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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
Lesson 2. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. Lesson 4. regional imbalances and variations in different environment.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. and Jain system of education. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Jainism and their educational implication. Lesson 5. 9 . The need. discusses the regional educational development in India. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. In.
3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.2 1.1.1 1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 18.104.22.168 Aims of Jain system of Education 22.214.171.124 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 126.96.36.199.6 Education during British Era 188.8.131.52 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.LESSON 184.108.40.206 Charter Act of 1813 220.127.116.11 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .6.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 18.104.22.168.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 22.214.171.124 Practical teachings of Jainism 126.96.36.199.5 Jain system of education 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Buddhist system of Education 1.1.
you will be able to: 1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. India. The history of education passed through Buddhist. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. Indian in blood and colour.1. describe the Jain system of Education 4.1. Education in India. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.6.1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.1. “a class of persons. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. in opinion.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. both present and future.1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.1. That 12 . but English in taste.1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.6. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. elucidate the education during British Era.1. British system of education presented the modern western model.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.3. Muslim and British periods.1. 1.8 1.9 1.1. 1. has a long past history starting in vedic education. in morals and in the intellect”.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.7 1.1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. 1.
Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. 13 . 8. with grants of land or money. and to agriculture and trade. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Method of Instruction. Individual Teaching. It was also moral. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. religious and spiritual. the monitorial plan was followed. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. individually. Pupils were taught. 9. Where pupils were many. Forests as Centres of Education. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. from darkness. Immediate Aim Vocational.knowledge was real. Residential Schools. 5. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 13. Teacher as Parents. Curriculum. generally. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. 12. No State Control on Education. 14. It was not merely intellectual. Free and Accessible. however. Religious and Spiritual. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. 16. 3. 6. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. questioning by the pupil. 4. 11. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. if they thought fit to do so. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. to light. There was. followed by explanation by the teacher. Education was a private affair of the people. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. High Status of Teachers. managed entirely by Brahmans. from eternal to immorality 2. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. 10. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. not en masse by the class method. Method of Study. Role of Travel in Education. as it is generally considered to be at present. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. The immediate aim of education. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. Education of Moral.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. lived a life of celebacy. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India.17. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. It was freely available to all those who wanted. They were very cordial and intimate. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? .1. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. studied Vedas. Wide-Spread Education in Women. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today.3. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. It was suited to the needs of the society. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. 1.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised.
I take Refuge to Dharma.4. Consequently. Right speech 4. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. use of cosmetics. the student had his head shaved of all hair. 2. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Right memory 8. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Right knowledge 2. in which. Right activity 5. killing of any living being. Right thought 3. impure conduct.1. disease and death of the human beings. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. Right contemplation 1. After attaining the age of 20. partaking of food at prohibited times. 15 . he was qualified to become a monk. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. which included abstaining from theft. use of intoxicating things. had the right to receive education. etc. the student remained in a state of Shramana. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. Right means of livelihood 6. It was denied only to the ill.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. 1.C. I take Refuge to Sangh. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Education was imparted through the. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Right endeavour 7. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. except the Chandals. every class in society. taking things without being offered. watching dances or listening to music. the handicapped. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. medium of Pali. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. dressed himself in yellow clothes. the most significant of which were the following 1.
8. Whatever its nature and extent. meaning. Hence. however. the presence of the monks was essential. archery. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. Later on. women occupied a position inferior to men. education was impart in art. be considered the aim of education It. On this occasion. handicrafts. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. a continuous change creating 16 . The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. 4. elephant lore. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. therefore. a change is not only total but also perpetual. magic. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. of clothes. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. Even at this stage. objectives of human life. As reality is becoming. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. so long as it successfully does so. cottage industries. assumptions. approach. animal husbandry. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. etc. it is regarded as true”. 6. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls.4. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. Initially. bodily gestures. After this ritual. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. knowledge of reviving the dead. geology. nothing is of any permanent consequence. wear three items. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. 5. 1. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. It comprehended education in writing. Life is in a flux. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. medicine. 3. etc. military science. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. arithmetic and religious discussion. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years.3. nature.. eat food thrice a day. beg for alms. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. depth and range. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. aspirations and. agriculture. 7. etc. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. These are called later Buddhist schools. control over sensuous activities. the science of taming and training animals. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. changing the goals. along with education in script writing. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. has no metaphysical value for life. archery.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. commerce. and. 2.
whatever works are true and good. However.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.new and peculiar situations. its pessimistic outlook on life. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. it is much older than the latter. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Its chief feature. and to give it a shape that it has today. In fact. 5. however..5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. goes to Vardhaman. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself.e. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. therefore. such as. Write Eight fold path . Validity is effective and consequences.5. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 1. Education must.1. i. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. Jainism insists 17 . such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter.
8. As such. 18 . 1. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word.1. 4. c) Not to steal. and is to be redeemed and liberated. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. b) Right knowledge. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. 2. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. 5. 2. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. They are: a) Not to injure. b) Not utter falsehood. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. Hence. more stress on individual aims. but on both. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. e) To renounce the world. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. 3.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. thought and deed. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. 9. Development of personality as an individual. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. 3. 7. 10. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. c) Right conduct. 1.5. 6. it has a foot in both the words. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. d) To lead a celibate life. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. and believe in happiness to all. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith.
and should bring happiness to all. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. that would be socially desirable. practised and not only aspired for. success and love.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? .4. 5. What are Triratnas ? . therefore. 19 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. here and now.5. 1.5. Jiva is essentially karmic. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 1. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. 3. 8. Belief in transmigration of soul. education should develop sense of discrimination. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 2. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. 4. Teaching must develop these faculties. 2. Hence. 3. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories.
primary 20 .1. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. 1. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. To set up separate departments of. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. 2. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. Bombay. Madras. philosophy and literature of Europe. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). 1953).6. science. and not for life.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report.6.6. North West Province and Punjab. 1. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. 1. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. with rally and rout. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India.6. However. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts.1. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. 1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.
1. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published.6. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. • Universal free primary education. • Secondary education.6. At that time M.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success.K. 1.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). To ensure qualitative improvement. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937).6. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. Later on. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. self-respecting and competent. namely. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. Then the prevalent education was anti-national.education was neglected. In 1882. 1. The universities dominated the secondary education. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. secondary education became a step towards university. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. at the primary level. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system.
After this stage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. 10. all children are to have a common curriculum. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.At the primary stage (6-11 years). The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions.1. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11.
9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. 1. 4. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. 6. Right means of livelihood. 4. along with education in script writing. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. 2. Right endeavour. arithmetic and religious discussion. geology. etc. Right memory. handicrafts. establishment of universities. questioning by the pupil. 23 . Right speech. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 3. the science of taming and training animals. military science.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. a. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. 5. education was impart in art. Right knowledge. Right thought. The system of education was well-organised. It was suited to the needs of the society. b. 3. archery.education of European literature. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. The immediate aim of education. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. Right activity. During the Buddhist period. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school.1. 2.. science and English language. Right contemplation. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. followed by explanation by the teacher. 1. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education.
C. Ltd. (1984).K. b. Hence. Y. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Sharma. Singh. Right conduct. Improvement of Literature.C. History of Indian Education System. a. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Aggarwal. Sargent report 12. Y.1. J. Development of personality as an individual. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 9. 8. 1882. c. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Ltd. Right faith. (2005). Development of Educational System in India. b. and Nath. 1937 1.7. 11.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2009). Right knowledge. more stress on individual aims. J. 24 . R. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. (2007). Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. 10. a.K.
6 1.8 220.127.116.11.2.1 1.9 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.LESSON 18.104.22.168 1.7 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.5 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 1. The 25 .22.214.171.124 1.3.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.3.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.2.1 University Education Commission 1.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.2.
New Educational Policy. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. diversification of courses of studies.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1.2. Post-graduate 26 . There had been vast institutional expansion. medical and legal education. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. 1. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. standard of teaching.2. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. analyse the progress of education in free India. National Board of Teacher Education 10. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. 1986 1. expansion of vocational. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan.conditions of the teachers. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education.3. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. explosion of enrolment. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. technological engineering. 1. 2. curriculum. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. girls and women education besides primary. you will be able to: 1. examination system. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. Kothari (1964-66) 8. S.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. National Council for Women’s Education 5. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. technical. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. vocational education. secondary and higher education.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr.
the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.3.2. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. quality. National System of Education. research et. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. Finally. The Essence and Role of Education. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar.teaching.S. However.3. Education for Equality. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. 1. Government of India. the chairman of University Grants commission.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. material and spiritual. 4. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. the New National Policy on Education. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 .2.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. Problems of access. Therefore. D. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. accumulated over the years. Education is the key to our allround development. 1952. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation.2. 1. A meaningfully Partnership. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. 1986.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. 1. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. 3.3. in January 1985. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. 2. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. quantity. utility and financial outlay. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. 1966. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. A. Kothari.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. the concepts of work experience. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.” Thus. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. By working with hands. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. It can train practical aptitudes. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. the minorities and the handicapped. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Thus. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. 28 . needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. attitudes. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The UNESCO Report. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations.
This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. The Radhakrishnan Commission. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. As such. co-ordinations. With adequate planning. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. Besides. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. the Commission. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. The Education Commission. it will conduce self. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . In 1955.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. According to. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. if he wishes. “It may be described.” The Mudaliar Commission. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. “The aim of these colleges.
Therefore. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. the semester and credit system.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. In addition. the. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. Subsequently. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. The Central Advisory Board of Education. the rigid streaming of courses. for quality of life in the rural areas.. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. raising the special facilities. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. etc. With a view to relating education to the life.ot her. admission requirements to vocational courses. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated.
It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. In short.2. manual work resulting in either goods or services. 31 . preferably spinning and weaving. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. who conceived the System of Basic Education. which swept the country for over two decades. felt that education should be centred around a craft. meaningful. etc. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. 1. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. technological courses including Agriculture. meaningful. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. giving importance to productivity in the national development. which are useful to the community. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. aimed at this goal. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. The wave of Basic Education. According to committee. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. which offer scientific.and the world of work.. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained.defined S UP W as “purposive. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. The Father of Nation. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Commerce. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence.
enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Educative and 3. tools and techniques and 3. Health and Hygiene 2. Food 3. Some Hints to Teachers 1. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Work practice. Shelter 4. so that it is educational in essence. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. 4. 32 . is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. be that the work involved is: 1.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Experimentation with materials. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Productive 2. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. 2. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Culture and recreation 6. Clothing 5. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Community work and social service. as far as possible. 3. locally available materials and tools. The teachers should make use of.
The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. slum clearance. improve discipline.2. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. 1. etc. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. Community Service In-1972. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. the local community should be actively associated. Check on educated unemployed 4. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. To make education more realistic. Merits of the Programme 1. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. as far as possible. Education through work The SUPW should. Such activities may include projects of village uplift.5. Productive Work 33 . The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. inculcate a faith. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. 6. removal of illiteracy. It can become an instrument to build character.
What are the work areas in SUPW 6. AICTE was set up in year 4. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. helping the adults-in productive work. should involve itself in the educational effort. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. Define SUPW 34 . helping the adults in festivals and Functions.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. traffic control. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. offering first aid. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. if not productive. skills and better future for the children. The community. in turn.
1952 3.1. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. Dr. 1955 4. meaningful. b. e. d. 6. 2. 35 . a. f.2. which are useful to the community. 3. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. manual work resulting in either goods or services. Radhakrishnan 2. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 1. Write short note on SUPW.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.2. c.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2. 1.
History and Problems of Indian Education.K.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Publishing Corporation. Singh. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Rao.2. and Rao. 36 . Development of Educational System in India.1. P. Anupama. Ltd.P. (2007). (2005).K. (2007). Amala. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.(2005).K.P.H. History of Indian Education System. (2009). R. J. and Nath. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Y. B. A..C. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. History of Education. Y. V. New Delhi: A. : Sharma.D.
3.1 1. Besides the English version. establishing the structure. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. equality.1 Significance of DPSP 1.2 1. procedures.3.7 1. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3.5 1.3.3. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. assuring its citizens of justice.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.369 words in the English language version. Being the supreme law of the country. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. for a total of 117.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3. 1949. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.4 1. it came into effect on January 26. containing 395 articles. 37 . directive principles and duties of citizens.3. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. there is an official Hindi translation.9 126.96.36.199.8 188.8.131.52 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. and liberty. 1950.6 1. democratic republic.
It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. the Drafting Committee was appointed. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. 1. On August 29. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. for 166 days. 1950. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. Two days later. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. political. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. According to the constitution. legal and environmental. 38 . in sessions open to public. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. Dr. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. 1947.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. learn the role of central and state government on education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 1947.3. After many deliberations and some modifications.3.3. 3. 1. administrative. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. spread over a period of 2 years. understand our Indian constitution. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24.In the August 14. Through them. with Dr. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. 2. 1. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. 4.3. social. The Assembly met. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. you will be able to: 1. economic. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian.
to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. The State shall endeavour to secure. and in other cases of undeserved want.government. provide free legal aid. Article 39A. Liking wage etc. in particular. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Article 42. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Protecting children from exploitation. Equal justice and free legal aid. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Minimising inequalities in status. Article 41. make effective provision for securing the right to work. for workers. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. men and women. No abuse of children. The State shall. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. on the basis of equal opportunity. Condition for dignity of children. sickness and disablement. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Right to work. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. 39 . Protecting health of the workers. and shall. Organisation of village panchayat. old age. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. That the health and strength of workers. Equal pay for both sex. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Article 40. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. Article 43.
a living wage. Article 49. Article 45. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. [declared by or under law made by 40 . The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Article 48A. Uniform civil code for the citizens. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Article 44. agricultural. Article 48. (Original Article 45. The State shall endeavour to provide. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. work. Note: Subs. by suitable legislation or in any other way. See also Article 21A). Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. in particular. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. in particular. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Article 47. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. in particular. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. industrial or otherwise. Article 46. and. 2002 for “45. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. The State shall take steps. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. to all workers. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Article 43A. Participation of workers in management of industries.
