracy. Reduction of gap in work and education 2.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. etc. It can become an instrument to build character. slum clearance. be allied to the elective chosen by the students.2.5. inculcate a faith. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. the local community should be actively associated. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. Education through work The SUPW should. 1. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. 6. as far as possible. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration.
helping the adults-in productive work. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . AICTE was set up in year 4. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. in turn. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. offering first aid. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. traffic control. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. etc. skills and better future for the children. The community. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. What are the work areas in SUPW
6. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. if not productive.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Define SUPW
.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. should involve itself in the educational effort. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work.
manual work resulting in either goods or services.2. c. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Write short note on SUPW.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b.
1. 1955 4. e. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. a.
1. which are useful to the community.2. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.
6. 3. meaningful. 2. f. Radhakrishnan 2. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.1. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Dr. 1952 3.2.9
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
: Sharma.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2009). Publishing Corporation. A. (2007). Rao.K.P. P.H. V. Ltd..K.1. New Delhi: A. Amala. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C.P.
. Anupama. B. History of Education. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Y. History and Problems of Indian Education. (2005).K. (2007). and Nath. and Rao.(2005). Singh. J. Development of Educational System in India. History of Indian Education System.2. Y.D. R. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.
3.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.7 126.96.36.199. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.8 1.3. assuring its citizens of justice.2 1. for a total of 117.3. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.3. procedures.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.1 1. establishing the structure. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. Being the supreme law of the country. 1950. equality.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. containing 395 articles.6 1. it came into effect on January 26.369 words in the English language version. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.LESSON 3
EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION
STRUCTURE 1.1 Significance of DPSP 1.3. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.
.3.3. and liberty. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3. there is an official Hindi translation. Besides the English version.5 1. 1949.9 1. democratic republic.3. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.3. directive principles and duties of citizens. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.4 1.
a proposal for forming various committees-was presented.3. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. According to the constitution. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. legal and environmental. The Assembly met. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights.
. Through them. 1. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution.3.In the August 14. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. administrative.3. After many deliberations and some modifications. Dr. the Drafting Committee was appointed. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. 1950. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. understand our Indian constitution. 1. 1947. 2. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. spread over a period of 2 years. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 1947. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. in sessions open to public. for 166 days. 3. with Dr. On August 29. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. learn the role of central and state government on education.3. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. Two days later. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. economic. 4. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. political. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. 1. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. social.
Article 42. Organisation of village panchayat.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. for workers. and in other cases of undeserved want. Liking wage etc. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. Protecting health of the workers. old age.
. The State shall. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Article 39A. Article 43. Article 40. That the health and strength of workers. in particular. Minimising inequalities in status. sickness and disablement. Condition for dignity of children. The State shall endeavour to secure. Equal justice and free legal aid. on the basis of equal opportunity. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. provide free legal aid. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. and shall. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Article 41. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment.government. Equal pay for both sex. No abuse of children. Right to work. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Protecting children from exploitation. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. men and women.
a living wage. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. agricultural. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. in particular. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. 2002 for “45. Article 48A. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Article 46. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. in particular. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Participation of workers in management of industries. The State shall endeavour to provide. Article 47. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Article 48. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. and. by suitable legislation or in any other way. Article 49. See also Article 21A).by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. (Original Article 45. industrial or otherwise. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Article 43A. in particular. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Article 44. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Uniform civil code for the citizens. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Article 45. Note: Subs. [declared by or under law made by
. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. to all workers. The State shall take steps. work. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health.
“The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.Parliament] to be of national importance. Article 45 . Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2002. as the case may be. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Article 51. removal. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood
. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy?
1. 2. Article 50. may be law determine”. disfigurement. destruction. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. disposal or export. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. 1. Separation of judiciary from executive.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. from spoliation. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. Article-21A Right to Education. Promotion of international peace and security.
if such person is a minor. caste. ii. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. and shall protect them. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 3. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. from justice and all forms of exploitations. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. his guardian has given his consent thereto. language or any of them”. iii. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds.
8. 6. 4. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. 2002. in particular. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or.”
. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. and. 5. 7. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. race.
Write Article 21 A and Article 45?
4. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. the forms. Educational Reforms From time to time. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . for its vocabulary. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION
1. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. The central government determines targets and promotes education. and by drawing. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. wherever necessary or desirable.3. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language.9.
1. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country.
Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. 5. So as to encourage education on right lines. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. 8. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. etc. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Production of suitable for children and adults f. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Organisation For carrying out educational plans.3. 4. The following pilot projects. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Local bodies and private enterprise. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. By starting these projects. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. So that they may work well. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas
. to achieve the desired ends. All India Council of Medical Science. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b.. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. the state governments. private agencies etc. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. 7. 6. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a.
1. 4. 10. education for women.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. is the state responsibility. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. books. handicapped. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. 9.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. 11. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. reports etc. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. research. training and statistics. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Material concerning nation-wide interests. 12. etc. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state.3. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. 3. 1. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. The
. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. are published by it. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose.
Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Article 21A c. 1.
. Write any two functions of State Government of Education?
. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government.
1. Explain Directive principles 2. Write short notes on a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. articles in the Directive principles.3. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 46 4. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India?
8. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Article 45 b.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government?
Ministry of Human Resource Development 8.5. 1. 3. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Ambedkar 2.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. b. Article 29 and 30 7. a. Describe the educational role of State Government. The Directive Principles of State Policy. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Article 45 .
. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Clearing House function 9. Dr. a. Article-21A Right to Education. b. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Article 46 5.3. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Development of Hindi Language 6. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. a. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. may be law determine”. 2002. 2002. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act.
4. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.
Ghosh. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.3. (2009).
. (2008). New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. (2004). K and Narang C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: Shipra Publications.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. L. S. N.1. S. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Education in Emerging Indian Society. B.
Bhatia. K. (2007).
4.4. Buddhism etc.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.1 Why Moral Education 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.8 1.4.6 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 1.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.3.3.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.4.5 1.4.7 188.8.131.52.2 1. religious education should be broad based.4.3. Students should be
.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.1 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1. Christianity.4. Jainism.184.108.40.206.4.4 Moral education 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1. Islam.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.
Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. As result of which.D. you will be able to: 1. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. According to E.and dedication. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. Thus. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. "In A multireligious society like ours. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. duty-consciousness. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. enumerate the aims of religious education 4.” Education broadens human outlook. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions.4. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. religious education and the concept of secularism. In the complicated and complex society of today. integrity. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals.4. India' can produce men of character. understand the relationship between religion and education 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. state meaning and need for moral education 1.
1. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life.. beauty and goodness so that
. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. know the position of religious education in our country 3. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world.
4. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. 1. 1947 we achieved our freedom. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. They thought that any kind of narrow.4. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose.3. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. through religious practices and
. rancour. No religious tax can be imposed on them. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. Children attend these organizations. all citizens are free to follow any creed. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. it is clear that the State has no religion. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. castes and creeds.” From the above. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. According to Article 19. As a matter of fact. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. if not regularly. 1. at least occasionally. Thus.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. realizes God in himself. In short. religion and democracy are same.3. As our country is a country of diverse religions. Hence. According to Article 22. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. Viewing the defects of religious education.
he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. which can mould. If unreleased. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people
. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. It is religious education. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. It helps to modify habits attitudes. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. Good education. moral and spiritual values.
Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. intellectual and physical faculties of children. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. which help him for the development of his character. temperament etc. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. He also learns about social. one fully developed. and what is evil. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). when he becomes an adult. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice.teachings. aggressive.. what is done and what is not done etc. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. for the development of the individual and the society. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. As a result of which. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise.
Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. If we open the pages of history. which is the basic need of a democratic life. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible.
. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Therefore. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore.3. This should not be allowed to happen. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. 3. towards the society. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. 1. 2. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture.4. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4.
therefore. fellow-feeling. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians
8. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 9. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. For this. Gurudwara as. 10.5. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools?
1. List out any two aims of religious education?
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 11.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry
. examples of patriotism. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. stories of moral greatness. Life histories of great persons of the world. churches and mosques 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Since all religions have virtues.4. Write Article 22
Moral education. let men see well of one another. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. 5. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Purity. in the home. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 8.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. “Let all be happy and free from disease. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Cultivation of emotions. Asvada (Control of palate). The content of the curriculum. the methods of teaching. Brahmacharya (celebacy). 3.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 7. therefore. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. 2. Without moral values. They will play their role effectively. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Aparigarha (Non. 4. Self sacrifice. 1. Non-injury. students. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). 2. Patriotism. 7. 4. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 5.4. Satyam (truth).4. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1.
.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Service to others. 6. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Fearlessness. It they learn what morality is in their early years.acquisitiveness). is that which develops moral values. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 8. 6. 3. 1.
The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. 2. Asatyam (Non-thieving). One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Good temper. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Integrity.4. minutes in the morning for group singing. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Efficiency. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. 3. 10. Secondary Stage 1. In the school programme.
. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. 3. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Sharivashram (Physical work). Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Discipline.9. Simple texts and stories concerning different. National unity and Spiritual values. loyalty and self-sacrifice. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. discipline. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). religions may be included in the syllabus. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. 1. Good manners. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. 11. 4. Unity of mankind. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour.
A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. 4. 3. Silent meditation should be encouraged. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. should form a normal part of school programme. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 5. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. 5. 2. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour.4. In this connection. patriotism and self-discipline. In other words. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction?
6. University Stage 1. love of humanity.
. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme.
. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. a. minutes in the morning for group singing. 1. 1959 5.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. b. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. a.4. Training of Character 3. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.4.
4. For this. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.4. In short. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. The School Assembly should be held for a few. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. the. b. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. a. Discuss the aims of Religious education.1. 2. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid
blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. 1. Sri Prakasa 6 .
(2004).C. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. L.H.P. Anmol Publications Pvt. Theory and Principles of Education. Ltd.
Pahuja. K and Narang C. J.1. P. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2007).
Bhatia. (2008). N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2003). New Delhi :
Siddiqui. (2008). Publishing Corporation. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.
Dash. N. K.H.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.
.4. New Delhi: A. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. B. M.
.220.127.116.11 1. Although.8 1.5.4 18.104.22.168 1.5 1.11 1.10 1.e..5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.7 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.5. disparities between provinces/States. i.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.LESSON 5
REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124.1 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.3 1.9 126.96.36.199 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5.
Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. 4. understand the regional educational development in India 3. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence.5. 5.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region.5. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF
Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. 2.1. energy. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. work hard towards this end. They therefore.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. This leads to separatist movements. 6. 7. 1. etc.
. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.
1. 1. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. know the education suited to different environments. they take appropriate measures. for example.5. 3. you will be able to: 1.5. Accordingly. waters. 8. roads.
• Separate States (of course viable States). 2. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. and. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. some States became educationally far advanced. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. Therefore. 4. some average.
The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. Tight security arrangements should be made. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. while others remained educationally backward. 3.
. on the basis of regional development may be formed. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. There are many reasons for this during the British rule.5. Secularism.
books. Funds amounting to Rs.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.
. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged.5. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. Nagaland and NEHU. and provision of informal education to enable those. After the attainment of independence.14. etc. Silchar. approved proposals worth Rs.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. Itanagar.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. etc.. These projects are in various stages of implementation. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Mizoram.392. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. Guwahati. while some States like Bihar. since its inception in 1998-99.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. remained under developed. library buildings. Even in each State. Rs. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. the Union Government.84 crore was released in 2005-06. Jammu and Kashmir. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums.480.g. 1.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. academic buildings. However. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Central Universities of Assam. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. scholarships. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. Out of this. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. In the Central sector. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. Tezpur. NIT.After the Planning Process has originated. the State Governments. NERIST. Regional Centres of IGNOU.
Moreover. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.187. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.500.05 crore and Rs.40.501.
. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). too.261. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.5. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010
1.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.57 crore and Rs. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. A provision of Rs. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.8 per cent in 05). Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. During 2003-04. Government expenditure on education. Out of this an amount of Rs. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. Tezpur University.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION
The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). Source: National Portal Content Management Team.
Kerala and Gujarat. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. too. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. The Chandigarh Administration.
Moreover. English. health services and welfare of the citizen population. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. To add to the woes. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Andhra Pradesh.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all
. for instance. engineering and R&D. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. telecom. pharma.
1. too. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. Tamil Nadu. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. notes the study. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Medical education. too.
The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Karnataka.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions.
Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Karnataka. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside.
Listing the positives. for which 16 sites. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level.5. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab.
They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. and so on. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. the vocations. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. In the same manner. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. even actually looking at the watch.year. while the former does not. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the socio-physical conditions. the curricular subjects. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. the working days: an academic . the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. life-oriented and environment slanted. Then education become realistic and idealistic. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. the teaching methods. when he will not be sure of time.
. The living conditions. Hence it is called as need-based. taking the average in the middle. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Of course. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. in which the learners live. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. the interests. For a learner living in a rural area.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. the needs. The working hours of educational institutions. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. which a non-tribal person cannot do.
Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. What do you meant by regional imbalance?
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 188.8.131.52 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education?
3. to suit education to different environments? 1.
. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region?
1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. 2. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.
Salim.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Dubey. S. 60% 1. some of areas which were under the native rulers. Educational Development in India. R. Education in Developmental Arena. C.5. (2001). and Nair. some States have become more developed than others b. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society.G. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. a. New Delhi: Authors press.N.H.2. during the British rule. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Giridhar.K. S. (2002). remained undeveloped 3. Education Scenario in India.
. (2008). A.
UNIT – II
Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. National Integration. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Of all the human factors in the school system. semi literate and illiterates.
. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. school community and mass media. secularism and democracy through Indian education. community development.
2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 184.108.40.206.6 Education for Secularism 2.3 2.1
IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.4 2.1.2 2.1 Main features of Socialism 2.6.LESSON 2.1.9 2.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1.8 220.127.116.11.6.7 18.104.22.168.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 22.214.171.124 2.1.
1. colour or wealth. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow.1. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. socialism and secularism 2. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. The students may be associated with the management of the school.2. Abraham Lincoln. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.1.1. 3) Provision of Manual Work. creed. for the people by the people”. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.
. In the matter of admitting students in schools.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. socialism and secularism 2. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the concept of democracy. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. socialistic and secular state. you will be able to: 1. Democracy thus means power of the people.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility.
2. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. there should be made no distinction of caste. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. This is the political aspect of democracy.
Democracy means 2. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students.
2. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together.. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. There are different brands of socialism. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. debates. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln?
3. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. 12) Visits to Legislatures. it soon spread all over the world. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. declamation contest etc. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. may be planned. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 11) Student Parliament.
4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. the wealthy and the poor. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.
. 7) Special facilities for girls.5.5.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. oppression and disparity. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 2. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. but on the path of non-violence. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system.1. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. none high”. service and cooperation.1.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. Under it. free from exploitation.
2. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. the prince and the peasant. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 2) Socialism aims at equality.
2. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. secularism is being propagated. 11) State schools. “India is a secular-country.” In every political and educational corner. Write any two main features of socialism. Everyone says. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. "which seeks the development of physical. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1.
. According to Holydake. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools.
there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. There is need of making the people open minded. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. people started believing in regionalism. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. Equality. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 3) It permits freedom of worship. 2) It permits freedom of religion. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. liberty. 8) It believes in co-existence. A large number of people is uneducated. 5) It implies tolerance. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights.opposed to religious education.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state.
. In this type of prevailing situations. That is why. the belief that the state morals. education etc.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. 2. 9) It stress free inquiry. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. fraternity. People have different religions and they have different beliefs.1.6. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. “Webster further says. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. should be independent of religion. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. trifles over petty religious matters are caused.1. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. Moral values have to be imbibed. people have narrow mindedness. During the recent past. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated.6.
The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. Religious Education. There should be some internal checking of the material being. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. While doing so. Patiala. education. that the central string of all religions is one. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. students belonging to different religions should be associated. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved.6. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. The students may be taken to different centers of religions.Corruption and disbelief are rampant.1. 1) Moral Education. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. The very sight of the building. No doubt. 2. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. In the celebration of each such function.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING
In the schools.presented by the students in the gathering. In the hands of such teachers. tours and trips may be organized. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. it has then everlasting impact on their
. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The word “Seculum” means 7.
2.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Define Secularism
9.7 LET US SUM UP
.1. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The term secularism was first used by 8. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook
10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. No doubt.
The students may be associated with the management of the school. 6. for the people and the people”. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. In the matter of admitting students in schools. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 4. creed. Power of the people 2. 5. 3. Since socialism stands for equality. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. What are the implications of socialism on education
2. a. 4. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Respect of Individual Personality. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.1. b. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. c. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Socialism aims at equality. a. George Jacob Holydake
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1.1. Abraham Lincoln. a. Provision of Manual Work.
2. colour or wealth. d. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. Tuition free education b. b. 3. Socialism aims at social justice. Equal Opportunities for Admission. there should be made no distinction of caste. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. This present age 7.
the belief that the state morals. a. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools
2. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. L.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. should be independent of religion. b.
Bhatia.” 9. Anmol Publications Pvt. P. Ltd. Modern Trends in Indian Education. 10. (2007). a. b. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2004). School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. N. B. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.
.8. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. (2003).1. education etc. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Theory and Principles of Education.C. K. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. It permits freedom of religion. J. Dash. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K and Narang C. (2005). N. Ltd. New Delhi :
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). Mohanty.
2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.LESSON 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.126.96.36.199.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.9 2.2
ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY
STRUCTURE 2.4 2.2.1 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.5.2. knowledge and experience of one
.188.8.131.52.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2.10 2.2 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.7 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 2.
. as citizens. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. a r e 1.an instructor of school children. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. application. social and moral aspects. It involves physical. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. 2. who are placed in his custody. The developmental roles of children. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. social. mental. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. as persons. understandings. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. development. aims and objectives of the school. A teacher is first and foremost. therefore.2.
2.generation to another. you will be able to: 1. skills. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. moral.2. 3. as learners.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. and 4.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. as workers. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. as it is t he aim o f modern education.
As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. social and emotional health. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. Teacher as a Citizen
Next. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. He has to look after their physical. The following are some of such roles described in brief. motivated. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. physically fit for socially efficient. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. inquisitive. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. culturally confident.All education should lead to better behavioural development. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. and aesthetically to become. member of his community at the outset. He is to become an active member.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. morally. mental. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association
Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. emotionally. 1. mentally. teacher has to play the role of a citizen.2. 2. Teacher as a Parent
Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. socially. 3. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. 2. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. a part of their day in
. The students live. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. morally. economically effective. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. experiences and acceptance. intellectually.
the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. activities of the society into which he is born.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. List out the role of teachers towards community development
. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Dr. science club. and most of hours. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. Unless. It
. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. fine art associations. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs
In addition to the above cited roles in the community. India is a land of many castes. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. creeds. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. photographic clubs. 4.the school being under the custody of teachers. languages and religions. They will be spending with their parents. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. solve them. faiths.
” Regarding the role of education. with straight backs and look up at the skies. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. The only process is the process of education.is. stand up straight. the study of language and literature. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . At the University level the curriculum should include the study of
.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. b. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. Political integration has already taken place to some extent.2. Re-orientation of the Curriculum.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. ‘We should not become parochial. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. a. c. Sampurnanand remarked. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. 1. It should broaden the outlook. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. should be emphasised. folklore and teaching of social studies. Radhakrishnan. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. Nehruji has explained this as. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. At the primary stage the importance of stories. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. and make into one strong national unit.5. Let us. therefore. the citizens of the Republic of India. poems. this integration of the Indian people. narrow-minded provincial. national anthem and other national songs. social studies.” 2. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration.
different social sciences. National Days—January 26. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. t he st udent s and t he community. Co-Curricular Activities. Celebrations of National Days. 4. 6. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. 3. 10. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. 2. dramatics and youth festivals. debates. 5. 9. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Student Camps. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. 8. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Scouts and Guides. and picnics. 7. Uniform for School Children. languages and literature.
. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. sports. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. educational excursions. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. tours. ACC. Taking Pledge. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Textbooks. militar y training like the NCC. symposia. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Reverence of National Flag. Singing of National Anthem.
language. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. Admissions to schools. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc.2. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. 14. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. ii. 13. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Recognition of Institutions. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places.11. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. 12. iv. region or religion. Students Exchange and Tours. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. ways of thinking and doing things. v. Open-Air Dramas.5. School Projects. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school.
. 15. colour. 2. 16. Admissions. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. flora and fauna. iii. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING
Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Educational and Travel Documentaries.
All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
viii. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. cultures and races on equal bases. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes.vi. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. vii.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee?
5. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. camps. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. ix. Define National Integration
3. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. irrespective of national boundaries. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students?
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL
International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices.2. Community dinners. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. 2.
and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. 2. 4. 3. Strong has observed.friendships between children of different countries. Dr. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. patriotism is not enough. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. (b) stories of children of other lands..” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. 6.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding.” 2. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. therefore. This. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. often in connection with anniversaries. if it happens.6. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. Teachers
. that war.6.F. C. Organising of debates and. 2. of his body and mind.e. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. 5. the international level. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. and the healthy development.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. Radhakrishnan states. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.2. In a very real sense. Therefore. (c) fairly tales.as important as that of a national citizenship.2.
Indian and American. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. a German.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students
. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding
7. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Impartial in their Treatment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Russian. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. an Englishman. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should not be propagandists.
Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. majority of people are.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. which results in agitation and aggression language. and help the students to over . 4. It does not prepare students for life. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. Chronic Poverty . It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. 2. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. leading to.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. As the school is but a miniature society. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than
. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .2. 3. Devaluation of Values . 5. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.Another major. the education function can be carried. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. Defects of the educational System . If this is done. understand and indiscipline: 1.
Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well.2. there is wide spread frustration among all people. Wide Spread Frustration . they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions.
etc. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. sympathy and good will among the nations. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
8.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. fellow feeling. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. List out the factors causing social tension in schools
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. community development.
.democratic nature. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust.2. 4. co-operation. 2.2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
2. 3. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. love. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 18.104.22.168 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 22.214.171.124 Functions and role of schools in the society 126.96.36.199 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 188.8.131.52 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 184.108.40.206 Radio as an agency of education 220.127.116.11 Television as an agency of education 18.104.22.168 Press as a medium of education 22.214.171.124 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
126.96.36.199 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 188.8.131.52 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
184.108.40.206 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
220.127.116.11 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
led to the printing of books. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
3. periodicals. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the
.3. Museums. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Then came newspapers. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. Define community. books. art galleries. Now internet is being used. Moreover. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. “All the citizens of the community.
2. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. the invention of the printing press.V. He taught his students orally. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. are increasingly used in education. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. During the course of time.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. In fact. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. Emphasising this thing. Crow and Crow write. To make them achieve their aim. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Hence.
1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Thus. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Students listen various talks. music. the teacher still occupies. A lot of work by way of pre. Reynolds. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well.
. the place of importance.telecast. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher.3. In the emphasis is on sound. Various talks. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. Effective means of presenting music. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. It enlightens public opinion. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Important happening inventions. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. art. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. social studies. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. In collaboration with the experts. “Listening participation” in current history.6. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. dram appreciation. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force.classroom teachers. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures.G. politics. 2. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. rather than on picture. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. for the teacher through school broadcasts. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. 2. It is also an important source of entertainment. current affairs and other areas. Thus. It stimulates curiosity and interests. languages. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media.
Participation of local teachers and pupils. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. at drawing room. style. 3. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. plays. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. at recreational centers. 4. School concerts. 5. at any place. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. At present.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. Making learning an open system. development of lessons. informal and non-formal education. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. Team-teaching demonstrations. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions.
. projects or creative activities. mathematics. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. speech. at play. audibility and presentability. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. Before presenting the programme. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. travel talks. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. fol classical music.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 18.104.22.168 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
22.214.171.124 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 126.96.36.199 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
4.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.7 2.4.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4
FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 2.4.1 188.8.131.52.2 Levels of formal education system 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 18.104.22.168 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.LESSON 22.214.171.124 2.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.3.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.3.6 126.96.36.199 Advantages of formal education 2.4.2 188.8.131.52.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.
As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. compare formal and non formal system of education. Education. open school.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 4. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. you will be able to: 1. the family. the temple. 7. his mental alertness.4. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. School is. open university. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. 2. imparted at the residence of the teacher. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 9. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 2. 6. 4. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. 2.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. Education organised by some agency. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.4. the mass media et. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education.2. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. say the Government or the private enterprise. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. Education associated with a degree or certificate.. the learner are acquainted. 5. 3. the community. To realize this objective of education. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. the most important agency of formal education. In ancient time in India. it was mostly.4. 2. 3. starting and ending at -a particular age.4. 8.3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. 2.
is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. In general.4. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. capacity. depending on the jurisdiction. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.a secondary education. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years.3. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. usually between the ages of zero or three and five.2.3. as well as vocational education and training. such as a high school or secondary school. Through early formal education. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. Higher Education: Higher education. the elements of language are first learned. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start.
2. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. or academic degrees. also called tertiary. structured education. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Some education systems have separate middle schools. Concepts of proportion. diplomas.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. third stage.4. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate
. or post secondary education. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education.
is an important agency of formal education.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. What are levels of formal educational system?
.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. late beginners etc.4.
3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit &
1. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. and remote dwellers. that is intended to serve identifiable
. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.4. 4.3.
2.which will help for nation's development. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Agencies can be classified as 2. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. 2. children with disabilities. Write any two characteristics of formal education?
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
Open university. i. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. According to Malcolm A. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. It is functional.formal education. systematic. However.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. financially supported life formal education. Non-formal education includes adult education. until 1970 it had not been defined. one could say that non-formal education is an active. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Thus. It unlocks the doors of development plans. it is a more effective tool for rural development.learning client take some learning objectives. “Non-formal education should
. place of instruction. planned.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. staffed.e.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. work and the opportunity to put learning to use..” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. systematic. continuing education and on the job oriented education. It is deliberate.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. etc. Adiseshiah. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. It is much more responsive to needs and change. curriculum. adults as well as children. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. admissions. adding up to a true learning society. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. it has its own valid claim to reality. open learning. Therefore.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. to help themselves.
are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. curriculum. Preparation for future needs. co-curricular activities.” 2. Flexibility in various aspects of education.
The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. Covering life span of an individual. i.4. 6. age. 4. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. It should lay emphasis on the self.be marketable and vocationalised. 5. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. international understanding. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things.
• • •
To help the student to acquire languages skills. admissions. evaluation etc. To develop in the student. 2.
• • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. To help industrial workers to better their skills. self.renewal. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.
To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. the Ideas of citizenship. national integration.
. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. exploring.4.learning pattern. socialism.4.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.4.S. modes of teaching. 7. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. 2.e. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. place of education. 3.” According to H. Part-time education. Lawrence. Process of sharing.S. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge.
Technical. 5. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. •
2. 3. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. Senior Secondary. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. 10. 6. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives.
.4.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2.4. school dropouts. 9. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods.4. working adults. 5. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 3. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. in villages and those who live in towns. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. publication and information dissemination.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 2. Eradication of adult literacy.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 2. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country.4. 4. 8. To offer Secondary. 7. Universalisation of primary education. 4.
4.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1.4. Again. etc. training centres in factories. Institutions for formal education. centres of correspondence education. 2. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. To increase knowledge and 2. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. 3.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1.. To make if.4. self-employment iii. factory. others are formal and informal. 2. farm. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. effective in modern societal context. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. if organised in isolation. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes
. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.2. public libraries. To better qualifications. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. library. etc. Therefore.full time to learners – can be home. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. All-round development i. Radio and television. open space.4. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college .
V. 6. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. institution. Face Contact programmes.6 7
Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Lecturing T.
Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Correspondence lesson. 7. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work.
. Teaching to face teaching. Define non formal education. radio. List out any two aims of non formal education. Written tests. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Essay Assignments and short answer questions.
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
5. Give examples of non formal education?
To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. the college and the university come under this category. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution.4. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. 3. 5.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Formal and Non Formal 2. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. 4. 4. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. School 3. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Pre-school level.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
7. Higher Secondary level and University level. Secondary level. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Open University.
2. systematic.” 6. adults as well as children. a. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. b.4.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.
. The school. Open School. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. a.4. Primary level. 2.
b. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education.2.
(2003). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ltd. Bhatia. Pahuja. P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2004). Ltd. B. J. J.4. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. S.2. (2007). N. Anmol Publications Pvt. Education in Emerging India. Modern Trends in Indian Education. L. K and Narang C. New Delhi :
. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. N. K. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Gupta. (2005). Dash.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.C. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Mohanty. (2008).
5.5.3 Objectives of Open University 184.108.40.206 Characteristic features of open University 220.127.116.11.4 Agencies of continuing education 18.104.22.168.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.4 Need for Open University 2.5 22.214.171.124 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5.6 2.2 2.7 2.5.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.4.5.LESSON 2.5.5
CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
STRUCTURE 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.1 2.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 126.96.36.199 Methods of teaching in Open University System 188.8.131.52.4 Open University 184.108.40.206 Philosophy of Open University 2.
1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. It is a lifelong process. Any person. 2. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. know the need and objectives of open university. labourers and half educated individuals. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.3. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon.2. Under these circumstances. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. continuing education is a boon.5. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not
. It is a continuous process. characteristics of open university 4. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. 2.5.3
In India. Thus. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts.
2. give the meaning. However. farmers.5. you will be able to: 1. This knowledge may be in political field. For them. economic field or such other fields. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. understand the meaning of continuing education 2.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. industries. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools.
family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Cinema. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Radio. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest.V. Block Development Officers. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. are also contributing their might for the purpose. if he gets opportunity to develop them. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. cultured and progressive. T. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education.5. deteriorating to his character and personality. Throughout the country. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Radio and T.V.directly related to his job. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. 2. For them too continuing education is essential. After the achievement of independence. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI
As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. On the other hand.literate person. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. Doctors. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Thus. The objectives of National Literacy Mission
.3. On the other hand. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Persons engaged in health services. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks.
(18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. Of course. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. 2. Inspite of the great efforts. habits of people of other lands. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T.
.V. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme.. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. especially women. 2.5.3. (14) information about bringing up young children. (1) ancient history. (6) folk stories. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. 5.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. These books are not very useful. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy.3. 3.5. 6. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (16) liking. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. 4. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (13) psychology of child behaviour.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (2) basic religious matters. (17) modern international and national events. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. (8) psychology of adults. 2. (15) music. and Radio. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. we have not been able to achieve our targets. (7) folk songs. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. 7. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (10) first aid. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. of educational opportunities. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. attendance restrict ion. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.4
O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M
Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. What is the objectives of NLM?
3. It also attempts to pr ovide equality.5. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. NLM was launched in the year 2. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate?
2.5. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left
. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . lack of time etc. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.
2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. 2. 4.
An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. it makes use of educational techno logy. its education is not class room based but home based. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. c.unobserved. Education is not a once for-all process. but
. No one is too old or too late to learn. b. the higher the degree of openness.5.4. e. Mention any two characteristics of Open University?
. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. Which was the first open university in India? . and in teaching. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. 2. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. d.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. IGNOU was established in the year 6.
It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. Mo re o ver. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 3. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals.4.4. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. supplementing the existing provision.5. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 2.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1.
. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 4. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. 2. 2. 2. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. 5. it a ims at wider and hig her. 6.5. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes.who did not get it. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. or who realised too late that they need it.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 4. cho ice o f co ur ses. who were deprived of t he same earlier. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 3.
cha ng e t heir life compet ence. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. school drop outs. Enlist any two objectives of Open University?
. 6. In the present day world. 2.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. a state or nation. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. 3.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following.
1. 8. 5. 7.
B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Laboratory works. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored.5. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. a society. Self instructional materials. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. Therefore.
2. 8. Correspondence tuition.4. Every day. semi – literates. you have learnt the concept. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
7. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. 4. Tutor Comments. List out any four methods of Open University? .2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated.
3. 8. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (2) basic religious matters. 7.5. Explain the objectives. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. youth. which may include house wives. aspirants for continuing education. a.
8. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. cho ic e o f co u r ses. d. (1) ancient history.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. 7. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. P r int med ia b.ambitious learners. its education is not class room based but home based. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. unskilled workers and other professionals. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. Broad casting lectures c. a.
2. (4) the fundamentals of economics. a. b. agricultural and industrial workers. need and characteristics of Open University. 1985. 1988. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.
. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. 2. Write about the philosophy of Open University
2. 4. 9. 6. Television Lessons.5. b.
(2004). L. Reddy.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. K. Ltd. S.K.5.2.. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Udaiveer. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2007).
. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Recent trends in Non Formal Education.S. (2004). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. R. Modern Problems of Education. K and Narang C. (2001).
UNIT – III
. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. All which is the need of the hour. the education of women. its causes and remedial measures. which may claim the attention of those concerned. In Lesson 2. Examination reform. wastage and stagnation. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. and teacher education. Training teachers for all levels of education.
STRUCTURE 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.4 220.127.116.11.3.1.7 3.2 3.2 EFA – How? 3.5 18.104.22.168.3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.22.214.171.124 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.LESSON 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.1 3.
.1 EFA – For whom? 3.3 New initiatives.1.8 3.6 3.
The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate.1. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. economic or cultural. “The State shall
. therefore. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. (EOI) 2. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). you will be able to: 1. Continuing Education (CE) 1. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education.3. 2.1. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). On the other hand. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. understands the country. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.
3. education received added importance and significance. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. Eradication of Illiteracy. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. social. Therefore. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. directed that. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. may be political.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.
This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Universalization of Enrolment. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. After the attainment of independence. the national Government under. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Universalization of Retention. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution.
. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. rights and responsibilities. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. It enables the parents to send their children to School. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Therefore. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Due to the adoption of democratic system. 3. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . Three Stages for Universalization.endeavour to provide. Continuing Education (CE).
3. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. It is safe to assure.
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. later to 1988. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. UNESCO Bulletin states. 1990.1. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. educational enterprise. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. 1995 (for upper primary stage). then to 1976. This target had to be revised to 1970. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. Write Article 45. Therefore. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment.3. present and future. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education?
The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. 12. Disabled. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. 5.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Education of the Impaired. etc. 8. FELF. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. sex. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. In order to make the programme of education for all community. slum areas. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre.
.1. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. By undertaking survey. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. problem of literacy. rural areas. creed. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. 6. their enrolment and retention. Early childhood education should be streamlined. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. 11. Education of Girls. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. nutrition education and sports and games. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). 3. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. and Women’s education programme should be improved. adolescent and adult. their social economic status and occupations.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. Apart from primary education. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children.3. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). 3. 9. Jams and Jellies. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. 10. Emphasis must be given on health education. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. The Social Education. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. NAEP.
Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.1. If any child drops out from the school before completing the
. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.e. Wastage and Stagnation.3. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA?
4.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.3. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. 4.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES
W AS TAG E
The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.
3. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Expand MLL and SSA
Familial Factors .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.
(a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas
1. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.first stage of education. Social Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage :
unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools
parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home
over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and
excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. it is considered as wastage.The personal factors responsible for wastage are
Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties
Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments
lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education
2. School Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness
.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school
poor standard of institutions
higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .
Personal Factors .
. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation?
. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Define Wastage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 7. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.
School Factors .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. school or society.3.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES
Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. They are described hereunder :1. rural or urban 3.1.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. relating to home. in his home. Societal Factors . Personal Factors . Family Factors . are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation
.The following factors.
. Define Stagnation?
9. etc. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. uniforms. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. mid-day meals. stationary. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation?
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
. Universalization of Enrolment c. 4. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation.
3.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. 3. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.1.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.1. 3. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. “The State shall endeavour to provide. improvement of curriculum. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. Hartog Committee.. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA.” 3. a. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. directed that. therefore. 4. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. 6. a. a. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA.3. Universalization of Provision b. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Universalization of Retention 2. 2. b. Minimum Levels of Learning b.1.
(2001). a. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Hemchand. S. Social Factors
8. School Factors d. Problems of Elementary Education. a. improve examination system. Familial Factors c. (2008). T. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Personal Factor b.K. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.N. introduce graded curriculum. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. (2007). New Delhi:
. Crescent Publishing Corporation.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 9.K. 3. b.1.7. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Sharma. S.
2.2.2 Grade System 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 126.96.36.199 Modern reforms of examination 3.1 Problems of examination 188.8.131.52.1 Choice Based Credit System 184.108.40.206.1 Advantages of Co-education 220.127.116.11.4.7 Open book examination 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.1 18.104.22.168 Question banks 22.214.171.124.3.5.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.6.2 3.2.2
STRUCTURE 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.7 Let us sum up
.2.2.5.LESSON 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 126.96.36.199.5 New evaluation procedures 188.8.131.52.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.
Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION
One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.
