BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. Lesson 5.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. discusses the regional educational development in India. Lesson 4. and Jain system of education. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. 9 . During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. In. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. Jainism and their educational implication. The need. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Lesson 2. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India.

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4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.6.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1.5.1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1.1.1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1.1.6 Education during British Era 1.1.6.1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.1.LESSON 1.1.6.3.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1.1.5 Jain system of education 1.5.5.6.5.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.3.1 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.4.4.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.6.2 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.

in opinion.7 1. Muslim and British periods. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. The history of education passed through Buddhist. both present and future.6. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. 1.1.1. 1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. India.1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1.6. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. Education in India. That 12 . elucidate the education during British Era. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. you will be able to: 1. “a class of persons.3. describe the Jain system of Education 4. has a long past history starting in vedic education. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.1.8 1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.1. 1. but English in taste.1.9 1.1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.1. Indian in blood and colour.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. in morals and in the intellect”. British system of education presented the modern western model.1.1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.

however. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. 10. with grants of land or money. Method of Study. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. the monitorial plan was followed. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Pupils were taught. 13 . from darkness. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. It was not merely intellectual. 8. generally. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Individual Teaching. followed by explanation by the teacher. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. There was. if they thought fit to do so. Forests as Centres of Education. Education was a private affair of the people. Role of Travel in Education. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. and to agriculture and trade. Immediate Aim Vocational. 5. 9. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Education of Moral. questioning by the pupil. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. individually. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. The immediate aim of education. Residential Schools.knowledge was real. 11. High Status of Teachers. 6. Teacher as Parents. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Religious and Spiritual. as it is generally considered to be at present. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. managed entirely by Brahmans. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. to light. Where pupils were many. 4. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. not en masse by the class method. 12. from eternal to immorality 2. religious and spiritual. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. 13. Method of Instruction. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Free and Accessible. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Curriculum. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. No State Control on Education. 16. 3. 14. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. It was also moral.

girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3.1. Wide-Spread Education in Women. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.3. 1. They were very cordial and intimate. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . besides preparing for worldly pursuits. studied Vedas. lived a life of celebacy. It was freely available to all those who wanted.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. It was suited to the needs of the society. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times.17. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. the handicapped. he was qualified to become a monk. Consequently. 2. Right means of livelihood 6. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. watching dances or listening to music. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. the student remained in a state of Shramana. disease and death of the human beings. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Right contemplation 1. medium of Pali. killing of any living being. Right memory 8. every class in society.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. It was denied only to the ill. Right endeavour 7. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. impure conduct. etc. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. use of cosmetics. taking things without being offered.C. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Right speech 4. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Right knowledge 2. Right activity 5. Right thought 3. 15 . had the right to receive education. Education was imparted through the. partaking of food at prohibited times. the most significant of which were the following 1.4. 1. in which.1. use of intoxicating things. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. which included abstaining from theft. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. the student had his head shaved of all hair. After attaining the age of 20. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. I take Refuge to Dharma. except the Chandals.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. I take Refuge to Sangh.

2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. assumptions. has no metaphysical value for life. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. depth and range. beg for alms. Initially. a continuous change creating 16 . of clothes. archery. geology. so long as it successfully does so. 7. Whatever its nature and extent. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. etc. It comprehended education in writing. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. etc. Even at this stage. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. arithmetic and religious discussion. As reality is becoming. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. along with education in script writing. 8. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. commerce. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. objectives of human life. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive.3. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. agriculture. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. education was impart in art. a change is not only total but also perpetual. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly.. bodily gestures. medicine. Later on. 4. meaning. 1. eat food thrice a day. wear three items. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. it is regarded as true”.4. 6. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. women occupied a position inferior to men. however. elephant lore. nothing is of any permanent consequence. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. Life is in a flux. 3. aspirations and. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. 2. nature. be considered the aim of education It. the science of taming and training animals. After this ritual. handicrafts. magic. knowledge of reviving the dead. approach. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. cottage industries. control over sensuous activities. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. military science. and. animal husbandry. therefore. These are called later Buddhist schools. the presence of the monks was essential. On this occasion. etc. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. archery. Hence. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. 5. changing the goals.

the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Validity is effective and consequences. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.new and peculiar situations.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. Write Eight fold path . 1. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. whatever works are true and good. 5. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter.1.e. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. it is much older than the latter. Jainism insists 17 . i. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. In fact. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. However. goes to Vardhaman. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. therefore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Education must. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Its chief feature. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. and to give it a shape that it has today. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. its pessimistic outlook on life. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. however.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching.. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. such as.

Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. 2. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. 2. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 5. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. 8.5. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. rather than the interpretation of the universe. 7. They are: a) Not to injure. c) Not to steal. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Self-realisation as jiva is divine.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. 1. 10. thought and deed. Hence. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. more stress on individual aims. b) Not utter falsehood. but on both.1. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. 3. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. As such. b) Right knowledge. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. c) Right conduct. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. 6. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 18 . Development of personality as an individual. d) To lead a celibate life. 9. and believe in happiness to all. e) To renounce the world. it has a foot in both the words. 3. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. 1. 4.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. and is to be redeemed and liberated.

that would be socially desirable. Teaching must develop these faculties. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. therefore. success and love.4. 1. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. What are Triratnas ? . 3. practised and not only aspired for. and should bring happiness to all. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 4. Belief in transmigration of soul.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. education must be action based and ideally oriented. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 3.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 1. Hence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Jiva is essentially karmic. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. here and now. education should develop sense of discrimination.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 8. 2. 5. 2. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. 19 . Teaching should be social and tolerant.

philosophy and literature of Europe. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. 1953). However. North West Province and Punjab.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. primary 20 .6.6. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.1. Bombay. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. 1.6. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. To set up separate departments of. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. and not for life. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. Madras. with rally and rout. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. 1. 1. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. 1. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. 2.6.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.1. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. science. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time.

6. Then the prevalent education was anti-national.6. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. The universities dominated the secondary education.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. self-respecting and competent. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. 1. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement.education was neglected.K.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. 1. Later on. namely. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. at the primary level. • Universal free primary education. In 1882. To ensure qualitative improvement. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. 1. • Secondary education.6. secondary education became a step towards university. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. At that time M.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. The objective of education was to provide 22 . children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12.At the primary stage (6-11 years). commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. all children are to have a common curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. After this stage. 10. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11.1. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry.

Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. 1. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school.education of European literature. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. Right thought. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. The system of education was well-organised. military science. etc. Right speech. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. b. 3. 4. Right knowledge. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. It was suited to the needs of the society.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. handicrafts.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. During the Buddhist period. 23 . Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. Right contemplation. 6. the science of taming and training animals. Right means of livelihood. along with education in script writing. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. questioning by the pupil. arithmetic and religious discussion. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. establishment of universities. Right memory. 1. 3.1.. followed by explanation by the teacher. 2.1. The immediate aim of education. 5. 4. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. science and English language. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 2. geology. education was impart in art. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. Right endeavour. a. Right activity. archery.

Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. History of Indian Education System. (2007). Sargent report 12. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K. 1882. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Singh. Development of personality as an individual. a. 1937 1. and Nath. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Improvement of Literature. 10. Development of Educational System in India. Hence. 24 . (1984). b. Aggarwal. Right conduct. 8. 9. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. b. Right faith. 11.1. Y. Sharma.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.7.C.C. R. Ltd. (2005). c. more stress on individual aims. (2009). Y.K. J. J. Right knowledge. a. Ltd.

2.8 1.2.6 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.3.1 University Education Commission 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.5 1.3.2.3.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.3.4 National Policy on Education 1.2.2.4 1.LESSON 1.2.2.2.7 1.1 1.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.2.2 1.9 1. The 25 . There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.2.

Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2.3. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. you will be able to: 1. explosion of enrolment.conditions of the teachers. S. technological engineering.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. technical. secondary and higher education. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2. 1. 1. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. vocational education. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. Kothari (1964-66) 8. expansion of vocational. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. medical and legal education. New Educational Policy. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. 1986 1. analyse the progress of education in free India. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. diversification of courses of studies. National Council for Women’s Education 5. curriculum. girls and women education besides primary. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National Board of Teacher Education 10. standard of teaching.2.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. examination system. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. 2. There had been vast institutional expansion. Post-graduate 26 .welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education.

Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. in January 1985.3. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education.S. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. Finally. National System of Education. D. quality.3. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. However.2. 1. Therefore. the New National Policy on Education. Education is the key to our allround development. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.2. the chairman of University Grants commission. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. 4. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. research et. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. quantity. 1952. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. 2. Kothari. 1966. accumulated over the years. 1. Problems of access. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 3. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. 1986.2. Government of India.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. A. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.3. material and spiritual. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. A meaningfully Partnership. Education for Equality.teaching. utility and financial outlay. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. 1. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. The Essence and Role of Education.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. attitudes. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. The UNESCO Report. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. the concepts of work experience. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty.2. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. the minorities and the handicapped. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. By working with hands. It can train practical aptitudes. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Thus.” Thus. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. 28 . scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. With adequate planning. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . co-ordinations. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. As such. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. “It may be described. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. Besides. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. if he wishes. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. According to. the Commission. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. The Radhakrishnan Commission." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. co-operation and implementation of the scheme.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. The Education Commission.” The Mudaliar Commission. it will conduce self.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. In 1955. “The aim of these colleges.

if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n.ot her. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. Therefore. In addition. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. The Central Advisory Board of Education. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . admission requirements to vocational courses. the. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. Subsequently. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. raising the special facilities. the semester and credit system.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. the rigid streaming of courses. for quality of life in the rural areas. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. With a view to relating education to the life. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work.. etc.

meaningful. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. According to committee. meaningful. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. which swept the country for over two decades. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. 1. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. preferably spinning and weaving. aimed at this goal.2. 31 . Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. The wave of Basic Education. In short. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum.and the world of work. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. Commerce. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. giving importance to productivity in the national development. which offer scientific. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. technological courses including Agriculture. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. who conceived the System of Basic Education. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji.defined S UP W as “purposive.. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. felt that education should be centred around a craft. etc. manual work resulting in either goods or services. which are useful to the community. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. The Father of Nation.

The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Community work and social service. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. 3. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Clothing 5. Productive 2. 32 . Culture and recreation 6. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. as far as possible. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. so that it is educational in essence. locally available materials and tools. be that the work involved is: 1. The teachers should make use of. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. tools and techniques and 3. Work practice. Health and Hygiene 2. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Food 3. Shelter 4. Educative and 3. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Some Hints to Teachers 1. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. 2.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. 4. Experimentation with materials. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom.

as far as possible. Education through work The SUPW should.2. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. removal of illiteracy. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Merits of the Programme 1. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. It can become an instrument to build character. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. slum clearance. inculcate a faith. Community Service In-1972. Check on educated unemployed 4. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. 1. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. improve discipline. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. etc.5. the local community should be actively associated. 6. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. Productive Work 33 . Such activities may include projects of village uplift. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. To make education more realistic.

the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. should involve itself in the educational effort. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. AICTE was set up in year 4. traffic control. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . in turn. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. helping the adults-in productive work. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The community. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. if not productive. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Define SUPW 34 . Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. offering first aid. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. skills and better future for the children. etc.

manual work resulting in either goods or services. 6. e. a. 1. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. meaningful.2. Write short note on SUPW. 1955 4. d. 35 . b. c.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. which are useful to the community.2.2. Dr. f. Radhakrishnan 2. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 1. 1952 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. 2. 3.

P. and Nath. History of Education.P. (2007). Y. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. B. 36 .. V. Rao.D.P.K. R. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. Singh. New Delhi: A. J. Y. A. (2005). (2009).C. History and Problems of Indian Education. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.(2005). Ltd.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.K. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. (2007).2. Amala. : Sharma.H.1. Anupama. History of Indian Education System. and Rao. Development of Educational System in India.K.

1949. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.5 1. Besides the English version.369 words in the English language version. 37 .6 1. it came into effect on January 26. equality.2 1.1 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. procedures. assuring its citizens of justice. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3.3. and liberty.3. democratic republic. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.8 1. containing 395 articles. establishing the structure.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. directive principles and duties of citizens.3.7 1. Being the supreme law of the country.3.3.9 1.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.1 Significance of DPSP 1. there is an official Hindi translation. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.3.3.4 1. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3. 1950.3. for a total of 117.3.3.

are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Through them. you will be able to: 1. learn the role of central and state government on education.3. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. social. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. for 166 days. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4.3. with Dr.3.In the August 14. The Assembly met. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. understand our Indian constitution. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. 1950. 2. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. 3. spread over a period of 2 years. According to the constitution. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. administrative. the Drafting Committee was appointed. legal and environmental. 1947. political. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. 1947. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature.3. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 38 . Dr. describe the important constitutional articles related to education.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 1. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. On August 29. in sessions open to public. 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. economic. 4. After many deliberations and some modifications. 1. Two days later.

Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Article 41. Condition for dignity of children. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Protecting children from exploitation.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Organisation of village panchayat. Article 39A. Article 43. on the basis of equal opportunity. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Equal pay for both sex. That the health and strength of workers. Article 40. men and women. sickness and disablement. Appropriate concentration of wealth. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Minimising inequalities in status. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Equal justice and free legal aid. The State shall. 39 . in particular. Right to work. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Article 42. Protecting health of the workers. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. The State shall endeavour to secure. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. old age. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. for workers. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. and shall. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. provide free legal aid. and in other cases of undeserved want.government. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. No abuse of children. Liking wage etc.

to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. work. [declared by or under law made by 40 . Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Article 45. to all workers. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. agricultural. in particular. by suitable legislation or in any other way. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Uniform civil code for the citizens. in particular. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Article 49. Note: Subs. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. a living wage. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. industrial or otherwise. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. See also Article 21A). Article 48. in particular. and. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Article 47. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. The State shall take steps. Article 48A. The State shall endeavour to provide. Article 44. Article 46. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. (Original Article 45. 2002 for “45. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Article 43A. Participation of workers in management of industries. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people.

Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 2. Article 51. Promotion of international peace and security.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Article 50. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Separation of judiciary from executive. from spoliation. Article 45 .3. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Article-21A Right to Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2002. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. may be law determine”. maintain just and honourable relations between nations.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. destruction. removal.Parliament] to be of national importance. disfigurement. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. as the case may be. disposal or export.

and. from justice and all forms of exploitations. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. race. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. ii. and shall protect them. if such person is a minor. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. caste. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. language or any of them”. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. 6. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. in particular. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. iii. 5. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. 2002. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities.” 42 . No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 8. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. 7. 4. his guardian has given his consent thereto. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. 3.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. & 1. for its vocabulary.9. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. The central government determines targets and promotes education. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. the forms. Educational Reforms From time to time. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. 2. 43 . wherever necessary or desirable. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and by drawing. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions.3. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4.

were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Production of suitable for children and adults f. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . 6. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. All India Council of Medical Science. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. etc. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government.. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. So as to encourage education on right lines. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. 8. So that they may work well. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. By starting these projects. 5. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. The following pilot projects. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Local bodies and private enterprise. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. 7. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. to achieve the desired ends. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. the state governments. private agencies etc. 4.3.

Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. 4. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. The 45 . 9.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. 11. etc. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. is the state responsibility. handicapped. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. education for women. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 1. reports etc. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. research. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. are published by it.3. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. training and statistics. books. 1. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. 10. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. 3. 12. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers.

3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. 5. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Explain Directive principles 2.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Article 21A c. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Write short notes on a. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 1. Article 46 4. articles in the Directive principles. Article 45 b.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. 46 . and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. 1. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3.

Clearing House function 9. Describe the educational role of State Government. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.3.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. a. Article-21A Right to Education. a. Article 29 and 30 7. 47 . Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. b. The Directive Principles of State Policy. a. Ambedkar 2. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Dr. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. b.5. 4. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 3. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. may be law determine”. Article 46 5. Article 45 . 2002. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2002. Development of Hindi Language 6.

Education in Emerging Indian Society. S. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. K and Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2004). Education in Emerging Indian Society. L. Ghosh. S. N. (2008). Dash. Bhatia. (2007).3. B. 48 . New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta.1. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. (2009).

4. Jainism.4.7 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.1 1.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1. Students should be 49 .4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1. religious education should be broad based. Islam.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.8 1.3.4.4.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.4.4.2 1.4 Moral education 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.5 1.4.4.4. Christianity.4.4.3.6 1.4.3.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1. Buddhism etc.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.

” Education broadens human outlook. According to E. beauty and goodness so that 50 . Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.and dedication. integrity. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion.4. Thus. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. In the complicated and complex society of today. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. duty-consciousness. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong.D. "In A multireligious society like ours.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). know the position of religious education in our country 3. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world.4. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals.. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. religious education and the concept of secularism. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. you will be able to: 1. As result of which. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. India' can produce men of character. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. state meaning and need for moral education 1.

Thus. all citizens are free to follow any creed. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. rancour. castes and creeds. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education.3. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. 1947 we achieved our freedom. According to Article 19. 1. through religious practices and 51 . Viewing the defects of religious education. realizes God in himself. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. In short. at least occasionally. if not regularly. No religious tax can be imposed on them. Hence.4.3. religion and democracy are same. They thought that any kind of narrow. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. it is clear that the State has no religion.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. As a matter of fact. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. 1. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. Children attend these organizations. According to Article 22. As our country is a country of diverse religions. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged.4.” From the above. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education.