Separation of judiciary from executive. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. 1. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. as the case may be. Promotion of international peace and security. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. removal. Article 50. disfigurement. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article-21A Right to Education. Article 51.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 .3. may be law determine”. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.Parliament] to be of national importance. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. destruction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. disposal or export. 2002. from spoliation. Article 45 .
iii. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. in particular. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. 3. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. 5. 7. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. 4. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. language or any of them”. 2002.” 42 . his guardian has given his consent thereto. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. caste. ii. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. race. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. 6. 8. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. from justice and all forms of exploitations. and. if such person is a minor. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. and shall protect them. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds.
43 . wherever necessary or desirable. The central government determines targets and promotes education. & 1.9. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. and by drawing. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. the forms. 2. Article 351 gives importance to 6.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. for its vocabulary. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.3. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Educational Reforms From time to time. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country.
Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. 5. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Production of suitable for children and adults f. 7. So as to encourage education on right lines. private agencies etc. to achieve the desired ends. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. the state governments. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. 8. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. All India Council of Medical Science. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. etc. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. 6. 4. So that they may work well. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Local bodies and private enterprise. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 .3. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. The following pilot projects. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. By starting these projects. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities.. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education.
training and statistics. 3. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose.3. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. handicapped. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. The 45 . 10. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. books. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. are published by it. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 9. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. 11. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. etc. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. reports etc. is the state responsibility. Material concerning nation-wide interests. research. 4. 1. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. education for women. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. 12. 1.
Article 21A c. 1. Article 46 4.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Article 45 b. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8.3. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. 1. 46 . Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Write short notes on a.3. Explain Directive principles 2. 5.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . articles in the Directive principles. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.
2002.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Article 29 and 30 7. 47 . Development of Hindi Language 6. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article-21A Right to Education. 2002. 1. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 4. a. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3. b. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. 3. b. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. a. Article 45 . Clearing House function 9.5. Article 46 5. may be law determine”. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. a. Dr. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Describe the educational role of State Government. Ambedkar 2. The Directive Principles of State Policy. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.
N. S.3. (2009). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Dash. Ghosh. B.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. L. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. S. (2008). (2007).1. Bhatia. Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2004). Education in Emerging Indian Society. 48 . K and Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.
4.4 Moral education 1.3.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4.4. Students should be 49 .4.4. Islam.3 Precautions while introducing 1.2 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.8 1.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.6 1.4. religious education should be broad based. Buddhism etc.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.7 1. Jainism.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1. Christianity.18.104.22.168 1.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.5 1.
naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. enumerate the aims of religious education 4.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. 1. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. In the complicated and complex society of today. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. state meaning and need for moral education 1. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. India' can produce men of character.and dedication. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. As result of which. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment.4. religious education and the concept of secularism.” Education broadens human outlook. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion.. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. According to E. know the position of religious education in our country 3. Thus. you will be able to: 1. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. integrity.D. duty-consciousness. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. "In A multireligious society like ours.4. beauty and goodness so that 50 .
religion and democracy are same.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately.3. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. As our country is a country of diverse religions. it is clear that the State has no religion. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. Children attend these organizations. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose.3. As a matter of fact. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. No religious tax can be imposed on them.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. at least occasionally. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. 1. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. all citizens are free to follow any creed. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. 1. Hence. if not regularly. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity.4. realizes God in himself. According to Article 19. rancour. through religious practices and 51 . castes and creeds. Thus. They thought that any kind of narrow. According to Article 22. 1947 we achieved our freedom. In short. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. Viewing the defects of religious education. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values.4. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy.” From the above.
. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. intellectual and physical faculties of children. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society.teachings. which can mould. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. when he becomes an adult. Good education. for the development of the individual and the society. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. It is religious education. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna).” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. As a result of which. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. moral and spiritual values. If unreleased. temperament etc. one fully developed. what is done and what is not done etc. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. It helps to modify habits attitudes. which help him for the development of his character. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. He also learns about social. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. aggressive. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. and what is evil.
In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. 3. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. This should not be allowed to happen. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. If we open the pages of history. 1.4. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. towards the society. which is the basic need of a democratic life. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. Therefore. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. 2. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. 53 . Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible.3. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly.
Life histories of great persons of the world. For this. stories of moral greatness. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Gurudwara as. Write Article 22 2. churches and mosques 7.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 11. 9. examples of patriotism. 10. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. fellow-feeling. Since all religions have virtues.5. therefore.4.
Asvada (Control of palate).acquisitiveness). Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 1. students. Satyam (truth). 6.4. 5. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 2. Service to others. 1. 7. 3. Aparigarha (Non.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Swadeshi (Patriotism). the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 5. is that which develops moral values. 4. Without moral values. Ahimsa (Non-violence). personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. in the home. Self sacrifice. 3. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. “Let all be happy and free from disease. Brahmacharya (celebacy). the methods of teaching. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. Non-injury. Fearlessness. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. The content of the curriculum. Purity.4.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. 8. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. therefore. let men see well of one another.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 2. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). 8. It they learn what morality is in their early years. 55 . the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Cultivation of emotions. 7. They will play their role effectively. Patriotism. 6. Moral education. 4.
Community singing should also be encouraged 2. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 11. 2. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. religions may be included in the syllabus. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. 3. discipline.4. Unity of mankind. Integrity. minutes in the morning for group singing. In the school programme. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Good manners. loyalty and self-sacrifice. 1. National unity and Spiritual values. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. 56 . Good temper. Discipline. Efficiency. The School Assembly should be held for a few. 4. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . 3. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Secondary Stage 1.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. 10. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Sharivashram (Physical work). The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Asatyam (Non-thieving).9.
The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . In this connection. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. 57 . In other words. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. 4. should form a normal part of school programme. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. 5. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. University Stage 1. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. Silent meditation should be encouraged. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. love of humanity. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 5. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. 3. patriotism and self-discipline.
The School Assembly should be held for a few. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. a. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education.4. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. b. 58 . a. a. the. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times.1.4. 2.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. For this. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 4. 1.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. 1. 2. Training of Character 3. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. Sri Prakasa 6 . saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1959 5. minutes in the morning for group singing. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. Discuss the aims of Religious education. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3.4. In short. b.
11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi: A. K. Bhatia. New Delhi : Siddiqui. L. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. N. Pahuja. (2008). K and Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education.P. J.1. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 59 . Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. N. P. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. M. (2003). (2004). (2007).C. Anmol Publications Pvt.H. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Publishing Corporation.4. (2008). B.H. Dash.
3 1.5. 60 .5.5.2 1.7 1.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5.10 1. disparities between provinces/States.5.1 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.11 1.6 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.e.5 1. i.8 1. Although.9 1.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.4 1..5.
waters. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. for example. know the education suited to different environments. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 1. Accordingly. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 5. 7. 8. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.5. 2.5. you will be able to: 1. 3. 4. 1. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. They therefore. etc. understand the regional educational development in India 3. work hard towards this end. 6.5. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. This leads to separatist movements. 1.5. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. energy. roads.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1.1. they take appropriate measures. 61 .3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics.
The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. Tight security arrangements should be made. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. some average. while others remained educationally backward. 2.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. some States became educationally far advanced. 3. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. Therefore. and. Secularism. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only .5. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. 4. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. on the basis of regional development may be formed. • Separate States (of course viable States). 62 . The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still.
the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. Regional Centres of IGNOU.After the Planning Process has originated. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. Central Universities of Assam. since its inception in 1998-99.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. books. NIT.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. NERIST. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. academic buildings. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. Mizoram. library buildings. Silchar. Nagaland and NEHU. Out of this.392. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. After the attainment of independence. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. the Union Government. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. remained under developed. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. while some States like Bihar. Even in each State. the State Governments. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. In the Central sector. 1. Itanagar. Funds amounting to Rs.14. These projects are in various stages of implementation. etc. etc.480. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice.g. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. approved proposals worth Rs. and provision of informal education to enable those. Tezpur.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. Jammu and Kashmir. scholarships. Guwahati. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy.. However. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Rs. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice.5. 63 .84 crore was released in 2005-06.
Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. A provision of Rs.05 crore and Rs. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.187. Tezpur University.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.261.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. During 2003-04. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. Government expenditure on education.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.57 crore and Rs. too.501. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.500. 64 .5. Moreover.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.8 per cent in 05). NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Out of this an amount of Rs.40. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.
is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Tamil Nadu. notes the study.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. too. The Chandigarh Administration. Karnataka. Kerala and Gujarat. 1. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. pharma. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. To add to the woes. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. for instance. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. for which 16 sites.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. Andhra Pradesh.5. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Karnataka. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Listing the positives. too. Medical education. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. engineering and R&D. English. too. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Moreover. telecom. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level.
the curricular subjects. life-oriented and environment slanted. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. The working hours of educational institutions. In the same manner. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. the teaching methods. while the former does not. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. the working days: an academic . a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes.year. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. the needs. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. the socio-physical conditions. and so on. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. when he will not be sure of time. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. in which the learners live. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Then education become realistic and idealistic. taking the average in the middle. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. 66 . the vocations. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. The living conditions. Of course. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. which a non-tribal person cannot do. Hence it is called as need-based. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. the interests. For a learner living in a rural area. even actually looking at the watch.
Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1.5. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . to suit education to different environments? 1. 2. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.5. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.5.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 67 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
some States have become more developed than others b. C. a. (2001). (2002).13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Salim. and Nair. 68 . remained undeveloped 3.H. Giridhar.K. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. New Delhi: Authors press. A. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. R. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.2. Educational Development in India. some of areas which were under the native rulers. Education in Developmental Arena. (2001). S. S. during the British rule. 60% 1. (2008). Dubey.G. Education Scenario in India. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.N.5.
UNIT – II 69 .
secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. school community and mass media. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. National Integration. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. 71 . the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. community development. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life.
2 2.1 2.4 2.1.9 2.3 2.8 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 188.8.131.52.LESSON 184.108.40.206 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 220.127.116.11.5.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1 Main features of Socialism 18.104.22.168 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.22.214.171.124.6 Education for Secularism 2.7 126.96.36.199.
Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission.2.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. for the people by the people”. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. socialism and secularism 2. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The students may be associated with the management of the school. there should be made no distinction of caste. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. understand the concept of democracy. 73 .1. socialistic and secular state. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Abraham Lincoln.1. colour or wealth. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. 3) Provision of Manual Work.1. 2. This is the political aspect of democracy. creed.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. Democracy thus means power of the people. 2. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it.1. you will be able to: 1. socialism and secularism 2.
11) Student Parliament.. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 2. There are different brands of socialism. 74 . 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. Democracy means 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching.1. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. debates. declamation contest etc. 12) Visits to Legislatures. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. it soon spread all over the world. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. may be planned. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together.
the prince and the peasant. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses.5. 75 . 2) Socialism aims at equality. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. free from exploitation.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 2. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 2. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.5. Under it. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. but on the path of non-violence. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 7) Special facilities for girls. oppression and disparity. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books.1. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. service and cooperation. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. none high”. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. the wealthy and the poor.1.
2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5.” In every political and educational corner. secularism is being propagated. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. Everyone says. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “India is a secular-country. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.1. "which seeks the development of physical. According to Holydake. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. Write any two main features of socialism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 11) State schools. 76 .
Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. In this type of prevailing situations. “Webster further says. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.1.opposed to religious education. During the recent past. Equality. 9) It stress free inquiry. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. 8) It believes in co-existence. That is why. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations.1. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. education etc. liberty. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. 5) It implies tolerance. people have narrow mindedness. fraternity. should be independent of religion. 77 . 3) It permits freedom of worship. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines.6. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. Moral values have to be imbibed. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. There is need of making the people open minded. people started believing in regionalism. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact.6. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. A large number of people is uneducated. the belief that the state morals. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. 2) It permits freedom of religion. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. 2.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing.
Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. tours and trips may be organized. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. No doubt. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . There should be some internal checking of the material being. While doing so. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children.presented by the students in the gathering. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. that the central string of all religions is one. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution.6. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. 2. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow.1. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. 1) Moral Education. In the hands of such teachers. Patiala. students belonging to different religions should be associated. education. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. In the celebration of each such function. Religious Education.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. The very sight of the building. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved.
