Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

UNIT: 1 – V



Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer



Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56


Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University


67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5



3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education

127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233


5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4


UNIT – I 7 .

8 .

Lesson 5. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. and Jain system of education. Jainism and their educational implication. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Lesson 4. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. The need. discusses the regional educational development in India. In. Lesson 2. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. 9 .

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5.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.6 Education during British Era 1.5 Jain system of education Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1.1 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.5.LESSON Hartog Committee (1929) 11 . Buddhist system of Education Charter Act of 1813 1.1.2 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.6.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.5.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1.

7 1. 1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.1. in opinion. India.1. both present and future. British system of education presented the modern western model.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.1. has a long past history starting in vedic education. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. you will be able to: 1.1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. Education in India.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.3. elucidate the education during British Era. The history of education passed through Buddhist. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. “a class of persons. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.8 1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.6. describe the Jain system of Education 4. Indian in blood and colour.1.1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. Muslim and British periods.1. but English in taste.1.1. That 12 . in morals and in the intellect”. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.6. 1.1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.9 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

Curriculum. High Status of Teachers. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Teacher as Parents. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. 13 . Residential Schools. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Pupils were taught. Method of Instruction. to light. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. 6. 13. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. not en masse by the class method. 11. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. the monitorial plan was followed. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. individually. with grants of land or money. 16. from darkness. religious and spiritual. Free and Accessible. if they thought fit to do so. 9. The immediate aim of education. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. however. Religious and Spiritual. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. 12. 14. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. followed by explanation by the teacher. There was. 8. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. No State Control on Education. 5. questioning by the pupil. as it is generally considered to be at present. and to agriculture and trade. It was not merely intellectual. Education of Moral. Where pupils were many. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil.knowledge was real. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Forests as Centres of Education. managed entirely by Brahmans. Role of Travel in Education. 10. Method of Study. Individual Teaching. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. 4. Immediate Aim Vocational. 3. generally. It was also moral. from eternal to immorality 2. Education was a private affair of the people. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings.

Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. 1. studied Vedas. It was suited to the needs of the society. They were very cordial and intimate.17. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today.3. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . Wide-Spread Education in Women. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. lived a life of celebacy. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. watching dances or listening to music. Right contemplation 1. Consequently. Right means of livelihood 6. etc. Right knowledge 2. It was denied only to the ill. killing of any living being. I take Refuge to Sangh. which included abstaining from theft. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. use of cosmetics. After attaining the age of 20. Right memory 8. the student had his head shaved of all hair. medium of Pali. disease and death of the human beings. taking things without being offered. Right speech 4. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. use of intoxicating things. the student remained in a state of Shramana.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. partaking of food at prohibited times. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms.C. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. I take Refuge to Dharma.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. 15 . He was then ordained to obey ten rules. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves.4. he was qualified to become a monk. except the Chandals. the most significant of which were the following 1. Right activity 5. every class in society. Right endeavour 7. 2. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. impure conduct. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. in which. had the right to receive education. Right thought 3. Education was imparted through the. the handicapped. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. 1.1.

medicine. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. however. beg for alms. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. eat food thrice a day. knowledge of reviving the dead. 2. objectives of human life. 7. It comprehended education in writing. Even at this stage.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. agriculture. magic. These are called later Buddhist schools. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. aspirations and. meaning. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. women occupied a position inferior to men. commerce. 4. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. Hence. military science. approach. On this occasion. Whatever its nature and extent. Life is in a flux. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. education was impart in art. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. a change is not only total but also perpetual. and. handicrafts. a continuous change creating 16 . As reality is becoming.3. 6. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. nature. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. 8. nothing is of any permanent consequence. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. bodily gestures. archery. etc. geology. along with education in script writing. animal husbandry. therefore. be considered the aim of education It. cottage industries. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. Later on. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. depth and range. of clothes. etc. 1. assumptions. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. 3. has no metaphysical value for life. archery. it is regarded as true”. wear three items.4. etc. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. the science of taming and training animals. elephant lore. After this ritual. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. so long as it successfully does so.. the presence of the monks was essential. 5. changing the goals. control over sensuous activities. arithmetic and religious discussion. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. Initially. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. knowledge of animal cries and sounds.

however. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. 5. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable..5. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. In fact. Jainism insists 17 . 1. However. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. Its chief feature. its pessimistic outlook on life. i. whatever works are true and good. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. it is much older than the latter. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. therefore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit and peculiar situations. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Education must.e. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. and to give it a shape that it has today. Write Eight fold path . such as.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. goes to Vardhaman. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Validity is effective and consequences.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’.

more stress on individual aims.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. e) To renounce the world. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. and believe in happiness to all. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. b) Right knowledge. d) To lead a celibate life. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. 3. 2. 8. b) Not utter falsehood. They are: a) Not to injure. 9. thought and deed. and is to be redeemed and liberated. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. 6. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul.1. c) Right conduct. but on both. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 18 . hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. 2. c) Not to steal.5. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. 4. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. 10. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. 1. 3. 1. 5. 7. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. Hence. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. it has a foot in both the words. Development of personality as an individual. As such. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection.

hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. practised and not only aspired for. therefore. Hence. 2. that would be socially desirable. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. Teaching should be social and tolerant.5. 5. 19 . here and now. 1. What are Triratnas ? . 8. Teaching must develop these faculties. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas.5. success and love.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 3. Belief in transmigration of soul. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . education should develop sense of discrimination. 2.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Jiva is essentially karmic. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. and should bring happiness to all. 1. 3. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. 4. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue.

1. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. North West Province and Punjab. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. and not for life.1. Madras. However. science.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. philosophy and literature of Europe. To set up separate departments of.6.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. 1. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. primary 20 .6. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. 1.6. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. 1. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians.6. 1953). 2. 1. with rally and rout. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. Bombay.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report.

The universities dominated the secondary education. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). • Secondary education.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. Later on. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. self-respecting and competent. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. secondary education became a step towards university. To ensure qualitative improvement. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. was neglected.6. • Universal free primary education. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. at the primary level. 1. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system.K. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. At that time M.6.6. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). 1. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. In 1882. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. 1. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10. all children are to have a common curriculum.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire.1. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. After this stage. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial.At the primary stage (6-11 years). The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry.

instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. The system of education was well-organised. education was impart in art. a. 3. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 3. military science.1. Right knowledge. questioning by the pupil. The immediate aim of education. 1.1. 23 . 4. geology. During the Buddhist period. 2. along with education in script writing. 1. 5. Right contemplation. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. etc. It was suited to the needs of the society. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Right means of livelihood. 4. handicrafts. Right activity. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. 6. Right memory. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. establishment of universities. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. arithmetic and religious discussion. Right speech. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. b. of European literature. Right thought. followed by explanation by the teacher. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. Right endeavour. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. science and English language. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. the science of taming and training animals. archery.. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration.

History of Indian Education System. J.K. (1984). Sharma. b.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. b. (2009). 11. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. 1882. and Nath. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). Y. 9.C.7. Development of personality as an individual. 10. 24 . a.1. 8. Singh. Right knowledge. Right conduct. Ltd. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Y. Development of Educational System in India. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. more stress on individual aims. c. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. Right faith. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. R. Aggarwal. a.C. (2007). Improvement of Literature. Hence.K. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. 1937 1. Sargent report 12. J.

3.2.6 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.9 1.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.8 Kothari Commission Secondary Education Commission 1.1 1.3. The 25 .4 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.1 University Education Commission 1.2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.7 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.5 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.

The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. diversification of courses of studies.2. medical and legal education. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. Post-graduate 26 . Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. explosion of enrolment. 2. 1.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. technical. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. examination system. vocational education. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. National Council for Women’s Education 5. you will be able to: 1. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. expansion of vocational. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. technological engineering.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1.2. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. 1986 1.2. There had been vast institutional expansion. standard of teaching. girls and women education besides primary. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11.conditions of the teachers. curriculum.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1. S. National Board of Teacher Education 10. New Educational Policy. analyse the progress of education in free India. secondary and higher education. Kothari (1964-66) 8. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6.

the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. the chairman of University Grants commission. Government of India. research et. D. quantity.2. 1952. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. Education is the key to our allround development. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.3. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. Therefore. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. A meaningfully Partnership.3.3. 1.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. 1. A.2. utility and financial outlay. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. National System of Education. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. Kothari. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.teaching. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. However. in January 1985. 4. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. Education for Equality. 1.S. The Essence and Role of Education. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. accumulated over the years. 1966. the New National Policy on Education. 1986.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. 2.2. quality. material and spiritual. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . 3. Problems of access. Finally. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.

of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools.” Thus. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. The UNESCO Report. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. attitudes. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. It can train practical aptitudes. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. the concepts of work experience. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. 28 . the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Thus.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. By working with hands. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the minorities and the handicapped.

This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. According to.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. if he wishes. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. the Commission.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. “The aim of these colleges. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. co-ordinations. With adequate planning. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education.” The Mudaliar Commission. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X.” the Kothari Commission mentioned.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. The Radhakrishnan Commission. In 1955. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. As such. The Education Commission. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. Besides. “It may be described. it will conduce self.

if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. the. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976.ot her. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. In addition. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. admission requirements to vocational courses. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. Subsequently.. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. etc.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. The Central Advisory Board of Education. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. Therefore. raising the special facilities. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. With a view to relating education to the life. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. the rigid streaming of courses. for quality of life in the rural areas. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. the semester and credit system. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs.

meaningful. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.and the world of work. The wave of Basic Education.defined S UP W as “purposive. Commerce. In short. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. According to committee. under the diversified curricula of seven streams.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. aimed at this goal. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. preferably spinning and weaving. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. who conceived the System of Basic Education. which are useful to the community. The Father of Nation. giving importance to productivity in the national development. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. technological courses including Agriculture. which swept the country for over two decades. felt that education should be centred around a craft. 31 .2. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. which offer scientific. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000.. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. 1. manual work resulting in either goods or services. etc. meaningful. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.

The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. tools and techniques and 3. Health and Hygiene 2. Experimentation with materials. be that the work involved is: 1. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. so that it is educational in essence. Community work and social service. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. The teachers should make use of. Some Hints to Teachers 1. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Productive 2.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. as far as possible. Clothing 5. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Work practice. 2. Educative and 3. Shelter 4. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Culture and recreation 6. 3. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Food 3. locally available materials and tools. 4. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. 32 . The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities.

Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. improve discipline. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. It can become an instrument to build character. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. Productive Work 33 . Reduction of gap in work and education 2. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. Check on educated unemployed 4. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. as far as possible.5. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. inculcate a faith. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. removal of illiteracy. etc. the local community should be actively associated. slum clearance. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. To make education more realistic. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Merits of the Programme 1. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. 6. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. Education through work The SUPW should.2. Community Service In-1972. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. 1.

etc.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Define SUPW 34 . In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. AICTE was set up in year 4. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. offering first aid. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. in turn. should involve itself in the educational effort. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. helping the adults-in productive work. traffic control. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. skills and better future for the children. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other .and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. if not productive. The community. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5.

1955 4.2. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Dr. d. meaningful. 35 . 1. 3. manual work resulting in either goods or services.2.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. f. Write short note on SUPW.1. Radhakrishnan 2. which are useful to the community. c. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. b. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India.2. a. 2. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. 6. 1952 3. e. 1.

(2007).P. R. Development of Educational System in India. Y.K. Ltd. History of Indian Education System. Rao. History and Problems of Indian Education.1. Y. and Nath. History of Education.2. B. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. P. Amala.C. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.P.(2005). Anupama.K. A.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. 36 .. (2007).K. and Rao.D. Singh. : Sharma. V. (2005). J. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi: A. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2009).H.

2 1.369 words in the English language version. Being the supreme law of the country. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.1 Significance of DPSP 1. containing 395 articles.3. and liberty.8 1.3. for a total of 117.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3. democratic republic.7 1.3. 1950. there is an official Hindi translation. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. 37 .4 1. it came into effect on January 26. directive principles and duties of citizens.9 1.3.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3. 1949. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. assuring its citizens of justice.3.3.5 1.1 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.6 1.3. Besides the English version. procedures. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3. equality.3.3. establishing the structure.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.

Two days later. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. administrative. 2. Dr. legal and environmental. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. in sessions open to public. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 1. 1947. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. 1947 meeting of the Assembly.In the August 14. you will be able to: 1.3. After many deliberations and some modifications. 1. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. The Assembly met. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. for 166 days. 1950. the Drafting Committee was appointed. On August 29. 3. learn the role of central and state government on education. According to the constitution. spread over a period of 2 years. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. with Dr. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. 4. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. understand our Indian constitution. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 38 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1947. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. economic.3. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. social.3. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. political. Through them. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. 1.3.

and in other cases of undeserved want. Article 39A. Right to work. No abuse of children. Protecting children from exploitation. The State shall. make effective provision for securing the right to work. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. That the health and strength of workers. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Equal pay for both sex. Article 40. Equal justice and free legal aid. provide free legal aid. Organisation of village panchayat. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. in particular. Liking wage etc. Minimising inequalities of opportunities.government. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Condition for dignity of children. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. and shall. Article 43. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Article 42.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Appropriate concentration of wealth. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Protecting health of the workers. sickness and disablement. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. on the basis of equal opportunity. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Minimising inequalities in status. old age. men and women. 39 . for workers. Article 41. The State shall endeavour to secure.

Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Note: Subs. The State shall endeavour to provide. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. to all workers. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Article 43A. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Article 45. agricultural. in particular. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. in particular. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Article 46. work. Article 49. Uniform civil code for the citizens. The State shall take steps. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 47. in particular. Article 44. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. a living wage. Article 48. Participation of workers in management of industries. [declared by or under law made by 40 . Article 48A. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. by suitable legislation or in any other way. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. and. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. industrial or otherwise. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. (Original Article 45. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. 2002 for “45. See also Article 21A).by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way.

Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. Separation of judiciary from executive. 1.3. from spoliation. disfigurement. destruction. may be law determine”. 2. removal. Article 51. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.Parliament] to be of national importance. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. Article 50. 2002. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Article 45 . Article-21A Right to Education.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. disposal or export. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. as the case may be. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Promotion of international peace and security.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. caste. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. 3. 8. 2002. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. iii. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. ii. race.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 5. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. in particular. language or any of them”. and shall protect them. 7. his guardian has given his consent thereto. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. 4. if such person is a minor. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. from justice and all forms of exploitations. 6. and.” 42 . admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion.

3. Article 351 gives importance to 6. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Educational Reforms From time to time. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. the forms. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. and by drawing. 2. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. wherever necessary or desirable. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. The central government determines targets and promotes education. & 1.9. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. for its vocabulary. 43 . primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”.

Local bodies and private enterprise. private agencies etc. etc. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education.3. All India Council of Medical Science. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. 4. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. 5. the state governments. The following pilot projects. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. So that they may work well. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Merit scholarships in the public schools c. to achieve the desired ends. So as to encourage education on right lines. By starting these projects. Production of suitable for children and adults f. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. 7.. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. 8. 6.

Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. books. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. The 45 .3. 1. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. 1. 12. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. etc.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. education for women. reports etc. 9. is the state responsibility. handicapped.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Material concerning nation-wide interests. research. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. 11. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. 3. training and statistics. 10. are published by it. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. 4. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers.

articles in the Directive principles. 5. Explain Directive principles 2. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.3. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Write short notes on a. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. 1. Article 21A c. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Article 45 b. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Article 46 4. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 46 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles.

embodied in Part IV of the constitution. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 2002. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Clearing House function 9. Article 45 . 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Dr.5. The Directive Principles of State Policy. Development of Hindi Language 6. Article 29 and 30 7.3. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. b. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. b. Describe the educational role of State Government. Ambedkar 2. Article-21A Right to Education. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 2002. 3. Article 46 5. a. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. a. a. 4. may be law determine”. 47 . The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.

L.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. S. (2009). (2004). Bhatia. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in Emerging Indian Society. S. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Dash. (2007). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.3. 48 . Ghosh. B.1. K and Narang C. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. K. (2008). Education in Emerging Indian Society.

4. Christianity.4.4.3. Islam.4 Moral education 1.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.4.7 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4.2 Position of religious education in a secular state like India INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.4. Buddhism etc. 1.5 1. religious education should be broad based.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4. Students should be 49 .3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1. Jainism.3 Precautions while introducing 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4.1 Why Moral Education 1.8 1.

4. know the position of religious education in our country 3. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. In the complicated and complex society of today. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.” Education broadens human outlook. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). enumerate the aims of religious education 4. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment.. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. As result of which. religious education and the concept of secularism. you will be able to: 1. India' can produce men of character. "In A multireligious society like ours. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. 1.and dedication. beauty and goodness so that 50 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. integrity. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. Thus. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions.4. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines.D. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. duty-consciousness. state meaning and need for moral education 1. According to E. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher.

Thus. if not regularly. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. In short. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. at least occasionally. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose.3. 1947 we achieved our freedom. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal.” From the above. rancour. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. all citizens are free to follow any creed. religion and democracy are same. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. They thought that any kind of narrow. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. Hence. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. it is clear that the State has no religion.3.4. through religious practices and 51 . they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. 1. realizes God in himself.4. Viewing the defects of religious education.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. As a matter of fact. No religious tax can be imposed on them. As our country is a country of diverse religions. castes and creeds. 1. According to Article 22. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. According to Article 19. Children attend these organizations. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education.

moral and spiritual values. intellectual and physical faculties of children. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. and what is evil. when he becomes an adult. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. It is religious education. temperament etc. one fully developed. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good.. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. aggressive. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. which can mould. He also learns about social. It helps to modify habits attitudes. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.teachings. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. As a result of which. which help him for the development of his character. for the development of the individual and the society. Good education. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. what is done and what is not done etc. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). If unreleased. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance.

In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. This should not be allowed to happen. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. Therefore. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum.4. 53 . But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal.3.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. which is the basic need of a democratic life. towards the society.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. 3. 1. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. If we open the pages of history. 2.

service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values.5. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 .4. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. 9. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. For this. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. examples of patriotism. stories of moral greatness. Gurudwara as. 11. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Life histories of great persons of the world. 10. Write Article 22 2. churches and mosques 7. therefore. fellow-feeling. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Since all religions have virtues. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. they should be discussed in the right earnest.

the methods of teaching.acquisitiveness). Aparigarha (Non. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 2. 1. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. students. 4. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Fearlessness. The content of the curriculum. Non-injury. They will play their role effectively. therefore. “Let all be happy and free from disease. Service to others. 1.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. is that which develops moral values. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. 7. Without moral values. 3. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 8. 3.4. Brahmacharya (celebacy).6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Ahimsa (Non-violence). 5. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Asvada (Control of palate). Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. 6. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Patriotism. Satyam (truth). let men see well of one another. Moral education. 6. 2.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. 55 . the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption.4. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Purity. Cultivation of emotions. 8. 4. 5. Self sacrifice. 7. in the home.

National unity and Spiritual values. Community singing should also be encouraged 2.9. Unity of mankind. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). The School Assembly should be held for a few. 2. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 56 . loyalty and self-sacrifice. Simple texts and stories concerning different. 10. Good temper. Asatyam (Non-thieving). 4. Sharivashram (Physical work). Secondary Stage 1. 11. In the school programme. Efficiency. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage.4. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. religions may be included in the syllabus. Integrity. discipline. minutes in the morning for group singing.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. 3. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . 3. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Good manners. 1. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Discipline. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction.

University Stage 1. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. 3. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. Silent meditation should be encouraged.4. patriotism and self-discipline. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. 5. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. In other words. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. 2. In this connection. 57 . love of humanity. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. should form a normal part of school programme. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. 1. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. The School Assembly should be held for a few. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. For this. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. a. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. Training of Character 3. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. 4. Discuss the aims of Religious education. In short. 58 . Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. minutes in the morning for group singing. 2. 1959 5. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. b. b. the. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully.4. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. Sri Prakasa 6 .4. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. a. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times.4. 2. 1.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion.1.

1. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). Anmol Publications Pvt. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. L. N. P.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.P. Dash. J. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.4. (2004). New Delhi: A. (2008). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.H.C. K and Narang C.H. N. Ltd. Theory and Principles of Education. M. Pahuja. (2003). Publishing Corporation. Bhatia. K. B. New Delhi : Siddiqui. 59 . (2007). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

11 1..13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5.e. Although. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.12 1.9 1.5 1.3 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.8 1.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.7 1.6 1.10 1. disparities between provinces/States. 1.5. 60 .1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.5.4 1. i.5.2

Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. you will be able to: 1. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.5. They therefore.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. 1. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. Accordingly. 5. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. work hard towards this end. 2. 1. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. they take appropriate measures. This leads to separatist movements. 7. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. waters.5. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.1. 3.5. energy. 1. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 8. roads. know the education suited to different environments. 61 .5. understand the regional educational development in India 3. 4. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. 6. etc. for example.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1.

some States became educationally far advanced.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. Secularism. Therefore. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. 2. while others remained educationally backward. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. and. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. on the basis of regional development may be formed. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. 3. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. Tight security arrangements should be made. some average.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. 62 . 4. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned.5. • Separate States (of course viable States). • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region.

freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Tezpur. Regional Centres of IGNOU. Out of this. the Union Government. Central Universities of Assam. Rs.84 crore was released in 2005-06. 1. since its inception in 1998-99. However.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.392.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. Jammu and Kashmir. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. NERIST. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. approved proposals worth Rs. while some States like Bihar.After the Planning Process has originated. the State Governments.14. NIT. In the Central sector.g. remained under developed.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. After the attainment of independence. library buildings. Itanagar.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. Guwahati. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. academic buildings. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. Even in each State. etc. Funds amounting to Rs. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. and provision of informal education to enable those. scholarships. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e.5. These projects are in various stages of implementation. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. 63 . Nagaland and NEHU. books. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has.480. Mizoram.. etc. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. Silchar.

The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.261.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). Tezpur University. 64 .05 crore and Rs. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Out of this an amount of Rs. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.500. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. During 2003-04.187.8 per cent in 05).60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.57 crore and Rs. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.501.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. A provision of Rs. Government expenditure on education. Moreover. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. too.5. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.40.

To add to the woes. telecom. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. too. 1. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. for instance.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Karnataka. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Andhra Pradesh. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Listing the positives. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. for which 16 sites. too. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Medical education. engineering and R&D. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. too. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. pharma. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Tamil Nadu. Karnataka. notes the study. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. English. Moreover. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. Kerala and Gujarat. The Chandigarh Administration. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21).5. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South.

etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. Of course. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. in which the learners live. the curricular subjects. even actually looking at the watch. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. the working days: an academic . The working hours of educational institutions. the interests. the needs. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. Then education become realistic and idealistic. when he will not be sure of time. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. and so on. In the same manner. The living conditions. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. while the former does not. 66 . the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. Hence it is called as need-based.year.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. taking the average in the middle. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. the socio-physical conditions. For a learner living in a rural area. the vocations. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. which a non-tribal person cannot do. the teaching methods. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. life-oriented and environment slanted. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends.

5. 2. 2. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. to suit education to different environments? 1.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. 1.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . 67 . How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.

H. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Education in Developmental Arena.2. R. some States have become more developed than others b. S.K. 60% 1. and Nair. A.N. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. some of areas which were under the native rulers. (2002). Giridhar. Education Scenario in India. C. Salim. New Delhi: Anmol Publications.5. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. a. 68 . during the British rule. S. remained undeveloped 3.G. (2008). Educational Development in India. (2001). Dubey. New Delhi: Authors press.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2001).

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. 71 . Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. secularism and democracy through Indian education. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. National Integration. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. school community and mass media. community development. semi literate and illiterates.

6.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.2 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.LESSON 2.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education Education for Secularism 2.6.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 . SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.9 2.1.

73 . for the people by the people”.1. 3) Provision of Manual Work.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. socialism and secularism 2. creed. socialism and secularism 2. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. 2. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. socialistic and secular state. 2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. understand the concept of democracy.1.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Democracy thus means power of the people. colour or wealth. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. there should be made no distinction of caste.2. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. This is the political aspect of democracy. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. Abraham Lincoln. The students may be associated with the management of the school. you will be able to: 1. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 5) Encouragement to Group Work.1.

hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together.. 11) Student Parliament. There are different brands of socialism. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. it soon spread all over the world. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 74 . declamation contest etc.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. may be planned. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 2. debates.1. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. Democracy means 2. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum.

5. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 2. the employer and the employee are all on the same level.1. but on the path of non-violence. the wealthy and the poor. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. none high”. oppression and disparity. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. the prince and the peasant. free from exploitation.1. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 2. Under it. 75 . 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 7) Special facilities for girls. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.5. service and cooperation. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society.

the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools.” In every political and educational corner. 11) State schools. "which seeks the development of physical. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. 76 . “India is a secular-country. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’.1. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. secularism is being propagated. Everyone says. According to Holydake. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 2. Write any two main features of socialism. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children.

5) It implies tolerance. 2) It permits freedom of religion. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. fraternity. 77 . the belief that the state morals. education etc. 8) It believes in co-existence.6. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact.1. Equality. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is.1. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. “Webster further says. 9) It stress free inquiry. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. That is why. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. 2. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. liberty.6. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. 3) It permits freedom of worship.opposed to religious education. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. people started believing in regionalism.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. In this type of prevailing situations. Moral values have to be imbibed. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. A large number of people is uneducated. There is need of making the people open minded. should be independent of religion. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. During the recent past. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. people have narrow mindedness.

Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. that the central string of all religions is one. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. In the hands of such teachers. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. education. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. 1) Moral Education. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. 2. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. There should be some internal checking of the material being. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 .Corruption and disbelief are rampant. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Patiala. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children.6. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions.presented by the students in the gathering. students belonging to different religions should be associated. The very sight of the building. tours and trips may be organized.1. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Religious Education. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. In the celebration of each such function. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. While doing so. No doubt. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. No doubt. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. The word “Seculum” means 7. The term secularism was first used by 8. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For.1. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Define Secularism 9.7 LET US SUM UP 79 .