To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. He also learns about social. for the development of the individual and the society.teachings. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. It helps to modify habits attitudes. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. which help him for the development of his character. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. It is religious education. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). when he becomes an adult. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. moral and spiritual values. and what is evil. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. Good education. what is done and what is not done etc.. aggressive. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. intellectual and physical faculties of children. one fully developed. As a result of which. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. which can mould. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. temperament etc. If unreleased. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way.

3. If we open the pages of history. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. 1. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. towards the society. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. This should not be allowed to happen. 53 . which is the basic need of a democratic life. Therefore. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. 2. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man.3.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum.4. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5. 11. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. For this. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 9. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. 10.4. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. therefore. examples of patriotism. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Gurudwara as. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. stories of moral greatness. Life histories of great persons of the world. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Write Article 22 2. churches and mosques 7. Since all religions have virtues. fellow-feeling. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

1.4. Brahmacharya (celebacy). 6. 6. They will play their role effectively. 1.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Moral education.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Cultivation of emotions. Satyam (truth).4. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. The content of the curriculum. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). 55 . Ahimsa (Non-violence). Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 4. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 8. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Fearlessness. Aparigarha (Non. 3. 2. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together.acquisitiveness). the methods of teaching. students. Asvada (Control of palate). is that which develops moral values. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 5. Non-injury. It they learn what morality is in their early years. 7.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. Patriotism. Without moral values. “Let all be happy and free from disease. Purity. let men see well of one another. Service to others. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. 4. 8. in the home. 5. 2. Self sacrifice. 3. 7. therefore.

Discipline. 3. 2. Community singing should also be encouraged 2.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Efficiency. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Secondary Stage 1. Unity of mankind. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Simple texts and stories concerning different. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.4. loyalty and self-sacrifice. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction.9. 10. National unity and Spiritual values. 56 . Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Integrity. Asatyam (Non-thieving). The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Good manners. minutes in the morning for group singing. 4. 1. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. 11. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Sharivashram (Physical work). Good temper. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. religions may be included in the syllabus. 3. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. discipline. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. In the school programme.

there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. love of humanity. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. should form a normal part of school programme. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. patriotism and self-discipline. 3. 5. In other words. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. 2. University Stage 1. Silent meditation should be encouraged. In this connection. 5. 57 . Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 4. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated.4. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6.

2. 4. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. b. a. In short. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. 1.4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. minutes in the morning for group singing.4. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 1. For this. 2. Sri Prakasa 6 . Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. a. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion.4.1. a. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. 58 . 1959 5. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. the. The School Assembly should be held for a few. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. Training of Character 3. b. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the aims of Religious education.

4.C. (2008). 59 .1. Bhatia.H. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.P.H. (2003). M. B. (2004). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theory and Principles of Education. (2007). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. P. (2008). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Pahuja. L. Ltd. J. Anmol Publications Pvt. N. N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Dash. K. K and Narang C.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Siddiqui. Publishing Corporation.

LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.9 1.5.5. 60 .1 1.5.6 1.5.3 1.e.5 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan. i.8 1.2 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.12 1.5.5. Although. disparities between provinces/States. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5.5.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.7 1.10 1.4 1.11 1.5.5.5..

The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.1. 1. This leads to separatist movements. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. energy.5. 2. 8. know the education suited to different environments. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. work hard towards this end. 6. roads. Accordingly. 5. 7.5. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.5. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. They therefore. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 4. for example. 3.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1.5. etc. 1. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. you will be able to: 1. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. they take appropriate measures. understand the regional educational development in India 3. 1.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. waters. 61 . Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

Secularism. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. some States became educationally far advanced. some average.5. Therefore. Tight security arrangements should be made. 3. while others remained educationally backward. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. • Separate States (of course viable States). 2.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. 4. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. 62 . The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. on the basis of regional development may be formed. and.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence.

Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. since its inception in 1998-99. academic buildings. NIT. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. etc. 63 . and provision of informal education to enable those. Nagaland and NEHU. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. NERIST. remained under developed. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects.392.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. Guwahati. However. Even in each State. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted.480. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. Mizoram. approved proposals worth Rs. the Union Government. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. 1. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. Funds amounting to Rs. Regional Centres of IGNOU. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. books. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. the State Governments. Silchar.84 crore was released in 2005-06.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.g. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e.5. Tezpur. library buildings. In the Central sector.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. etc. Itanagar.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. Rs. Jammu and Kashmir.After the Planning Process has originated. Out of this. scholarships. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. Central Universities of Assam..14. These projects are in various stages of implementation. while some States like Bihar. After the attainment of independence.

Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. 64 .40. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.500.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. Government expenditure on education. too. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. Out of this an amount of Rs.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.05 crore and Rs. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.187. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.501.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. A provision of Rs. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.261.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Tezpur University. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. During 2003-04.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.8 per cent in 05). there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.57 crore and Rs. Moreover.5. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.

preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . engineering and R&D. The Chandigarh Administration. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. too. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. health services and welfare of the citizen population. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. for which 16 sites. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. notes the study. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. too. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Karnataka. 1. Andhra Pradesh. To add to the woes. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Medical education. for instance. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. English. Karnataka. pharma.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions.5. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. Kerala and Gujarat. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. Listing the positives. Moreover. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Tamil Nadu. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. telecom. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. too.

and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. the working days: an academic . even actually looking at the watch. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. 66 . Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. taking the average in the middle. when he will not be sure of time. the curricular subjects. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. the teaching methods. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. which a non-tribal person cannot do. Hence it is called as need-based. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. the interests. In the same manner. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the socio-physical conditions. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. For a learner living in a rural area. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. in which the learners live.year. life-oriented and environment slanted. while the former does not. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Of course. Then education become realistic and idealistic. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. the vocations. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. The working hours of educational institutions. and so on. The living conditions. the needs.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 67 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. 1. to suit education to different environments? 1. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .5. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. 2.5. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.5. 2.

Educational Development in India. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.K. Education in Developmental Arena. 68 . Education Scenario in India. remained undeveloped 3. Giridhar.2. and Nair. (2008). (2002). S. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. R. S. Salim. 60% 1.5. A. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. during the British rule.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2001). New Delhi: Anmol Publications. a. Dubey. some of areas which were under the native rulers. some States have become more developed than others b.H. C.G. (2001). New Delhi: Authors press.N.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. school community and mass media. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. National Integration. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. 71 . community development. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. secularism and democracy through Indian education. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. semi literate and illiterates.

1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.5.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.1.LESSON 2.7 2.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.9 2.1.4 2.1.6.6 Education for Secularism 2.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1.1.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.2 2.6.5.1 2.3 2.1.1.6.1.1.8 2.

This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.1. you will be able to: 1. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. socialism and secularism 2. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. 2. 73 .1. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow.2. Democracy thus means power of the people. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.1. colour or wealth. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. 3) Provision of Manual Work.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. understand the concept of democracy. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. The students may be associated with the management of the school. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. creed.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. This is the political aspect of democracy. Abraham Lincoln. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.1. In the matter of admitting students in schools. 5) Encouragement to Group Work.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. socialistic and secular state. there should be made no distinction of caste. socialism and secularism 2. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. 2. for the people by the people”.

With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. 2.1. it soon spread all over the world. declamation contest etc. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. There are different brands of socialism. Democracy means 2. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 74 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible.. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. debates. 12) Visits to Legislatures. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. may be planned. 11) Student Parliament. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching.

“Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 75 .Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. the prince and the peasant. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. but on the path of non-violence.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.1. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. oppression and disparity.1. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. Under it. none high”. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. free from exploitation. 2. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 2. 7) Special facilities for girls. service and cooperation.5.5. the wealthy and the poor. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books.

Write any two main features of socialism.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. "which seeks the development of physical. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” In every political and educational corner.1. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. secularism is being propagated. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. 11) State schools. 2. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. Everyone says. 76 . According to Holydake. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. “India is a secular-country. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools.

10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 5) It implies tolerance. 9) It stress free inquiry. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. 8) It believes in co-existence. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. Equality. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. the belief that the state morals. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. People have different religions and they have different beliefs.1. A large number of people is uneducated.6. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. 77 . “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities.1. “Webster further says. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. people have narrow mindedness. fraternity. liberty.6. In this type of prevailing situations. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. 3) It permits freedom of worship. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. During the recent past. Moral values have to be imbibed. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. There is need of making the people open minded. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 2. should be independent of religion.opposed to religious education. That is why. education etc.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. people started believing in regionalism. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.