No doubt.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. The term secularism was first used by 8.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. The word “Seculum” means 7. Define Secularism 9. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.
colour or wealth. a. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. What are the implications of socialism on education 2.1. In the matter of admitting students in schools. there should be made no distinction of caste. This present age 7. 3. a. b. Tuition free education b. Since socialism stands for equality. for the people and the people”. Provision of Manual Work. Socialism aims at social justice. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 5. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Equal Opportunities for Admission. c. 2. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Socialism aims at equality.1. 6. b. 4. d. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Respect of Individual Personality. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Power of the people 2. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. George Jacob Holydake 80 . Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Abraham Lincoln. 4. creed. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 3. a.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic.
J. (2003). Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. New Delhi : Pahuja. the belief that the state morals.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. L. B. N. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.C. 81 . It permits freedom of religion. Dash. K. should be independent of religion. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. K and Narang C. Modern Trends in Indian Education. education etc. b. a. 10. Mohanty. (2005).1. (2008). It treats all religions on an equal footing. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Bhatia.8. (2007). P. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. a. J. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. (2004).” 9. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Theory and Principles of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. b. N.
7 2.2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2.9 188.8.131.52 International understanding in the school 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.6.10 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 184.108.40.206.LESSON 2.1 220.127.116.11.2.4 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 18.104.22.168.2.2.8 2.2.3 22.214.171.124 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.
The developmental roles of children. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. social. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. as workers. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values.2. development. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. understandings. application. It involves physical. social and moral aspects. a r e 1. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. moral. aims and objectives of the school.an instructor of school children. emotional. A teacher is first and foremost. 2. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. as learners. mental. 3. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. you will be able to: 1. 2. as it is t he aim o f modern education. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. Children are the potential wealth of a nation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. 83 . therefore.2. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. who are placed in his custody. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. 2. and 4. as citizens.generation to another. skills. as persons.
As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. mentally. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. a part of their day in 84 . The following are some of such roles described in brief. social and emotional health. socially. morally. economically effective. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. motivated. 2. morally. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. Teacher as a Citizen Next. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. mental. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. He is to become an active member. emotionally. He has to look after their physical. 1. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. and aesthetically to become. 3. physically fit for socially efficient.All education should lead to better behavioural development. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. member of his community at the outset.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. experiences and acceptance. intellectually.2. culturally confident. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. 2. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. The students live. inquisitive. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education.
Unless.2. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. faiths. and most of hours. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. science club. 2. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. India is a land of many castes.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. photographic clubs. creeds. solve them. Dr. fine art associations. languages and religions. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. 4. List out the role of teachers towards community development . objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural.the school being under the custody of teachers. They will be spending with their parents. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. activities of the society into which he is born. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. It 85 . helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them.
5.” 2. national anthem and other national songs.is. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. Radhakrishnan. ‘We should not become parochial. should be emphasised. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration.” Regarding the role of education. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. with straight backs and look up at the skies. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. therefore. The only process is the process of education. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. 1. Let us. this integration of the Indian people. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. social studies. poems. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. At the primary stage the importance of stories. and make into one strong national unit. c. Nehruji has explained this as. narrow-minded provincial. the study of language and literature.2. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . Sampurnanand remarked. b. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. the citizens of the Republic of India. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. stand up straight. a. folklore and teaching of social studies. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. It should broaden the outlook.
it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. educational excursions. ACC. Uniform for School Children. Reverence of National Flag. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. National Days—January 26. 6. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Student Camps. sports. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary.different social sciences. and picnics. Singing of National Anthem. 4. Taking Pledge. Scouts and Guides. Textbooks. 5. militar y training like the NCC. symposia. 3. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. 9. 7. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. languages and literature. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. t he st udent s and t he community. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. debates. Celebrations of National Days. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. 10. Co-Curricular Activities. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. 2. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. 8. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. tours. dramatics and youth festivals. 87 .
Admissions. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. 12. flora and fauna. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Educational and Travel Documentaries. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. ii. colour. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. region or religion. Admissions to schools. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. 16. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. Recognition of Institutions. Open-Air Dramas.5.11. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. v.2. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. 15. School Projects. 2. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . Students Exchange and Tours. iv. iii. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. ways of thinking and doing things. 88 . 14. language. 13.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. cultures and races on equal bases.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices.2. 2. vii. irrespective of national boundaries. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . ix. Community dinners. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . viii. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. camps. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Define National Integration 3. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students.vi.
2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. In a very real sense. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. Dr. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. 5. This.friendships between children of different countries. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. Teachers 90 . therefore.as important as that of a national citizenship.6. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war.2. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. of his body and mind. Therefore. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.6.e. (c) fairly tales. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. 4. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.. that war. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. 2.F. 3.2. C. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. if it happens. Organising of debates and. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. 2. (b) stories of children of other lands. the international level. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Radhakrishnan states.” 2. patriotism is not enough. 6. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. and the healthy development. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. often in connection with anniversaries.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. Strong has observed. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum.
Russian. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. an Englishman. They should not be propagandists. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. a German. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Impartial in their Treatment.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Indian and American. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries.
Defects of the educational System . there is wide spread frustration among all people.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. 3. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. 5. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. 2. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.2.Another major. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . Devaluation of Values . If this is done. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. Wide Spread Frustration .come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. majority of people are. As the school is but a miniature society. It does not prepare students for life. the education function can be carried.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. which results in agitation and aggression language. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. Chronic Poverty . It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. understand and indiscipline: 1. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. 4.2. and help the students to over . leading to.
8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. List out the factors causing social tension in schools .9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. 2. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. sympathy and good will among the nations. 2. 2. 3. 93 . co-operation. community development. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.democratic nature. love. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. fellow feeling. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. List out six characteristics of a good teacher.2. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 126.96.36.199 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 188.8.131.52 Functions and role of schools in the society 184.108.40.206 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 220.127.116.11 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 18.104.22.168 Radio as an agency of education 22.214.171.124 Television as an agency of education 126.96.36.199 Press as a medium of education 188.8.131.52 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
184.108.40.206 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 220.127.116.11 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
18.104.22.168 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
22.214.171.124 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. periodicals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Then came newspapers. Crow and Crow write. led to the printing of books.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. books. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. In fact. the invention of the printing press. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Museums. Now internet is being used. Hence.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. He taught his students orally.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. Moreover.3. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . art galleries.V. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. are increasingly used in education. “All the citizens of the community. During the course of time. Emphasising this thing. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Define community. To make them achieve their aim.
Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world.classroom teachers. Thus. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Many gaps are to be filled up by them.6. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. current affairs and other areas. languages. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. for the teacher through school broadcasts. music. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Thus. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. art.3. Reynolds. the place of importance. A lot of work by way of pre. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. social studies. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. “Listening participation” in current history. Students listen various talks. In the emphasis is on sound. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. rather than on picture. It is also an important source of entertainment. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Effective means of presenting music. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. In collaboration with the experts.G. Important happening inventions. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. the teacher still occupies. 101 . Various talks. It enlightens public opinion. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom.telecast. 2. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. 2. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. politics. It stimulates curiosity and interests. dram appreciation. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force.
Before presenting the programme. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. plays. School concerts. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. development of lessons. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. 5. at drawing room. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Participation of local teachers and pupils. at any place. speech. audibility and presentability. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. 102 . Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. travel talks. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. At present. at recreational centers. Team-teaching demonstrations. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. fol classical music. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. informal and non-formal education. mathematics. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. at play. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. 3. Making learning an open system. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. projects or creative activities. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. 4. style. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 126.96.36.199 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
188.8.131.52 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 184.108.40.206 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
1 Characteristics of formal education 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.5 220.127.116.11.4 Non formal educational system 2.2 18.104.22.168 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.LESSON 2.4.4 Limitations of formal education 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199.6 188.8.131.52 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .3.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1 184.108.40.206.2 Levels of formal education system 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 220.127.116.11 Advantages of formal education 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.
A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and.3. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. his mental alertness. 3. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’.4. In ancient time in India. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. 110 . 8. 2. 2. the most important agency of formal education. 4.4. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 5. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. the mass media et. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. School is. compare formal and non formal system of education. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. open school. 7.2. the family. 9.4. starting and ending at -a particular age. the temple. 3. To realize this objective of education. imparted at the residence of the teacher. Education associated with a degree or certificate. it was mostly. 2. say the Government or the private enterprise. his moral excellence and his social adjustment.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. 6. you will be able to: 1. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. 2. the community. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.. 2. the learner are acquainted. 4. Education. open university. Education organised by some agency.
In general. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal.3. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . or post secondary education. diplomas. Higher Education: Higher education. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Through early formal education. also called tertiary. third stage. Some education systems have separate middle schools. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. depending on the jurisdiction. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. structured education. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. the elements of language are first learned. such as a high school or secondary school. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years.2.3. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.a secondary education.4. capacity. or academic degrees. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. 2. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling.4. Concepts of proportion. as well as vocational education and training. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 .
4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. What are levels of formal educational system? .4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Agencies can be classified as 2.4. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. 2. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. children with disabilities. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 .4. late beginners etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. 3. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs.3. 2. is an important agency of formal education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. 4.which will help for nation's development. and remote dwellers. Write any two characteristics of formal education? .
work and the opportunity to put learning to use. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. i. Open university. to help themselves.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. It unlocks the doors of development plans. etc. curriculum. until 1970 it had not been defined.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. admissions. “Non-formal education should 113 . to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. systematic. Therefore. it is a more effective tool for rural development. Non-formal education includes adult education. Thus. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. However. It is deliberate. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. planned. open learning. It is functional.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’.e. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. systematic. continuing education and on the job oriented education. financially supported life formal education. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn.formal education. It is much more responsive to needs and change.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education.learning client take some learning objectives. one could say that non-formal education is an active. adding up to a true learning society. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. adults as well as children. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. staffed.. According to Malcolm A. it has its own valid claim to reality. place of instruction. Adiseshiah.
To develop in the student. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. international understanding.4. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. 7.4.e. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. To help industrial workers to better their skills.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.renewal. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. place of education. age. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. the Ideas of citizenship.learning pattern. It should lay emphasis on the self.4. Flexibility in various aspects of education. 4. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.” 2. 114 . socialism. Lawrence. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. i. self. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.be marketable and vocationalised.S. Process of sharing. 3. admissions. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. Part-time education.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. co-curricular activities. national integration.” According to H. 6. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. evaluation etc. modes of teaching. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. 2. Covering life span of an individual.S. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.4. curriculum. 5. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. exploring. 2. Preparation for future needs.
publication and information dissemination. school dropouts. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Senior Secondary.4. 8. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 9. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. To offer Secondary. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. 2. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. • 2. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 3. Meeting the omissions of formal education. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 5. Eradication of adult literacy.4. 4. 10. Technical. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. 115 . 7. in villages and those who live in towns. 2. 4. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 5. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live.4. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Universalisation of primary education. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 6. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. working adults.4. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. 3. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up.
Again. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. 2. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college .4. 2. farm. centres of correspondence education. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. Therefore. To better qualifications. All-round development i. self-employment iii.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. 3. training centres in factories. etc.4. others are formal and informal. factory. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. To increase knowledge and 2. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education.2. Radio and television. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. if organised in isolation.. effective in modern societal context. 4. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. public libraries. Institutions for formal education. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems.4. open space. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. library.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies.full time to learners – can be home. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . etc. To make if. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home.
Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Face Contact programmes. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Essay Assignments and short answer questions.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Define non formal education. Teaching to face teaching. radio. Written tests. 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two aims of non formal education. . 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Lecturing T. 6.V. Correspondence lesson. . institution. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. 117 . Give examples of non formal education? .
They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. 2. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress.” 6.4. Higher Secondary level and University level.4. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. 5. Secondary level. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. 4. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 7.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. 2. Open University. Open School. 3. a.4. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. The school. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. systematic.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. b. Formal and Non Formal 2. 4.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 118 . b. 2. adults as well as children. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Pre-school level. a. Primary level. School 3. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. the college and the university come under this category.2.
(2005). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2007). (2003). K. Education in Emerging India. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. L. P. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ltd. K and Narang C. Anmol Publications Pvt. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. B. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2004). S. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2008). Mohanty. Ltd. N.2. Gupta. Bhatia. Pahuja. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Theory and Principles of Education.C.4. Dash. N.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : 119 . (2008). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J. J.
4.5.LESSON 2.6 2.4.1 2.3.4 Need for Open University 2.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 126.96.36.199.5.3.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.5.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 188.8.131.52 2.3 Objectives of Open University 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 184.108.40.206.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.4 Open University 220.127.116.11.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5 2.5.2 2.3.4.
This knowledge may be in political field. industries. 2. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. 2.5. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. characteristics of open university 4. However. give the meaning. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. Any person.5. know the need and objectives of open university. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy.5.3. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened.5.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. It is a continuous process.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. Thus. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. It is a lifelong process. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. 2. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. economic field or such other fields. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. farmers. continuing education is a boon. labourers and half educated individuals. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. you will be able to: 1.2. For them. Under these circumstances. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other.
5. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education.directly related to his job. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Doctors.V. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi.3. Block Development Officers. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. For them too continuing education is essential. are also contributing their might for the purpose.V. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. Throughout the country. cultured and progressive. Radio and T. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Cinema. After the achievement of independence. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. if he gets opportunity to develop them. On the other hand. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation.literate person. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. 2. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Thus. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Radio. Persons engaged in health services. T. deteriorating to his character and personality. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. On the other hand. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education.
V. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. Of course. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. especially women. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (14) information about bringing up young children. 5. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 2. These books are not very useful. (10) first aid. (17) modern international and national events. (6) folk stories. 123 . (1) ancient history. (7) folk songs. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. habits of people of other lands. we have not been able to achieve our targets.5. (15) music.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (16) liking. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. (8) psychology of adults. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories.3. 2. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. 3. Inspite of the great efforts. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education..5. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. 2. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (13) psychology of child behaviour. (9) fundamentals of philosophy.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1.3. 4. and Radio. 6. (2) basic religious matters. 7. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T.
r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. NLM was launched in the year 2. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. of educational opportunities. lack of time etc. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. What is the objectives of NLM? 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. 2. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . attendance restrict ion. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc.5.5. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 .
there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. 2. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. its education is not class room based but home based. 5. 2. c. and in teaching.unobserved. Which was the first open university in India? . instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? .5. the higher the degree of openness. it makes use of educational techno logy. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. Education is not a once for-all process. b.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. No one is too old or too late to learn. but 125 . IGNOU was established in the year 6. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. 4. e.4. d. 3. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
annu al wr it t en examinat io n. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. or who realised too late that they need it. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n.who did not get it. 2. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 4. 4. 2.4. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 3. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s.5. it a ims at wider and hig her. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. 2. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 126 . To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 3. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education.4. supplementing the existing provision. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 6. 5. cho ice o f co ur ses. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. Mo re o ver. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n.5. 2.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. who were deprived of t he same earlier.
learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 8.4. 2. 5. 127 .5.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. semi – literates. a society. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University.5. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 1. Laboratory works. school drop outs. Correspondence tuition. Therefore. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. 6. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. In the present day world. 8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. 4. 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. you have learnt the concept. Tutor Comments. Self instructional materials.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . 3. a state or nation. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . List out any four methods of Open University? .2. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 2. Every day.
5. 8. 1985. a.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 4. 2. a. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. cho ic e o f co u r ses. b. Broad casting lectures c. (4) the fundamentals of economics. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. d. Explain the objectives. b.ambitious learners.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. need and characteristics of Open University. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. 7. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 8. which may include house wives. its education is not class room based but home based. Television Lessons. 128 . agricultural and industrial workers. 9. 1988. 6. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. youth. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (2) basic religious matters. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. (1) ancient history. 2. 3. aspirants for continuing education. 7. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. P r int med ia b. unskilled workers and other professionals. a.5.
Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. (2004).2. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2001). Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.. 129 . Reddy.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.5. K. (2004). S.S. L. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. R. Udaiveer. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. K and Narang C. Modern Problems of Education.K. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ltd.
UNIT – III 131 .
All which is the need of the hour. the education of women. which may claim the attention of those concerned. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. wastage and stagnation. Examination reform. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. its causes and remedial measures. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. examination. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. and teacher education. 133 . Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. Training teachers for all levels of education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. In Lesson 2.
schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1 3.1.4 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1 EFA – For whom? 18.104.22.168 New initiatives.1.5 22.214.171.124.LESSON 3.2 3.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.2 EFA – How? 3.8 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1.7 3. 135 .3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 126.96.36.199.1.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.6 3.
Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. social. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. understands the country. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. may be political. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. “The State shall 136 . understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures.1. education received added importance and significance. Therefore. Continuing Education (CE) 1.1. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. (EOI) 2. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL).3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. 2. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. therefore. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. economic or cultural. On the other hand. directed that. Eradication of Illiteracy.3. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. you will be able to: 1. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. 3.
Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. Universalization of Enrolment. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. 3. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . Continuing Education (CE). Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. 137 . After the enrolment of the students in school is over. After the attainment of independence. Universalization of Retention. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Three Stages for Universalization. the national Government under. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. rights and responsibilities. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas.endeavour to provide. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. It enables the parents to send their children to School. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Therefore. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school.
What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. 1995 (for upper primary stage). “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. 3. Write Article 45. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. 1990.3. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. later to 1988. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. 138 . So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. This target had to be revised to 1970. It is safe to assure.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. present and future. then to 1976. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. UNESCO Bulletin states. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. Therefore. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. educational enterprise.
sex. nutrition education and sports and games. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. 139 . 3. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. Disabled. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Jams and Jellies. Emphasis must be given on health education. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. 3. adolescent and adult. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. slum areas. 11. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. and Women’s education programme should be improved. rural areas. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. creed. 5. 6. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. their enrolment and retention. 8. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. etc. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. 10. Education of the Impaired. By undertaking survey. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. 9. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. FELF. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children.1. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. their social economic status and occupations. NAEP. Early childhood education should be streamlined. Education of Girls. The Social Education. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. problem of literacy. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 12. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children.3. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. In order to make the programme of education for all community. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Apart from primary education. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4.
District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.1.3 NEW INITIATIVES.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Wastage and Stagnation.3. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 .e. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. 3. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Expand MLL and SSA .1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3.
The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. Familial Factors . School Factors . Personal Factors . it is considered as wastage. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.first stage of education. Social Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.
Enumerate the causes of Wastage. 142 . Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Define Wastage. 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. .
Family Factors . rural or urban 3.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. They are described hereunder :1. in his home.3. school or society. Personal Factors . School Factors .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.1. Societal Factors .The following factors. relating to home.
stationary. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. uniforms. Define Stagnation? 9. mid-day meals. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . 144 . etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
a. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all.1. Hartog Committee. Universalization of Enrolment c. Universalization of Provision b. therefore.1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. 145 .3.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1.. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. a. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3.1. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. improvement of curriculum. 3. 3. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Minimum Levels of Learning b. 2. a. b. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. “The State shall endeavour to provide.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 4. directed that. Universalization of Retention 2. 4.” 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. 6.
introduce graded curriculum. Crescent Publishing Corporation. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.K. (2008). Hemchand. a.N. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. improve examination system.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. New Delhi: 146 . S. (2007). (2001).K. T. Familial Factors c.1. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. School Factors d.7. 3. a. Sharma. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. b. Social Factors 8. Personal Factor b. S. Problems of Elementary Education. 9.
2 Grade System 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.1 188.8.131.52 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.4.2.LESSON 184.108.40.206.3 Modern reforms of examination 220.127.116.11 Inspection and Supervision 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168.5.2 3.4.7 Open book examination 22.214.171.124 Let us sum up 147 .2 Disadvantages of Co-education 126.96.36.199.5.2.1 Problems of examination 3.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination 188.8.131.52.3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 184.108.40.206.5 New evaluation procedures 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.4 Question banks 3.5.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.
2.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. 3. but on the other. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.2.3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.2. suggest the new evaluation procedures. 4. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.9 3.2. 3. Besides. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. you will be able to: 1. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.3.2.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . 3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2.8 3. 3. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.
if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. The following steps should be taken up. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. They may cause problems relating to discipline. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex.2. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. schools for them wherever necessary. etc. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. etc. roadside Romeoism. 149 . which the educational authorities have to face. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided.. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. If the students are in sufficient number. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. hostel facilities. They develop secondary sex characteristics. waiting rooms for girl students. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. by providing free education and liberal scholarships.3. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. 3. etc.
4.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. It is considered as a major sub-system. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. Instruction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. appointment of paper-setters. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. teachers. 150 . The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents.2. conduct of internal examinations. the net-work of examination system has also become vast.2. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. public interested in education. assessment and Finance. the examination system has an important role to play. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. public administrators and statesmen.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country.
The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. introducing objective-based testing.4. etc. announcement of results. etc. training of examiners. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. invigilators.printing and distribution of question papers. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. etc. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. etc. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. validity and practicability. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. 3.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. establishing reliability. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. scrutinizers. examiners. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. values. tabulators. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. etc. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation.2.
Rote memorisation. 3. halo-effect.4. 7) In connection with the question papers. 2) From the angle of content of education. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. it s a common experience that subjectivity. stereotyped questions. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. may also discredit them. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. 3) With respect to method of teaching. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. lack of objectivity etc. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. Subjects. not meant to be assessed in the examinations.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education.2.. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. takes the place of comprehensive learning.. which they are expected to study. Vagaries in making.. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. 152 . 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. do not appeal to the students and parents.
Spot valuation. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . . re-numbering of answer scripts.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. 153 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. List any two merits of examination. may be introduced. revaluation. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.. etc. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions.develop true love for education. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3.a part of internal assessment.
Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. attitudes.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure.5. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .3. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth.2.2. It is complicated. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. In this system. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. In actual practice. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. Their interests. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . The new scheme of assessment. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. he is given extra credit points.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. skills are given importance. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. Every paper is treated equal. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. When a person chooses to work extra. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3.5. The students can take any course offered in any department. 3.2. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.
The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. An example is a seminar. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. While designing syllabus. poor. 3. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects.poor.good. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. or as a 4 credit course. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. These weightages are called credits. courses can have weightages defined. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses.discipline. In the new system.5. This system reduces comparison of marks. v. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. Groupism is encouraged. only the total credits to be earned is specified. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents.2. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4.
6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. 3. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.5.5. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. However.2. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.2. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. 3. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.2. 156 . The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5. 3.
List any four new evaluation procedures. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.2.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. However. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard.3. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. 6. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. . recruitment.5. There are no proper procedures for selection. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . In the hierarchy. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.2. 3. Therefore. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.
1. laboratory equipment. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. disciplinary problems. school buildings. Academic inspection. library books. wherever necessary. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. 3. finding out the adequacy of.2. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. finding out whether the prescribed text. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. staff.6. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. requirements. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. books are followed. taking up the follow-up programmes. submitting of the inspection reports. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. in contrast. qualifications. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools.qualified personnel. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. When they are fully realised. Separation of Inspection and Supervision.. etc. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. 158 . whether the syllabus has been covered. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools..• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. playgrounds. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. etc. of late.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. complaints and compliments. interpersonal relationships and so on. inspecting the class-room teaching. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. being realised as two different functions. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. They are. in a sense.
Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. 3. Insistence on specialisation in the B. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose.. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions.2. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. modern. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo.Ed. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. M. at least. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought.Ed. aptitude. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. 159 . In the case of departmental candidates. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. or. course in either educational. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Similarly. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. courses. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. once in five years. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. In the light of these conceptualisation. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. their professional knowledge. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection..
9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. 5. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. c. b. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. b.2. 3. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education.2. a. a. 3. 160 . 3. 3. 4. b. Administration. Instruction. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. a. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. d. assessment and Finance.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Grade System. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. 3.
10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. K. 7. (2002). S. Question banks. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6.4. c. a. New 161 . b. History and Problems of Education in India.2. Problems of Education in India. b. b. a. (2005). 5. Multiple sets of question paper. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. R and Sharma. Open book examinations.a part of internal assessment. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Educational Reforms. (2004). 3. a. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . K. Vaidya. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline.
162 .8 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3.3. 2.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.5 3. 4.3.1 3. 3.10 3.3.4 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.7 3.2 3.3. identify the needs of rural India and social.3.3. 3. you will be able to: 1.9 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3. 220.127.116.11 3.LESSON 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168 3.
have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. 10 years of general Secondary Education. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education.e.. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . Consequent on the recommendations.. Similar is the case with some other States.e. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. 8 years of general education.specialisation programmes 3. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. 2. etc. i.3.. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 .. in Andhra Pradesh. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. e. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. the Banaras Sanskrit College. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. Commission emphasised to continue. and 3 years of First Degree Course. The Calcutta Madras. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. University Education. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates.3. The. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage.g. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta.
8. social.a sense of dignity of labour. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . educational channels. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. habits of hard work and develop . and. historical. 10. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. Provision for transfer of credits to students. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. is also a plus point . b. However. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . 5) to help for the social. to imbibe. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. 6. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students.confidence in students. economical and political. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. cultural and economic development of the country. 5. 7. to prepare.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal.3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. 3. who desire to change from one stream to another.
international understanding. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. at the other. Psychologically. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. cultural and' religious tolerance. Philosophically it is not the conception. to develop national character. etc. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only.3. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. and. on one hand. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 .for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. 3. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. The General Educational Spectrum. Sociologically it is undesirable. cooperativeness. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. social justice. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level.national integration. 1. democratic living. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. Here the choice of subjects is provided for.. and that required to enter the tertiary level.
Agriculture is the main occupation. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. commerce. technical. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. chemistry. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. horticulture.— tube-wells. Science. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. professional. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. the rural areas have suffered very much. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. India is a land of villages. fish culture. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training.3. or other machinery. technological. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. In our country. 166 . vegetable growing. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. In the matter of language. rural health. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. 2. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. educational and cultural services. such as Agriculture. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. industrial agricultural production is growing. Biology. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. 3. Commerce and other disciplines. physics or mathematics. All these need for an. medical plants. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. and vocations based on dairy-farming. commerce. In the vocational spectrum. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students.
the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. etc.. There had been favourable reaction from the students. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 .3. and 5. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.etc. In this it may be concluded. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. social justice. the local resources available. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. In time. In this way. can be ensured. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . interests and aptitudes of the students. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. 4. and the needs. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2.