Tuition free education b. 3. 5. b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.1. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. 6. 5. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Equal Opportunities for Admission. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Abraham Lincoln. Power of the people 2. a. there should be made no distinction of caste. George Jacob Holydake 80 . Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. Since socialism stands for equality.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. The students may be associated with the management of the school. 4.1. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. 3. Provision of Manual Work. a. 2. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Socialism aims at equality. 4. In the matter of admitting students in schools. d. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. a. for the people and the people”. Socialism aims at social justice. c. colour or wealth. This present age 7. creed. b. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Respect of Individual Personality.

(2003). Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. It permits freedom of religion. the belief that the state morals.” 9. N. P. L. K. b. J. a. N. should be independent of religion. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2007). Bhatia. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.8. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2004). Mohanty. Anmol Publications Pvt.1. It treats all religions on an equal footing. a. (2008). New Delhi : Shipra Publications.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). New Delhi : Pahuja. education etc. Dash. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. B. b. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. 10. Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. K and Narang C.C. Ltd. J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 81 . Theory and Principles of Education.

6.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.LESSON 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom. 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.9 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.8 2.2 2.3 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.1 International understanding in the school 2.7 2.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.5.

Children are the potential wealth of a nation. who are placed in his custody.2. therefore.2. social. and 4. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. The developmental roles of children. 83 .an instructor of school children. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. as it is t he aim o f modern education. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. 2. as workers. 3. aims and objectives of the school.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. as citizens. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. development. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. you will be able to: 1. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2.generation to another. moral. understandings. application. as learners. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. skills. mental. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. emotional. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. It involves physical. 2. A teacher is first and foremost. social and moral aspects.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. as persons. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. a r e 1. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. 2.

The following are some of such roles described in brief. 1. morally. Teacher as a Citizen Next. emotionally. inquisitive. The students live. physically fit for socially efficient. experiences and acceptance. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. 2. intellectually. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. 2. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. social and emotional health. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. culturally confident. member of his community at the outset. 3. economically effective. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. socially. mentally. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. a part of their day in 84 . Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong.All education should lead to better behavioural development. and aesthetically to become.2. He has to look after their physical. morally. He is to become an active member. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. motivated. mental.

Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. photographic clubs. Unless.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. and most of hours. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. activities of the society into which he is born. They will be spending with their parents. 2. faiths. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. It 85 . List out the role of teachers towards community development . objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. languages and religions. fine art associations.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. solve them. 4. India is a land of many castes. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Dr. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. science club. creeds.the school being under the custody of teachers. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning.

national anthem and other national songs.” 2. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. poems. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. Let us. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. Radhakrishnan. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 .1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. b. c. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. It should broaden the outlook. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. ‘We should not become parochial. Sampurnanand remarked. the citizens of the Republic of India. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. folklore and teaching of social studies. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. stand up straight. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . Political integration has already taken place to some extent. therefore. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. this integration of the Indian people. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. a. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. social studies.” Regarding the role of education.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. and make into one strong national unit. with straight backs and look up at the skies. narrow-minded provincial. 1.5. should be very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. The only process is the process of education. Nehruji has explained this as.2. At the primary stage the importance of stories. the study of language and literature.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one.

tours. 10. Scouts and Guides. 3. debates. Uniform for School Children. Textbooks. Taking Pledge. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Student Camps. 4. 9. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. 87 . Reverence of National Flag. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. militar y training like the NCC. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. languages and literature. 5. Co-Curricular Activities. t he st udent s and t he community. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Celebrations of National Days. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Singing of National Anthem. 6. sports. symposia. 8. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. ACC.different social sciences. educational excursions. and picnics. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. 2. dramatics and youth festivals. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. National Days—January 26. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. 7.

Admissions to schools. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. ways of thinking and doing things. Students Exchange and Tours. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. 15. 14. Open-Air Dramas.11. v. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. region or religion. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. 12. Recognition of Institutions. flora and fauna. 13. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. Admissions. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. iv. ii. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. 88 . language. colour. 16. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. 2. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. School Projects. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school.5. Educational and Travel Documentaries. iii.2. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools.

It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. irrespective of national boundaries. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained.2. vii. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Community dinners. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Define National Integration 3. ix. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. cultures and races on equal bases. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. camps. 2. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. viii.

5.6. Dr.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. 6. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. and the healthy development. (c) fairly tales. Teachers 90 . 2.6. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. 2. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. the international level. 3. therefore. (b) stories of children of other lands. that war. often in connection with anniversaries. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. C. of his body and mind.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.2. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. In a very real important as that of a national citizenship.2. patriotism is not enough. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it.friendships between children of different countries.F. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. if it happens.. This. Therefore. Strong has observed.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.” 2. 4. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen.e. Organising of debates and. Radhakrishnan states. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew.” Well Informed About World Situations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. an Englishman. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Impartial in their Treatment. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should not be propagandists. Indian and American. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Russian. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. a German.

Soon after they leave their educational institutions. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. there is wide spread frustration among all people. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. If this is done. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. leading to.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. Chronic Poverty . It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. understand and indiscipline: 1. 2.2. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. 5. the education function can be carried. and help the students to over . 3. which results in agitation and aggression language. As the school is but a miniature society. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions.Another major.2. It does not prepare students for life. majority of people are. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. Devaluation of Values .7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. Defects of the educational System . The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . 4. Wide Spread Frustration .

9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. sympathy and good will among the nations. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. 3. 5. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. 2. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. co-operation. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. etc. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. 93 . 4. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. community development. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. love.2. fellow feeling. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being.democratic nature. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System


Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.


STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency Functions and role of schools in the society Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency Radio as an agency of education Television as an agency of education Press as a medium of education Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.

9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.

16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together. MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.




1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society


2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.


Museums. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders.3. Then came newspapers. are increasingly used in education. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times.V. the invention of the printing press. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. led to the printing of books. Moreover. Hence. art galleries. “All the citizens of the community. He taught his students orally. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. To make them achieve their aim. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. 2. books. During the course of time. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. In fact. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. periodicals. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Now internet is being used. Crow and Crow write. Emphasising this thing. Define community. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room.

2.classroom teachers. In collaboration with the experts. music.6. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning.G. Effective means of presenting music. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom.telecast. 2. It stimulates curiosity and interests. It is also an important source of entertainment. Various talks. Students listen various talks. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Thus. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. It enlightens public opinion. In the emphasis is on sound. “Listening participation” in current history. Thus. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. A lot of work by way of pre. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools.3. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Reynolds. current affairs and other areas. for the teacher through school broadcasts. social studies. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. the teacher still occupies. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Important happening inventions. languages. the place of importance. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. rather than on picture. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. dram appreciation. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. politics. art. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. 101 .

School concerts. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. audibility and presentability. 4. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Participation of local teachers and pupils. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. 3. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. development of lessons. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. projects or creative activities. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. informal and non-formal education. at drawing room. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. at any place. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. Making learning an open system. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. Team-teaching demonstrations. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. style. At present. at recreational centers. 5. plays. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. travel talks. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Before presenting the programme. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. fol classical music. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. speech. at play. mathematics. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. 102 .

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.


Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.


For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.


Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.

2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.

Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4.4 Non formal educational system Agencies of Non formal education 2.7 2.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.2 2.LESSON 2.4.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.1 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.6 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .3.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.3.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4.5 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.8

As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. 8. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan.4. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 110 . open university. the temple. 4. open school.4. you will be able to: 1. 2. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. 2. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. Education associated with a degree or certificate. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system.3. imparted at the residence of the teacher. the community. 3. School is. the learner are acquainted. 4. say the Government or the private enterprise. 3.4. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. his mental alertness. Education. 2. 2. starting and ending at -a particular age. Education organised by some agency. his moral excellence and his social adjustment..1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. 9. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. In ancient time in India. 7. it was mostly. the family. compare formal and non formal system of education. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.2. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. 6. the mass media et.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the most important agency of formal education. To realize this objective of education. 5. 2.4.

depending on the jurisdiction. such as a high school or secondary school. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. also called tertiary. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling.3.3. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start.4. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence.4. In general. 2.a secondary education. capacity. Through early formal education. or academic degrees. structured education. Concepts of proportion. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. as well as vocational education and training. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.2. diplomas. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Some education systems have separate middle schools. Higher Education: Higher education. the elements of language are first learned. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . and relations are formed and developed through normal play. or post secondary education. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. third stage. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen.

Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Agencies can be classified as 2. What are levels of formal educational system? . Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. Write any two characteristics of formal education? .4. 2. 2. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. children with disabilities.4. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. 3.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. and remote dwellers. is an important agency of formal education.which will help for nation's development. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . late beginners etc.3. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

curriculum.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. i. until 1970 it had not been defined. It is functional. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems.formal education. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. it has its own valid claim to reality. open learning. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. It is much more responsive to needs and change. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. etc. systematic.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. adults as well as children. one could say that non-formal education is an active. it is a more effective tool for rural development.. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. According to Malcolm A. systematic.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. Open university. However. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. Thus. staffed. It unlocks the doors of development plans.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. financially supported life formal education. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. place of instruction. admissions. It is deliberate.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. Non-formal education includes adult education. adding up to a true learning society. Therefore.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. Adiseshiah. planned. continuing education and on the job oriented education.e. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. to help themselves.learning client take some learning objectives. “Non-formal education should 113 .

The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. 6. 2.e. exploring.” According to H. Lawrence. 4. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.” 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.renewal. international understanding. co-curricular activities.4. Part-time education. Covering life span of an individual. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.4. It should lay emphasis on the self.S. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.4. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. self.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.4. Process of marketable and vocationalised. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. the Ideas of citizenship. 5. place of education. 7. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. Preparation for future needs. national integration. 114 . socialism. i. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. modes of teaching. age. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. admissions. curriculum. To develop in the student.S. To help industrial workers to better their skills. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. 2. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.learning pattern. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. Flexibility in various aspects of education. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 3. evaluation etc.

To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. Technical. working adults. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2.4.4. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. 6. 10. To offer Secondary. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Meeting the omissions of formal education. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 5. 3.4. 2. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. in villages and those who live in towns. school dropouts. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. 4. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. 115 . Enabling the pupils to learn and earn.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. publication and information dissemination. Senior Secondary. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. Universalisation of primary education.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans.4. • 2. 9. Eradication of adult literacy. 7. 4. 2. 5. 3. 8.

All-round development i..5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. farm. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. effective in modern societal context.2. Therefore. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. 2.full time to learners – can be home. public libraries. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. Radio and television. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . To increase knowledge and 2. if organised in isolation. centres of correspondence education.4. etc.4. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. 2. Again. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. 3. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. 4. training centres in factories. To make if. others are formal and informal. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. factory. library. Institutions for formal education. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. open space. To better qualifications. self-employment iii.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.4. etc.

Written tests. institution. 117 . . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.V. 6. Face Contact programmes. Define non formal education. Lecturing T. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. List out any two aims of non formal education. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Give examples of non formal education? . Teaching to face teaching. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. radio. Correspondence lesson. 7. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. .

4. adults as well as children. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Open learning and Correspondence Courses.” 6. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. 4. b. 3. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.4. the college and the university come under this category. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. 4. Higher Secondary level and University level. a. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 118 . Open School.2. Pre-school level. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. 5. systematic. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Formal and Non Formal 2. 7. 2. a. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. 2. Secondary level. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. 2. Primary level. The school. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Open University. b.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. School 3. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution.

N. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education in Emerging India. (2003). (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.4. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K. Gupta. Dash. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Mohanty. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. J. Ltd. L. New Delhi : 119 . (2008). K and Narang C. P.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Theory and Principles of Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). B.2. Bhatia. (2004).C. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Pahuja. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N. S. (2008).

4.3 Objectives of Open University Characteristic features of open University 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.7 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.6 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.LESSON Need for Open University 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.4 Open University Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 . 2.1 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults Agencies of continuing education CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.

people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.2. 2. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. you will be able to: 1.5. characteristics of open university 4. Thus. continuing education is a boon. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. industries. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.5. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education.3. Education is for refinement and enlightenment.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. This knowledge may be in political field.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. Any person.5. know the need and objectives of open university. It is a continuous process. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3.5. 2. It is a lifelong process. economic field or such other fields. 2. give the meaning. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . understand the meaning of continuing education 2. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. However.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. labourers and half educated individuals. For them. Under these circumstances. farmers.

2. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. For them too continuing education is essential. Throughout the country. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. Cinema. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society.literate person. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education.5. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. After the achievement of independence. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. cultured and progressive. On the other hand. T. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs.directly related to his job. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further.V. Block Development Officers. if he gets opportunity to develop them. On the other hand. Radio and T. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Doctors. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons.3. are also contributing their might for the purpose. Thus. deteriorating to his character and personality. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks.V. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Radio. Persons engaged in health services. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner.