While doing so. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. The very sight of the building.presented by the students in the gathering. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. No doubt. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. In the hands of such teachers. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. 2. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. education. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools.6. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. that the central string of all religions is one. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . tours and trips may be organized. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. There should be some internal checking of the material being. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. Religious Education. students belonging to different religions should be associated. In the celebration of each such function. Patiala. 1) Moral Education.1. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain.

Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. No doubt. The word “Seculum” means 7. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The term secularism was first used by 8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. Define Secularism 9. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions.

3. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. b. colour or wealth. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 2. This present age 7. for the people and the people”. Equal Opportunities for Admission. there should be made no distinction of caste. Abraham Lincoln. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. Tuition free education b. 5. 4. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Respect of Individual Personality.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. c. George Jacob Holydake 80 . Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society.1.1. 4. b. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Since socialism stands for equality. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. creed.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. a. Socialism aims at equality. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Provision of Manual Work. a. d. 5. a. Socialism aims at social justice. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 3. Power of the people 2. 6. In the matter of admitting students in schools.

L. education etc. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. b. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. should be independent of religion. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. P. N. the belief that the state morals.” 9.1. b. (2005). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Anmol Publications Pvt. It permits freedom of religion. N. a. K and Narang C. J. B. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. a. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Theory and Principles of Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. 10. New Delhi : Pahuja. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 81 . Mohanty. (2004). K.C.8. (2003). Ltd. (2008). According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Bhatia. Dash. (2007). J. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.

1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.4 2.7 2.6.2.6.2.LESSON 2.9 2.10 2.2.2.1 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.2.8 2.2.5.2.5.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2.2.2.3 2.2.2.2.

you will be able to: 1. understandings. mental. social. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values.an instructor of school children. 2. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. emotional. as it is t he aim o f modern education.2. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. and 4. as workers. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. skills. development. therefore. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. as citizens. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. social and moral aspects. 2. A teacher is first and foremost. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. who are placed in his custody. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. 3. It involves physical.generation to another.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. 2. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. aims and objectives of the school.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. as learners. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. 83 . as persons. The developmental roles of children. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. a r e 1. application. moral. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge.2.

a part of their day in 84 . He is to become an active member. culturally confident.2. physically fit for socially efficient. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. The students live. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. 3. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social.All education should lead to better behavioural development. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. morally.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. Teacher as a Citizen Next. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. emotionally. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. member of his community at the outset. economically effective. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. 2. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. motivated. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. mentally. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. and aesthetically to become. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. inquisitive. intellectually. morally. 1. The following are some of such roles described in brief. mental. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. He has to look after their physical. social and emotional health. experiences and acceptance. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. socially. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. 2.

and most of hours. List out the role of teachers towards community development . science club. solve them. activities of the society into which he is born. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. 4. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning.the school being under the custody of teachers. Unless. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. creeds. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. faiths. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. Dr. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. They will be spending with their parents. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. languages and religions. photographic clubs. It 85 . fine art associations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. India is a land of many castes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school.2.

Nehruji has explained this as. Sampurnanand remarked. the citizens of the Republic of India. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. Radhakrishnan. ‘We should not become parochial.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr.” Regarding the role of education. and make into one strong national unit. 1. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. a. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things.is.” 2. At the primary stage the importance of stories. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . stand up straight. poems. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. b. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . The only process is the process of education. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation.2. therefore. with straight backs and look up at the skies. this integration of the Indian people. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. Let us. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. the study of language and literature. should be emphasised. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. narrow-minded provincial. social studies. national anthem and other national songs. c.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. folklore and teaching of social studies.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. It should broaden the outlook. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity.5.

one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Co-Curricular Activities. debates. Textbooks. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. ACC. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. National Days—January 26. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. t he st udent s and t he community. 4. Uniform for School Children.different social sciences. 3. Scouts and Guides. militar y training like the NCC. 5. 7. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Singing of National Anthem. Student Camps. dramatics and youth festivals. educational excursions. Celebrations of National Days. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Taking Pledge. 87 . Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. tours. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. and picnics. symposia. 8. 10. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. 6. 2. Reverence of National Flag. 9. languages and literature. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. sports. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students.

Admissions. v. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. 2. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. 16. language. Educational and Travel Documentaries. 15. ways of thinking and doing things. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another.2. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. School Projects.5. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 14. iv. iii. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Students Exchange and Tours. ii. Open-Air Dramas. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. colour. flora and fauna.11. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Recognition of Institutions. 13. region or religion. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Admissions to schools. 88 . 12. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and .

vii. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Define National Integration 3. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. 2. Community dinners. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. irrespective of national boundaries. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. cultures and races on equal bases. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . camps. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4.vi. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. ix. viii. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes.

“He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. 3. Strong has observed. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. This. (c) fairly tales. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. of his body and mind. and the healthy development. 4. C. 2. In a very real sense.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.2.e. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. 5. that war. Organising of debates and.. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged.6. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. Teachers 90 . Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. if it happens. Radhakrishnan states. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations.6.F. patriotism is not enough. Therefore.friendships between children of different countries. 6.2.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies.” 2. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. Dr.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. the international level. therefore. (b) stories of children of other lands.as important as that of a national citizenship. 2. often in connection with anniversaries.

List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . Impartial in their Treatment. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Russian. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other.” Well Informed About World Situations. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. They should not be propagandists. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. Indian and American. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. a German. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. an Englishman.

Chronic Poverty .Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. As the school is but a miniature society.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.2. majority of people are. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. the education function can be carried.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. 4.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. which results in agitation and aggression language.Another major. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. there is wide spread frustration among all people. Defects of the educational System . factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . Devaluation of Values . Soon after they leave their educational institutions. 5. If this is done.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. It does not prepare students for life. 3. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .2. 2. and help the students to over . The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. understand and indiscipline: 1. Wide Spread Frustration . leading to. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society.

2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5.2. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. etc. co-operation. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. sympathy and good will among the nations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. fellow feeling. love. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. 4. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. community development.democratic nature. 3. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. 2. 93 . He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him.2. 2.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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Emphasising this thing. To make them achieve their aim. Now internet is being used.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Museums. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher.V. periodicals. led to the printing of books. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. Crow and Crow write. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Moreover. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Define community. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. During the course of time. “All the citizens of the community. Then came newspapers. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. the invention of the printing press. In fact. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . books. Hence. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. He taught his students orally. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. are increasingly used in education. art galleries.

Thus. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. 2. Thus. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. A lot of work by way of pre. “Listening participation” in current history. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Effective means of presenting music. It stimulates curiosity and interests. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. the place of importance.telecast. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. the teacher still occupies. 2. In collaboration with the experts. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R.6.classroom teachers. Reynolds.3. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. It is also an important source of entertainment. politics. art. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Important happening inventions. for the teacher through school broadcasts. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. social studies. Students listen various talks. In the emphasis is on sound. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. rather than on picture. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. languages. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. 101 . It enlightens public opinion. Various talks. dram appreciation. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. music. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries.G. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. current affairs and other areas. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”.

but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. School concerts. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. informal and non-formal education. 3. projects or creative activities. at any place. 102 . Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. development of lessons. 4. at drawing room.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. plays. Team-teaching demonstrations. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. style. travel talks. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Participation of local teachers and pupils. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. audibility and presentability. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. mathematics. at play. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. at recreational centers. At present. Making learning an open system. speech. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. fol classical music. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. Before presenting the programme. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. 5. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

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2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4 Limitations of formal education 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.7 2.4.4.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.4.1 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.5 2.4.4.4.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.4.3.LESSON 2.3.4.3.8 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.4.4.4.3 Advantages of formal education 2.6 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.3.4 Non formal educational system 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.2 2.4.4.4.4.4.

1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. compare formal and non formal system of education.4. Education.2. 110 . 2. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. open school. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 4. 2. 5. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. To realize this objective of education. 8. In ancient time in India. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. the mass media et. 3. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system.4. the learner are acquainted. 3. the temple. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. starting and ending at -a particular age. open university. it was mostly. 9..4. Education associated with a degree or certificate. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. you will be able to: 1. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. say the Government or the private enterprise.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. imparted at the residence of the teacher. 7.4. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. his mental alertness.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. 2. Education organised by some agency. 2. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. School is. the community.3. the family. the most important agency of formal education. 4. 6.