N. to imbibe. J.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. b.C.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.3.3. Mohanty. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Dash.K. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. 3.3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. J. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. General Educational Spectrum and b. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. (2007). curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. a. Vocational Sepctrum. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : 168 . a. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. habits of hard work and develop .8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. (2008).a sense of dignity of labour. 3. 2.3. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. we studied the history. (2001). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Ltd. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. objectives. a. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). S. 3. 3.3. b. Calcutta University Commission 2. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. B.
1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.11 22.214.171.124 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 126.96.36.199 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.9 188.8.131.52. but the lighting of a fire”. Education contributes to human development.7 184.108.40.206 3.2 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5 3.4.8 3.10 220.127.116.11 Faculty wise enrolment 18.104.22.168 3.4.LESSON 3.12 3.4. social and 169 .4.4.3 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.
While women constituted only 9. Teaching and Fine Arts. For the first time in the history of India. Nursing. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. There is a close connection between education and development. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. Education .3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. community and nation is universally acknowledged. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. 3. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. Home Economics. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. Dr. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. analyze the women and distance education. although we have miles to go. In the post —independence period.higher education in particular. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. family. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. The relevance of women’s education to social. During the year 1937. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. These courses were. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3.4. you will be able to: 1. cultural and political development of the individual. 3. higher education of girls developed immensely. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. particularly 170 .3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .4. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. economic.
Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Mother Teresa Women University. Even today. levels and professions.D.65 lakhs in 1994-95.4.2 22.N. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.9 14.1 24. Kodaikanal. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. 3. Yet. Mumbai. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. we have more than 1200 institutions. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. 3. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).0 32.0 Today.4. Coimbatore.9 27. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. out of 9200 and odd colleges. In 1950-51. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.0 16.2 29.women. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. In the rest of the country. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.4. The idea of women’s education for equality. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.T Women University.1 31. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.0 43. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. in our country.
4%) prefer Arts subjects.that of boys.83 47. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .47 65.56 64.63 Female % 34. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .4.4.54 12.46 82. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.36 3.44 35.34 33. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.17 52.73 10. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .1 and 14. 3. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.66 66.53 34.4.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.1 respectively.27 89.
promoted and increased. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. In college. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters.hinders the girls from getting higher education. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. financial difficulty of the parents. Thus. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. 3. 173 . what is the need for higher education for her. distance of the college or university from home. irrelevance of the content of education. etc. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. They gave up their studies to enter home life. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. According to a survey. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. The major hurdles. Also.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. and coeducation may spoil her character. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. marriage is a very common I factor. curriculum not suited to their requirements. particularly. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. In every third family. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family.4. she will only learn fashion. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. Book banks should be established. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education.
because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Full-time employment. Distance education is a boon to women. is the only tool for realising empowerment.economic disabilities faced by women. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. and the limitations of the conventional education system.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. which is the most dynamic factor of development. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. resources and socio .7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world.4. Empowerment in a nutshell. Education. Geographic distance of educational institutions. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. There are constraints of time. It is a productive investment.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. It also brings about 174 . Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. It enables to study.4. 3. space. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. 3. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.
education of women is of paramount importance. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. higher learning. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. This can be achieved through reflection. education of women must be given priority in national plans. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. on their own. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. for full development of our human resources. The major objectives of women's higher education. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. Empowerment is an active. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . empowerment means being assertive.4. Women are partners in development.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. 3. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. legal awareness and economic independence.
The local administration. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Better opportunities.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. Scholarships and concessions for women. which is pending for a long time. who are eager to take up courses. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. But their number is small. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. will encourage them to venture new grounds. 3. Reservation for women. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community.4.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. 176 . especially so in the developing countries. The educational institutions. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. which had been the sole domain of men. has to be implemented at the earliest. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena.
women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. IDP Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. Also.1%) and architecture and building (38. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100.000 women in the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. But. 3.8%). Australia.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem.. capacities etc. talents. According to Lindy Hyam. Chief Executive. especially in developing countries like African countries. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.4. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests.3 percent.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%).9%). and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . engineering and related technologies (16. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.
(2007). Women Education. Kodaikanal. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. 178 .4. R. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Mumbai. 3.4. Centre for Women’s Studies.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Women Education. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. 43% 6. 3. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. R.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. individuals and society b. S. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. (2005). community and the nation. Rao. A. Pattanaikj. Coimbatore. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. SNDT Women’s University.to the family. R. Mother Teresa Women University. 2.R. (2008). New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. and Swain. create the right attitude towards life. Mumbai. A. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. a. (2000).14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Coimbatore.4. 3.C. 4. 4. Mishra. Annakodi. Rajasthan 5. S. SNDT Women’s University.K. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. and Suryalatha. Women and Education.
5.5.4 3.7 3.5.2 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.9 3.6 3.5.8 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5.10 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.11 3.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.LESSON 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. They should be trained.5.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5.3 3.5.5 3.5. whole.personality of children in and out of school. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5.1 3.5.
Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. 4.5. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. and national character. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. 3. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Shorter working hours. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. equality and justice. social and emotional integration. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. you will be able to: 1. understand the training teachers for Primary. Lack of physical facilities.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. understanding and strong desire for international peace. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. 3. international. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. know the pre service and in service training facilities. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. national consciousness. Dearth of new technology of teaching. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. list out the agencies of teachers education 3.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. 180 .5.
Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Depending on the levels. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. and M. students.. etc. the primary teacher education. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service.5. it is called the In-service teacher education.5. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. and the collegiate teacher education. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier.Ed. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. the state Government. inservice and extension education programmes.Ed. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. 3. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education.Less qualified teacher educators. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. higher secondary teacher education. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. a Diploma course and a Degree course.. If the student teachers are working teachers. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. 3. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. the secondary teacher education. levels. Lop-sided curriculum. Inadequate training in practical skills. (NCERT) New Delhi. At the diploma level.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. it is called the Extension teacher Education. the centre. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . who have not been trained earlier. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels.
depart ments etc.. Science Education units. Expand NCERT 2. extensio n service. Education cells. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. are established. state Institutes of Educat ion. collegiate cells. Evaluation unit. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 .6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Also Guidance Bureaux. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . Educational teehnology cells. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . non-formal.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose .
which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed .post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . audio visual aids. material conditions relating to libraries.. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . despite its vast expansion.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . should be improved on a top priority basis. which help breaking isolation from one another . a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. degree. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . and 183 . Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. schools and sister institutions. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. to improve curricular programmes.Ed. to offer consultative services.Ed. laboratories. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. and so on. which should include experience in the primary schools too... to prescribe conditions for recognition. primary and secondary school teachers. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. to ensure teacher competence.
which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. Psychology of Students. etc. Workshops.secondary education. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . To meet this exigency. and XII. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. Modern Methods of Evaluation. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. not came up once again. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. Meanwhile. The problem. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. Hence. etc. methodology and evaluation. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Organisation of Content Courses. Agriculture. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. though no pre-service training. Modern Techniques of Teaching. Induction Courses. whether they should have professional education or. 184 . the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes.
Ed..Ed.’s are elig ible for M. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. M. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.S.Ed.Ed.. (Education) are organized by 185 . State Councils of Educational Research and Training. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. State Institutes of Education. For re-orienting the teachers. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. training..5. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. 3.. (Education) and M. Degree and M. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.Ed. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.A..7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. Courses leading to B. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. courses and M. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. All B Ed. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. Post-Graduates also undergo B. Degree. These facilities are available for regular students.D. Pre-service training is for those. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Ajmer. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.. in Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B..A. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.Ed..’s for Ph.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and .5. (Ed). 3. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. established by tradition and teachers of the past. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.. they should be conscientious . . 4. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.A. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. (Ed. What is the role of ERIC? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .some Faculties of Education of some Universities. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 186 . 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned.. Hence the employability of M. of conduct—written or unwritten. 5. However.A. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.). So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. and B. 6.
4. 6. Ajmer. 187 . these problems are not as such cannot be solved. a. they should be conscientious. b. 3. Shorter working hours. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. 3.5. Bhopal. 5.5.5. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. The necessity is however this. a. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. National Council of Educational Research and Training. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Discuss the problems of teacher education. a. 3. 2.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Explain code of conduct for teachers.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities.3. b. 2. Dearth of new technology of teaching. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. 3. However. 4.
P. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . Teacher Education. Ltd Aggarwal. (2009). Publication Pvt. Teacher Education. Mohanty.N. A. B.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. (2003). and Teacher Education. Corporation. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. J.3.D. (2010). Tewari.5.
UNIT – IV 189 .
the focus is on the school health programmes. nutritional deficiency diseases. In lesson 4. The person’s environment is equally important. If the diet is poor. objectives. Since food is the source of nutrients. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. communicable diseases and their prevention. economic and educational developments. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. preservation of nutrients. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. consuming the right amounts becomes important. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. In lesson 1. objectives and role of the physical education. objectives. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. common ailments of children. 191 . ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson.
9 4.1. physical.1.1.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.4 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.5 4.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.e.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.1.10 4.8 4. mental. 193 .1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. The programmes of school health education are quite important.6 4.3 4.1.11 4.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1.1 4. emotional and social.7 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.2 4. It is a miniature society.1.LESSON 4.
To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases.1. To develop certain skills concerning health. 2. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. e. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 194 . To develop healthy health habits among children. 5. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. know the need for sex education. 4. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. training of teachers and evaluation. explain the importance of First aid 5. 8. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. to his family and to the community at large. list the common ailments of children 3. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. training in first aid and etc.1.. content of health education. you will be able to: 1. To give information regarding health rules. 3. 9. 11. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 4.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. 10.g. cleanliness and healthful living. 7. Instruction. 6. 4. understand school health programmes 2.
2. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. etc. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. The surroundings of schools should be clean. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. (vi) nutrition education. vaccination. There should be good drainage facilities. play festivals. 2. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. typhoid. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. direct lighting. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. There should be regular water supply. (xl) mental health.coming or absence. suitable furniture. Arranging better transportation facilities. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. minimizing the travelling distance. 5. 4. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 .C. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. Vaccination for small pox. (iv) co mmunicable diseases.. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. “Play-for-all” programmes. Triple Antigen Vaccination.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. arranging class rooms in the ground floors.1. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. as described below 1. is imperative. cleanliness weeks. 3. The school buildings should be spacious. First aid facilities should be made readily available. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. (ii) communit y healt h. organisation of school health days. (viii) first aid.4. B.G. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs.. proper doors and windows. B. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. inoculation against cholera. The flooring should not be damp. excusing late. (v) safety education. ( iii) sanit at io n. (xii) smoking education etc.
insect stings. burns.. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. drowning. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. sports and games in the interest of their health. • Find out the cases. and other accidents. fractures. • Keep all rooms clean. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. C. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. poisons. • Close the schools.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Have adequate rest and sleep. • When sleeping in groups. cuts. 196 . • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. bleeding. • Take nutritious food. scalds. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. fainting (epileptic fit). They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. dislocations. D. etc. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. wounds. isolate and notify. if epidemic is wide-spread.
5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. These diseases are called communicable diseases.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. water or bodily contact. They are: i) The incubation stage. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. fever. measles etc. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. Once these germs get into the body. headache. polio. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. chicken pox. cough. asthma.. 2. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage.1. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. pain in the joints. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. tuberculosis. List out the Health curriculum 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. which are – cold. 4. So they easily get illnesses. There are three stages in any communicable disease. Mention the school health programmes. backache.1.
Hence it is called a killer disease. Others make the children very weak. Throat is affected. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief.It is caused by measles virus. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. The child may have fever. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Hence liquid diet is recommended. 198 . In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Measles . The virus is present in the secretions of throat. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. head-ache and cough. The following are the common communicable diseases. Ear Infections . Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Mumps . The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Diarrhoea . Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Scabies .This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus.This disease is caused by bacteria. Children catch cold from persons having cold.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness.When a child suffers from scabies. eating food which is not clean. sugar and water. The symptoms include cold. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. unhygienic living conditions. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Common Cold . Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. This is caused by cold virus. unhygienic bottle feeding. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. After three or four days of fever.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Important salts and water are lost in this process. etc. cough and fever. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Tonsilitis .
The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. Enlist the common ailments of children. the child is not able to breathe. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. separate. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. What are communicable diseases? 6. 5. By scratching he causes secondary infections. Expand DPT . face and waist.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. the child may die. If proper treatment is not given. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. It begins with fever.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae.• • • • Chicken Pox . Shortly. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. 199 . Typhoid . A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. As the disease progresses. raised pink spots appear on head. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The child may also have diarrhoea.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. Diphtheria . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days.
7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. dislocation. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. sprains. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. Wounds . It is both biological and psychological. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. 4. 5. 4.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. eye injury. snakebites. 2. etc. Cuts and Bruises . so-called sex books and periodicals. head injury.1.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. It has its rightful place in education too. fainting. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. simple fractures. In such cases. scorpion stings. drowning. 3. Drowning . and films. 200 .4. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. and Community Work and Social Service.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. wounds. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. Sprains . bruises.1.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. films and jokes.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. exciting and body-oriented. sprains. swelling. cuts. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups.g. it is a subject of art. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. fiction. bleeding. man-woman behaviours. Sex is popular.