3. suggest the new evaluation procedures.9 3.2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.2.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION
There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . 4. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. you will be able to: 1.2. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. managing of co-educational schools is 148
. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. Besides. but on the other. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 184.108.40.206 3.2. 3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.3. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. 3.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.2.
6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. etc. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. They may cause problems relating to discipline.
3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement.
4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated
5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. etc. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. waiting rooms for girl students. which the educational authorities have to face.
3. They develop secondary sex characteristics. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing.
. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. roadside Romeoism.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.. If the students are in sufficient number. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. etc. hostel facilities. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. schools for them wherever necessary. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age.3. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. The following steps should be taken up.2.
the net-work of examination system has also become vast. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. the examination system has an important role to play. conduct of internal examinations.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. appointment of paper-setters. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. public interested in education. 3. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. assessment and Finance.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents.2. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. teachers.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. Write any two advantages of Co-education?
3.2.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. Instruction. It is considered as a major sub-system.
. public administrators and statesmen.
etc. tabulators. scrutinizers. etc.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. examiners. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. etc. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation.2. etc. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. introducing objective-based testing. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. values. 3. training of examiners. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance.printing and distribution of question papers. announcement of results. pursuing objective-oriented instruction.4. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. validity and practicability. establishing reliability. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. invigilators. etc. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different
They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. halo-effect. stereotyped questions. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made.4. may also discredit them. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc.2. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education..
3. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. it s a common experience that subjectivity. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc.. do not appeal to the students and parents.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. Vagaries in making.. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. 3) With respect to method of teaching. Subjects. 2) From the angle of content of education. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. takes the place of comprehensive learning. 7) In connection with the question papers. which they are expected to study.
. Rote memorisation.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. lack of objectivity etc.
Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t.develop true love for education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Question Books may be developed in all schools. re-numbering of answer scripts.
. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately.a part of internal assessment. 4. may be introduced. revaluation. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. List any two merits of examination. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations.
. Spot valuation.. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. etc. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the major areas of problems of examination?
3. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination.
1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.5. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970.
Practical limitations are there. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. In this system. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. Their interests.5. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination.2.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. In actual practice. 3.3. The students can take any course offered in any department. It is complicated. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. The new scheme of assessment. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . skills are given importance. he is given extra credit points. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features:
3.2. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. When a person chooses to work extra. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the
. attitudes.2. Every paper is treated equal. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.
More autonomy is given to students.
dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.discipline. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. poor. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses.5. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. only the total credits to be earned is specified. In the new system. The one shot written examination is not an effective
. courses can have weightages defined. Groupism is encouraged.2. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. 3. While designing syllabus. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper.
Less understanding by the parents. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. These weightages are called credits. An example is a seminar. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D
Avoids or less comparison.poor. v. or as a 4 credit course. This system reduces comparison of marks.good.
credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.
. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.2. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment.5.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.2. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.2. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.5. 3.
3. 3. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. However.
5. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. However. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. Therefore. List any four new evaluation procedures. In the hierarchy. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. There are no proper procedures for selection. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. recruitment. 6.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. What is the reason for introducing grade system?
. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and
• • • • • •
3. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
5.2.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions.
submitting of the inspection reports.• • •
• • •
administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. finding out the adequacy of. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now.qualified personnel.
3. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. qualifications. 1. whether the syllabus has been covered. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. complaints and compliments. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. books are followed. taking up the follow-up programmes. laboratory equipment. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools.2. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. library books. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. interpersonal relationships and so on. inspecting the class-room teaching. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. being realised as two different functions.
. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance.. playgrounds. When they are fully realised. disciplinary problems. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work.6. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. in contrast. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. wherever necessary. They are. Academic inspection. school buildings. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. requirements. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. staff.. etc. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. finding out whether the prescribed text. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. in a sense. of late. etc. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number.
Ed. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well.Ed. at least. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. course in either educational. once in five years. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. aptitude. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. or.. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. courses. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. Being a special category of educational administrative officers.2. their professional knowledge. Insistence on specialisation in the B. modern. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. Similarly. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives.
. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. In the light of these conceptualisation. M. 3.. In the case of departmental candidates.
3. Grade System. 3. Instruction. 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
3. 5. a. b. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
7. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. c. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Administration. a. 3.2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. 2. d. assessment and Finance.2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.
Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. b.
5. Multiple sets of question paper. Open book examinations.2. Educational Reforms.a part of internal assessment. b. (2002). S. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. R and Sharma. New
. Vaidya. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . c. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma.4. 7. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. History and Problems of Education in India. K. (2005). Question banks. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Problems of Education in India. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. a. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. K. a. a. b. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma.
3.8 3.10 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.LESSON 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education. identify the needs of rural India and social.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
.3.5 3.3.3. 3.3. 2.3.3
HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 3.3.2 3.3 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3.6 3.9 3.3. 3.1 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3. 5.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra. 4. you will be able to: 1.3.7 3.
. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education.3.. University Education. 10 years of general Secondary Education. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. i.. e. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. in Andhra Pradesh. Commission emphasised to continue. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates.specialisation programmes 3.. Consequent on the recommendations. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. The Calcutta Madras. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. 2. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. The. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. Similar is the case with some other States. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . etc. 8 years of general education. the Banaras Sanskrit College. and 3 years of First Degree Course. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course.e. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively
.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.3.g. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States.e.
However. to prepare.a sense of dignity of labour. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 6. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to
Higher Education. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. to imbibe. 3.
3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. habits of hard work and develop . It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes
. general rise
in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. 5.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 10. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. b. 5) to help for the social. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. educational channels. Provision for transfer of credits to students. who desire to change from one stream to another.3. historical. 7. is also a plus point . 8. and. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. Genera l Objectives are
1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. cultural and economic development of the country. social. economical and political.confidence in students.
1. Philosophically it is not the conception. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. and. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. on one hand. to develop national character. and that required to enter the tertiary level. at the other. cooperativeness. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. etc. international understanding. Psychologically. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of
. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. 3.3. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. social justice. democratic living. cultural and' religious tolerance.national integration. The General Educational Spectrum. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone.. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. Sociologically it is undesirable.
3. medical plants. 2. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. rural health. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Commerce and other disciplines. such as Agriculture.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. 3. technical. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. and vocations based on dairy-farming.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education.— tube-wells. commerce. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. horticulture. industrial agricultural production is growing. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. professional.
. In our country. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. commerce. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. India is a land of villages. the rural areas have suffered very much. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. physics or mathematics. Agriculture is the main occupation. Science. technological. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. In the vocational spectrum. or other machinery. vegetable growing. All these need for an. Biology. In the matter of language. educational and cultural services. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. chemistry. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. fish culture. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward.
Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream..etc. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . In time.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. 4. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education?
3. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. In this way. and
5. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society.. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. the local resources available. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. social justice. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. interests and aptitudes of the students. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. There had been favourable reaction from the students. 3. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. and the needs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this it may be concluded. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage?
. etc. can be ensured.3.
Vocational Sepctrum. Modern Trends in Indian Education. a. B. J. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. Mohanty. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. Calcutta University Commission 2. to imbibe. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage?
3.3. 3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. we studied the history. b.3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. b.3.C. (2008). Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. 3.3. 2. 3. a. (2005).K.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Ltd.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. habits of hard work and develop . a. Anmol Publications Pvt. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. (2001). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. S. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 3.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Dash.a sense of dignity of labour.3. (2007). New Delhi :
. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. General Educational Spectrum and b. objectives. N.
“Education is not the filling of a trail.4.5 220.127.116.11.4.6 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4
STRUCTURE 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.3 3. Education contributes to human development.8 3. but the lighting of a fire”.1 3.LESSON 3.12 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 3.10 3.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.2 3.4.7 3.4.13 3.4. social and
2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. Home Economics.4. These courses were.higher education in particular. family. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. There is a close connection between education and development. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. Teaching and Fine Arts. In the post —independence period.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . 3. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. During the year 1937.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. Dr. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered.4. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. you will be able to: 1. higher education of girls developed immensely. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. Education . the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. For the first time in the history of India. economic. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. although we have miles to go. analyze the women and distance education. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. cultural and political development of the individual. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. 3. Nursing. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. particularly
. While women constituted only 9. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. community and nation is universally acknowledged. The relevance of women’s education to social.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877.
the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than
. Yet. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. In the rest of the country. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.4
ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS
In the post Independence period.4. In 1950-51.4. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.T Women University. Coimbatore. The idea of women’s education for equality.D.0 43. Kodaikanal.9 14. 3. out of 9200 and odd colleges. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Mumbai.0 32.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.women. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.9 27. levels and professions.0 16. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.
3.1 31.2 29. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.2 22.0
Today. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. Even today.1 24. in our country.N.4. Mother Teresa Women University.65 lakhs in 1994-95. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. we have more than 1200 institutions.
3.34 33. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1.56 64.17 52.4.53 34.4. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.66 66. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education?
. Which was the first Women’s University in our country?
.47 65.46 82.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. 3.27 89.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that
.63 Female % 34.73 10.83 47. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India?
.4%) prefer Arts subjects.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
3. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 and 14. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.54 12.1 respectively. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.that of boys.44 35.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.
which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. In every third family. particularly.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. The major hurdles.
. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. Book banks should be established. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. financial difficulty of the parents. They gave up their studies to enter home life. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. irrelevance of the content of education.4. she will only learn fashion. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. In college. and coeducation may spoil her character. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Thus. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. curriculum not suited to their requirements. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. etc. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. 3. what is the need for higher education for her. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so.hinders the girls from getting higher education. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. promoted and increased. According to a survey. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. marriage is a very common I factor. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. distance of the college or university from home. Also.
3.4. Geographic distance of educational institutions. There are constraints of time. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. Empowerment in a nutshell. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. resources and socio .
3. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life.
Distance education is a boon to women. It also brings about
. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests.4.economic disabilities faced by women. Full-time employment. It enables to study. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. It is a productive investment. space. is the only tool for realising empowerment. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Education. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. and the limitations of the conventional education system. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.
As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. higher learning. education of women is of paramount importance. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. Empowerment is an active. for full development of our human resources.4. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. on their own. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education
system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies:
Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. This can be achieved through reflection.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. 3. empowerment means being assertive. The major objectives of women's higher education. legal awareness and economic independence. Women are partners in development. education of women must be given priority in national plans. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media
. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them.
The educational institutions. But their number is small. 3. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. will encourage them to venture new grounds. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. The local administration. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. Scholarships and concessions for women. which is pending for a long time.4. who are eager to take up courses.
. has to be implemented at the earliest. especially so in the developing countries.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. Reservation for women. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men.
3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. Better opportunities.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. which had been the sole domain of men. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women.
1%) and architecture and building (38. talents.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. 3.4. But. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4.9%). Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. IDP Education. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. According to Lindy Hyam. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace
. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. Chief Executive. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. especially in developing countries like African countries. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.000 women in the country.8%).11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education?
. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.3 percent. capacities etc. Also. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. engineering and related technologies (16. Australia. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.
Pattanaikj. R. SNDT Women’s University. and Suryalatha. Rajasthan 5. (2007).
3. individuals and society b. Women Education. and Swain. R.4. Kodaikanal. R. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Mumbai.
.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Coimbatore. (2000).to the family. Mother Teresa Women University. 2. (2008). 3.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Rao.K. 4. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Women and Education.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Mishra. SNDT Women’s University. 3. 4. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. S.4. (2005). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Mumbai. S. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. a. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. create the right attitude towards life. Women Education.R. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life
3. A. Annakodi. A. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women.C.4. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. 43% 6. community and the nation. Coimbatore. Centre for Women’s Studies. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.
Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.126.96.36.199.3 3. They should be trained.5.5
STRUCTURE 3.5 3.11 3.8 188.8.131.52 3.10 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.1 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation. whole.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.9 3.personality of children in and out of school.6 184.108.40.206.5.4 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.2 3.LESSON 3. so as to enable them to acquire
the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. equality and justice. Shorter working hours. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals.
. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. 4.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. national consciousness. you will be able to: 1. social and emotional integration. know the pre service and in service training facilities.5. Lack of physical facilities. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. and national character. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. international. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. 5. understanding and strong desire for international peace. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. 3. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. understand the training teachers for Primary. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. 3. Dearth of new technology of teaching.
Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. who have not been trained earlier. levels.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. Lop-sided curriculum.Ed.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. etc. Inadequate training in practical skills. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years.. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. inservice and extension education programmes.Ed. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and
. it is called the Extension teacher Education. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. and M.Less qualified teacher educators. and the collegiate teacher education. the secondary teacher education. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities.5. Depending on the levels.5. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . it is called the In-service teacher education. the centre. If the student teachers are working teachers. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education.. At the diploma level. students.
3. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. 3. the primary teacher education. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. (NCERT) New Delhi. higher secondary teacher education. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. a Diploma course and a Degree course. the state Government.
state Institutes of Educat ion.
3. Science Education units. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers
The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate
. Write any two problems of Teacher Education?
.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. depart ments etc. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . extensio n service. Also Guidance Bureaux. etc. Evaluation unit. Education cells.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. collegiate cells.5. non-formal. are established. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Expand NCERT 2. Educational teehnology cells.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training.
laboratories. should be improved on a top priority basis.•
• • • • (B)
manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . degree. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B..Ed. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. to ensure teacher competence. to improve curricular programmes. primary and secondary school teachers. The following defects are note-worthy
• • •
it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . audio visual aids. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. and
. Training of Secondary School Teachers
The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. schools and sister institutions. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . to prescribe conditions for recognition. and so on. to offer consultative services. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. which help breaking isolation from one another .. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. which should include experience in the primary schools too.
Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . despite its vast expansion. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers..
The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. material conditions relating to libraries. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life.Ed.
The problem. etc. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers
As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Hence. Organisation of Content Courses. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. Meanwhile. though no pre-service training. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. and XII. Agriculture.
. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. To meet this exigency. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Psychology of Students. Induction Courses. etc.secondary education. methodology and evaluation. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Workshops. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. whether they should have professional education or. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Modern Methods of Evaluation.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. not came up once again. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Modern Techniques of Teaching.
Post-Graduates also undergo B.Ed.A. Ajmer. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. State Institutes of Education... Degree and M.D.Ed. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. Point out two defects in primary teacher training
. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.Ed. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.A. (Education) and M. For re-orienting the teachers. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. All B Ed.
3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. Courses leading to B. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.Ed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
3.. M. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.’s are elig ible for M..S. Degree.’s for Ph. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. courses and M. in Education. Pre-service training is for those.. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.Ed. These facilities are available for regular students.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. (Education) are organized by
. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. training.Ed.
6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.).. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. 3.
4. 6. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.A. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence the employability of M. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . of conduct—written or unwritten.
. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. established by tradition and teachers of the past.A.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. they should be conscientious . this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.5.. and B.List any two code of conduct for teachers?
. However. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. . (Ed). (Ed. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . What is the role of ERIC?
5. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 2.5. b. Shorter working hours.
3. However.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. b. 4.
6. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. Discuss the problems of teacher education. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore.3. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. a. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
3. National Council of Educational Research and Training. The necessity is however this.
. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. 2. 5. Dearth of new technology of teaching.5. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Bhopal. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. 3. Ajmer. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. they should be conscientious. a.9 LET US SUM UP
The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. Explain code of conduct for teachers.
D. Corporation. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing
. Mohanty. (2009). A. Publication Pvt. (2003). New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Ltd Aggarwal.N. J. (2010). Tewari. P. and Teacher Education. Teacher Education.5.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. B.3. Teacher Education.
UNIT – IV
Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. In lesson 4. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. the focus is on the school health programmes. objectives. economic and educational developments. objectives and role of the physical education. If the diet is poor. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. In lesson 1. Since food is the source of nutrients. common ailments of children. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. objectives.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual.
. The person’s environment is equally important. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. consuming the right amounts becomes important. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. nutritional deficiency diseases. preservation of nutrients. communicable diseases and their prevention.
1.1.10 4.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.3 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.e.1 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
220.127.116.11 4. emotional and social. It is a miniature society.LESSON 4.1.11 4.1. physical.1.
. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.8 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1
SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES
STRUCTURE 4.1. mental.7 4.2 4.5 4.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody.1.6 4.4 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important.
To develop healthy health habits among children. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 8. 6. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. 2. cleanliness and healthful living. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12.1. know the need for sex education. To give information regarding health rules. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To develop certain skills concerning health. content of health education. 4. you will be able to: 1. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.
. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 7. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. list the common ailments of children 3. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. 3. e. explain the importance of First aid 5.1. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. 10. training of teachers and evaluation. 9. understand school health programmes 2. Instruction. 4.g. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. to his family and to the community at large. training in first aid and etc. 11.. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 4.
inoculation against cholera. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. (xii) smoking education etc. suitable furniture. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. play festivals. as described below 1. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. The school buildings should be spacious. Vaccination for small pox.. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. is imperative. vaccination. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. The surroundings of schools should be clean. The flooring should not be damp. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. organisation of school health days. B. There should be regular water supply. etc. 3. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. 4. proper doors and windows. Triple Antigen Vaccination. (vi) nutrition education. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. minimizing the travelling distance. (xl) mental health. typhoid. (viii) first aid.G. cleanliness weeks. ( iii) sanit at io n. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. First aid facilities should be made readily available.1.coming or absence. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. There should be good drainage facilities. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. (x) choice aid use of health services and products.. 2. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided.C. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. B. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to
. direct lighting.4.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. 2. “Play-for-all” programmes. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. Arranging better transportation facilities. (ii) communit y healt h. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. (v) safety education. excusing late. 5.
fractures. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons.. drowning. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. cuts. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. sports and games in the interest of their health. • Find out the cases. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. D.•
afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. insect stings. isolate and notify. • Keep all rooms clean. poisons. fainting (epileptic fit). • Close the schools. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. • Have adequate rest and sleep. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • When sleeping in groups. and other accidents.
. wounds. if epidemic is wide-spread. • Take nutritious food. scalds. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes.
C. burns. etc. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. bleeding. dislocations.
water or bodily contact..
2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. fever.
4. tuberculosis. So they easily get illnesses. measles etc. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. List out the Health curriculum
3.1. Once these germs get into the body. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. Mention the school health programmes.
4.1. which are – cold. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. polio. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. asthma. They are: i) The incubation stage. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. There are three stages in any communicable disease. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. backache. chicken pox. pain in the joints. These diseases are called communicable diseases. cough. headache. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and
.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease.
Cold is usually accompanied by running nose.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Tonsilitis . Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted.This disease is caused by bacteria. The following are the common communicable diseases. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Measles . cough and fever. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. unhygienic bottle feeding. sugar and water.When a child suffers from scabies. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. After three or four days of fever. This is caused by cold virus. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Mumps . There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Throat is affected. head-ache and cough. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Common Cold . The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Ear Infections . This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. eating food which is not clean.•
start affecting the body systems.
. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. The symptoms include cold. Others make the children very weak.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. The child may have fever. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. unhygienic living conditions. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. etc. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Scabies . Hence it is called a killer disease. Diarrhoea .It is caused by measles virus.
the child is not able to breathe.
.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. Enlist the common ailments of children. raised pink spots appear on head. The child may also have diarrhoea. the child may die.•
Chicken Pox . What are communicable diseases?
5. Diphtheria . The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Shortly. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. Expand DPT . The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. As the disease progresses. By scratching he causes secondary infections. If proper treatment is not given. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. Typhoid . Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. face and waist. It begins with fever. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. separate. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days.
4. bruises. etc. 2. Wounds . swelling. Drowning . and Community Work and Social Service. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. so-called sex books and periodicals.
.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. man-woman behaviours. simple fractures. It has its rightful place in education too.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. sprains. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. head injury. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. cuts. Sprains . sprains.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. 3. Sex is popular. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. fainting. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. 4. bleeding. films and jokes. wounds. Cuts and Bruises . drowning. snakebites.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency.1. it is a subject of art. It is both biological and psychological. 5. fiction. eye injury. In such cases. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. and films. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e.1. exciting and body-oriented. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation.g. scorpion stings.4. dislocation.
In secondary schools. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. The home. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. Should the boys and girls. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. the school.
Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex
A. B. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. they would be treading the path of sure doom. celibacy are age. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. in their ignorance.. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education.old values. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. try experimenting with their bodies. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives
. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. sex education is being recommended in schools.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. Sex education has the major components as follows:
1. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. 2. health. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. the religious organisations. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. 3.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. Hence. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. The values of life. but preserve them from disaster and disease. In today's liberal and interactive society.
For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised.1. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values.1) 2) 3)
as a separate course. What are the major components of Sex Education. Teacher education institutions are.
It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education.
4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. common ailments of children. C. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. first aid and sex education. hence.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. there will no crisis in its implementation. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. offering sex education as a part of their curricula.
. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. when the courses are already overloaded. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. communicable diseases and their prevention. the school health programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 18.104.22.168 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to
4. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia
6. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency?
3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. Rickets is the deficiency of
5. Mention the food nutrients
4.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet.
Let us talk about each of these aspects. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.
. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. If you look at the definition carefully. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.2. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . minerals.2. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied.
In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . These are: region where the person resides and income. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. the social and religious practices of that region.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. There is no point. moderate or heavy work. it is also specific to a given activity level . a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). People in the east of our country prefer rice. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. 4. sex.2. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). In other words. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. Preferences/customs are also important.g. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are
.6. A balanced diet is specific firstly. dosa are typical of the south. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. construction labourer). Using others would be impractical and unsuitable.g. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. activity level and physiological stress. In the case of adults. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Even within given States there is considerable variation. paratha and poori. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals.one in the morning and the other at night. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. for example. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning.sedentary. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires.
however. income plays a vital role. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Among the social factors. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. for example. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. One must. while another may hate them. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. however. however. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. Even among flesh foods. Including these
. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. taboos related to food may play an important role. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. However. These determine the acceptability of foods. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. In addition to these. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. as important for the rich as for the poor. fat and sugar tend to increase. As income increases. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. If you think of your own religious group. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like.planning the diet. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. Judicious selection of food is. As you read this discussion. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. customs. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. Having more money. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. vegetables and fruits. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. One person may be fond of milk products. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. nuts and dry fruits.
mouth. List out any two healthy food habits. but they should be thrown away. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. over-eating or under. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. etc. green leaves. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. eggs . 8) Walk a while after eating. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students.
8. For this.
. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well.eating is hazardous. 17. if the teachers have good food habits. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. Define balanced diet. meat. fruits. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost.
A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Fatigue and Giddiness
.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. When the diet is inadequate. Vitamin D 5. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Discuss good food habits. Explain food nutrients 4.2. good nutrition is essential for good health. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Beri Beri 4. Night blindness. Corneal xerosis. In fact. c.4. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins
2. 4. Bitot’s spots.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. e. preservation of nutrients.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2. Conjuctival xerosis. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. a. d. b. 4. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Keratomalacia 3.2.
(2009). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation
. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. R. 7. R. Hands. (2008). A Text Book of Foods. mouth. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra.6. Food should be consumed after eating well. b. Food and Nutrition Education.C. a.N. Food and Nutrition Education.2.
4. minerals. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Chopra. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . (2008). (2005).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. a . Sri Lakshmi B. Health and Nutrition Education. b.M. P. (2004). 8. S. Nutrition and Dietetics. Nutrition Science.
22.214.171.124.6.LESSON 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3
STRUCTURE 4.10 4.3.7 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.126.96.36.199 4.12 4.4 4.8 4.3.9 4.2 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3 Impact on Education 4.1 4.13 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.5 4.
on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. Population Education. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.4. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. the stress is. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.3.
. state the meaning. his societ y and the world. you will be able to: 1. aims at providing the younger generation.3. therefore. his family. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. 4. the causes of population change. objectives and need for population education 2. There is some difference.
4. population characteristics.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.3. describe the impact of population growth on social.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. Whenever we talk of sex education. It is not sex education. family planning and sex education etc. understand the importance of small family norm 5. and the consequences of these processes.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. community. economic and educational development 3. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. It is a much wider co ncept. characteristics and changes for himself.
the society. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.3. the family.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual.
4. Define Population Education
2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.4. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.3.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points:
. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the nation and the world.
6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. health and happiness of its citizens. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. 4. 4. When the family is small. Every second two thousand children are being born. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population.3. economic and educational development of the country. With the larger families. Family is considered as a social unit. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. which will not be possible without population control. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race.3. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare.6. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development.
. the family programmes are also handicapped.
pollution of the environment. In developing countries. in parks and other places of public gatherings. toilets. unemployment. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development.e. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. i. Many students herded in a small room.