2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. third stage. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills.3. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Higher Education: Higher education. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. diplomas.4. 2. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Through early formal education. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates.a secondary education. such as a high school or secondary school.4. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Concepts of proportion. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. also called tertiary. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools.2. the elements of language are first learned.3. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. or post secondary education. structured education. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. or academic degrees. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. capacity. as well as vocational education and training. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. In general. Some education systems have separate middle schools. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. depending on the jurisdiction. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.

which will help for nation's development. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. 2. children with disabilities. 2. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . Agencies can be classified as 2. 3. and remote dwellers. What are levels of formal educational system? . late beginners etc.3.4. is an important agency of formal education. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. 4.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.

continuing education and on the job oriented education. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. Therefore.e. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.formal education. it is a more effective tool for rural development.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Open university. Adiseshiah. open learning. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. systematic. However. It is much more responsive to needs and change. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. it has its own valid claim to reality. etc.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. “Non-formal education should 113 . admissions. until 1970 it had not been defined. It is deliberate.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. curriculum.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. staffed. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. to help themselves. It is functional. financially supported life formal education. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.learning client take some learning objectives. planned. Non-formal education includes adult education. place of instruction. one could say that non-formal education is an active. adults as well as children. It unlocks the doors of development plans. adding up to a true learning society. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. Thus. i.. According to Malcolm A. systematic. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education.

114 . The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. co-curricular activities. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.” 2. self. Lawrence. admissions. 5. the Ideas of citizenship. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved.renewal. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. age. international understanding. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills.4. place of education. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. 2. exploring. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. modes of teaching. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.4. Flexibility in various aspects of education. To help industrial workers to better their skills. It should lay emphasis on the self.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Process of sharing.S. 2. socialism.4.learning pattern.4. national integration. curriculum. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. Preparation for future needs. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth.” According to H. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. Part-time education.e. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status.be marketable and vocationalised. 6.S. Covering life span of an individual. 4. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. 7. To develop in the student. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. evaluation etc. 3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. i.

5. 4. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them.4.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans.4. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. To offer Secondary. 5. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. 6. 8. Senior Secondary. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. publication and information dissemination. Technical. in villages and those who live in towns. 115 . 9. 4. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. Meeting the omissions of formal education. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized.4. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. Eradication of adult literacy. 2. working adults.4. school dropouts.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 2. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. Universalisation of primary education. 10. 3. 7. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. • 2. 3.

Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . To better qualifications.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. if organised in isolation. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. To increase knowledge and 2. 2.4. open space.. library. 2. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . Therefore. etc. etc. To make if. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies.full time to learners – can be home.2.4. others are formal and informal. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. self-employment iii. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. All-round development i. 4. Radio and television. Institutions for formal education. factory. centres of correspondence education. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. farm. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. 3. effective in modern societal context.4. training centres in factories. public libraries. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. Again. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment.

radio. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Define non formal education. Correspondence lesson.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Teaching to face teaching.V. institution. Give examples of non formal education? . Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Written tests. Face Contact programmes. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . List out any two aims of non formal education. Lecturing T. . 117 . 7.

4. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 2. systematic.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Higher Secondary level and University level. Formal and Non Formal 2. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. adults as well as children. Open School. 4. 7.” 6. The school. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. a. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. 5.4.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. b. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Secondary level. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. 118 . Pre-school level. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. b. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. a. 4. 2. the college and the university come under this category. Open University. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Primary level. 3. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. School 3. Explain the different levels of formal system of education.4. 2. Open learning and Correspondence Courses.

C. L. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2007). Anmol Publications Pvt. S. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2003). (2008). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. P.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : 119 . New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.2. Ltd. K and Narang C. Education in Emerging India. Pahuja. Theory and Principles of Education. N. K. N. Gupta. (2005).4. (2004). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Bhatia. (2008). Mohanty. B. Dash. Ltd. J. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

5.3.3.5.4 Open University 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.LESSON 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.2 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.5.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.3 Objectives of Open University 2.4.3.3.4 Need for Open University 2.5 2.5.6 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.4.5.5.4.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.5.5.7 2.5.5.5.1 2.5.5.5.4.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.4.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.

Thus. labourers and half educated individuals. you will be able to: 1. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. Any person.5. It is a lifelong process. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. characteristics of open university 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. understand the meaning of continuing education 2.5. know the need and objectives of open university. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . This knowledge may be in political field.5. continuing education is a boon.3.2. 2. economic field or such other fields. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. Under these circumstances. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. give the meaning.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. However. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. It is a continuous process. 2. farmers. For them. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. 2. industries. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically.5. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened.

Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. T. Cinema. cultured and progressive. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. 2. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. are also contributing their might for the purpose. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. Thus. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education.directly related to his job. On the other hand. Block Development Officers. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. deteriorating to his character and personality. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. For them too continuing education is essential. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Radio. Throughout the country.literate person. Radio and T. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. After the achievement of independence.V. On the other hand. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 .V. Doctors.5. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas.3. Persons engaged in health services.

5. we have not been able to achieve our targets. (13) psychology of child behaviour. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. These books are not very useful. 3. (14) information about bringing up young children. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (15) music. 6. 2.3. 4. (7) folk songs. 2. habits of people of other lands. 2.V. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (16) liking. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (6) folk stories. and Radio. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. 7. (2) basic religious matters. (10) first aid. 5. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. especially women. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (4) the fundamentals of economics. Of course. (1) ancient history.5.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.3. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. 123 . In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (8) psychology of adults. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. Inspite of the great efforts. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely.. (17) modern international and national events.

2.5. lack of time etc.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. of educational opportunities.4. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. NLM was launched in the year 2. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.5. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . attendance restrict ion.

Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . 2. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. Education is not a once for-all process.4. No one is too old or too late to learn. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. 3. but 125 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. the higher the degree of openness. its education is not class room based but home based. c. 5. d. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. b. it makes use of educational techno logy. 4.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. IGNOU was established in the year 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. e. and in teaching.5.unobserved.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. Which was the first open university in India? .

4. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. cho ice o f co ur ses. 2. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. 6.4.5.who did not get it. 2. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 3. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 3.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. supplementing the existing provision. 2. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 126 . The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 4. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. Mo re o ver. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. or who realised too late that they need it. 5. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 2.4.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.5. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. it a ims at wider and hig her. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n.

5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. you have learnt the concept. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. a society. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. Tutor Comments.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons.5. Self instructional materials. In the present day world. 6. 2. 4. 8. 1. Laboratory works. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? .5. Every day. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 127 . school drop outs. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . List out any four methods of Open University? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. semi – literates. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Therefore. 5. Correspondence tuition. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking.4.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. a state or nation. 2. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 3. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost.2. 8. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual.

9. its education is not class room based but home based. cho ic e o f co u r ses. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. agricultural and industrial workers. (2) basic religious matters. 3. 128 . Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates.ambitious learners. 7. Broad casting lectures c. 8. b. b. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 4. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. 7.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1985.5. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 2. a. Explain the objectives. unskilled workers and other professionals. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. P r int med ia b.5. 8. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. youth. need and characteristics of Open University. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 2. d. a. (4) the fundamentals of economics. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 1988. Television Lessons. 6.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. (1) ancient history. a. which may include house wives. aspirants for continuing education.

K and Narang C.S.5. Udaiveer. 129 . Recent trends in Non Formal Education. K. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. S. Ltd. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2004). (2004).K. (2001). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. R.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.2. Reddy. Modern Problems of Education. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. (2007).. L.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. the education of women. Training teachers for all levels of education. All which is the need of the hour. its causes and remedial measures. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. 133 . Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. wastage and stagnation. examination. In Lesson 2. which may claim the attention of those concerned. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Examination reform. and teacher education. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation.

134 .

3.1 EFA – For whom? 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.LESSON 3.7 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1.5 3.2 EFA – How? 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.8 3.1 3.1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.6 3.1.3.1.1. 135 .2 3.4 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.1.3 New initiatives.1.3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1.1.1.1.

Therefore. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). Continuing Education (CE) 1.1. 2. Eradication of Illiteracy. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures.3. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education.1. understands the country. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. directed that. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. may be political. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. therefore.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). you will be able to: 1. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. (EOI) 2. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. On the other hand.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. social. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. “The State shall 136 . the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. education received added importance and significance. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. economic or cultural. 3. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education.

” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Therefore. Continuing Education (CE). This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Universalization of Retention. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. After the attainment of independence. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Due to the adoption of democratic system. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education.endeavour to provide. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. Universalization of Enrolment. It enables the parents to send their children to School. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. 137 . Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Three Stages for Universalization. rights and responsibilities. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. the national Government under. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. 3.

We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. 1990. Write Article 45. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. then to 1976. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. 3. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. It is safe to assure. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 138 . Therefore. This target had to be revised to 1970. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. educational enterprise. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. later to 1988.1. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. UNESCO Bulletin states. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country.3. 1995 (for upper primary stage). present and future. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2.