And here is where some protests would be inevitable. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. celibacy are age. B. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. but preserve them from disaster and disease. sex education is being recommended in schools. 2. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. In secondary schools. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. Hence. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. they would be treading the path of sure doom. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. In today's liberal and interactive society. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks.old values. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. 3. health. The home. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. try experimenting with their bodies.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. the school. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. in their ignorance.. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. The values of life. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. the religious organisations. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. Should the boys and girls. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems.
Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. when the courses are already overloaded. there will no crisis in its implementation. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. C. What are the major components of Sex Education. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.1. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. hence. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the school health programmes. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. common ailments of children. 202 . Teacher education institutions are. communicable diseases and their prevention.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. first aid and sex education. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 22.214.171.124 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Mention the food nutrients 2. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. 209 . Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Let us talk about each of these aspects. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.2.2. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. If you look at the definition carefully. minerals. 210 .4. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s.
paratha and poori. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). These are: region where the person resides and income. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. for example. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. Even within given States there is considerable variation. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e.sedentary. sex. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .g. Preferences/customs are also important.g. dosa are typical of the south. construction labourer). But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. In the case of adults. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. activity level and physiological stress. moderate or heavy work.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. it is also specific to a given activity level . There is no point. People in the east of our country prefer rice. the social and religious practices of that region. Those in the west also tend to eat rice.2. In other words. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. 4. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body.one in the morning and the other at night. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south.6. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. A balanced diet is specific firstly.
A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. Including these 212 . Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. vegetables and fruits. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. One person may be fond of milk products. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. customs. however. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. Judicious selection of food is. One must. As income increases. for example. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. As you read this discussion. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Having more money. however. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. income plays a vital role. If you think of your own religious group. taboos related to food may play an important role. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. however. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. nuts and dry fruits. In addition to these. Even among flesh foods. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. while another may hate them. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. However. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. as important for the rich as for the poor. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. fat and sugar tend to increase. These determine the acceptability of foods. Among the social factors. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting.planning the diet.
8) Walk a while after eating. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. eggs . don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. if the teachers have good food habits. 213 . 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. mouth. Define balanced diet.eating is hazardous. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. For this. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 17. etc. but they should be thrown away. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. meat. over-eating or under. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. green leaves.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. List out any two healthy food habits. fruits. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 8. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well.
Conjuctival xerosis.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Corneal xerosis.2. e. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Vitamin D 5. d. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. a. Bitot’s spots.4. b. Keratomalacia 3. preservation of nutrients. When the diet is inadequate.2.2. 4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. good nutrition is essential for good health. Explain food nutrients 4. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Beri Beri 4. 4. In fact. Night blindness. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Discuss good food habits. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. c. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits.
Food should be consumed after eating well. a.C. 4. (2008). Chopra. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Nutrition Science. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. mouth. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. (2004). Hands. minerals. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. (2008). R.6. P.2. a . Sri Lakshmi B. A Text Book of Foods. b. Nutrition and Dietetics. (2009). Food and Nutrition Education. b.N. R. S. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. 8. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. Food and Nutrition Education. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s .M. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. (2005). 7.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. Health and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 .
126.96.36.199 4.3.LESSON 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5 4.4 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3.2 Impact on economic development 4.3 Impact on Education 4.3.10 4.7 4.3.8 188.8.131.52.3.1 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 4.3.13 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.12 4.3 4.2 4.3. 216 .14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.6.
community.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. family planning and sex education etc. It is not sex education.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. describe the impact of population growth on social. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. characteristics and changes for himself.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. therefore. you will be able to: 1. state the meaning. and the consequences of these processes. population characteristics.3. objectives and need for population education 2.3. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. understand the importance of small family norm 5. the stress is. It is a much wider co ncept. Population Education. 4.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. his family. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. the causes of population change. There is some difference. his societ y and the world. 217 . 4. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning.4. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. Whenever we talk of sex education.3. economic and educational development 3. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. aims at providing the younger generation. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India.
Define Population Education 2. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the family. 4. the society.3. the nation and the world. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .
Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country.3. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. With the larger families. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. 4. the family programmes are also handicapped.6.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. Every second two thousand children are being born. 219 . When the family is small. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it.3. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Family is considered as a social unit. which will not be possible without population control. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. economic and educational development of the country. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. 4. health and happiness of its citizens. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed.
3. teacher index. Swollen cities. in buses and trains. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. toilets. in parks and other places of public gatherings. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.3. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. Many students herded in a small room. The gulf between them is widening further. facility for drinking water.. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. organization index and material index. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. heavy intern I migration etc.6.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower.e. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. 4.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. in cinema halls and theatres. In developing countries. pollution of the environment. i. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. 220 . there is an inverse relationship between population and development. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. 4.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. lack of proper health care. and so on. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. unemployment. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.6. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher.
It has got to be integrated with other subjects. There would be very few audiovisual aids. thus. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. family planning etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. less budget for education. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. even text books would be in short supply. reproduction. essays. and laboratory equipments. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. 221 . Hindi and English.3. Regional Language. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. bar graphs etc. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. blank verses etc.. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. can be studied in science and health education. There would be poor library facilities. can be taken up. Social Studies Statistics on population education. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. less space facilities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility.
Uttar Pradesh. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. deaths. Children may compare two families. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Bihar.4. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 8. Children with the help of parents. area and average density of population.3. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 5. 4. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 3. 10. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. China. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 9. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 12. West Bengal. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 14. 11. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. 15. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 7. causes of deaths etc. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 2. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Canada. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. 13. United States of America. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Brazil.
one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. values and role children etc. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. 16. age at marriage.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. 18. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. 17. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish.3. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. we have no right to stop 223 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. preferences for sex. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. The question. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Comparing life in various respects in two families. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. How will you correlate Population Education? 5.be opened in their schools.
In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. Since the program's inception. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. “He who is responsible for population growth. and the child survival components of the news: program. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. 4. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children.to emphasize family planning services. however. continued . especially the expansion of child immunization services . which education can only do.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. The Family Welfare Program.3.4-6. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. More than 45 years ago. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .their entry into the world”..sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. on an overall basis. should be overcome at the intellectual levels.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.were implemented 224 . at varying places in different regions. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.
adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. expansion of services to unmarried women. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. In April 1996. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs.earlier than the safe motherhood components. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. the community appears willing to pay for services. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. a focus on health promotion. reliance on local women as community health workers. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. men. At these meetings. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . Therefore. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. and nominal fees for services. In October 1997. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. and the World Conference on Women. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. Local programs vary in their approaches. Moreover.
family. 226 .emphasizing the needs of the client.3. economic and educational development 4. community.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. Describe the impact of population growth on social. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. 4.3. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Its main purposes are to create awareness. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. nation and the world. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1997). so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. involving the community. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the goals of RCH? 4.
7. a. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. population characteristics. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Brazil. less budget for education. bar graphs. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. 4. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff.3. 6. a. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. b. 227 . The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. the causes of population change.” 2. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. China. 5.4. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. area and average density of population. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. his family. 3. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. a. less space facilities. and the consequences of these processes. characteristics and changes for himself. Canada. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. b. his society and the world. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. United States of America.
14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. (2004). “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Modern Problems of Education. Ltd. Bhende. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. A. Coimbatore. Kantikar. Jayapoorni. Changing attitudes to Education in India. T. 228 . (1992). Reddy. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Principles of Population Studies. J. N.3. (2005).4. Centre for Women’s Studies. Udaiveer. (2002). (2005). V. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.K.
4.10 4.2 Major games 4.4 Lead up games 18.104.22.168.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .3 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.6 4.LESSON 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.1 4.5 4.3 Indigenous games 188.8.131.52.4 4.7 4.11 19.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.4.1 Minor games 184.108.40.206 4.9 4.4.
It contributes to the development of physical fit ness.4.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. perseverance. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body.4. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. as it should 230 . social fitness. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. 4.4. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. 4. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. mental alertness. which forms its most valuable assets. The concept of physical education has been made broader.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. leadership and balance in defect.4. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. full records of physical activities should be maintained. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. moral fitness and emotional fitness.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the youth of the country. classify the different types of games. you will be able to: 1. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. team spirit.
Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. The educational efforts at home. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. To be more precise. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. They go hand in hand. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. They are inseparably united together. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. obedience to rules. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. team spirit. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. leadership. Every individual is a part of society. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Therefore.
There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. mo ral.” The Secondary Education Commission. H.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. game and sports. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. pleasing manners. C. Buck has observed that 232 . Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers.4. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences.” Montaigue writes. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. a sound health. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. nor body but the whole man. Physical exercises. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. 4. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. ment al. Regarding the significance of physical education. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. Just like Education. Rousseau states. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system.
” 4. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. flexibility and power. resourcefulness and smartness. initiative. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. 233 . speed.4. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Froebel says. endurance. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.a properly directed physical education should result in health. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. elegance. etc. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. efficiency and character.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society.” In brief. happiness. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. “If we wish to develop the whole being. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. coordinative abilities. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. we must exercise the whole human being. strength.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.
234 (i) (ii) .” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. its adherents and its enemies. Every age has its artists. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. systems of government. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. plagues and famines. these fundamental things have always been present. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. poetry and painting. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. they may form gangs. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. including all racial groups and historical ages. should help in the spiritual development of the student. While wars. in greater or lesser degree.
to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. B. 2. bravery and interest in games and sports. self. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . 235 . and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.\ to develop perseverance. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. etc.sacrifice. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. to develop tolerance.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. obedience. Write any two importance of Physical Education. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. 3. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. respect for rules.
. Posture screening should be done. Keep the field ready for the activities. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. 7. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 6. 4.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Be in the uniform. 5. Inform health principles. 14. Be sportive. and. Usually parents.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. students. 13. 236 1. 12. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. is essential. 10. 8. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Act as a leader.4. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. 2. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. and readmission after they have recovered. defects. 15. 4. Be well-prepared. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed.4. Be punctual.H.4. Be self-confident. 9. 16. Haag. injuries among pupils should be made. 11. Always keep the whistle ready. 3.
8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. As such they are well enjoyed by children.4. Such inst incts as imitation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. their development is handicapped. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Indigenous games. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. 1.8.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. 4. frolic and jo y. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. 2. the play. chasing. 4. Lead up games. 3. less equipment and less expense. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. 237 .4. Moreover.
While many of them are played in the open playfields. dribbling. Shuttle Badminton. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. some of them are played indoors. hitting. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. benefit in playing minor games. on mountain tops and on river beds. pitching. the play equipment. under ball pass Relay. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Basket Ball. boosting. Hockey. Jumping. Except a few games. Hopping.8. Volley Ball. The dimension of the posts and nets. wherever the kids assemble. They are played for a shorter duration. zig zag relay. Jump the stick clay and so on. Ball Badminton. the games can be modified according to convenience. Throwing. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. These games require varied skills such as running. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Dodging. muffling. On lawns. spiking.. over ball pass Relay. Soft Ball. with implements or without implements.With a very few rules. trapping. bowling etc. Tennikoit.4. catching. on hard courts. driving.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Kabaddy etc. skipping. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. stopping. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. 238 . women take part most of the games. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. snatching the kerchief. Khokho. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Cricket. They are rules approved by the International Associations. For each game the rules are many. the number of players and substitutes. on sea-shore. 4. Tennis. couple tag. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. heading. finding the partner.
birth. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Games may be classified as 6.4. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game.8. these games being popular. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. they are in existence. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Kho-kho. An example for indigenous game is 8. On occasions like marriage. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. and . They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial.4. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. List out some major games. 4. While observing the players in action. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one.4. All the fundamental tactics. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 7. festivals connected with religion and public functions. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . death. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. They have an abundant social value.8. For example. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.
aims and objectives and need of physical education. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.4. to develop physical stamina. d. b. a.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. 4. b.4. a. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Minor and Major 240 . a. 3. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.4. a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Posture screening should be done. 3. 2.4. 5. to secure physical health b. 4. 2. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. c. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. 4. 4.
(2008). Aggarwal. Handbook of Physical Education. Mohanty. Tennis. Volley Ball. Kabaddy 7.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J. Modern Trends in Indian Education. G. Shuttle Badminton. Soft Ball. Krishna murthy. Health. 241 . J. Tennikoit. Khokho 8. Foot-ball. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Ltd.4. Physical Education and Sports. Hockey. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). Basket Ball.6.C. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. 4. Ball Badminton. Khokho. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Cricket. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.K. (2009). (2008).
4 4.1 Natural Environment 4.8 4.5.10 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.2 4.5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 220.127.116.11.7 4.6 4.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.1 4.11 4.5.3 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.2 Manmade Environment 4.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .9 18.104.22.168.5.5.LESSON 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.
5. Participation. Evaluation Ability. aesthetic and educational factors. population explosion and resource depletion could be.educat ion for the environment. Awareness. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 6. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. role of teacher in environmental conservation. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Essential knowledge about the Environment. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. 243 . 2. 3. 3. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4.5. political. 2. Skills. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. 4. Details are given below: I.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. education about the environment and education through the environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Broadly. you will able to: 1.5.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. The best place to start such learning is school. list out the types of environment 3. economic. 4. it covers the following elements: 1. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Knowledge. Attitude.5. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. social.
2. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Oxidants Other pollutants. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. 244 . soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. • Biological magnification E. D. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. a. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. F. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog.B.