2. (6) folk stories. and Radio.3. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. 7.5. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 3. 2.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (13) psychology of child behaviour. (7) folk songs. (15) music. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life.3. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (8) psychology of adults. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (2) basic religious matters. 4. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. (16) liking. especially women. 123 . we have not been able to achieve our targets. (10) first aid. habits of people of other lands. 6. (1) ancient history.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. 5. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it.5. (17) modern international and national events. These books are not very useful.V. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (4) the fundamentals of economics. Inspite of the great efforts. (14) information about bringing up young children. 2.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. Of course..

lack of time etc.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 .5. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. attendance restrict ion. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. What is the objectives of NLM? 3.5. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. of educational opportunities. NLM was launched in the year 2. 2. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.

b.unobserved. 5. e.4. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. d. 3. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. its education is not class room based but home based. Which was the first open university in India? .” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Education is not a once for-all process. 2. the higher the degree of openness. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. c. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. it makes use of educational techno logy. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. No one is too old or too late to learn. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. 4. 2. IGNOU was established in the year 6. but 125 . and in teaching. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

5. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 6. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 3. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. 2. annu al wr it t en examinat io n.4. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes.5. 5. 2. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. 3. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. cho ice o f co ur ses. 2. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. who were deprived of t he same earlier. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. Mo re o ver. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. or who realised too late that they need it. it a ims at wider and hig her. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education.who did not get it. 2. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 4. 4. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 126 . He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n.4.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. supplementing the existing provision. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people.

7. 2. 3. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? .no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. 8. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. Self instructional materials. Every day. a society. 4. 2.2. semi – literates. 6. List out any four methods of Open University? . 5.5. Laboratory works. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve .4. a state or nation. In the present day world. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Therefore. you have learnt the concept. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. 8. school drop outs.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n .5. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Tutor Comments. Correspondence tuition. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 127 .

128 . it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. Broad casting lectures c. which may include house wives.5. (2) basic religious matters.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. aspirants for continuing education. 1985. d. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. b. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc.ambitious learners. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 1988. 9. unskilled workers and other professionals. 4. 7. need and characteristics of Open University. (1) ancient history. 8. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. youth. cho ic e o f co u r ses. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. a. 7. b. 6. a. a. 2. Explain the objectives. 2. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes.5. P r int med ia b. its education is not class room based but home based. 3. agricultural and industrial workers. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. Television Lessons. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 8. (4) the fundamentals of economics.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

K.. (2004).8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K and Narang C. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004). Reddy. Ltd. Udaiveer. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. Modern Problems of Education.S. Recent trends in Non Formal Education.2. S. K. 129 . R. L. (2007). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001).5. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. Examination reform. In Lesson 2. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. its causes and remedial measures. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. examination. and teacher education.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. wastage and stagnation. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. Training teachers for all levels of education. which may claim the attention of those concerned. the education of women. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. 133 . The problems pertaining to the aim of education. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. All which is the need of the hour. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation.

134 .

The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.7 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1. 135 .1.5 EFA – How? Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1.2 3.1.LESSON 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.3 New initiatives.1 3.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.8 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.4 3.

Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). understands the country. Eradication of Illiteracy. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. directed that. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. On the other hand. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. you will be able to: 1. may be political. therefore. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. social. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1.3. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). Continuing Education (CE) 1. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. economic or cultural. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. 2. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. (EOI) 2. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. “The State shall 136 . education received added importance and significance. Therefore.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years.1. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. 3. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness.1.

In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. the national Government under. 3. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Universalization of Retention. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.endeavour to provide. It enables the parents to send their children to School. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. rights and responsibilities.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Three Stages for Universalization. Universalization of Enrolment. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Therefore. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. After the attainment of independence. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. 137 . Continuing Education (CE).

all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education.3. UNESCO Bulletin states. 138 . that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. later to 1988. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. then to 1976. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. It is safe to assure. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. educational enterprise. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. Therefore. Write Article 45. present and future. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. 1990. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. This target had to be revised to 1970.1.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. 1995 (for upper primary stage).

and Women’s education programme should be improved. slum areas. their social economic status and occupations. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country.1. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. the art of preparing fruit-juice. etc. FELF. 8. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. The Social Education. their enrolment and retention. sex. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. NAEP. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. Early childhood education should be streamlined. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. adolescent and adult. 139 . Emphasis must be given on health education. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. By undertaking survey.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. 3. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. 3. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate.3. 5. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Disabled.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. 6. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Apart from primary education. 11. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Education of the Impaired. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. In order to make the programme of education for all community. problem of literacy. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. nutrition education and sports and games. Jams and Jellies. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. creed. Education of Girls. 12. 9. rural areas. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. 10. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all.

Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.1. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.e. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Wastage and Stagnation.3. 3. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.3 NEW INITIATIVES.3.1. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Expand MLL and SSA .

Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. it is considered as wastage.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. Social Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .first stage of relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . School Factors . Personal Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. Familial Factors .

Define Wastage. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. . 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. . Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. 142 .

5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. School Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. in his home.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.3.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .1. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. Societal Factors . relating to home. They are described hereunder :1. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.The following factors. Personal Factors . Family Factors . are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. rural or urban 3. school or society.

Define Stagnation? 9. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 144 . mid-day meals. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. stationary. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. uniforms. etc. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? .

directed that. Universalization of Enrolment c.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Hartog Committee. “The State shall endeavour to provide.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. a. 3.” 3. 4.1. 145 . The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community.3.1. therefore. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. 2. Minimum Levels of Learning b. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. 3. Universalization of Provision b. a. Universalization of Retention 2. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. improvement of curriculum. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. b. 6. a. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 4.1. 3.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA.

b. (2001). New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. a. 3.1.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Sharma. (2007). Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations.N. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Personal Factor b.7.K. Hemchand.K. improve examination system. (2008). a. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. New Delhi: 146 . 9. Familial Factors c. S. Social Factors 8. Problems of Elementary Education. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. T. introduce graded curriculum. School Factors d. Crescent Publishing Corporation. S.

5.2.3 Modern reforms of examination Merits and demerits of examination 3.5 New evaluation procedures 3.1 Choice Based Credit System Grade System 3.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.6 Inspection and Supervision Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.4 Question banks Multiple sets of question paper 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1 Problems of examination 3.5.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.LESSON Let us sum up 147 .7 Open book examination 3.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education

1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. suggest the new evaluation procedures.2.3. 3. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .8 3.3. 3. but on the other.9 3.2. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. Besides.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2. 3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. 3. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2. 4. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. you will be able to: 1.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.

2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. The following steps should be taken up. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. hostel facilities. which the educational authorities have to face. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. roadside Romeoism. If the students are in sufficient number. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. 149 .2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.. 3. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each.3. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. etc. They may cause problems relating to discipline. schools for them wherever necessary. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. etc.2. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. They develop secondary sex characteristics. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. waiting rooms for girl students. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. etc.

the net-work of examination system has also become vast. appointment of paper-setters. Instruction. public administrators and statesmen.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. 150 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the examination system has an important role to play. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. teachers. 3. assessment and Finance. It is considered as a major sub-system. public interested in education. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. conduct of internal examinations.2. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4.2. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too.

reducing the domination of knowledge objective. etc. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. etc. values. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. tabulators. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 .2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. 3. etc. training of examiners. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters.2. examiners. introducing objective-based testing. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness.printing and distribution of question papers. scrutinizers. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. invigilators. etc. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. validity and practicability. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation.4. establishing reliability. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. announcement of results. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. etc.

2) From the angle of content of education. takes the place of comprehensive learning.2. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally.4. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc.. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. stereotyped questions. 152 . it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. Subjects. lack of objectivity etc. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. do not appeal to the students and parents. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. 3. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. which they are expected to study. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. 6) With reference to scoring procedure... Vagaries in making. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. 3) With respect to method of teaching. Rote memorisation. 7) In connection with the question papers. may also discredit them. it s a common experience that subjectivity. halo-effect.

may be introduced. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. etc. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Spot valuation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions.a part of internal assessment.develop true love for education. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. List any two merits of examination.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. re-numbering of answer scripts. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 153 .. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. . Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. revaluation. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. 4.

2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. In actual practice. The students can take any course offered in any department.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. attitudes.5.3.5. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. 3. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. Their interests.2. he is given extra credit points. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . The new scheme of assessment. In this system. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures.2. When a person chooses to work extra. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.2. It is complicated. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. Every paper is treated equal. skills are given importance.

2.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning.5. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects.poor. This system reduces comparison of marks. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. v. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. poor. 3.discipline. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. or as a 4 credit course. An example is a seminar. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. Groupism is encouraged. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison.good. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. courses can have weightages defined. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. only the total credits to be earned is specified. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. These weightages are called credits. While designing syllabus. In the new system.

2. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment.5. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.5.5.2. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. 156 .2. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. 3. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. 3. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. However. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. 3. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.

Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • .6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately.2. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. 3. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. In the hierarchy. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. . However. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. Therefore.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. There are no proper procedures for selection. recruitment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5.3. 6.2. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. List any four new evaluation procedures. What is the reason for introducing grade system? .

looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. finding out the adequacy of. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. wherever necessary.. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. submitting of the inspection reports. etc. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. school buildings. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. books are followed. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. of late.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. in a sense. qualifications. finding out whether the prescribed text. whether the syllabus has been covered. playgrounds. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. When they are fully realised. laboratory equipment. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. requirements. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. staff. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. They are. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. in contrast. complaints and compliments. 1. interpersonal relationships and so on. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance.qualified personnel. inspecting the class-room teaching.. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. disciplinary problems. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. etc. being realised as two different functions. 158 .2. 3. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now.6. taking up the follow-up programmes. Academic inspection. library books.

educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. or. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well.Ed. modern. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo.. course in either educational. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Being a special category of educational administrative officers.2. In the light of these conceptualisation. Similarly. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. 3. 159 . M. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them.. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. their professional knowledge. aptitude. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. once in five years. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher.Ed. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. at least. Insistence on specialisation in the B. In the case of departmental candidates. courses.

4. 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. 160 .2. 3. b. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. c. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. assessment and Finance. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. b. d. 3. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. a. 3. 2. Instruction. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. b.2. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Administration. a. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. Grade System. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 5. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2.

New 161 . R and Sharma. 3. K. (2004). Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.4. K. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. c. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. (2005). b. b. b.a part of internal assessment. a. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. S. Question banks. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Open book examinations. 7. a. Vaidya. Problems of Education in India. 5. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Educational Reforms. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.2. History and Problems of Education in India. a. (2002). Multiple sets of question paper.

1 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.10 3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3. 4.3. 3.3.3 3. 3.7 3. 5.3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.6 3. you will be able to: 1. identify the needs of rural India and social.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3. 2.3.4 3.8 3.5 3. 162 .3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.9 3.LESSON 3.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.

2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919.. Consequent on the recommendations. e. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. 10 years of general Secondary Education..3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. 8 years of general education.3. and 3 years of First Degree Course. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines..specialisation programmes 3.. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Similar is the case with some other States. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. etc. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. The. the Banaras Sanskrit College. in Andhra Pradesh. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. The Calcutta Madras. University Education.3.e. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. i.g.e. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. 2. Commission emphasised to continue.

to prepare. and. 7. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. cultural and economic development of the country. 8. 5) to help for the social. Provision for transfer of credits to students. habits of hard work and develop . reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . 3.3.confidence in students. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 5. historical. to imbibe. social. is also a plus point . However. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. 6. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. who desire to change from one stream to another. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. educational channels. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students.a sense of dignity of labour. 10. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . b. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. economical and political.

1. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 .for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. to develop national character. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students.3. Psychologically. Philosophically it is not the conception. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. social justice. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. and. etc. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. The General Educational Spectrum.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. Sociologically it is undesirable. cultural and' religious tolerance. democratic living. cooperativeness. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as.national integration. and that required to enter the tertiary level. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. 3. at the other. on one hand.. international understanding.

Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. such as Agriculture. trade and public services are expanding rapidly.— tube-wells.3. or other machinery. In the matter of language. 3. India is a land of villages. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. medical—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. horticulture. fish culture. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. vegetable growing. In the vocational spectrum. chemistry. rural health.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. Science. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. 2. technological. commerce. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. In our country. and vocations based on dairy-farming. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. industrial agricultural production is growing. Commerce and other disciplines. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. physics or mathematics. Biology. All these need for an. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. educational and cultural services. Agriculture is the main occupation. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. professional. 166 . It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. technical. commerce. the rural areas have suffered very much.

In this it may be concluded. the local resources available. In this way. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . 4. and 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. can be ensured. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. social justice. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States... Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. and the needs.etc. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. etc. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. interests and aptitudes of the students. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. In time.3. There had been favourable reaction from the students. 3. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society.

a. (2007). Education in the Emerging Indian Society.3. B.3. habits of hard work and develop . b. General Educational Spectrum and b. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. a. objectives. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.a sense of dignity of labour. (2001).9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. to imbibe. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. S. we studied the history.3. 3. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. (2005). Vocational Sepctrum.C. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. N. Ltd.3. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.K. 3.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Modern Trends in Indian Education. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. J. Anmol Publications Pvt. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Dash.3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. b. (2008). Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. Mohanty. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. a. 3.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Calcutta University Commission 2. New Delhi : 168 . 2.