12. By undertaking survey. Apart from primary education. FELF. rural areas. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. adolescent and adult. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all.1. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). 9. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. Emphasis must be given on health education. sex. Disabled. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. 10. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. 8. In order to make the programme of education for all community. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Education of the Impaired. NAEP. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. 3.3. Education of Girls. their enrolment and retention. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. 5. slum areas. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 3. 139 . Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. nutrition education and sports and games. 6. their social economic status and occupations. 11. The Social Education. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. problem of literacy. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. creed. and Women’s education programme should be improved. Jams and Jellies. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. etc.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. Early childhood education should be streamlined.

Expand MLL and SSA .3. Wastage and Stagnation. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. 3.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.1. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.3. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4.1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. 4. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.e. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.

The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. Familial Factors . it is considered as wastage. Personal Factors . Social Factors .first stage of education. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . School Factors .

can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. 142 . Define Wastage. 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. . . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. in his home.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. They are described hereunder :1. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. School Factors .The following factors. Personal Factors .The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . Societal Factors .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. school or society.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Family Factors . rural or urban 3.1.3. relating to home.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. etc. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 144 . casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. Define Stagnation? 9. mid-day meals. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. uniforms. stationary. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? .

within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.1. 3.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 3. a. directed that. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.1. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. therefore. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. a.1. 3.3. 4. improvement of curriculum. Universalization of Enrolment c. 6. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. 2. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. a. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Minimum Levels of Learning b.. Universalization of Provision b. Universalization of Retention 2. Hartog Committee. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.” 3. 4. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. 145 . you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. b. “The State shall endeavour to provide.

Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. 3. 9. Problems of Elementary Education. improve examination system. Crescent Publishing Corporation. Social Factors 8. (2008). T. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. S.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Personal Factor b. (2007). S.N. Sharma. New Delhi: 146 . a. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Hemchand. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. a. School Factors d.K.7. introduce graded curriculum. b. Familial Factors c.1. (2001).K.

1 Problems of examination 3.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.7 Open book examination 3.2.5.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.1 3.5.2.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2.2 Grade System 3.3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2.2.4.5.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.4.2.2.2.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.LESSON 3.2 3.6.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.5.2.5.2.5.2.7 Let us sum up 147 .4 Question banks 3.2.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.5 New evaluation procedures 3.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.4.3.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2.2.5.2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2.

it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. 3.2.2.2. 3. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. suggest the new evaluation procedures. you will be able to: 1.2. 4. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.2. Besides.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.8 3. 3.3. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .9 3. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.2.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . but on the other.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3.3.

also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. etc.. 3. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. roadside Romeoism. etc. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. etc. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. which the educational authorities have to face. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. hostel facilities. They develop secondary sex characteristics. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. 149 . waiting rooms for girl students.3. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education.2. They may cause problems relating to discipline. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. The following steps should be taken up. schools for them wherever necessary.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. If the students are in sufficient number. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated.

With the mass growth of educational enterprise. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. appointment of paper-setters. 3.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. the examination system has an important role to play. assessment and Finance.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 150 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2.2. It is considered as a major sub-system. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. public administrators and statesmen. Instruction. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. conduct of internal examinations. teachers. public interested in education. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils.

reducing the domination of knowledge objective.4. introducing objective-based testing. establishing reliability. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning.2. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. invigilators. etc. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . payment of remuneration to paper-setters. etc. examiners. 3.printing and distribution of question papers. etc. tabulators. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. training of examiners. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. etc. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. scrutinizers. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. announcement of results. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. etc. validity and practicability. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. pursuing objective-oriented instruction.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. values.

2) From the angle of content of education. lack of objectivity etc.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. 3) With respect to method of teaching. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. 152 . Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. Subjects. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview.. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. takes the place of comprehensive learning. Rote memorisation. halo-effect. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education.2. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. stereotyped questions.. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. do not appeal to the students and parents. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. 7) In connection with the question papers. it s a common experience that subjectivity. 3.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education.. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. which they are expected to study. Vagaries in making. may also discredit them. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education.4.

Spot valuation. List any two merits of examination. . revaluation. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations.a part of internal assessment. re-numbering of answer scripts. may be introduced.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. 153 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Question Books may be developed in all schools.develop true love for education. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. etc. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.

In this system. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure.2. attitudes. Their interests. The new scheme of assessment. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination.2. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.5.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. In actual practice. skills are given importance. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3.3. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. The students can take any course offered in any department.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. Every paper is treated equal. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. It is complicated.5. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. When a person chooses to work extra. 3.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests.2. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . he is given extra credit points.

The human error of evaluation is ± 10. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. only the total credits to be earned is specified.discipline. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. courses can have weightages defined.5. poor. 3. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120.good. In the new system. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . An example is a seminar. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. v. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. While designing syllabus. This system reduces comparison of marks.2.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development.poor. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. or as a 4 credit course. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. These weightages are called credits. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. Groupism is encouraged. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.

and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. 3. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.2. However. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.5. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.2. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. 3. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. 3.5. 156 . It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.2.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.

this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India.3. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . Therefore. .7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. recruitment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. List any four new evaluation procedures. 3. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. What is the reason for introducing grade system? .5.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. However.2. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. 6. In the hierarchy. There are no proper procedures for selection.2. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.

qualified personnel. etc. in a sense. in contrast. requirements. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. laboratory equipment. staff. whether the syllabus has been covered. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision.2. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. finding out the adequacy of. library books. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. books are followed. inspecting the class-room teaching. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. wherever necessary. 1. qualifications. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. finding out whether the prescribed text. 158 . They are. interpersonal relationships and so on.. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. disciplinary problems. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. Academic inspection. being realised as two different functions. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. When they are fully realised. playgrounds. school buildings. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. complaints and compliments. of late.. etc.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. 3. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. taking up the follow-up programmes. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools.6. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. submitting of the inspection reports. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. There has been dearth of properly trained and well.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected.

aptitude. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. In the light of these conceptualisation. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well.Ed. 159 .a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection.2. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. modern. Insistence on specialisation in the B. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. In the case of departmental candidates. or. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. M. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. course in either educational. once in five years. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. 3. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. courses.Ed.. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. their professional knowledge. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively.. Similarly. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. at least.

4. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. 3.2. d. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Administration. a. b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. c.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. 5. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. b. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. 3. a. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. b.2. assessment and Finance. 3. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. a. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 160 . our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. 3. Instruction.2. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Grade System.

Question banks. S.a part of internal assessment. 3. K. b. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. 7. a. K. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. b. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. c. Vaidya. a. New 161 . R and Sharma. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.4. a. 5. History and Problems of Education in India. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. (2002). (2004). To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Open book examinations. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline.2. Multiple sets of question paper. Problems of Education in India. b. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Educational Reforms. (2005).

3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1 3.4 3.9 3.3.7 3.2 3.3.6 3.5 3.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.10 3.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra. 2. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. identify the needs of rural India and social. 4.8 3. you will be able to: 1.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. 3.3. 162 .3.3 3.3.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.LESSON 3. 3. 5.

. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. Commission emphasised to continue. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. 8 years of general education.specialisation programmes 3. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Similar is the case with some other States. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. in Andhra Pradesh. Consequent on the recommendations. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. The. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. the Banaras Sanskrit College. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education.e. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. The Calcutta Madras. and 3 years of First Degree Course. 2.. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. 10 years of general Secondary Education.. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage.e.g.3. University Education. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. i. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. e. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates.3. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. etc. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges.

to imbibe. 6. 10. historical. 3. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . social. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. who desire to change from one stream to another.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. to prepare. 8.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. habits of hard work and develop . cultural and economic development of the country. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. educational channels. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. is also a plus point . 7. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. 5) to help for the social. b. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. and. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Provision for transfer of credits to students. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . However.confidence in students. economical and political.a sense of dignity of labour. 5.3.

Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. cultural and' religious tolerance. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. at the other. Psychologically. cooperativeness. international understanding. Philosophically it is not the conception. democratic living. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. on one hand. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 .national integration. Sociologically it is undesirable. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. 1. 3. and. to develop national character. The General Educational Spectrum. and that required to enter the tertiary level.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum.3. social justice. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. etc.. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies.

Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. professional. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. rural health. physics or mathematics.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. educational and cultural services. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. or other machinery. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. the rural areas have suffered very much. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. technical. 3. commerce. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. commerce. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. In the vocational spectrum. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. India is a land of villages. Commerce and other disciplines. medical plants.— tube-wells. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. vegetable growing. technological. 166 . Biology. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. such as Agriculture.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. Agriculture is the main occupation. horticulture. fish culture. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. 2. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. Science. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. All these need for an. industrial agricultural production is growing. In the matter of language. and vocations based on dairy-farming. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially.3. chemistry. In our country.