4.3. B. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Socio-economic measures. Use of medical science i. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Family planning ii. 3. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Birth control through education b. Abortion iv. The human ecosystem II. c. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. 2. 2. Intrauterine device iii. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. economic. Persuasion: i. III. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Control of population growth a. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. The pill ii. Sterilisation.
1983).b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. 246 . Air pollution abatement ii. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. Define Environmental Education. Water pollution abatement. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. (UNESCO. e) Recycling. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment.
to his needs.5. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.4.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . Any constituent or condition of the environment. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. A change in one brings about a change in the other. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4.other components of the environment.5. a.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.5. 4.5. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. fax agricultural apparatus. includes the plants. He modifies according”. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. animals and other organisms (biotic). Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. way is called environmental or ecological factor. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. -other. These are biotic components. They interact with each. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. b.5. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .5. Biological environment The biological environment. telex.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4.
Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. of civilizations. supplying timber for various uses. effects o f CFC. water scarcity. History The rise and fall. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. need for conservation. evolution. etc. ozone layer deplet ion. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. (ii) Air pollution. balance of nature. social studies. sources of pollut ion. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. food chain and food-web. noise pollution. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. greenhouse effect. excellent recreation sites. extinction of species. role of trees in building economy. maintaining the ecological diversity. relation between population and pollution. use of pesticides. effects. preserving the watersheds. population. acid rain. industrial survey.. industrial pollut io n. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. air pollutants from industries. preventing siltation of dams. change in climate may be added. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . need for bio-diversity. noise control. are the topics which may be taught in History. importance of nitrogen cycle. windmills. desertification 248 . mineral survey. ozone depletion. over exploitation of ground water. explosion deforestation. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. etc. sources. reasons. natural way of controlling pests. nuclear warfare. wars and hazards of war. use of medicinal plants. solar cookers. river systems. nuclear energy. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. alternate sources of energy. biogas plants. t heir role in preventing pollution. trees reducing noise pollution.
5. aims and scope.may be inc ded in Geography. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 249 . Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 6. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 14. Organising conferences. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. animal and plants. Providing. group discussions and seminars. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 8. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 13. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Peepal and Tulsi. 4. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 2. 12.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 9. 3. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 10. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 7. 11. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 5. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 4.
as the smoke may contain polluting gases. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it will cause pollution. 6. World Environmental falls on 250 . Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Don’t burn any waste. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. used oils down the drain. Reuse carrier bags. Never put any left over chemicals. all these can cause serious pollution. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. especially plastics. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. If it is done.Send their waste oil.
The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. To provide reference materials for children’s use. (cleanliness. etc. To arrange visits or expeditions. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. nuclear wars. Conservation of natural resources.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information.4. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. Att itudes of balance towards nature.). Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. dest roying nat ural habitats. Concern for species. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. concern for others). To initiate and develop discussion and debate. To arrange for visiting speakers. values and habits. CFCs. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. To provide materials needed for practical work. loss of bio-diversity. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. deforestation. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . viz.. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature.mat erials. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. diversity and stability. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection.5. The groups may exchange. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. etc. potable water. depletion of ozone. developing desirable attitudes. rather than conquest and mastery. Social responsibilit y (common good. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. Harmony with the nature . and 251 . orderliness and beauty).
preserving natural cycles. 4. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. 4. 4.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. 252 . 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.5. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.5.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3.
group discussions and seminars. Education for values. Publications Pvt.K. To provide reference materials for children’s use. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Social responsibilit y (common good.. June 5 7. Awareness. New Delhi : Sharma. Organising conferences. (ii) Air pollution. relat ion between population and pollution. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Kuldeep. 3. b. a. Y.K. Environmental Education. b. 8.2. To provide materials needed for practical work. new problems from science and technology. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Anmol Publications Pvt. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. effects. explosion deforestation. Environment and Human Rights.5. Modern Problems of Education. Ltd. reasons. sources of pollution.\ 4. over exploitation of ground water. concern for others). Providing. (2007).K. T.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Udaiveer. water scarcity. (2007). air pollutants from industries. a. sources. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . acid rain. a. (2004). Knowledge. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Nanda. 5. population. 6.K. greenhouse effect. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Ltd. importance of nitrogen cycle. (1997). 4. a. Rapid population growth. S. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. b. ozone layer deplet ion. Environmental Education. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. b. New Delhi : Authors Press. S.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 22.214.171.124 Idealism and aims of Education 126.96.36.199 Idealism and Curriculum 188.8.131.52 Idealism and methods of teaching 184.108.40.206 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and aims of Education 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and Curriculum 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and methods of teaching 126.96.36.199 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 188.8.131.52 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
184.108.40.206 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 220.127.116.11 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. in fact.1. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 .3. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. Therefore. the emancipation of spirit. enrichment and transmission of culture. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. It is self-realisation. Universal Education. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. The universe is regarded as a thought process.our life. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. Education must contribute to development of culture. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Education according to idealism. should be universal in nature. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. man is essentially a moral being. According to Rusk'. moral. Spiritual Development. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. promote and transmit it to rising generation. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. inviolable and hence holy life” In short." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage.” 5.
a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. Learning through discussion. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. So he should embody. 5. 3. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. 5. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant.3. affecting (feeling). so subjects like Religion.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. Learning through imitation. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . Learning through reading. History.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. Herbert advocated instruction method. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. a spiritual guide for the child. Ethics. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. It considers teacher as. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. 4. For intellectual development. and collation (striving) should find due place.1. an indispensable necessity. no doubt. However. Learning through questioning. Mathematics etc.the spiritual qualities of mankind. According to idealism. According to Frobel. friend and guide. Learning through lecturing. Philosophy. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. Science.” He is thus. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. the school is a garden.3. The plant can grow. So cognition (knowing). He carries the child from darkness to light.” 5. He sets the environment in which education takes place. 2.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching.1. For this no particular method has been suggested. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. hygiene. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. So health. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. subjects like Languages. should be there. An idealist teacher is a philosopher.
It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.preservation.4.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century.1. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Ross explains. 5. "Education should make 263 • . In the words of Ross. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. formal lessons or examinations.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.perfection and beauty.1. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. curricula. text books. Perfection of Human Machine. time tables. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.
Botany etc Language. Arithmetic. therefore. is based on the nature of the child. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Therefore. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. subjects like history. education should develop the child into Joyous. In all. Zoology. rational harmoniously balanced. 4. Literature. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Education should. • 5. It stresses basic sciences. useful and mature child. It is based on the psychology of the child. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality.4. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. There is no place for religious and moral education. Biology. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. 264 .2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. “Education finds its purpose. Chemistry. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Naturalistic curriculum.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that.1. Education also aims at helping the individual t.
1. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Heuristic method. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. he should be taught by experience alone. Learning through observation. 3. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. 5. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. 2. Learning through experience. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Rousseau says.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. It discards all rigid.1.1. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. In the . Dalton Plan.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Learning by doing. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 .4. a supplier of materials and opportunities. a provider of an ideal environment. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.4. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. 5. the stage.
Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Subjects. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. History. Agriculture. The aim of educational development. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Sciences. is true. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. diversified and flexible. Physical training. All Round Development of an Individual. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Social Science.1.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. 5. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. The individual has not only to adjust himself. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Continuous Growth. Personal Social Adjustment. Social Efficiency. intellectual.absolutism of idealism. Geography.5. 5. Vocational and 266 . It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared.5. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously.1. social and moral aspects. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. The subjects. alert and resourceful. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. a senior partner and a sincere guide.5. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. should find proper place.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching.1.5. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Learning by Doing. He must be trained. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. 5. a teacher occupies an important position. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.Technical Education. activities and experience should be integrated properly. He has to be active.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .” 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1.
5. 4. 5.1. Literature.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Astrology. literary or humanistic education. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Art.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Mathematics. Biography Philosophy. 2. Population Education. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Psychology. History. scientific and psychological education.6. rich and happy. Biology.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. practical. 2. The basic tenets of realism are 1. It favours child-centered.1. Study of Subjects like Language. Music and Dance. intellectual. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. liberal. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Education is preparation for a complete living. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 4. Chemistry.1. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life.6.5. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Crafts. Sex Education. 5. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. 3. 3. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. specific.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6.1. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.5. certainly and clearly.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. easily and pleasantly.1.6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life.5. c. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Universal Education 2. d. has no end other than growth.1. 5. 5. Learning through imitation. Social Science. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. 6. Agriculture. History. naturalism. Learning through reading. 5. & curriculum. Physical training. Self preservation & Self expression 4. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Geography. in this lesson. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. e. a. 3.1. Vocational and Technical Education. Experimentation d. Child centered c. Learning through questioning. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Sciences.1.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Learning through lecturing. a. Learning through experience b. Demonstration and Observation 270 . pragmatism and realism. Self Realisation b. b. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Learning through discussion. a. Education according to pragmatism.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Tours / Excursion e. Rousseau 5. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Languages.
of Pathak. (2007). Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi : A. L. Narang C.P. Publishing corporation. R.5.H. (2007). P. Theory and Principles of Education. N. Pahuja. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. K. P.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman.1. (2003). (2004). Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers.P. O. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Foundations of Education. 271 . New Delhi : Bhatia.
18.104.22.168.4 Views about teacher 5.4.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.22.214.171.124.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2.3 Methods of Teaching 5.2.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 126.96.36.199.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.1 Aims of Education 5.5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1 Aims of Education 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.3 Methods of teaching 5.2 Curriculum 5.2.4 Views about teacher 5.2.2 5.2 Curriculum 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.3.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.1 Aims of Education 5.LESSON 5.
understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. 5. 2.2. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.5. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.2. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.2. mind and spirit.4 Role of the teacher 5. 273 .8 5. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. an artist.7 5. you will able to: 1. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. Tagore was a poet. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. Gandhiji was primarily a social. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. 5.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.5.2.2. 3.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. content and methods. economic and political reconstruction in our country.22.214.171.124 5. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.
strength of mind. "I attach more.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. self-restraint and service of humanity. In the words of Gandhiji. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. His scheme of education is life centred. It really provides opportunity for character building. righteousness. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. mind and soul of children He further observed.3. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote.supporting. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. 5. 274 . Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality." Dignity of Labour. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. 'Man is neither mere intellect. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. it is education of life. nor the gross animals body. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. through life and for life.2. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education.
According to Gandhi. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Music. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. 5.3. wood work. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. leather work have been suggested. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. Individual and Social Aims. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 .2. "Development of the moral character. the realization of the ultimate reality. Only good individual forms a better society. metal work. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Mother-tongue. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Art. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.Training for Leadership. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. General Sciences. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. gardening. Drawing and Hindustani.
2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Basic education is other wise known as 4.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. proficient. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.2. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. men of 276 .4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.trained. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1.knowledge. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education.3.2. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Education must be child centered.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. That is why. 5. He also advocates freedom for the child. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.
he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. He believed in the oneness of humanity.2. He was a true patriot.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. • Ideal of citizenship. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. • Education should involve manual work.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. • Cult of non-violence. he was a true Vedantist 5. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. Gandhi in 1937. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.3.K. 5. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.” Like all other ideals. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . He was deadly against untouchability.
2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Civics. International Understanding. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. could help in forging unity among all. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner.4. stronger in power than ever before. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. he said.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Dance. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully.2. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. deeper in. Geography. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. sentiment. Music. Religion and Psychology. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. That way only. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. International understanding. Botany. It should help. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Chemistry. wider in range. Tagore said. the more dedicated and devoted. (vi) Philosophy.Language and Literature . etc. complete manhood could be attained. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Zoology." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. It should help the learner have good physique. them solve problems of day to day life. Therefore. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. "Mankind must realise a unity. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. 279 .
2.4. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. Activity Method Heuristic Method. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. 5. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.4.2. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. 5. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners." 5.2. 280 . Tagore rightly says.” He further says. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. In 1921.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.4.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.
Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. It is open to all irrespective of country. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. 9. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. 10. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere.g. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. race. 281 . Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11.
Concept of Education. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. He believed in to learning or selflearning. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education for Self-realization. Education should make a person self-reliant. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Education for Self-reliance. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Purity of thought. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Education for strong Moral Character. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Book learning. man making.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. According to him. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 .5. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual." He was against the theoretical type of education. Freedom.2. 4. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. 3. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. work and deeds come out of it.” 5.2.5. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. 2.
sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. And above all. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Of course. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Every individual should be trained for concentration.2. Thirdly he wished that games. 5. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things.5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta.5. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Secondly he wanted Science. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. A physically strong person is the need of the society. 5. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study.the learners on different students in the discussion. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. engineering and technical subjects.5. That will serve the purpose of education fully. 6. Education for Physical Development. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Philosophy and Theology. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.2. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. The teacher should be the facilitator. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. Religion. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. 283 . philosopher and guide to the students He. 5.5. Swami. Discussion Method.2.
naturalist. 2. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. 5. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. 284 . in this lesson. 12. of course.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1.Substantiate your answer.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. 3. 5.6 LET US SUM UP We have. ears and eyes. legs. and pragmatist .2. Write short notes on Basic education. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. We have seen that Tagore. Their educational ideas. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. Gandhiji as a Idealist. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers.
leather work have been suggested.2. Technique of Correlation 6. metal work. 2. 8. Activity Method b. 5.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 5. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Cult of non-violence. Self-Study b. Debate and Discussion Method. 10. a. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. 5. gardening. wood work. b. a. d. a. Activity Method d. f.4. 3. a. 1937 7. Learning by Doing c. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Education should involve manual work. 9. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. c. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Self realization. Explain Vishwabharathi. Ideal of citizenship. Meditation and concentration c. Basic education. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Discussion Method 285 . c. Teaching while Walking b. Heuristic Method. 11. Nai Talim 4. e.