.. 4. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. in cinema halls and theatres.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. 4. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth.6.6. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. lack of proper health care.3. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. in buses and trains. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. Swollen cities. teacher index. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. organization index and material index. facility for drinking water. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective.3. and so on. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. The gulf between them is widening further. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. heavy intern I migration etc.
Hindi and English. blank verses etc. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education
4. can be taken up. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages.3. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. and laboratory equipments. reproduction. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. essays. there will be lacuna in many other spheres.. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. less budget for education. bar graphs etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. even text books would be in short supply. There would be poor library facilities. family planning etc. Social Studies Statistics on population education. less space facilities. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
. thus. can be studied in science and health education. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. There would be very few audiovisual aids. Regional Language.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. It has got to be integrated with other subjects.
14. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Children with the help of parents. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. United States of America. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Bihar. They may arrange them as per average density of population.3.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION
1. 3. 12. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 5. 15. causes of deaths etc. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Brazil. 11. 7.4. area and average density of population. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Canada. Children may compare two families. 8. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Uttar Pradesh. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to
. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 10. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. 4. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). China. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 9. West Bengal. 13. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 2. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. deaths. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends.
values and role children etc.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. we have no right to stop
. 18. Comparing life in various respects in two families. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”.be opened in their schools. How will you correlate Population Education?
5. 17. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. The question. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife.3. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. age at marriage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education?
4. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. 16. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. preferences for sex.
especially the expansion of child immunization services . In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. 4. More than 45 years ago. The Family Welfare Program.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. however. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.. and the child survival components of the news: program. at varying places in different regions. continued . Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage.4-6. fertility levels have declined throughout the country.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. “He who is responsible for population growth.were implemented
. on an overall basis. Since the program's inception.to emphasize family planning services. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).3. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. which education can only do.their entry into the world”.
various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. reliance on local women as community health workers. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by
. expansion of services to unmarried women.earlier than the safe motherhood components. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. In April 1996. and nominal fees for services. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. Local programs vary in their approaches. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. Therefore. In October 1997. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. At these meetings. and the World Conference on Women. a focus on health promotion. men. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. Moreover. the community appears willing to pay for services.
.emphasizing the needs of the client. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme?
7. 1997). Give your answer as instructed in each question b. community.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. What are the goals of RCH?
4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. economic and educational development 4. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. Its main purposes are to create awareness. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. family. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. 4.3.3. involving the community. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. Describe the impact of population growth on social. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. nation and the world. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual.
. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 3. his society and the world. a. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. his family. less budget for education. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers.4. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. characteristics and changes for himself.3. Brazil. a. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 5. the causes of population change. China. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. 4. and the consequences of these processes. population characteristics. area and average density of population. a. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. b. 7. United States of America. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. less space facilities. bar graphs. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. b. 6. Canada.” 2.
Jayapoorni. Centre for Women’s Studies. J.4. V. Coimbatore.
“Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. (2002). A.K.14 SUGGESTED READING
Mohanty. Reddy. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Bhende.3. (2005).
Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Ltd. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. (1992). Changing attitudes to Education in India.
Udaiveer. Kantikar. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Principles of Population Studies.
Modern Trends in Indian Education. T. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. (2005).
Modern Problems of Education. (2004). N. Ltd.
3 220.127.116.11.4.9 18.104.22.168.2 4.4.2 Major games 4.7 4.5 4.1 Minor games 22.214.171.124 4.6 126.96.36.199 Lead up games 4.4.LESSON 4.1 4.4
STRUCTURE 4.11 19.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 188.8.131.52 4.4.3 Indigenous games 4.8.8.
mental alertness. social fitness. classify the different types of games. leadership and balance in defect. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.4. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. the youth of the country. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness.4. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. which forms its most valuable assets.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. as it should
. 4. The concept of physical education has been made broader. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. you will be able to: 1.4. team spirit.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. perseverance. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. moral fitness and emotional fitness. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. full records of physical activities should be maintained. state the meaning of Physical Education 2.4. 4.
Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. The educational efforts at home. leadership. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. To be more precise. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Every individual is a part of society. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. team spirit. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. obedience to rules. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. They are inseparably united together. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Therefore. They go hand in hand. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s
. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society.
” Montaigue writes. ment al. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. pleasing manners. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. 4. mo ral.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. Regarding the significance of physical education. nor body but the whole man. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. C. a sound health.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it.” The Secondary Education Commission. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. game and sports. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side.4. Physical exercises. H. Buck has observed that
. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. Rousseau states. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. Just like Education. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency.
It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. coordinative abilities. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. happiness.
. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. resourcefulness and smartness. “If we wish to develop the whole being. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. elegance. initiative.4. speed. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. flexibility and power. efficiency and character. endurance. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. etc. strength. Froebel says. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.a properly directed physical education should result in health.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments.” In brief. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.” 4. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. we must exercise the whole human being.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent.
Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation.
. Every age has its artists. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. plagues and famines. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. its adherents and its enemies. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. these fundamental things have always been present. Tournaments foster this sentiment. they may form gangs. poetry and painting. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. in greater or lesser degree. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. If no opportunity is provided to the students. While wars. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. systems of government. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. including all racial groups and historical ages. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina.
respect for rules. bravery and interest in games and sports. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . obedience.
2. self. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to develop tolerance. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. Write any two importance of Physical Education. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x)
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. etc.sacrifice.
B.\ to develop perseverance. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly.
3. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline.(iii) (iv) (v)
to develop rhythmic bodily movements.
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
At least now its importance should be duly recognized. is essential. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Posture screening should be done. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Be in the uniform. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Be punctual. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Haag. Always keep the whistle ready. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Be well-prepared. Emergency care procedures should be followed. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education.H. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 7.4.
1. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities.
. Be self-confident. 5. 13. 14. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. students. 10. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. defects.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. injuries among pupils should be made. 2.4. 15. 12. and. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 6. Keep the field ready for the activities. Be sportive. 16. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 9.4. and readmission after they have recovered. 8. 11.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. 3. 4. Usually parents. Inform health principles. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Act as a leader. 4.
4. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. Such inst incts as imitation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. As such they are well enjoyed by children.
1. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. Indigenous games.
4. chasing.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Moreover. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.4. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules.8.
.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. the play. 4. 3. Lead up games. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. frolic and jo y. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. their development is handicapped. less equipment and less expense.
pitching. with implements or without implements.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Hockey. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. skipping. Dodging. bowling etc. on sea-shore. finding the partner. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. boosting. over ball pass Relay. the play equipment. women take part most of the games. wherever the kids assemble. driving. These games require varied skills such as running. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. the number of players and substitutes. 4. stopping. muffling. Tennis. the games can be modified according to convenience. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Shuttle Badminton. some of them are played indoors. On lawns. Volley Ball. Kabaddy etc. on hard courts. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. benefit in playing minor games. Ball Badminton. For each game the rules are many.8. Soft Ball. The dimension of the posts and nets.4. Tennikoit.. Jump the stick clay and so on.With a very few rules. Jumping. They are played for a shorter duration. heading. Khokho. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. catching. snatching the kerchief. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. While many of them are played in the open playfields. Cricket. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Basket Ball.
. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. zig zag relay. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. spiking. Throwing. under ball pass Relay. Except a few games. couple tag. trapping. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. hitting. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. on mountain tops and on river beds. dribbling. Hopping.
birth. They have an abundant social value.8.4.8. All the fundamental tactics. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. Games may be classified as 6.
7. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. List out some major games. An example for indigenous game is 8. While observing the players in action. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. 4. What do you mean by lead up games?
. festivals connected with religion and public functions. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm.4.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and . they are in existence. Kho-kho. death. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil.4. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. On occasions like marriage. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. For example. these games being popular. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.
c.4. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Minor and Major
. the role of physical education teachers and types of games.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 2. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. a. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Briefly discuss the different types of games. 3.4. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Posture screening should be done.4. b. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 2. to develop physical stamina. 5. b. to secure physical health b. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. a. a. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. aims and objectives and need of physical education. d. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. 4. physically and emotionally fit and alert.
4. 4. 4.4. 3. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.
Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Cricket.C. Hockey. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers.
.K.6. Kabaddy 7. (2008). Khokho 8. Mohanty. J. (2009). Volley Ball. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Shuttle Badminton. Krishna murthy. Aggarwal. Tennis. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2005). Physical Education and Sports. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Foot-ball. Health. Tennikoit. J. Handbook of Physical Education.4. Ball Badminton. Soft Ball.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. J. Basket Ball. G.
4. Khokho. (2008). Ltd.
12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
4.1 Natural Environment 4.5.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.5.7 4.10 4.LESSON 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as
.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.184.108.40.206.11 4.8 4.3 4.6 4.1 4.5.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.2 4.4 220.127.116.11.9 4.5.
Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Awareness.
.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. aesthetic and educational factors. Knowledge. Skills. you will able to: 1. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. The best place to start such learning is school. Participation. 3. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. it covers the following elements: 1. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. education about the environment and education through the environment. 5. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. social. economic. list out the types of environment 3.5.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. 2. political. Evaluation Ability. population explosion and resource depletion could be. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 6.educat ion for the environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Broadly. 3. 2.
4. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Details are given below: I. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. role of teacher in environmental conservation.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment.5.
4. Attitude. Essential knowledge about the Environment. 4.
its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. heat sink and wind flow in cities. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Oxidants Other pollutants. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality.B. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. a. F. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. D. • Biological magnification E. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. 2.
economic. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Intrauterine device iii. c. Birth control through education b. Family planning ii. The human ecosystem II. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. B. Sterilisation.3. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Persuasion: i. 2. Control of population growth a. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. III. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources
. The pill ii. 4. Use of medical science i. 3. Abortion iv. 2. Socio-economic measures. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems.
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Air pollution abatement ii.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment.
3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. (UNESCO. 1983). Water pollution abatement. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Planning human intervention on the natural processes.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Environmental Education. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. e) Recycling. 3.
includes the plants. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.other components of the environment. Any constituent or condition of the environment. way is called environmental or ecological factor.4. -other. b. telex. These are biotic components. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. He modifies according”. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. to his needs. a. animals and other organisms (biotic). The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.5. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.5.5. 4. Biological environment The biological environment.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION
The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following
.5. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . They interact with each.5. A change in one brings about a change in the other.5. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. fax agricultural apparatus. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.
Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. industrial survey. biogas plants. balance of nature. effects o f CFC. wars and hazards of war. trees reducing noise pollution. food chain and food-web. desertification
. preventing siltation of dams. windmills. noise pollution. role of trees in building economy.. History The rise and fall.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . use of medicinal plants. natural way of controlling pests. etc. preserving the watersheds. nuclear warfare. use of pesticides. population. (ii) Air pollution. solar cookers. industrial pollut io n. sources of pollut ion. relation between population and pollution. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. ozone layer deplet ion. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. effects. sources. explosion deforestation. of civilizations. social studies. need for conservation. river systems. importance of nitrogen cycle. air pollutants from industries. supplying timber for various uses. evolution. t heir role in preventing pollution. acid rain. water scarcity. ozone depletion. are the topics which may be taught in History.
Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. need for bio-diversity. change in climate may be added. extinction of species. maintaining the ecological diversity. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. mineral survey. excellent recreation sites. greenhouse effect. etc. reasons. over exploitation of ground water. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. alternate sources of energy. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. nuclear energy. noise control. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees.
Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control.5. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise.
Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. animal and plants. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 9. 7. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 3. 6. 4. 14. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND
P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development:
1. Organising conferences. 11. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. group discussions and seminars. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’.
. Developing awareness about environmental issues. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Peepal and Tulsi. 8. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 13. 12. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Providing.may be inc ded in Geography. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 10. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 2. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. aims and scope.
Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 4. 5. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. especially plastics. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.Send their waste oil. Never put any left over chemicals. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Don’t burn any waste. all these can cause serious pollution. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. World Environmental falls on
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit.
5. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. it will cause pollution.
6. Use public transport wherever it is possible. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. If it is done. used oils down the drain. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Reuse carrier bags.
. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. etc. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. Conservation of natural resources. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. The groups may exchange. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. deforestation. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. To provide materials needed for practical work. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. Social responsibilit y (common good. concern for others). nuclear wars.5. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. To arrange visits or expeditions. To arrange for visiting speakers. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. To provide reference materials for children’s use. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . diversity and stability. viz. values and habits. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. Concern for species. CFCs.mat erials. (cleanliness. orderliness and beauty). depletion of ozone. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection.. etc. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. rather than conquest and mastery. loss of bio-diversity.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. potable water.4. dest roying nat ural habitats. Att itudes of balance towards nature. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. developing desirable attitudes. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Harmony with the nature .). Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information.