7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India.. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. and 5. etc. the local resources available. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. In this way. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. social justice..etc. 4. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. There had been favourable reaction from the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In time. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. can be ensured. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. In this it may be concluded. 3. and the needs. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . interests and aptitudes of the students. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all.

New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2001). Ltd.K. 3. N. Modern Trends in Indian Education. habits of hard work and develop . we studied the history. a. S. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.a sense of dignity of labour. a. objectives. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Mohanty.3. 3. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. b. Vocational Sepctrum. B.3. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. New Delhi : 168 . to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. J. Dash. (2007). General Educational Spectrum and b. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. b. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. J.3. 3.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.3. 2. a.C. to imbibe.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Calcutta University Commission 2. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2008). (2005). Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.

LESSON 3.10 3.4.4.4.7 3.4.9 3. Education contributes to human development.3 3.1 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.4.4.4.4.4.12 3.4.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4. social and 169 .6 3.4.4.4.8 3.13 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2 3.4.4. but the lighting of a fire”.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.5 3.11 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4.

known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . higher education of girls developed immensely.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. During the year 1937. although we have miles to go. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. community and nation is universally acknowledged. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. 3. Education . cultural and political development of the individual. 3. Teaching and Fine Arts. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. economic. In the post —independence period. family.4. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. analyze the women and distance education. Home Economics. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. There is a close connection between education and development. you will be able to: 1. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. particularly 170 . Dr.higher education in particular. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. The relevance of women’s education to social. These courses were. While women constituted only 9. For the first time in the history of India. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom.4. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. Nursing.

out of 9200 and odd colleges. we have more than 1200 institutions.women. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.9 27. in our country. Kodaikanal. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.65 lakhs in 1994-95.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).1 31. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.4. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. Mother Teresa Women University.D.0 Today.4. In the rest of the country.4. Even today. Coimbatore.N. Yet. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.2 29. levels and professions. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.0 43. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. In 1950-51. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.2 22. The idea of women’s education for equality.9 14.0 16. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.0 32.1 24.T Women University.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. Mumbai. 3. 3.

56 64. 2.1 respectively. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.66 66. 3.4.36 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . particularly in the technical and industrial streams.54 12.63 Female % 34. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.46 82. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .47 65.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.1 and 14.17 52. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .53 34.4.4%) prefer Arts subjects.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.83 47.4.27 89.that of boys.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .44 35. 3. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.73 10.34 33.

financial difficulty of the parents. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. In college. she will only learn fashion. marriage is a very common I factor. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. Book banks should be established. They gave up their studies to enter home life. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. etc. particularly.4. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. In every third family. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. The major hurdles. and coeducation may spoil her character. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Also. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. distance of the college or university from home. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. promoted and increased. what is the need for higher education for her. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family.hinders the girls from getting higher education. irrelevance of the content of education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. Thus. curriculum not suited to their requirements. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. 173 . 3. According to a survey. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized.

4. It is a productive investment.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Geographic distance of educational institutions. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. is the only tool for realising empowerment.economic disabilities faced by women. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges.4. Empowerment in a nutshell. which is the most dynamic factor of development. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. 3. 3. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. space. It enables to study. Full-time employment. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. There are constraints of time. It also brings about 174 . Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. and the limitations of the conventional education system. resources and socio . Distance education is a boon to women. Education. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.

Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. for full development of our human resources. Empowerment is an active. education of women is of paramount importance.4. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. empowerment means being assertive. legal awareness and economic independence. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. The major objectives of women's higher education.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. higher learning. Women are partners in development. on their own. This can be achieved through reflection. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. 3. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. education of women must be given priority in national plans. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex.

Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. who are eager to take up courses. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. especially so in the developing countries. which is pending for a long time. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. But their number is small.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. will encourage them to venture new grounds. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. 176 . The educational institutions. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Reservation for women. 3.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also.4. Scholarships and concessions for women. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. which had been the sole domain of men. Better opportunities. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. The local administration. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. has to be implemented at the earliest. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops.

engineering and related technologies (16. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. capacities etc.9%). According to Lindy Hyam. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? .11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. IDP Education. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.4. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.000 women in the country. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Australia.8%). Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem.1%) and architecture and building (38. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. But. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Also.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. especially in developing countries like African countries. Chief Executive. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. talents. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.3 percent.

(2008). create the right attitude towards life. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. 2.R. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. R. 43% 6. Mother Teresa Women University. individuals and society b. 3. Rajasthan 5.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. 178 . Pattanaikj.K. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.to the family. Annakodi. R. SNDT Women’s University. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. (2007). R. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. and Swain. Coimbatore. 3. A. A. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. S. SNDT Women’s University. Coimbatore. (2000). 4.4. Rao. Women Education.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera.C. 3. Kodaikanal. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. and Suryalatha. Mishra. Mumbai. community and the nation. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication.4. Mumbai. Centre for Women’s Studies. S. Women Education. Women and Education.4. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. (2005). “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. a. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. 4.

5 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.8 3.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.4 3.7 3.11 3. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. whole.personality of children in and out of school.5.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.2 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.10 3.5.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.1 3.9 3.3 3.5.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.LESSON 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. They should be trained.6 3.5.5.

which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Shorter working hours. 180 . understand the training teachers for Primary.5. and national character. 5. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. social and emotional integration. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. understanding and strong desire for international peace. 3. equality and justice. you will be able to: 1. international. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. know the pre service and in service training facilities. 4. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. 3. Lack of physical facilities. list out the agencies of teachers education 3.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. national consciousness.

If the student teachers are working teachers. it is called the Extension teacher Education.Ed. (NCERT) New Delhi. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. students. 3. a Diploma course and a Degree course. levels. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. Inadequate training in practical skills. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. and the collegiate teacher education. inservice and extension education programmes. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels.Ed. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. At the diploma level. who have not been trained earlier. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. Lop-sided curriculum..Less qualified teacher educators..5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. the secondary teacher education. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. it is called the In-service teacher education. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . the centre.5. 3. etc.5. Depending on the levels. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. and M. the primary teacher education. higher secondary teacher education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. the state Government.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . non-formal. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . extensio n service. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Expand NCERT 2.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Science Education units. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Evaluation unit. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education.. etc. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Also Guidance Bureaux. depart ments etc. Education cells. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Educational teehnology cells. are established. collegiate cells. state Institutes of Educat ion.

every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. to prescribe conditions for recognition. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. and so on. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . schools and sister institutions. despite its vast expansion. audio visual aids. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. material conditions relating to libraries.. to improve curricular programmes. which should include experience in the primary schools too. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed .. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities .• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . laboratories. to ensure teacher competence. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and ..Ed. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary.Ed. should be improved on a top priority basis. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. primary and secondary school teachers. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. to offer consultative services. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. and 183 . which help breaking isolation from one another . degree.

Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Hence. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. methodology and evaluation. whether they should have professional education or. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. To meet this exigency. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. Workshops. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. Meanwhile. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Psychology of Students. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. though no pre-service training.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. etc. Organisation of Content Courses. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Modern Methods of Evaluation.secondary education. and XII. The problem. Agriculture. not came up once again. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. Induction Courses. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. etc. 184 . Modern Techniques of Teaching.

(Education) are organized by 185 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.Ed. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.Ed. Courses leading to B.’s are elig ible for M. M. All B Ed. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.A. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.D. Degree and M... (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. Pre-service training is for those. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.Ed. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.S. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. Ajmer.5. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. in Education.. For re-orienting the teachers. These facilities are available for regular students.. (Education) and M.Ed..Ed.. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .’s for Ph. State Institutes of Education. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. training.Ed. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. courses and M.. Degree. 3.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. Post-Graduates also undergo B. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.A.

A. established by tradition and teachers of the past. 3. 186 . 6. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. and B. 5. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and .. 4. . they should be conscientious . So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. (Ed). code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession.A.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.5. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.. What is the role of ERIC? . (Ed. Hence the employability of M. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .List any two code of conduct for teachers? . of conduct—written or unwritten. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. However. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.).

a. 3.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. they should be conscientious. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 2. 4.3. The necessity is however this. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. Shorter working hours. a. a.5. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 3. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Explain code of conduct for teachers.5. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. b. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 187 .11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. these problems are not as such cannot be solved.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. However. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. 3. Ajmer. b. 6. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. Bhopal. 4. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 3.5. 5. 2. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.

New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .N. Corporation. (2010).5. Ltd Aggarwal.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. (2003).3. Publication Pvt. Mohanty. J. Tewari. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Teacher Education.D. (2009). P. B. and Teacher Education. Teacher Education. A.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

economic and educational developments. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. common ailments of children. Since food is the source of nutrients. objectives and role of the physical education. 191 . the focus is on the school health programmes.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. In lesson 4. communicable diseases and their prevention. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. consuming the right amounts becomes important. In lesson 1. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. If the diet is poor. preservation of nutrients. objectives. The person’s environment is equally important. objectives. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. nutritional deficiency diseases.