K and Narang C. Dhiman. B. (2007). C. Pahuja. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. J. P.5. 286 .P.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. L. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. P. N. Theory and Principles of Education. Publishing Corporation. (2004). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : A. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. O. (2002). Foundations of Education.H. N. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. on Bhatia. New Delhi : Aggarwal. (2003). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2007).2. K. Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt.
3.3.3.LESSON 5.9 5.11 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.8 126.96.36.199 5.3.5 5.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.10 188.8.131.52.2 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.4 5. In this lesson.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.1 5.7 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.
maintained or eliminated. in Russia or in Japan. In the words of Kerney and Cook. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. While education is a process. From the latter point of view. living in the hilly area. in fact . Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. Then in a big country like India. present behaviour may be modified. 5. Curriculum is intimately related to education. Since the demands. the plateau area and 288 . Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. In it. While education is learning. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion.3. In the former sense. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. in the form of new experience. state the meaning of curriculum 2.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static.under the direction of the school. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. the plain area. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. the desert area.. Both the processes are integrated. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. you will be able to: 1. new behaviour may be acquired. it is identical wit h socializat ion.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. is a means to the process. curriculum signifies situations for learning. there is a large number of communities.S. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. A g o o d curricu lu m.A.3. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. 5. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. curriculum. in the U.
However. environment. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. irrespective of their needs and environment.3. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. studying therein. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. democratic and socialistic country. 5.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. Besides craft. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. In fact . physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. Again. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. From a slave-country we became secular. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. it is. It must differ from locality and from society to society. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. the learning capacity of children. too. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. according to modern trends in the educational process. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. therefore. and 289 . (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. differs from individual to individual. customs and needs. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it.
remote or immediate. 4. Goals of Primary Education. uninspiring and unscientific. National Integration. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed.. They are achievable. 5. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. e. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. Vocational Efficiency. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. etc.. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. general or specific. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. unsatisfactory. aims. emotional. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. Knowledge Objective. tangible. which may or may not be attained. Goals of Secondary Education. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. specific.. individual or Social and so on.g. They are visionary goals e. etc.g. Self Realisation. they depend on the political. of classroom.. moral. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. 1. The word “Curere” means 2. 2. unambiguous and functional. e. Application Objective. They speak of perfect goals. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. eg. social.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. 290 . They speak of immediate purposes of education. in instructional objectives.3.g. social. 3. So it is inadequate.. They may be ultimate or proximate. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. Understanding Objective. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. aesthetic and spiritual development. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
on the playing fields. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. in the class rooms.5. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. but it includes the totality of experiences. educationists.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. Crow and Crow remarks. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. capacities. According to Crow and Crow. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. finding them very interesting and captivating. The interests. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. heavy fire. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization.” 291 . abilities. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. needs. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit.3. Raymont rightly says. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus.
The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. mental. capacities and abilities. moral. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. Due to these variations and differences. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 .” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. time in a useful manner. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. aptitudes. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. They often waste it or rather kill it.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. tendencies. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. urges. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children.
there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. 2. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. development of professional capability at all levels. 293 . learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. phased preparation. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. To ensure success of the process. analysis and concretise the curricular elements.curricular. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. administrative programme need be planned. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. organized. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. Similarly. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. 3. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning.
1937 19. a. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. laboratory. 12. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. 5. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. in the class room. library. 11. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. workshop.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. 17.3. 10. 5.3. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 .9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Child Centred Education b. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. principles of curriculum construction. 18. Relation with Life c. Run. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum.
(2007). Curriculum and Instruction. Curriculum Development. (2007). S. P.S. Innovations in Education. S.3. Bhalla. Lakshmi. (2007). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. New Delhi : Isha Books. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. (2001). 295 . and Sarita Kumari. D. N.5. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.K. New Delhi : Authorspress.
2 184.108.40.206 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .220.127.116.11.9 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.LESSON 18.104.22.168.4 22.214.171.124.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.7.5 5.4.1 5.4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 126.96.36.199 5.4.7 Scientific Attitude 5.3 5.4.10 5.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.7.4.
superstition or emotion. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.4. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. tolerance for the opinions of others. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. newer and newer industries started growing. 4. 297 .4. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. in the economic reconstruction of society. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.during the second half of this century. honesty. know the importance of science education. Gradually. explain the concept of scientific attitude. 5. open-mindedness. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. 5. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century.5. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. 2. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . We mean curiosity.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age.4. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. 3. yet real advancement in this area was achieved .3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. you will be able to: 1.
These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Through examinations. 3. After such experience and training. seminars and symposiums. stipends and appreciations in various ways. 3.4. 5. Organisation of science fairs. Schemes of teaching science. 7. Central science workshop.So that.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. 2. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Promotion of science clubs. Through newspapers.4. 5. Devotion towards nature increases. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. 5. Thinking and memory develops. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Principles are formulated. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 6. Love for truth enhances. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. 4. 2. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 4. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. as well as of the society. Selection for science education. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 5. 6.
They experience natural phenomenon. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. They ask many questions about the objects they see. each child to “enquiry skill building”. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. sex or religion. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. They encounter many social events as they grow. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . 7. In the inquiry approach. objectivity. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. After presenting the problem. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. For laboratory and workshop techniques. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.needs and conditions. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life.6. 5. 5. Write any two advantages of Science Education. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. Enquiry teaching is.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. therefore. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations.4. should provide opportunities to. Training of science teachers. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. It is.4. essential that teachers.
Herma Wouk. 5.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation.6. 6. stern pursuit of accurate data.4. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Evidence. Adopting creative models of teaching. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. 5. Giving less directions. 300 . Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. if they like. commands or orders. 5. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. 3. 4. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. test. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to ask questions and experience things.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Appreciating pupils ideas. Social sciences. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. . .books. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.4. 3. 2. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. It requires consistent thinking.
A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. To achieve this we should understand what it means. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. The students observation. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. These include open mindedness. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. 5.7. of vast resources running waste. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. friends. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. to develop among the learners.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. school and society at large. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. neighbourhood. and emphasized during the learning process . They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. critical thinking and suspended judgments.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions.(Smith 2008). keen observation. (Vaidya 2007). it must be encouraged. practiced. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. For instance. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. therefore should be unbiased and objective.4.
rumor. 302 . the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. 2007). Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. understanding and logic.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. The intention to respect another’s point of view. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.7. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth.4. intuition or wishful thinking”. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. he studies all aspects of it. In considering a situation or a problem. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. 5. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. think and work it”. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. or superstitions. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. (Das. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education.
4. 5. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.4. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.7. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. • 5.7. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. but to begin only after careful planning. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook.4. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. 304 . it must be encourages. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook.
b. Love for truth enhances. a. Planning of activities 5.4. objectivity.5. a. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.B (2008). a. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Yadav. b. S. Reflections on Scientific attitude. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. a.S.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. (2006). 305 .11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Study of superstitions d. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.4. Rao. (2000). Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. D. (2008). Proper example of the teacher c. 5.4. Wide reading b. 4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Adopting creative models of teaching. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. 5. b. N. M. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. 3. The intention to respect another’s point of view. 16. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. Vaidya. 2.
9 5.4 5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5 5.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.5. you will be able to: 1. 306 .188.8.131.52 5. state the concept.10 5. 5. actively.5.11 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.3 5.LESSON 5.2 5. areas of institutional planning.5.7 5. objectives and characteristics.6 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5.1 184.108.40.206. 2.
and. teachers and students is not lost sight of. • To make institutional planning more successful. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. each teacher. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. in the task of educational planning. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. • to make planning development-oriented. 5. which become the bases for further planning at the district.5. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. 5. and supplement planning from above.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. every parent. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. every teacher. Institution should be regarded as the unit.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. • to involve teachers and school administrators.3. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. and every student in the process of educational planning. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. executive as well as public. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. State and national levels from below. and each student are regarded as separate entities. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly.5. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n.
Examinations. which will be discussed in the general. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. 308 . Co-curricular activities.5. 5. (2) Co. council and. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. Classwork. Syllabus.curricular Activities. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.• implemented. it becomes the basis for school inspection. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. approved after making necessary modifications. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. etc.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. and Personnel services. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.5. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan.
etc. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Organisation of class-room libraries. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Courts. Running science clubs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. Conducting of educational. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Equipping of laboratory and library. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Preparation of instructional material. Editing the school magazine. charts and apparatus. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Preparation of models. 1. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Undertaking remedial instruction services.No. scientific and historical excursions. etc. 3. etc. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Organisation of Students’ Association. Organisation of Pupils. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Organising play-for-all programmes. hobby-centres. Improving the internal assessment. etc.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. 2. Fair distribution of syllabi.
5. students’ associations.5. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. science teachers’ associations. pupils. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. teachers. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. and —pupil-pupil. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. which are divided as the in. understanding. and solidarity. involving mainly human materials. headmasters associations. pupil310 . educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. administrator-supervisor. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.” The human relationships in. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. teacher-teacher.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. parent-teacher associations. etc. administrator-administrator. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. administrator-pupil. parents. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. teacherinspector. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. Administrator-State. teacher-managing body. teacher-pupil. ii. teacher-State. co-operation. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning.
supervision. It relates to administration of a single educational institution.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. 311 .State. It is also being modernized to become a technique. to carry out. pupil-non-official functionaries. and to serve. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. It covers personnel and material management. To administer means to manage. pupil-community leader. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. to accomplish. V. social sciences and other disciplines. superintendence. pupil-parent. to attend.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. now-a-days. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. teacher-parent. Good. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. According to C. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. administrator. teacher-community leader. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. supervision and superintendence. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. organisation. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. control. pupil-inspector. organisation and management. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. etc. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management.
Those.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. Democratic Management .The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. 5. who occupy the managerial positions.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees.Any good management will always have good public relations. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. If it is more. 6. Better Human Relationships .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . 9. 4.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. 11.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. The relationship should change from master. Cost-Benefit Analysis . Economic Management . should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. 12. Worker Participation . 2.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. 8.Of all the approaches. Motiviation . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. This is the latest democratic trend in management. If the cost benefit ratio is less.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. low. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.The manager should have leadership traits.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. 7. Rapport between the Management and Employees . Liasion with the Public . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. He should be an artist in human relationships.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . 3. Communication . it is not worth-while. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. Leadership . Decision Making . 10. Socio-Scientific Approach . Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . 13.
Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.These two are. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. 313 .5. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 5. to improve the quality of education it provides. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . objective. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. 14.too.g. 19. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. and cooperative performance should be ensured. 18.5. improvement of teaching methods.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. enrichment of curricula. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. characteristics and areas of institutional planning.
R. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Classwork. 4. APH Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. b. a. Instruction. Educational Administration. S.5. Tarachand and Prakash. 314 . and Personnel services. it becomes the basis for school inspection.K. Examinations. Leadership c. b.M. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Motiviation d. In group and Out group 5. Singh. b. c.5. Fundamental of Educational Management. (2001).11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (2003). a.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (1995). f. H. e. 2. a.5. Communication 5. NUEPA. d. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Syllabus. Decision Making b. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. a. Co-curricular activities.
First Aid. Economic 315 .I. Balanced diet. New evaluation procedures. higher education.1 Gurukula system of education.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.5 Regional Educational Development in India .2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .CORE PAPER . Preservation of nutrients. Examination reforms.3 Directive Principles . Education by Christian Missionaries 1. Common ailments of Children. Communicable diseases .3 Educational Influences of Home. Buddhist and Jain system of education. 2. Sex-education 4.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.teachers should have : 1. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.Article 45 . Healthy Food Habit 4. School. Code of conduct for teachers.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. 4. Community and Mass Media 2.2 Nutritional deficiencies.1 School Health Programme.Preventive measures. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Inspection and Supervision 3.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. social Impact 3.Religious and Modern Education 1. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.1 Primary Education : Education for all. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. Realized the problems of school education.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. physical education and environmental education 5.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. 1.Pre-service and In-services facilities.1 Inculcation of Socialism. nutritional requirement.4 India's Secular Policy . Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. population education. women education and teacher education in India. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. wastage and Stagnation 3.
Saraswathi T. 5. 7.N. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. New Delhi: NCERT 3. B.1 Idealism.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Realism. (1999) Culture. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Tagore 5. Taneja V. Ram S. (2004) Problems of Education in India. and Human Development. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. 316 . T.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Pandy V. REFERENCE 1. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5.N. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2005) Foundations of Education. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.K. Mishra.R.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Kalan Paper Packs 10. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.S. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Hemchand. Curriculum and national goals . Ghanta R.K.K. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.4 4. and Dash B. Delhi : University Publications 2.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Socialization.4. and Sharma R. R.K. Naturalism and Pragmatism .2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Mahatma Gandhi.Aim.C. Sharma. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Prof. and Mohanty R.
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