4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.8 3.LESSON 3.4. social and 169 .4.10 3.3 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”.12 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.1 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.2 3.4.6 Education contributes to human development.4.9 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.11 3.4.7 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal. 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.

economic. While women constituted only 9.higher education in particular. particularly 170 .3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . family. These courses were.4. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. There is a close connection between education and development. analyze the women and distance education. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. Dr. Nursing. higher education of girls developed immensely. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Teaching and Fine Arts. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. you will be able to: 1. The relevance of women’s education to social. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development.4. For the first time in the history of India. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. community and nation is universally acknowledged. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. Education . In the post —independence period.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. 3. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. Home Economics. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. During the year 1937. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. 3. cultural and political development of the individual. although we have miles to go. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5.

0 32.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. The idea of women’s education for equality. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.0 43. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.4.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.65 lakhs in 1994-95. Coimbatore. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. out of 9200 and odd colleges. levels and professions.N. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.0 16. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.1 31.T Women University. 3. 3. In 1950-51. Mumbai.women.4.9 27.4. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.2 22. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Even today. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). In the rest of the country. Kodaikanal. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .1 24.D. we have more than 1200 institutions.2 29. Yet. in our country. Mother Teresa Women University. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.0 Today. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.9 14.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.36 3.53 34. 3.4.1 and 14.46 82. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.27 89.63 Female % 34.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.34 33.4%) prefer Arts subjects. 2.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .54 12. 3.44 35.56 64. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.83 47.47 65. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.1 respectively. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.73 10.66 66.4.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .17 52.that of boys.

distance of the college or university from home.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. The major hurdles. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. Thus. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. financial difficulty of the parents. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. irrelevance of the content of education.4.hinders the girls from getting higher education. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. Book banks should be established. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. curriculum not suited to their requirements. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. 3. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. marriage is a very common I factor. and coeducation may spoil her character. she will only learn fashion. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. According to a survey. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. etc. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. In every third family. particularly. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. In college. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. They gave up their studies to enter home life. what is the need for higher education for her. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. promoted and increased. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. 173 . amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. Also.

3. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. space. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Empowerment in a nutshell. It is a productive investment. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. It enables to study. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. 3. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. which is the most dynamic factor of development. and the limitations of the conventional education system.economic disabilities faced by women. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Geographic distance of educational institutions. It also brings about 174 .8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Education. is the only tool for realising empowerment. Full-time employment. There are constraints of time. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. resources and socio . Distance education is a boon to women.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world.4.4.

conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. education of women must be given priority in national plans. The major objectives of women's higher education. higher learning. empowerment means being assertive. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. Empowerment is an active. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. on their own. education of women is of paramount importance. This can be achieved through reflection. 3. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level.4. for full development of our human resources. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. legal awareness and economic independence. Women are partners in development. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations.

through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. But their number is small. will encourage them to venture new grounds. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. has to be implemented at the earliest. Better opportunities. which is pending for a long time. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. 3.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also.4. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. 176 . 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. The educational institutions.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. which had been the sole domain of men. especially so in the developing countries. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. The local administration. who are eager to take up courses. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Reservation for women. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Scholarships and concessions for women.

11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. capacities etc.8%).Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. especially in developing countries like African countries. engineering and related technologies (16. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Australia. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. But. According to Lindy Hyam. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. Also. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. IDP Education.1%) and architecture and building (38. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 .9%). International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100.000 women in the country. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. Chief Executive. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. talents. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability.3 percent. 3. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.

K.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. (2007). SNDT Women’s University. 3. S. community and the nation. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Mumbai. R. Annakodi. and Suryalatha. Mother Teresa Women University. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. R. A. Kodaikanal. Rao. Mumbai. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. (2000). Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.C. Pattanaikj. create the right attitude towards life. 43% 6. Coimbatore. 4. (2008). SNDT Women’s University. Women Education.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. R. 4. 178 . Centre for Women’s Studies. and Swain. 2. S.4. Women Education. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.4. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Coimbatore. individuals and society b. Rajasthan 5. a.R. A. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life the family. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Mishra. 3.4. (2005). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Women and Education. 3.

9 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.5.3 3.personality of children in and out of school.5.5.5 3.10 3.5.4 3.8 3.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5.5.2 3. They should be trained.5. whole. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .11 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.LESSON 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.6 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.1 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.5.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.7 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5.

Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. understand the training teachers for Primary. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. social and emotional integration. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels.5. international. know the pre service and in service training facilities. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. you will be able to: 1. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. and national character. 3. 180 . understanding and strong desire for international peace. equality and justice. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. national consciousness. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. Secondary and Higher Secondary level.5. 4. Lack of physical facilities. 3. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. 5. Dearth of new technology of teaching. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Shorter working hours.

If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. inservice and extension education programmes. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. Lop-sided curriculum. 3. If the student teachers are working teachers. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. levels. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. 3. (NCERT) New Delhi.Ed. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education.Ed. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . a Diploma course and a Degree course. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. Depending on the levels. the centre. and the collegiate teacher education. students. the state Government. who have not been trained earlier. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate.. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. At the diploma level. and M.5. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. it is called the In-service teacher education. higher secondary teacher education. the secondary teacher education. etc.5..4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers.Less qualified teacher educators. the primary teacher education. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Inadequate training in practical skills. it is called the Extension teacher Education.

depart ments etc. etc. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. are established. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . state Institutes of Educat ion.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Evaluation unit. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Science Education units. Expand NCERT 2. Educational teehnology cells. extensio n service. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 .5.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Also Guidance Bureaux. collegiate cells.. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Education cells. non-formal.

laboratories.. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission.Ed. and 183 . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers.. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. should be improved on a top priority basis.. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . and so degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . despite its vast expansion. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. schools and sister institutions.Ed. audio visual aids. which help breaking isolation from one another . to improve curricular programmes. which should include experience in the primary schools too. to ensure teacher competence. primary and secondary school teachers. material conditions relating to libraries. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . degree. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. to prescribe conditions for recognition. to offer consultative services.

Modern Techniques of Teaching. etc. The problem. Meanwhile. Organisation of Content Courses. Workshops. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. methodology and evaluation.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. and XII.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Modern Methods of Evaluation. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. 184 . There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. though no pre-service training. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. Psychology of Students. Induction Courses. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Hence. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Agriculture. not came up once again. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications.secondary education. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. whether they should have professional education or. etc. To meet this exigency.

Point out two defects in primary teacher training . courses and M.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. in Education.Ed. M.Ed. (Education) are organized by 185 ..5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Degree. These facilities are available for regular students..A. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.Ed.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.Ed. State Institutes of Education.. Post-Graduates also undergo B.’s for Ph. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Pre-service training is for those. Courses leading to B. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. All B Ed. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.Ed. Degree and M. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. State Councils of Educational Research and Training...A. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. For re-orienting the teachers..’s are elig ible for M. training. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.D. 3. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.Ed. Ajmer. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.. (Education) and M.S.

186 . as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. What is the role of ERIC? . 5. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. of conduct—written or unwritten. (Ed.). Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. established by tradition and teachers of the past. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession.5. 4. 6.List any two code of conduct for teachers? .. and B.A. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 3. they should be conscientious . and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. (Ed). Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. .A.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . Hence the employability of M. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and .. However.

the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. b. Shorter working hours. Ajmer. 3. Discuss the problems of teacher education.3. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. they should be conscientious. a. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. 2. 3. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 6. 4. However. 4. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. 3. a. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Explain code of conduct for teachers.5. 3. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. National Council of Educational Research and Training.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 187 . The necessity is however this. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time.5. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. b.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training.5. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. Bhopal. a. 5. 2.

Mohanty. J.3. Publication Pvt. (2003). New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Teacher Education. Corporation. and Teacher Education. Teacher Education. P. Tewari. (2009). New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. Ltd Aggarwal.5.N. A. (2010).D. B.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

If the diet is poor. The person’s environment is equally important. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. communicable diseases and their prevention. objectives and role of the physical education. preservation of nutrients. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. economic and educational developments. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. objectives. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. nutritional deficiency diseases.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. common ailments of children. the focus is on the school health programmes. consuming the right amounts becomes important. objectives. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. Since food is the source of nutrients. In lesson 4. In lesson 1. 191 .

192 .

7 4.1.5 4.3 4.1. emotional and social.1.6 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. 193 .1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1 4.e.8 4. mental.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.4 4.1.2 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1.11 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1.1. physical.10 4.1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. for giving health education to the children under its custody.LESSON 4.9 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. It is a miniature society.

To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. content of health education. 3. 4. 9.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To give information regarding health rules. list the common ailments of children 3. Instruction. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. 4.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 5.. 8. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases.1. To develop healthy health habits among children. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. explain the importance of First aid 5. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. 11. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health.g. cleanliness and healthful living. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. 194 . you will be able to: 1. e. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. 2. 7. 4. training of teachers and evaluation. to his family and to the community at large. To develop certain skills concerning health. 6.1. know the need for sex education. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. understand school health programmes 2. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. training in first aid and etc. 10.

(xl) mental health. B. play festivals. There should be good drainage facilities. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. inoculation against cholera.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings.coming or absence. Arranging better transportation facilities.1. B. suitable furniture. (v) safety education. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. First aid facilities should be made readily available. The school buildings should be spacious. etc. 2. ( iii) sanit at io n. organisation of school health days. minimizing the travelling distance. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. 3. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1.4. 5. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled.C. The flooring should not be damp. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. “Play-for-all” programmes. Triple Antigen Vaccination. vaccination. 2. proper doors and windows. as described below 1. direct lighting. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. (viii) first aid. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. (vi) nutrition education.. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. (ii) communit y healt h. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. cleanliness weeks. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. is imperative. There should be regular water supply. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. Vaccination for small pox. (xii) smoking education etc. excusing late.. The surroundings of schools should be clean.G. 4. typhoid.

• Have adequate rest and sleep. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. D.. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. cuts. burns. wounds. bleeding. fractures. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. • Close the schools. C. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. drowning. dislocations. • Find out the cases. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. etc. • When sleeping in groups. scalds. isolate and notify. fainting (epileptic fit). • Keep all rooms clean. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. and other accidents. if epidemic is wide-spread. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. 196 . Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • Take nutritious food. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. insect stings. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. sports and games in the interest of their health. poisons. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles.

water or bodily contact. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. They are: i) The incubation stage. backache. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. pain in the joints. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. fever. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. chicken pox. which are – cold. headache. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. There are three stages in any communicable disease. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • .6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. measles etc.. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. Mention the school health programmes.1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. asthma. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. So they easily get illnesses. These diseases are called communicable diseases. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. List out the Health curriculum 3. polio. cough. Once these germs get into the body.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. tuberculosis. 2. 4.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases.

The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Tonsilitis . The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Scabies . Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Common Cold . eating food which is not clean. Throat is affected. Some suffer cold due to allergy.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. cough and fever.When a child suffers from scabies. Hence liquid diet is recommended. 198 . Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. The child may have fever. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. unhygienic living conditions. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Ear Infections . Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. This is caused by cold virus. The virus is present in the secretions of throat.It is caused by measles virus. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Diarrhoea . Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Measles . Hence it is called a killer disease. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. The following are the common communicable diseases. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. head-ache and cough. etc. unhygienic bottle feeding. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Mumps . sugar and water. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Others make the children very passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting.This disease is caused by bacteria. The symptoms include cold. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. After three or four days of fever.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold.

It begins with fever. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. 5. the child may die. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. Expand DPT . face and waist. As the disease progresses. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day.• • • • Chicken Pox . So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. raised pink spots appear on head. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. What are communicable diseases? 6. If proper treatment is not given.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. Shortly. The child may also have diarrhoea. Diphtheria . Enlist the common ailments of children.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. 199 . By scratching he causes secondary infections. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. separate. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Typhoid . the child is not able to breathe. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless.

Sex is but an integral part of human personality. exciting and body-oriented.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. so-called sex books and periodicals. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. In such cases. wounds. man-woman behaviours. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. cuts. 2. 200 . first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Cuts and Bruises . scorpion stings. drowning. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. bruises. Sprains . sprains.1.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. sprains. 4. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work.1.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. and Community Work and Social Service. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. 4. swelling.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation.g.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. snakebites.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. fiction. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. It has its rightful place in education too.4.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. 5. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. bleeding. fainting. 3. Wounds . dislocation. it is a subject of art. films and jokes. and films. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. Drowning . Sex is popular. etc. simple fractures. It is both biological and psychological. head injury. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. eye injury.

Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive to give sex education to the young. The home. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. 3. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A.old values. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. B. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. Hence. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. health. sex education is being recommended in schools. the school. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. In secondary schools. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 .Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. In today's liberal and interactive society. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. but preserve them from disaster and disease. 2. they would be treading the path of sure doom. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life.. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. The values of life. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. the religious organisations. try experimenting with their bodies. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. celibacy are age. in their ignorance. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Should the boys and girls. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies.

202 . Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. first aid and sex education. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. hence. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Teacher education institutions are. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. C. the school health programmes.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. common ailments of children. there will no crisis in its implementation. 4. when the courses are already overloaded. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. communicable diseases and their prevention. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. What are the major components of Sex Education. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.



SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.


STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.


4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:


Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.


Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy


What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention the food nutrients 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 209 . Rickets is the deficiency of 5.

Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day.2. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. Let us talk about each of these aspects.4. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. If you look at the definition carefully.2. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. 210 . A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . minerals.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.

This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals.6. These are: region where the person resides and income. the social and religious practices of that region. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . sex.2.sedentary. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables.g. In other words. 4. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex).Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. moderate or heavy work. for example. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . People in the east of our country prefer rice.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. Preferences/customs are also important. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. paratha and poori. A balanced diet is specific firstly. construction labourer). dosa are typical of the south. it is also specific to a given activity level .g. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. In the case of adults. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. There is no point. activity level and physiological stress. Even within given States there is considerable variation. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress).one in the morning and the other at night. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex.

So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. fat and sugar tend to increase. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. As you read this discussion. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. Including these 212 . These determine the acceptability of foods. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. however. One must. Even among flesh foods. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. as important for the rich as for the poor. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. however. taboos related to food may play an important role. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. while another may hate them. In addition to these. nuts and dry fruits. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. If you think of your own religious group. One person may be fond of milk products. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. vegetables and fruits. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. However. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. As income increases. however. Having more money. for example.planning the diet. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. customs. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. income plays a vital role. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. Among the social factors. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Judicious selection of food is. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving.

4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. over-eating or under. fruits. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 8) Walk a while after eating. if the teachers have good food habits. mouth. green leaves. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. meat. 8. For this. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.eating is hazardous. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. eggs . they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. but they should be thrown away. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 213 . Define balanced diet. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. List out any two healthy food habits. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 17. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too.

Bitot’s spots. In fact. preservation of nutrients.4. d. Conjuctival xerosis.2. Explain food nutrients 4. Corneal xerosis. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. c. b. 4. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Keratomalacia 3. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Discuss good food habits. When the diet is inadequate. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. a. Vitamin D 5.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies.2. Night blindness. Beri Beri 4. 4. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. good nutrition is essential for good health. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. e.

a . Food should be consumed after eating well.6. b. a. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . (2004).2. Sri Lakshmi B. Nutrition Science. 8. Hands. 4. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. Food and Nutrition Education.C. b. (2005). P. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. (2008). minerals. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. R. R. 7. A Text Book of Foods. Chopra. (2009).N. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . Nutrition and Dietetics.M. Food and Nutrition Education. mouth. Health and Nutrition Education. (2008). S.

3.3.2 4.9 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3 Impact on Education 4.6.3.LESSON 4.5 4.3.1 Impact on social development 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3 4.13 4.7 4.8 4.3.4 4.3. 216 .3.6.1 4.3.10 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.11 4.3.

aims at providing the younger generation. It is a much wider co ncept. Population Education.4. the causes of population change.3. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. you will be able to: 1. characteristics and changes for himself. therefore.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. his societ y and the world. and the consequences of these processes.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. 4. population characteristics. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. 217 . state the meaning. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. understand the importance of small family norm 5.3. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. describe the impact of population growth on social. Whenever we talk of sex education. family planning and sex education etc. the stress is. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. There is some difference. his family. economic and educational development 3. objectives and need for population education 2. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. It is not sex education. community.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. 4.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Population Education 2.3. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.4. the family.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.3. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. the nation and the world. the society.

health and happiness of its citizens. 219 . The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it.6. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. Family is considered as a social unit.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. economic and educational development of the country.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. When the family is small.3.3. With the larger families. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. 4. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. which will not be possible without population control.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. 4. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. the family programmes are also handicapped. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Every second two thousand children are being born. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future.

i. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production.6.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends.e. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. unemployment. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. organization index and material index. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. and so on. lack of proper health care. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.3. teacher index. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. in parks and other places of public gatherings. pollution of the environment. Many students herded in a small room. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. Swollen cities. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.6. in cinema halls and theatres.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt.. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. heavy intern I migration etc. facility for drinking water. 4. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. In developing countries. in buses and trains. The gulf between them is widening further. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. toilets. 4.3. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. 220 . more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. there is an inverse relationship between population and development.

thus. even text books would be in short supply. reproduction. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. It has got to be integrated with other subjects.. and laboratory equipments. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Social Studies Statistics on population education. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. There would be very few audiovisual aids. essays.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. bar graphs etc. can be studied in science and health education. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. less budget for education. less space facilities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 221 . can be taken up. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Regional Language. blank verses etc. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. There would be poor library facilities. family planning etc. Hindi and English.

the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. causes of deaths etc. China. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. 13.3. 7. Bihar. 10. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 8. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 15.4. They may arrange them as per average density of population. area and average density of population. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. West Bengal. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 .8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 9. 4. Canada. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 14. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Children with the help of parents. Children may compare two families. deaths. Brazil. 11. 5. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Uttar Pradesh. 2. 3. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. 12. United States of America.

18. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he opened in their schools. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. The question. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. Comparing life in various respects in two families. 16. we have no right to stop 223 . Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. 17. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. age at marriage. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole.3. values and role children etc. preferences for sex. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families.

Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. Since the program's inception. continued . More than 45 years ago.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. The Family Welfare Program.4-6.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. which education can only do.3. “He who is responsible for population growth. 4. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children.their entry into the world”. however. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. on an overall basis. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).were implemented 224 .to emphasize family planning services. especially the expansion of child immunization services .. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. at varying places in different regions. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. and the child survival components of the news: program. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.

In April 1996. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. the community appears willing to pay for services. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. expansion of services to unmarried women. In October 1997. and nominal fees for services. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. men.earlier than the safe motherhood components. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. a focus on health promotion. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. reliance on local women as community health workers. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . and the World Conference on Women. At these meetings. Therefore. Moreover. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. Local programs vary in their approaches. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women.

involving the community. 4. 3. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. economic and educational development 4. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum.emphasizing the needs of the client.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What are the goals of RCH? 4. Describe the impact of population growth on social. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. 1997).11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. Its main purposes are to create awareness. nation and the world. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 226 . What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. family. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3.3. community.

” 2. United States of America. area and average density of population. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. and the consequences of these processes. the causes of population change. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. 3. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.4. 227 . a.3. b. his family. 5. 6. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. 7. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. b. characteristics and changes for himself. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Canada. a. his society and the world. less space facilities. 4. less budget for education. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. China. population characteristics. bar graphs. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Brazil. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. a. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

N. T.4. Modern Trends in Indian Education. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Kantikar. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Coimbatore. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K. (1992). Principles of Population Studies. V. Modern Problems of Education. A. Ltd. J. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.3. Bhende. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 228 . Changing attitudes to Education in India. (2002).14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Udaiveer. (2005). Centre for Women’s Studies. Jayapoorni. Reddy. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. (2004). Ltd. (2005).

8.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.4.9 4.4.4 4.4.5 4.2 4.7 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 19.1 Minor games 4.1 4.4 Lead up games Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .3 Indigenous games 4.2 Major games 4.6 4.4.3 4.

understand the importance of Physical Education 4. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. classify the different types of games. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. full records of physical activities should be maintained. as it should 230 . will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The concept of physical education has been made broader. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness.4.4.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected.4. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. mental alertness. 4. leadership and balance in defect. the youth of the country. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. team spirit. social fitness. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. which forms its most valuable assets.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.4. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. moral fitness and emotional fitness. 4. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. perseverance. you will be able to: 1.

They go hand in hand. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Therefore. The educational efforts at home. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Every individual is a part of society. obedience to rules. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. To be more precise.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . They are inseparably united together. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. leadership. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. team spirit. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise.

Physical exercises. H.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers.” Montaigue writes. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. Buck has observed that 232 . ment al. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. Rousseau states. 4. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. nor body but the whole man. C. pleasing manners.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it.” The Secondary Education Commission. a sound health. “Physical education does neither train up the soul.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. Regarding the significance of physical education. mo ral. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. Just like Education.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical.4. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. game and sports.

Froebel says. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. strength. flexibility and power. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. elegance.” 4. efficiency and character.a properly directed physical education should result in health.4. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. resourcefulness and smartness. etc. we must exercise the whole human being. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.” In brief. coordinative abilities. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. happiness. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. initiative. 233 . Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. speed. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. endurance. “If we wish to develop the whole being. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength.

Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Every age has its artists. Tournaments foster this sentiment. 234 (i) (ii) . Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. While wars. systems of government. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. these fundamental things have always been present. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. plagues and famines. have come and gone in the long record of mankind.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. its adherents and its enemies. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. should help in the spiritual development of the student. including all racial groups and historical ages. poetry and painting. in greater or lesser degree. they may form gangs.

obedience. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. Write any two importance of Physical Education.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. to develop tolerance. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems.sacrifice. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. respect for rules. bravery and interest in games and sports. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. etc. 235 . to ensure neuro-muscular coordination .\ to develop perseverance. B. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. self. 3. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. 2.

Be self-confident. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. 3. Be punctual. 13. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. is essential. Posture screening should be done. 7. 5. and readmission after they have recovered. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. 4.4.4. 16. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. . 10. Be well-prepared.H.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 6. Always keep the whistle ready. and. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 14. 2. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Haag. 236 1. defects. Be in the uniform. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 4.4. Keep the field ready for the activities. 12. Usually parents. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Inform health principles. 11. students. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. injuries among pupils should be made. Be sportive. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. At least now its importance should be duly recognized.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 9. 8. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 15. Act as a leader.

2.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Indigenous games. 237 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 4. chasing. Such inst incts as imitation. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. their development is handicapped. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. less equipment and less expense. the play.8. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.4. Moreover. 1. Lead up games.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. 4. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten.4. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. 4. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. frolic and jo y.

On lawns. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. with implements or without implements. Except a few games. Kabaddy etc. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Shuttle Badminton. on mountain tops and on river beds. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. pitching. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Basket Ball. bowling etc. heading. While many of them are played in the open playfields. driving. dribbling. spiking. These games require varied skills such as running. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. some of them are played indoors. Hopping. skipping. zig zag relay. the play equipment. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. on sea-shore. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. For each game the rules are many. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. hitting. stopping. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools.With a very few rules. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. finding the partner. 238 . the games can be modified according to convenience. over ball pass Relay. Cricket. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. Tennikoit. on hard courts. Throwing. Tennis. snatching the kerchief. They are played for a shorter duration.8. The dimension of the posts and nets. trapping. under ball pass Relay. Khokho. Soft Ball. Dodging. the number of players and substitutes.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Ball Badminton. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people.. 4.4. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Volley Ball. benefit in playing minor games. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Hockey. women take part most of the games. boosting. couple tag. Jump the stick clay and so on. muffling. wherever the kids assemble. catching. Jumping.

They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. birth. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . They have an abundant social value.4. these games being popular.4. 4. they are in existence. Kho-kho. List out some major games. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. While observing the players in action. An example for indigenous game is 8. 7. death. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. For example. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm.8. and . Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games.8.4. festivals connected with religion and public functions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. Games may be classified as 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. All the fundamental tactics. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. On occasions like marriage.

Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. a. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. 2. 4. b. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. 5. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 4. d. 3. a. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Minor and Major 240 . It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. 4.4. aims and objectives and need of physical education. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. b. a. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. 3.4. Posture screening should be done. 2.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.4. b. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. to develop physical stamina.4. c. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. to secure physical health b.

(2008). New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Foot-ball. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ball Badminton. Mohanty. Health. Hockey. Shuttle Badminton. Modern Trends in Indian Education. J. Kabaddy 7. Physical Education and Sports. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.C. Ltd. 241 .6. Khokho 8.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Soft Ball. (2005). (2009). J.4. Cricket.K. Basket Ball. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Khokho. 4. Handbook of Physical Education. Tennikoit. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Krishna murthy. G. Aggarwal. J. Tennis. (2008). Volley Ball.

Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.1 Natural Environment 4.6 4.5.2 Manmade Environment 4.4 4.8 4.10 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.5.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.5.LESSON 4.3 4.5.9 4.2 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.5.

To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. 3. 3. 5.5. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A.5.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. economic. list out the types of environment 3. it covers the following elements: 1. 6.educat ion for the environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. social. you will able to: 1. aesthetic and educational factors. Attitude. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Broadly. Essential knowledge about the Environment. education about the environment and education through the environment. The best place to start such learning is school. population explosion and resource depletion could be. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. political. Participation. 4.5. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Knowledge. 2. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Evaluation Ability. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Skills. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 4. Details are given below: I. Awareness. 243 .4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. 2. 4.

Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. F. 244 . Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. 2. Oxidants Other pollutants. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle.B. D. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. • Biological magnification E. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. a. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1.

economic. 2. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. 2. 3. Birth control through education b. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . 4.3. Socio-economic measures. The pill ii. Family planning ii. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Use of medical science i. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. III. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. c. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Abortion iv. Persuasion: i. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Intrauterine device iii. Control of population growth a. The human ecosystem II. Sterilisation. B.

1983). 3. 246 . Air pollution abatement ii. (UNESCO. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Environmental Education. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Water pollution abatement.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 2. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. 3. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. e) Recycling.

This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. Biological environment The biological environment. A change in one brings about a change in the other.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4.5. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4.5.5. 4. Any constituent or condition of the environment.5. They interact with each.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.4. b. includes the plants. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . These are biotic components. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. fax agricultural apparatus.other components of the environment. -other. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . way is called environmental or ecological factor.5. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.5. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. a. to his needs. telex. He modifies according”.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. animals and other organisms (biotic).

Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. windmills. effects. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. greenhouse effect. etc. maintaining the ecological diversity. History The rise and fall. noise control. nuclear warfare. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. supplying timber for various uses. need for conservation. alternate sources of energy. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. change in climate may be added. t heir role in preventing pollution. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. (ii) Air pollution. desertification 248 . importance of nitrogen cycle. use of medicinal plants. mineral survey. reasons. excellent recreation sites. preventing siltation of dams. preserving the watersheds. river systems. industrial survey. over exploitation of ground water. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. ozone depletion. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. social studies. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. need for bio-diversity. population.. natural way of controlling pests. use of pesticides. are the topics which may be taught in History. sources of pollut ion. explosion deforestation. evolution. effects o f CFC. extinction of species. sources. water scarcity. food chain and food-web. acid rain. wars and hazards of war. air pollutants from industries. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. noise pollution. solar cookers. of civilizations. industrial pollut io n. biogas plants. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . ozone layer deplet ion. relation between population and pollution. role of trees in building economy. nuclear energy. balance of nature. trees reducing noise pollution. etc.

Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. group discussions and seminars. 249 . Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 14. 3. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Providing.may be inc ded in Geography. 6. 13. 4. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 4. 10. animal and plants.5. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Peepal and Tulsi. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 7. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 11. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 8. 12. aims and scope. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 2. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Organising conferences. 5. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. 9. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment.

as the smoke may contain polluting gases. If it is done. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Use public transport wherever it is possible. 6. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Reuse carrier bags. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Don’t burn any waste. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. World Environmental falls on 250 .Send their waste oil. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. it will cause pollution. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. 5. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. especially plastics. all these can cause serious pollution. used oils down the drain. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Never put any left over chemicals. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

To discuss the approach to problems or topics. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. potable water. rather than conquest and mastery.). developing desirable attitudes.4. concern for others). Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. values and habits. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. diversity and stability.mat erials. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. Social responsibilit y (common good. deforestation. nuclear wars. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. etc. Conservation of natural resources. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. orderliness and beauty). (cleanliness. depletion of ozone. To provide reference materials for children’s use.5. and 251 . Concern for species.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. The groups may exchange. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. etc. To arrange visits or expeditions. viz. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. Att itudes of balance towards nature. dest roying nat ural habitats. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. To provide materials needed for practical work.. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. To arrange for visiting speakers. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. loss of bio-diversity. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. Harmony with the nature . CFCs.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.5. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. 252 . 8. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.5. 4.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. preserving natural cycles.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. 4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

greenhouse effect. Environment and Human Rights. Nanda. a. 3. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. S. (ii) Air pollution. b. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. a. population. 5.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Anmol Publications Pvt. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . over exploitation of ground water. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Social responsibilit y (common good. relat ion between population and pollution. explosion deforestation. To provide materials needed for practical work.K. June 5 7. b.5. (2007). specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. sources. (1997). b. concern for others). (2007). T. b. reasons. Publications Pvt. sources of pollution. Knowledge.\ 4.K. Environmental Education. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 6. new problems from science and technology. New Delhi : Authors Press.K. (2004). air pollutants from industries. Awareness. group discussions and seminars. importance of nitrogen cycle. Providing. Y. Ltd. Ltd. Udaiveer. Modern Problems of Education. effects. water scarcity.2.. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Education for values. acid rain. Environmental Education. ozone layer deplet ion.K. S. Rapid population growth. a. Organising conferences. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. New Delhi : Sharma. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. 8. Kuldeep. 4. a.

254 .




Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.



STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism Idealism and aims of Education Idealism and Curriculum Idealism and methods of teaching Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism Naturalism and aims of Education Naturalism and Curriculum Naturalism and methods of teaching Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

259 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to

Universal Education. Spiritual Development. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure.our life.1.3. It is self-realisation. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. the emancipation of spirit. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . The universe is regarded as a thought process. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. in fact. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. should be universal in nature. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism.” 5. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. man is essentially a moral being. Education must contribute to development of culture. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. Education according to idealism. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. Therefore. moral. According to Rusk'. enrichment and transmission of culture.

The plant can grow. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. 2.3.1.the spiritual qualities of mankind. 3. and collation (striving) should find due place. should be there.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. It considers teacher as. no doubt. subjects like Languages. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. So he should embody. the school is a garden. 5. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. Mathematics etc. 4. Science. History. Learning through reading. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. Learning through discussion. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. An idealist teacher is a philosopher.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. So cognition (knowing). Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . According to Frobel. For this no particular method has been suggested. For intellectual development. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. He carries the child from darkness to light. According to idealism. affecting (feeling). “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. Learning through imitation. 5. friend and guide. a spiritual guide for the child.” 5. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. He sets the environment in which education takes place.3. Ethics. Herbert advocated instruction method.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked.” He is thus. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Philosophy. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. Learning through questioning.1. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. However. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. hygiene. an indispensable necessity. So health. Learning through lecturing. so subjects like Religion.

It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. Ross explains.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. text books. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.preservation. "Education should make 263 • . Perfection of Human Machine. In the words of Ross. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 5. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. 5. time tables. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. formal lessons or examinations. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.perfection and beauty. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.1.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. 2. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self.1. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. curricula.

by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. useful and mature child. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Chemistry. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. It emphasises physical and health education 5.1. Naturalistic curriculum. It stresses basic sciences. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. In all. Botany etc Language. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Literature. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. is based on the nature of the child. rational harmoniously balanced. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. • 5. education should develop the child into Joyous. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. 264 . Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Education should. Education also aims at helping the individual t. subjects like history. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. There is no place for religious and moral education. 4.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution.4.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Therefore. Biology. It is based on the psychology of the child. therefore. “Education finds its purpose. Zoology. Art etc are subsidiary subjects.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Arithmetic.

and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4.1. he should be taught by experience alone.5. It discards all rigid.1. 5. 5. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Learning by doing.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. 2. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching.1. In the .4. a supplier of materials and opportunities.4. a provider of an ideal environment. the stage. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. Heuristic method. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Learning through observation. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Dalton Plan.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Rousseau says. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Learning through experience. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place.

Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Geography. 5.5. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. The aim of educational development. social and moral aspects. Continuous Growth. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Physical training. Social Science.5. intellectual. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Sciences. Personal Social Adjustment. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education.absolutism of idealism. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Social Efficiency.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. History. Agriculture. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. 5. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment.1. Vocational and 266 . All Round Development of an Individual. The individual has not only to adjust himself. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. is true.1. Subjects.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. diversified and flexible. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning.

Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life.1. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism.Technical Education.1. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Learning by Doing. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. The subjects. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. should find proper place.” 5. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. a teacher occupies an important position. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. He has to be active. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Methods of teaching should not be fixed.5. alert and resourceful. a senior partner and a sincere guide. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. He must be trained. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity.5. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment.

It favours child-centered. Crafts.1. literary or humanistic education.1.5. Mathematics. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Biology.1. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. 5. intellectual. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. 5. Astrology. 2. Literature. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Music and Dance. Chemistry. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Study of Subjects like Language. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. 2. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable.6. Sex Education. 4. practical. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. 3. Education is preparation for a complete living. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. The basic tenets of realism are 1. liberal. specific. scientific and psychological education.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Psychology.6. rich and happy. Geography are unnecessary 268 . 5. 4. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Biography Philosophy.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Population Education. Art. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. History. 3.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6. certainly and clearly.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.5. easily and pleasantly. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .6.1.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.

7 LET US SUM UP We have.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. in this lesson. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4.1. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. History. Learning through reading. Agriculture. Learning through questioning. Languages. Vocational and Technical Education. a. Experimentation d. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Learning through discussion. & curriculum. naturalism. Child centered c. 5. Rousseau 5. a. has no end other than growth.5. a. d. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Universal Education 2.1. Learning through experience b. b. 6. c. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Tours / Excursion e. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. e.1. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Learning through imitation. 5. 5. 3. Education according to pragmatism. Geography. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. pragmatism and realism. Learning through lecturing. Social Science. Self Realisation b. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Physical training. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Sciences.

N. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. New Delhi : A. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Bhatia. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. Pahuja. P. (2007). New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. K.P.5. Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education.P. (2007). Publishing corporation.1.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. (2004). R. P. 271 . K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. L. of Pathak. Foundations of Education.H. O. (2003). Ltd. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.3.3 Methods of teaching Gandhiji as Naturalist.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI. Methods of Teaching 5.2.4 Views about teacher 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum Curriculum 5.2.4 Views about teacher 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .3.LESSON 5.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.1 Aims of Education Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2.2 Curriculum 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.1 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education Aims of Education 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore Aims of Education 5.

9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. economic and political reconstruction in our country. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.2. an artist.2.8 5. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.2. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.4 Role of the teacher 5.2.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.2. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.5. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. Tagore was a poet.5.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. 5. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. you will able to: 1. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. 3. 273 . “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.6 5. 2.2.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. Gandhiji was primarily a social.2.7 5. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. mind and spirit. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. content and methods.

intellectual and physical faculties of the children. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. self-restraint and service of humanity.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. It really provides opportunity for character building. strength of mind.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body.2. 274 . 'Man is neither mere intellect. righteousness.supporting. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. In the words of Gandhiji. mind and soul of children He further observed. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. through life and for life. "I attach more. 5. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. it is education of life. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education." Dignity of Labour. His scheme of education is life centred. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect.3. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. nor the gross animals body. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote.

Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Music. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Individual and Social Aims. wood work.3. 5. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. According to Gandhi. Only good individual forms a better society. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. metal work. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner.Training for Leadership. General Sciences. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Art. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. Drawing and Hindustani. the realization of the ultimate reality.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Mother-tongue. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. leather work have been suggested.2. "Development of the moral character. development of the whole all were directed: towards. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. gardening. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 .Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.

trained. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.2. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. proficient.2. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. men of 276 .3. Basic education is other wise known as 4. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.3.

He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education.knowledge. That is why.2. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. 5. Education must be child centered. He also advocates freedom for the child. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies.3.

He was deadly against untouchability.” Like all other ideals. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Gandhi in 1937.2. He was a true patriot. 5. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. 5. he was a true Vedantist 5. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. • Education should involve manual work.K. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. • Ideal of citizenship. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.4. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.2. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. • Cult of non-violence.2. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. He believed in the oneness of humanity.3.

That way only. etc. Zoology. sentiment. It should help the learner have good physique. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. wider in range. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. International understanding. stronger in power than ever before. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. them solve problems of day to day life. complete manhood could be attained. Tagore said.2. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. he said. Music.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . 279 . General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in.Language and Literature . He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. "Mankind must realise a unity. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. the more dedicated and devoted. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Botany. Geography. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. International Understanding. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual.Mother tongue and other Indian languages.4. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. It should help. (vi) Philosophy. Religion and Psychology. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Dance. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. could help in forging unity among all. Chemistry. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. deeper in. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Therefore. Civics.

Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. 280 .4.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. 5. Activity Method Heuristic Method. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. In 1921. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.2. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.4.” He further says. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.2. 5. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child." 5. Tagore rightly says.4.2.

Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10.g. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. 9. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. It is open to all irrespective of country.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. race. 10. 281 . Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11.

liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life.5. According to him.2. who possess sweet and amicable tempers.5. man making. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. Freedom. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Purity of thought.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. work and deeds come out of it. Education for strong Moral Character. He believed in to learning or selflearning. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Concept of Education.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. 3. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Education should make a person self-reliant. Book learning. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. character forming and assimilation of ideas. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education for Self-realization." He was against the theoretical type of education. Education for Self-reliance. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man.” 5. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. 4. 2.2.

with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. 6. Secondly he wanted Science. philosopher and guide to the students He. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners.5. Thirdly he wished that games. Discussion Method. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Swami. 5. 5.2. Every individual should be trained for concentration.5. Education for Physical Development. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Philosophy and Theology. That will serve the purpose of education fully.5.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other.2. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. 283 .5. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend.2. A physically strong person is the need of the society. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. The teacher should be the facilitator. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. 5. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. engineering and technical subjects. And above all. Of course.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Religion.the learners on different students in the discussion. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching.

2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. Write short notes on Basic education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 LET US SUM UP We have. and pragmatist . curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. 2. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. naturalist. We have seen that Tagore. in this lesson. ears and eyes.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. 5. Gandhiji as a Idealist. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. legs.2. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. of course. Their educational ideas. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. 284 .Substantiate your answer. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. 5. 12. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. 3.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda.

Where the whole world forms its one single nest.4. 3. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Technique of Correlation 6. 2. Discussion Method 285 . Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. d. Activity Method d. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.2. b. Cult of non-violence. a. 9. Self-Study b.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. f. Meditation and concentration c. a. 8. metal work. Learning by Doing c. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 1937 7. Teaching while Walking b. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. c. Heuristic Method. 5. Nai Talim 4. a. wood work. Basic education. Debate and Discussion Method. Self realization. leather work have been suggested. 5. 5. gardening. a. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. 10. Activity Method b. Education should involve manual work. Ideal of citizenship. 11. e. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Explain Vishwabharathi. c.