It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.
. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.
4. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills.5.
8.5. 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. preserving natural cycles.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.
relat ion between population and pollution. Ltd.. a. To provide reference materials for children’s use. S. b. acid rain. (2007). Providing. importance of nitrogen cycle. Ltd. new problems from science and technology.\ 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. New Delhi : Authors Press. b. b. concern for others). S. Environmental Education. Environmental Education. explosion deforestation. New Delhi : Anmol
. (1997). Nanda.2. 8. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Kuldeep. Education for values. To provide materials needed for practical work. 3. (2004). Y. water scarcity. Awareness. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. T. Publications Pvt.K. Modern Problems of Education. New Delhi :
Sharma. Social responsibilit y (common good. a. ozone layer deplet ion. b. sources. 5. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. June 5 7.K. Knowledge. Anmol Publications Pvt. sources of pollution. (2007). over exploitation of ground water. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. a.5.K. 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. a. 6. effects. Udaiveer. greenhouse effect.K. Organising conferences. Rapid population growth. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Environment and Human Rights. reasons. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. group discussions and seminars. air pollutants from industries. population.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. (ii) Air pollution.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 18.104.22.168 Idealism and aims of Education 22.214.171.124 Idealism and Curriculum 126.96.36.199 Idealism and methods of teaching 188.8.131.52 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and aims of Education 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and Curriculum 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and methods of teaching 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 126.96.36.199 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
188.8.131.52 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 184.108.40.206 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
Education must contribute to development of culture. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. moral. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. Education according to idealism."
Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. should be universal in nature.3.
Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. enrichment and transmission of culture. It is self-realisation. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. the emancipation of spirit. man is essentially a moral being. Therefore. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities
.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism.our life. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. According to Rusk'. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. The universe is regarded as a thought process.” 5. promote and transmit it to rising generation.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. in fact. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind.1.
Spiritual Development. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe.
Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism.
3. 2. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. For intellectual development. no doubt. an indispensable necessity. should be there. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Mathematics etc. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. So health. Learning through imitation. 5. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Learning through questioning. friend and guide. Science. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. For this no particular method has been suggested.the spiritual qualities of mankind. It considers teacher as. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. The teacher serves as a living model for the students.3. Philosophy. So cognition (knowing). 4. Learning through lecturing.1.” He is thus. a spiritual guide for the child. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. 3. According to Frobel. History. He carries the child from darkness to light. and collation (striving) should find due place. Herbert advocated instruction method. hygiene. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. The plant can grow. Learning through reading.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher.1.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. the school is a garden. subjects like Languages. According to idealism. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. 5.” 5. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. So he should embody.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. affecting (feeling). so subjects like Religion. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. However. He sets the environment in which education takes place. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to
. Ethics. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. Learning through discussion.
5. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.preservation.1. In the words of Ross.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.4.
2. text books. formal lessons or examinations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1. Perfection of Human Machine. time tables.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. curricula.
5. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self.perfection and beauty. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. "Education should make
. Ross explains. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.
There is no place for religious and moral education. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. It stresses basic sciences. subjects like history.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. education should develop the child into Joyous. Botany etc Language. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Chemistry. is based on the nature of the child. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Zoology.4. Literature. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Therefore.
. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. rational harmoniously balanced. 4. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. “Education finds its purpose. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. It is based on the psychology of the child. Naturalistic curriculum.1. In all.
Autonomous Development of Individuality. It emphasises physical and health education 5.
5. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Biology. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. useful and mature child. therefore. Arithmetic. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Education should. Education also aims at helping the individual t.
1.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. It discards all rigid. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Rousseau says. Learning through observation. Learning by doing. and rebels against the academic and orthodox
. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. the stage. The main aim of Naturalism is &
4. Heuristic method. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. a provider of an ideal environment.
5.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. 3. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .1. he should be taught by experience alone. Dalton Plan. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Learning through experience. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. 4.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5.1. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. 2.5. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place.4. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. In the . Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers.
Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. social and moral aspects. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared.5. Subjects. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Continuous Growth. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. History. Sciences. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. of human personality is in terms of his physical.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. intellectual. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems.1.absolutism of idealism. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. is true. 5. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. The aim of educational development. Agriculture. diversified and flexible. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Physical training. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Social Science. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. All Round Development of an Individual. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life.5. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. 5.1. Vocational and
. Personal Social Adjustment. Social Efficiency. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Geography.
According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education.1. Methods of teaching should not be fixed.5. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences.1. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life.
5. a teacher occupies an important position. a senior partner and a sincere guide. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy.5. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. The subjects. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching.Technical Education. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment.” 5. activities and experience should be integrated properly. should find proper place. alert and resourceful. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism
. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He must be trained. He has to be active. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Learning by Doing. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.
Astrology. Education is preparation for a complete living. intellectual. Population Education. It favours child-centered. 3. Sex Education. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life.1. Music and Dance. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. liberal. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. scientific and psychological education. Mathematics. rich and happy. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Satisfaction of individual and social needs.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Art. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism.5. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Chemistry. Biology. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. literary or humanistic education.
5. 4. Study of Subjects like Language. practical. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Psychology. 2.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. 5. specific.6.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education.1. History. 5. Biography Philosophy. Geography are unnecessary
. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects.1. Crafts. Literature. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. 4. 2. 3. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind.6. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real.
They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.6. easily and pleasantly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 220.127.116.11 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.1.1. certainly and clearly.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out the methods of teaching in realism
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Tours / Excursion e. Vocational and Technical Education. 5. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism.7 LET US SUM UP We have.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. b. Universal Education 2. Child centered c. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.5. Rousseau 5. Self preservation & Self expression 4. in this lesson. has no end other than growth. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Geography. Learning through discussion. d. 3. Physical training. & curriculum. Education according to pragmatism.1. c. 5. a. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life.1. Agriculture. e. Learning through imitation. 5. pragmatism and realism. Learning through reading. Self Realisation b. History. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. naturalism. Learning through lecturing. Demonstration and Observation
. Experimentation d. Sciences. a. a. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Learning through experience b. Learning through questioning.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. 6. Social Science.1. Languages. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization.
New Delhi :
Bhatia. P. (2004).1. R. Publishing corporation. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.5.
Theory and Principles of Education.H. K. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education.P.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. P. L. O. Foundations of Education. Ltd.
Pahuja. N. (2007). (2007). New Delhi : A. Narang C.P. K and
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.
. (2003). of
2.4 Views about teacher 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.3.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2.4 Views about teacher 5.2.2.LESSON 5.4.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.1 5.5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA
STRUCTURE 5.3.1 Aims of Education 5.2
EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2.4.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.2.3 Methods of Teaching 126.96.36.199 Methods of teaching 188.8.131.52 Aims of Education 184.108.40.206 Methods of teaching
.2 Curriculum 220.127.116.11.2.2 Curriculum 5.
explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.5.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. economic and political reconstruction in our country. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. 2.2. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.4 Role of the teacher 5. Gandhiji was primarily a social.
.7 5. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. an artist. Tagore was a poet. 5. mind and spirit.2.6 5. you will able to: 1.2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. 3.2.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.2.8 5.
5. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.2. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. content and methods.2.2. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.5.
mind and soul of children He further observed. strength of mind. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education.
. 'Man is neither mere intellect. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. It really provides opportunity for character building. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. self-restraint and service of humanity. it is education of life." Dignity of Labour.supporting. nor the gross animals body. "I attach more.2. His scheme of education is life centred. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. through life and for life. In the words of Gandhiji. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. righteousness. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. 5. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim.3. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words.
gardening. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. the realization of the ultimate reality. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development .2. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving.Training for Leadership. According to Gandhi. wood work. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. "Development of the moral character. Only good individual forms a better society.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. General Sciences. Individual and Social Aims. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. He suggested Home-Science for girls
. 5. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. metal work.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Music. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders.3.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. Mother-tongue. Drawing and Hindustani. leather work have been suggested. Art.
all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji
5. proficient.2.trained. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.2. Basic education is other wise known as 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. men of
. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.
Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. He also advocates freedom for the child. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies.2. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. That is why. “To develop the spirit is to build character
. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.knowledge.
5. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST
On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. 3. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Education must be child centered. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. He was deadly against untouchability. Gandhi in 1937.2. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.2.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He was a true patriot. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. • Education should involve manual work. • Ideal of citizenship. he was a true Vedantist 5.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.” Like all other ideals.K.4. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.3. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under:
. He believed in the oneness of humanity.2. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. • Cult of non-violence. 5. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.
Civics. Therefore. etc. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Tagore said. That way only. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Geography. It should help the learner have good physique. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. wider in range.
. "Mankind must realise a unity. (vi) Philosophy. Religion and Psychology. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. International Understanding. Music. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Botany. stronger in power than ever before. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. International understanding. he said. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5.2. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Dance.Language and Literature . deeper in. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. It should help. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. them solve problems of day to day life. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in.Mother tongue and other Indian languages.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Chemistry. the more dedicated and devoted.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Zoology. could help in forging unity among all. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge.4. sentiment. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. complete manhood could be attained.
2. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.2. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. Tagore rightly says. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.2. 5.4. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”.
5.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.
.” He further says. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.4. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. Activity Method Heuristic Method." 5. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.4. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. In 1921. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.
Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. race.
10. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.g. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. It is open to all irrespective of country. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.
9. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality
.5. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. 3. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.5. According to him.2. work and deeds come out of it. Freedom. man making. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. 4. Education for strong Moral Character. He believed in to learning or selflearning.2. 2. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Education for Self-realization.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says." He was against the theoretical type of education. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Education should make a person self-reliant. Education for Self-reliance.” 5.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Purity of thought. Concept of Education. Book learning. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself.
That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. A physically strong person is the need of the society. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Religion.5. Every individual should be trained for concentration.5. Secondly he wanted Science. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.5.5. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Education for Physical Development. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Thirdly he wished that games. philosopher and guide to the students He. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. The teacher should be the facilitator. engineering and technical subjects. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. 6. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. 5. 5.2. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Discussion Method.
. That will serve the purpose of education fully.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Swami. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Philosophy and Theology. And above all. Of course. Education should help in the physical development of an individual.2.the learners on different students in the discussion.2. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. 5.
ears and eyes. naturalist.
12. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. and pragmatist . 3.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.
.2.6 LET US SUM UP We have. 2. 5. legs. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. in this lesson.
5. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1.2.Substantiate your answer. Gandhiji as a Idealist. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. Their educational ideas. Write short notes on Basic education.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. We have seen that Tagore. of course. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands.
Basic education. 5. e. 11. Education should involve manual work. metal work. Cult of non-violence. Teaching while Walking b. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man
12. c. Activity Method
b. 3. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. f. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Ideal of citizenship. d.
5. 10. Learning by Doing c. Activity Method d. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Nai Talim 4. Technique of Correlation 6. wood work. Discussion Method
. leather work have been suggested. a. a. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Debate and Discussion Method.4. Heuristic Method. 8. 1937 7. gardening. a. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 9. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.2. 2. b. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. c. Self realization. a. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Self-Study
b. 5. Meditation and concentration c. Explain Vishwabharathi.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.
Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : A.
New Delhi :
Aggarwal. B. K and Narang C. (2007).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2007). C.
Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education.
.9 SUGGESTED READINGS
Dash. Anmol Publications Pvt.
Theory and Principles of Education.H. Publishing Corporation. K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2002). Ltd. P. (2003). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. O. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2004).
Pahuja.2. P. L. Foundations of Education.P. N.
Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.8 5.1 5. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION
STRUCTURE 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.18.104.22.168 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.6 5.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.3 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.11 5.4 5.5 22.214.171.124.3.2 5.3. In this lesson.3.7 5.10 5.LESSON 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students
From the latter point of view. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. the desert area. 5. In it. In the words of Kerney and Cook. Then in a big country like India. present behaviour may be modified. in the U. in the form of new experience. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. living in the hilly area. the plain area.3. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. in Russia or in Japan. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3.S. A g o o d curricu lu m. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Curriculum is intimately related to education.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . While education is a process. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. there is a large number of communities. Since the demands. state the meaning of curriculum 2. curriculum. is a means to the process. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. In the former sense.3. While education is learning. curriculum signifies situations for learning. the plateau area and
. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. maintained or eliminated. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion.under the direction of the school.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. it is identical wit h socializat ion..3. in fact . analyse the curriculum and national goals 4.A. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. you will be able to: 1. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. 5.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. Both the processes are integrated. new behaviour may be acquired. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’.
allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. Besides craft. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. and
. However. 5. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. democratic and socialistic country. In fact . Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. customs and needs. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. the learning capacity of children. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. studying therein. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. irrespective of their needs and environment. From a slave-country we became secular. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. according to modern trends in the educational process. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. too. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. it is. It must differ from locality and from society to society. differs from individual to individual. environment. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations.3. therefore. Again.
Goals of Primary Education. 3. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS
At this juncture. They speak of perfect goals.g. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made
. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery.
5. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. remote or immediate. social.. social. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. 2. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. So it is inadequate. National Integration.g. they depend on the political. Goals of Secondary Education. of classroom. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. They are achievable.. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Understanding Objective. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. Knowledge Objective. moral. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. individual or Social and so on. uninspiring and unscientific. What is the meaning of curriculum ?
3. tangible. aims. e.(vii)
it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country.
. unsatisfactory. etc.. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. aesthetic and spiritual development... etc. Application Objective. in instructional objectives. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. The word “Curere” means 2.g. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. etc.3. e. They speak of immediate purposes of education. which may or may not be attained. emotional. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. unambiguous and functional. They may be ultimate or proximate. specific. Vocational Efficiency. 1. general or specific. They are visionary goals e. Self Realisation. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
The old and prevalent curriculum is under. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. in the class rooms. Crow and Crow remarks. but it includes the totality of experiences.”
. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. on the playing fields. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. abilities. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. heavy fire. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. finding them very interesting and captivating. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. The interests.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. educationists.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. capacities. According to Crow and Crow.3. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children.5.”
Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit.
Raymont rightly says. needs. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization.
A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. aptitudes. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. mental. tendencies. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. moral. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. capacities and abilities. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. urges. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. Due to these variations and differences. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. time in a useful manner. They often waste it or rather kill it.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new
. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment
according to his needs
Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality.
evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. administrative programme need be planned. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. 2. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning.
. development of professional capability at all levels. 3. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. phased preparation. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching.curricular. organized. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. To ensure success of the process. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. analysis and concretise the curricular elements.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. Similarly.
10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum?
5. Run.3. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. 1937 19.3. laboratory. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Relation with Life c. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. workshop. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities
.3. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. 18. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. principles of curriculum construction. 12. a. 11. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. Child Centred Education b. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. library.
5.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. 17. in the class room. 5.
(2007). Lakshmi. (2001). New Delhi : Authorspress. S. Innovations in Education. (2007). N. Bhalla.K.5. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava.
.3. (2007). Curriculum Development.S. New Delhi : Isha Books. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Curriculum and Instruction. D. P.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. and Sarita Kumari. S.
126.96.36.199.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.LESSON 188.8.131.52.4.4
PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS
STRUCTURE 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 184.108.40.206.8 5.6.7 Scientific Attitude 5.5 220.127.116.11.4.4.4 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.10 5.1 18.104.22.168.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.3 5.2 5.4.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.7.9 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century.4. newer and newer industries started growing.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science.4.
5. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. 2. you will be able to: 1.
5. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively.during the second half of this century. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. know the importance of science education. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. tolerance for the opinions of others. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. 3. open-mindedness. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. in the economic reconstruction of society. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations.5.4. Gradually. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. honesty. We mean curiosity.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. explain the concept of scientific attitude.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. superstition or emotion. 4.
. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes.
seminars and symposiums. Schemes of teaching science. 4.4. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Through examinations. Selection for science education. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 3. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 3. 2. 6. 5. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 6. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. 7. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 5. Principles are formulated. 2. Central science workshop. 4.
5. Love for truth enhances. Through newspapers.4.5
SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION
NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Devotion towards nature increases. Organisation of science fairs. Thinking and memory develops. as well as of the society. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. After such experience and training.
5. Promotion of science clubs. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian
They experience natural phenomenon. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Write any two advantages of Science Education. objectivity. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste.
5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 7. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon.needs and conditions. For laboratory and workshop techniques. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions.6. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life.4. should provide opportunities to.
5.4. In the inquiry approach. They encounter many social events as they grow. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource
. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. essential that teachers. therefore. each child to “enquiry skill building”. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Training of science teachers. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. sex or religion. It is. They ask many questions about the objects they see. After presenting the problem. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. Enquiry teaching is. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.
commands or orders. 3. 4. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Social sciences. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. It requires consistent thinking. Giving less directions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe.
. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. . Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook.4. Adopting creative models of teaching.Herma Wouk.books. if they like. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. Evidence. 6. stern pursuit of accurate data. Appreciating pupils ideas. 5.6. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook?
. to ask questions and experience things. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. 2.
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.4. 3.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. 5. test.
Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. critical thinking and suspended judgments. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. The students observation. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions.7. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. friends. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. and emphasized during the learning process . A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. keen observation. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. school and society at large. For instance.(Smith 2008). To achieve this we should understand what it means. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. practiced. 5. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. These include open mindedness. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. (Vaidya 2007).4. These characteristics of any scientific
. of vast resources running waste. to develop among the learners. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. it must be encouraged. neighbourhood. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. therefore should be unbiased and objective.
or superstitions. understanding and logic. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. The intention to respect another’s point of view. 5. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge.4.7. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. rumor.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. think and work it”. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. 2007). Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. In considering a situation or a problem. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. intuition or wishful thinking”. (Das. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions.
. he studies all aspects of it.
He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.7. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. but to begin only after careful planning. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.
5. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.7. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.4.
The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.4. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading
.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil.
4.• • • • • • •
Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.
5. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. manuals and reading materials available in school
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. practiced and emphasized during the learning process.
. it must be encourages.
B (2008). b.
. Yadav. Reflections on Scientific attitude.4. N. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. (2000). It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools.5. D. Wide reading b. 16. 4. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.4. a.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. b. a. Love for truth enhances. 5. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. a. a. Proper example of the teacher c. b. Rao. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. 3. (2006). Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. M. Vaidya. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. objectivity. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. 5.4. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Study of superstitions d. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Adopting creative models of teaching. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Planning of activities
5. Discuss the importance of science education 14. 2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13.S. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. (2008). S.
9 5.5. actively.8 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.5.5.5. 2.
.5.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population. you will be able to: 1.5. areas of institutional planning.5.2 5.1 22.214.171.124.5
STRUCTURE 5.11 5.3 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.6 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions. objectives and characteristics.5 5.10 5.LESSON 5.5.4 5.5.7 5. state the concept.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. 5.
3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. and supplement planning from above. every teacher. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. every parent. Institution should be regarded as the unit. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. State and national levels from below.5.3. 5. teachers and students is not lost sight of. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. and every student in the process of educational planning. and. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. • To make institutional planning more successful. • to make planning development-oriented. • to involve teachers and school administrators. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. each teacher. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions.5. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. 5. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. executive as well as public. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and
. and each student are regarded as separate entities. in the task of educational planning. which become the bases for further planning at the district.
it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.5. (2) Co.
. Co-curricular activities.
Preparation of an Institutional Plan
The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. council and. and Personnel services.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. Classwork. Examinations.
Syllabus. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.5.
Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans
5.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion.curricular Activities. etc. which will be discussed in the general. it becomes the basis for school inspection. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. approved after making necessary modifications. having the following areas of operation • •
• • • •
implemented. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. 5. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers.
scientific and historical excursions. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Preparation of models. etc. etc. Organising play-for-all programmes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. etc.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Organisation of Pupils.
2. Undertaking remedial instruction services.
3. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. What are the areas of Institutional Planning?
. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Courts. Conducting of educational. Editing the school magazine. Running science clubs. Fair distribution of syllabi. hobby-centres. etc. Organisation of class-room libraries. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings.No. 1.
Discipline and Welfare. Improving the internal assessment.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. Organisation of Students’ Association. Celebrating of national and international festivals. charts and apparatus. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Preparation of instructional material. Equipping of laboratory and library.
the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. administrator-supervisor. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. ii. parent-teacher associations. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. parents. pupils. headmasters associations. understanding. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. students’ associations. pupil310
. teacher-State. administrator-administrator.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system.5. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. administrator-pupil. and solidarity. teachers. and —pupil-pupil. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. etc. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. science teachers’ associations. involving mainly human materials. co-operation.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. teacher-managing body. teacherinspector. which are divided as the in. Administrator-State. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries.5.” The human relationships in. teacher-teacher. teacher-pupil. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body.
supervision and superintendence. teacher-community leader. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. now-a-days. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into &
5. to attend.
functionaries." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. administrator. teacher-parent. social sciences and other disciplines. pupil-community leader. to accomplish. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. etc. To administer means to manage.5. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. It covers personnel and material management.
The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. organisation and management. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. superintendence. Good.State. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. V. It is also being modernized to become a technique. organisation. supervision. and to serve. to carry out. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
. control. According to C. pupil-inspector. pupil-parent. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.
Rapport between the Management and Employees . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic.The manager should have leadership traits.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. He should be an artist in human relationships.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 5. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. 6.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.Any good management will always have good public relations. 8.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . Communication . If it is more. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. This is the latest democratic trend in management. 3. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. 12. 4. 13. Leadership . Liasion with the Public . 10. Decision Making . Cost-Benefit Analysis . Economic Management . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. who occupy the managerial positions.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. 7. low.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. Those. Motiviation . Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . 11.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. Better Human Relationships . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. 2. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.Of all the approaches. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 9. Socio-Scientific Approach . it is not worth-while.Management should be efficient and economical
. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. Democratic Management .This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. If the cost benefit ratio is less. Worker Participation . The relationship should change from master.
the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. 19.
. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. improvement of teaching methods. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. 5.5.g. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. 14.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. and cooperative performance should be ensured. enrichment of curricula. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. objective.too.These two are. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. 18. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. to improve the quality of education it provides. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning.
5. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained.5.
a. Co-curricular activities. Instruction. Examinations. d. Communication
4. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.5. e. and Personnel services. (1995).M. 2. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. b. Tarachand and Prakash. (2003).5.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Classwork. b.
. Leadership c. Decision Making b. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.
c. a. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. a.5.K. to introduce decentralization of educational planning.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. a. H. (2001). Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. f. Educational Administration. Singh. Motiviation d. APH Publishing Corporation. Syllabus. it becomes the basis for school inspection. S. In group and Out group 5. NUEPA. R. Fundamental of Educational Management.
CORE PAPER . Healthy Food Habit 4. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.3 Educational Influences of Home.I. higher education.1 School Health Programme.Preventive measures.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Communicable diseases .4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .1 Inculcation of Socialism. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. First Aid.Article 45 .4 India's Secular Policy . 2. women education and teacher education in India. physical education and environmental education 5.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.2 Nutritional deficiencies. Examination reforms. Realized the problems of school education. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.Pre-service and In-services facilities.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.1 Gurukula system of education.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Common ailments of Children. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.1 Primary Education : Education for all.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.teachers should have : 1.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.Religious and Modern Education 1. Inspection and Supervision 3. population education. 1. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.5 Regional Educational Development in India . Community and Mass Media 2. social Impact 3. Preservation of nutrients.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . wastage and Stagnation 3. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. School. Buddhist and Jain system of education. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Economic
. Code of conduct for teachers.3 Directive Principles . New evaluation procedures.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Sex-education 4. nutritional requirement. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Balanced diet. 4.
K. Ghanta R.S. and Mohanty R. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. Pandy V.N.4.5
and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms.N. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Naturalism and Pragmatism . (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Mahatma Gandhi. Socialization. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.R. REFERENCE 1. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. and Human Development. Tagore 5.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.1
Idealism.C.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Ram S. Delhi : University Publications 2. Prof. (2004) Problems of Education in India. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. B.Aim.K. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Saraswathi T.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.K. Curriculum and national goals . New Delhi: NCERT 3. curriculum and teacher's role 5.K. and Sharma R. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. Realism. 5.
. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education
5.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Hemchand. (1999) Culture. and Dash B. Taneja V. Mishra.4 4. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Sharma. R. T. (2005) Foundations of Education. 7. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.