H. (2007). New Delhi : Aggarwal.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. K. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.5. J. L. Anmol Publications Pvt. C. Theory and Principles of Education. (2004). K and Narang C. (2002). O. P. on Bhatia. Dhiman. (2003). N. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. New Delhi : A. N. Foundations of Education. B. Pahuja. (2007). P. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 286 .P. Ltd.2.

Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.4 5.3.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.11 5.8 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3.3 5.10 5.3. In this lesson.1 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 . Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.7 5.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3.9 5. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology. 5.6 5.

in Russia or in Japan. 5. present behaviour may be modified. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the desert area. in the U. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. curriculum signifies situations for learning. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . there is a large number of communities.3. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. curriculum. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. In the former sense. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. in fact .A. While education is learning. Then in a big country like India. living in the hilly area. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. the plain area. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. Curriculum is intimately related to education. Both the processes are integrated. state the meaning of curriculum 2. From the latter point of view. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. new behaviour may be acquired. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. 5.under the direction of the school. is a means to the process. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. While education is a process. A g o o d curricu lu m.S. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. the plateau area and 288 . it is identical wit h socializat ion. curriculum also offers a wide contrast..3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. maintained or eliminated.3. in the form of new experience. In the words of Kerney and Cook. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. In it. you will be able to: 1. Since the demands.3.

We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. therefore. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. 5. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. irrespective of their needs and environment. it is.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. Besides craft. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. according to modern trends in the educational process. differs from individual to individual.3. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. the learning capacity of children. It must differ from locality and from society to society. customs and needs. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. environment. Again. From a slave-country we became secular.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. too. studying therein. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. In fact . However. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. democratic and socialistic country. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. and 289 .

Goals of Secondary Education. aims. Vocational Efficiency. uninspiring and unscientific. e. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. remote or immediate. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. They are visionary goals e.g..(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. etc.. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. Understanding Objective. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. They speak of immediate purposes of education. in instructional objectives. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Application Objective. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. they depend on the political. which may or may not be attained.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. They may be ultimate or proximate. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. unambiguous and functional. 3. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. e. social. 1.g. etc. They speak of perfect goals. of classroom. Self Realisation. 5. National Integration. unsatisfactory. emotional. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. general or specific. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. 290 . They are achievable. Knowledge Objective. specific.3.. Goals of Primary Education. aesthetic and spiritual development. social. The word “Curere” means 2.g. moral. So it is inadequate. 4. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. eg. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. individual or Social and so on. tangible. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation... What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3.

finding them very interesting and captivating. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. in the class rooms.” 291 . The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. educationists. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. capacities. Raymont rightly says. heavy fire.5. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. The interests. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. abilities. but it includes the totality of experiences. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. on the playing fields. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced.3. needs. According to Crow and Crow.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. Crow and Crow remarks. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization.

time in a useful manner. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. They often waste it or rather kill it. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 .” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. capacities and abilities. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. mental. aptitudes. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. Due to these variations and differences. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. urges. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. tendencies. moral. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.

In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation.curricular. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. 3. phased preparation.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. To ensure success of the process. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. Similarly. 2. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. development of professional capability at all levels. organized. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. administrative programme need be planned. 293 . infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. principles of curriculum construction.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. 11. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . 12. 1937 19. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. Relation with Life c. laboratory. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 10. library. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. 5. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. 18. 17. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. 5.3. Run. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. Child Centred Education b. workshop. in the class room. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. a.

Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001). Curriculum Development. New Delhi : Isha Books.5.K. Bhalla. and Sarita Kumari. 295 . (2007). Lakshmi. P. S. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. Innovations in Education.S.3. Curriculum and Instruction. (2007). D.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2007). N. S. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. New Delhi : Authorspress.

4.LESSON 5.7.4 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.7.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.1 Developing scientific outlook Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.1 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.8 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .10 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.5 5.9 5.4.6.

By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking.5. 5.during the second half of this century. 3.4. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. newer and newer industries started growing. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. you will be able to: 1. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. in the economic reconstruction of society. open-mindedness. 297 . Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. 2. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. superstition or emotion. tolerance for the opinions of others. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. yet real advancement in this area was achieved .4. Gradually. We mean curiosity. honesty. explain the concept of scientific attitude.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . know the importance of science education.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. 4. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes.4.

5. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Selection for science education.So that. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 5. 4. Through examinations. Promotion of science clubs. After such experience and training. 2. 3. stipends and appreciations in various ways. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 2. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. 4. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. 3.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop.4.4. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 7. 5. Thinking and memory develops. Love for truth enhances. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Schemes of teaching science. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. 6. Principles are formulated. Organisation of science fairs. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. as well as of the society.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. 5. Central science workshop. Through newspapers. 6. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. seminars and symposiums. Devotion towards nature increases. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work.

They ask many questions about the objects they see. They encounter many social events as they grow. Training of science teachers. sex or religion.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. In the inquiry approach. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 7. should provide opportunities to. Write any two advantages of Science Education. objectivity. It is. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. For laboratory and workshop techniques. 5.6. After presenting the problem. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enquiry teaching is. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. They experience natural phenomenon. essential that teachers.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. 5.4. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. therefore. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look.needs and conditions. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. each child to “enquiry skill building”. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. which is essential for developing scientific outlook.4. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.

commands or orders. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. . stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. to ask questions and experience things. 5. It requires consistent thinking. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . . 300 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. 3.Herma Wouk. 2. Giving less directions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Adopting creative models of teaching. 4. 3. Social sciences. stern pursuit of accurate data. test. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe.4.6. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Appreciating pupils ideas. if they like. 6.books. 5. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.4.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. 5. Evidence.

Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way.4. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. and emphasized during the learning process . neighbourhood. (Vaidya 2007). They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. therefore should be unbiased and objective. For instance. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. of vast resources running waste. To achieve this we should understand what it means. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. These include open mindedness. to develop among the learners. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. keen observation. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. The students observation. it must be encouraged. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. friends. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. school and society at large. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions.7.(Smith 2008). It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. critical thinking and suspended judgments. practiced. 5. These characteristics of any scientific 301 .

Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. (Das. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. he studies all aspects of it. 5. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge.7.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. or superstitions. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. The intention to respect another’s point of view. rumor. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.4. 302 . Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. intuition or wishful thinking”. 2007). they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. understanding and logic. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. In considering a situation or a problem. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. think and work it”. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias.

7. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .4.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. but to begin only after careful planning. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.7.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil.4. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. • 5. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. 5. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.

and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. it must be encourages. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. 5. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.4. 304 .

A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Wide reading b. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. New Delhi : Anmol Publications.4. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. (2000). Study of superstitions d. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Vaidya. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Planning of activities 5.5. Rao. objectivity. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. a. a. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.B (2008). Love for truth enhances. a. N. Discuss the importance of science education 14. b. S. Reflections on Scientific attitude. 5. b. D. The intention to respect another’s point of view. 4.S.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. 16. 305 . Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 5. Proper example of the teacher c. Yadav. Adopting creative models of teaching. a. (2008). M. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools.4. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. 2. 3.4. b. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. (2006).

306 .5.5. actively.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.4 5.10 5.5.9 5.5.3 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions. areas of institutional planning.11 5. objectives and characteristics.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.6 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. 5.2 5.5. state the concept.5.5.1 5.5.5 5.8 5.5.LESSON 5.5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.7 5.5. you will be able to: 1.5. 2.

3.5.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. executive as well as public. teachers and students is not lost sight of. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. each teacher. State and national levels from below. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning.5. • to involve teachers and school administrators. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. and supplement planning from above. every teacher. • To make institutional planning more successful. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. 5. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. which become the bases for further planning at the district. 5. every parent. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. in the task of educational planning. • to make planning development-oriented. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. Institution should be regarded as the unit. and each student are regarded as separate entities. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. and. and every student in the process of educational planning. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions.

The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. etc. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Co-curricular activities. it becomes the basis for school inspection. council and. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. Classwork.5. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.• implemented. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. approved after making necessary modifications.curricular Activities. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. 308 . Examinations. (2) Co. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. and Personnel services. Syllabus. which will be discussed in the general. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. 5.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning.5. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs.

Organisation of Pupils. Editing the school magazine. hobby-centres. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Fair distribution of syllabi. Preparation of audio-visual aids. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Undertaking remedial instruction services.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Running science clubs. Conducting of educational. Organisation of class-room libraries. Celebrating of national and international festivals. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Improving the subject competence of teachers. Improving the internal assessment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. etc. Organisation of cultural and literary activities.No. etc. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Equipping of laboratory and library. etc. Preparation of models. charts and apparatus. Courts. 3. Organisation of Students’ Association. Organising play-for-all programmes. Preparation of instructional material. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. etc. 1. Organisation of Self-Government Days. scientific and historical excursions. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning.

Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. students’ associations.5. administrator-supervisor. teacher-managing body. understanding. headmasters associations. administrator-pupil. parents. science teachers’ associations. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. involving mainly human materials. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. teacher-pupil. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group and out-group relationships are as given below i. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. co-operation. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning.” The human relationships in. teacher-State. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. pupils. teachers. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. administrator-administrator. Administrator-State. and —pupil-pupil. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. etc. teacherinspector. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. ii. pupil310 . The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. and solidarity. which are divided as the in. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. teacher-teacher.5. parent-teacher associations.

have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. pupil-non-official functionaries. pupil-parent. organisation. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. 311 . etc. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. pupil-inspector. It is also being modernized to become a technique. According to C. supervision and superintendence. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. teacher-community leader. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration.5. supervision.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. It covers personnel and material management. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. social sciences and other disciplines. now-a-days. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. V. Good.State. and to serve. to attend. To administer means to manage. teacher-parent. administrator. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. to carry out. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. organisation and management. pupil-community leader. control. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. superintendence. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. to accomplish.

He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. Economic Management . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.Any good management will always have good public relations. low. Those. Worker Participation . 5. He should be an artist in human relationships. 9. 4. Rapport between the Management and Employees .lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. 10. 7.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. without this the efficacy will be handicapped.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. 2. it is not worth-while.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. The relationship should change from master. 6.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. 12. If the cost benefit ratio is less.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. Communication . who occupy the managerial positions. Socio-Scientific Approach . Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . Democratic Management . Motiviation . Decision Making . This is the latest democratic trend in management. If it is more. Cost-Benefit Analysis . 8. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. 3.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. 13.The manager should have leadership traits. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. 11. Better Human Relationships . Liasion with the Public . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. Leadership .Of all the approaches.

5. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. 5. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. objective. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. 18. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work.too. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. and cooperative performance should be ensured.These two are. 14. enrichment of curricula. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. 313 . There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 19. improvement of teaching methods. to improve the quality of education it provides.g. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. 5.

Teacher and Education in Indian Society. d.M. R. e. b.5. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Fundamental of Educational Management. 2.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. H. Classwork. Leadership c. Communication 5. S.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Syllabus.5.5. (2001). a. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. f. Instruction. (1995). b. Decision Making b. a. a. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Educational Administration. c. (2003). 314 . APH Publishing Corporation. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. a. Motiviation d. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Co-curricular activities. Examinations. In group and Out group 5. Tarachand and Prakash. NUEPA.K. b. it becomes the basis for school inspection. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. 4. Singh. and Personnel services.

Healthy Food Habit 4. population education.3 Directive Principles . Buddhist and Jain system of education.4 India's Secular Policy .Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. 4.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.Article 45 .Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. 1. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.1 School Health Programme. Realized the problems of school education.Pre-service and In-services facilities. 2. Economic 315 .2 Nutritional deficiencies.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.CORE PAPER .Preventive measures.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Examination reforms. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. wastage and Stagnation 3. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Sex-education 4.Religious and Modern Education 1.teachers should have : 1. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Common ailments of Children.5 Regional Educational Development in India . Communicable diseases . First Aid. higher education. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. Balanced diet.I. women education and teacher education in India. social Impact 3.1 Primary Education : Education for all.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Code of conduct for teachers.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Inspection and Supervision 3.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Preservation of nutrients. physical education and environmental education 5. Community and Mass Media 2. School. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.1 Gurukula system of education.1 Inculcation of Socialism. New evaluation procedures. nutritional requirement.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.3 Educational Influences of Home.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.

K.N. Ghanta R. Ram S. (2004) Problems of Education in India. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.K. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. and Human Development.4.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Curriculum and national goals . Meerut : Surya Publication 6.4 4. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.N. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. Mahatma Gandhi. B. Hemchand. Socialization. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.R. and Sharma R. Pandy V. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Naturalism and Pragmatism .4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Taneja V.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9.K. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. 316 . New Delhi: NCERT 3. curriculum and teacher's role 5. R. REFERENCE 1. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. Tagore 5.S. Saraswathi T. Sharma.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. (2005) Foundations of Education. T. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.Aim.1 Idealism. 5.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Realism.C. (1999) Culture. 7. Mishra.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Kalan Paper Packs 10.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. and Dash B. Prof.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. and Mohanty R.K. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Delhi : University Publications 2.

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