192 .

A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.9 4.1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.4 4.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.3 4.e.1.8 4.5 4.11 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community. for giving health education to the children under its custody. mental.10 4.1.7 4.1.LESSON 4. emotional and social.2 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. physical.1 4.1.1. 193 .1.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1. It is a miniature society.1.6 4.1.1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.

to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. cleanliness and healthful living.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To give information regarding health rules.1. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 4. 9. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 11. training in first aid and etc. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. To develop certain skills concerning health.g. 4. 2. know the need for sex education. To develop healthy health habits among children. training of teachers and evaluation. Instruction. list the common ailments of children 3. content of health education. 8. explain the importance of First aid 5. 3. 6. e. understand school health programmes 2. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health.1.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students.. to his family and to the community at large. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 10. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. 4. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 7. 194 . you will be able to: 1. 5.

proper doors and windows. (vi) nutrition education. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. (xii) smoking education etc. B. 3. (viii) first aid. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. cleanliness weeks. excusing late. etc. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body.1. (v) safety education.coming or absence. minimizing the travelling distance.G. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. The surroundings of schools should be clean. as described below 1. First aid facilities should be made readily available. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1.. organisation of school health days. vaccination. 2. The flooring should not be damp. Vaccination for small pox. 5. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. “Play-for-all” programmes. suitable furniture. (ii) communit y healt h. play festivals. 2. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. typhoid. (xl) mental health. B. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 .C.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. inoculation against cholera. There should be regular water supply. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs.. ( iii) sanit at io n. Arranging better transportation facilities. The school buildings should be spacious.4. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. Triple Antigen Vaccination. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. is imperative. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. direct lighting. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. There should be good drainage facilities. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. 4.

The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. cuts. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. if epidemic is wide-spread. burns.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. dislocations. sports and games in the interest of their health. bleeding. poisons. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. • Keep all rooms clean. • Close the schools. • When sleeping in groups. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • Have adequate rest and sleep. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. drowning. D. scalds. • Take nutritious food. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. isolate and notify. etc. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. fainting (epileptic fit). insect stings. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. • Find out the cases. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. wounds. C. fractures. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves.. 196 . • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. and other accidents.

headache. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. There are three stages in any communicable disease. chicken pox. backache. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. So they easily get illnesses. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. fever.. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . tuberculosis. List out the Health curriculum 3. measles etc.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. 4. These diseases are called communicable diseases. pain in the joints. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. Once these germs get into the body. asthma. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. polio. cough. 4. 2.1. Mention the school health programmes. which are – cold. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. They are: i) The incubation stage. water or bodily contact. They have less resistence to diseases than adults.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years.

Throat is affected. Some suffer cold due to allergy. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. etc. The child may have fever. The symptoms include cold. head-ache and cough. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Hence it is called a killer disease. cough and fever. Mumps . Others make the children very weak. Tonsilitis .This disease is caused by bacteria. Important salts and water are lost in this process. The following are the common communicable diseases. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. eating food which is not clean. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. unhygienic living conditions. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. This is caused by cold virus. Scabies .It is caused by measles virus. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Measles . Diarrhoea . nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Ear Infections . The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Common Cold . Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. unhygienic bottle feeding. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Children catch cold from persons having cold. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. After three or four days of fever. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. sugar and water.When a child suffers from scabies.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. There may also be fever accompanied by cough.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. 198 .This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt.

So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. separate. Diphtheria . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. As the disease progresses. the child is not able to breathe. 199 . The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. What are communicable diseases? 6. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. raised pink spots appear on head. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Expand DPT . It begins with fever.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor.• • • • Chicken Pox . face and waist. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. Typhoid . By scratching he causes secondary infections. the child may die.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. The child may also have diarrhoea. If proper treatment is not given. Enlist the common ailments of children. 5. Shortly.

sprains. 3. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. 4. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. snakebites. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. Sprains . swelling. eye injury. scorpion stings. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. 2. it is a subject of art.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. so-called sex books and periodicals. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. sprains. It has its rightful place in education too. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. Drowning . simple fractures. bleeding.g.1. and Community Work and Social Service. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. cuts. In such cases. It is both biological and psychological. fiction.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. 5. dislocation. and films. Sex is popular.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. etc. fainting. Wounds . drowning. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. bruises. films and jokes. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. 4.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Cuts and Bruises . exciting and body-oriented. wounds. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. man-woman behaviours. head injury. 200 .4.1. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in.

but preserve them from disaster and disease. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. 3. In secondary schools. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. 2. In today's liberal and interactive society. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. the religious organisations. The values of life. the school. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1.. in their ignorance. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. health. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. Should the boys and girls. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. Hence. try experimenting with their bodies. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems.old values. The home. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. sex education is being recommended in schools. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. they would be treading the path of sure doom. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . celibacy are age. B. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community.

hence. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. first aid and sex education. 202 . Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects.1.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. communicable diseases and their prevention. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. the school health programmes. C. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. 4. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. when the courses are already overloaded. What are the major components of Sex Education. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. common ailments of children. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Teacher education institutions are. there will no crisis in its implementation.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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Rickets is the deficiency of 5. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Mention the food nutrients 2. 209 . Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. minerals. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. Let us talk about each of these aspects.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected.2. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.4.2. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. If you look at the definition carefully. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. 210 .

A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress).g. dosa are typical of the south. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. These are: region where the person resides and income. 4. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. Preferences/customs are also important.2.g. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. moderate or heavy work. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. for example. paratha and poori. the social and religious practices of that region. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. There is no point.6. it is also specific to a given activity level . activity level and physiological stress. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex.one in the morning and the other at night. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. Even within given States there is considerable variation.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. A balanced diet is specific firstly. construction labourer). A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. People in the east of our country prefer rice. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. sex.sedentary. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. In other words. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). In the case of adults. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals.

Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. however. Including these 212 . however. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. income plays a vital role. nuts and dry fruits. however. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. As income increases. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. fat and sugar tend to increase. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. customs. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. for example. Judicious selection of food is. while another may hate them. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving.planning the diet. Among the social factors. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. One must. As you read this discussion. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Having more money. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. However. These determine the acceptability of foods. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. One person may be fond of milk products. taboos related to food may play an important role. vegetables and fruits. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. as important for the rich as for the poor. If you think of your own religious group. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. Even among flesh foods. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. In addition to these. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods.

if the teachers have good food habits. eggs . don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 8) Walk a while after eating. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 17. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. Define balanced diet. For this. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. over-eating or under.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too.eating is hazardous. List out any two healthy food habits. 213 . green leaves. but they should be thrown away. fruits. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 8.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. mouth. meat. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections.

Conjuctival xerosis. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. 4. In fact. good nutrition is essential for good health. When the diet is inadequate.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Corneal xerosis. d.4. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Vitamin D 5.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. e. b. Discuss good food habits. Bitot’s spots. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. 4. Explain food nutrients 4.2. preservation of nutrients. Beri Beri 4. c. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Keratomalacia 3. Night blindness. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . How will you plan a balanced diet? 3.2. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. a.

(2008). plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 7. Hands. Health and Nutrition Education. Nutrition and Dietetics. mouth. (2005). (2004). 8. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s .6. R. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Nutrition Science. A Text Book of Foods. (2008). Chopra. P.2.C. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. Sri Lakshmi B. a . Food should be consumed after eating well. 4. b. a.M. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 .11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. Food and Nutrition Education. (2009). b.N. S. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. R. Food and Nutrition Education. minerals.

3.3.3.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3 Impact on Education 4.3.4 4.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.6.5 4.3 4.3.2 4.7 4.11 4.3.3.3.3.3.12 4.1 Impact on social development 4.13 4.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.2 Impact on economic development 4.LESSON 4.6.3. 216 .10 4.6.3.9 4.8 4.3.3.1 4.

aims at providing the younger generation. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. It is a much wider co ncept.3. Whenever we talk of sex education. his family. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. state the meaning. therefore. the causes of population change. economic and educational development 3. family planning and sex education etc. the stress is. objectives and need for population education 2. describe the impact of population growth on social. 217 .3.3. characteristics and changes for himself. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. and the consequences of these processes.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. There is some difference. understand the importance of small family norm 5. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. 4. population characteristics.4. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. It is not sex education.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. his societ y and the world. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. 4. Population Education. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. community.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the family. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the nation and the world. List out any two objectives of Population Education.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. Define Population Education 2. 4. the society.3.3.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .4. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.

which will not be possible without population control. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age.3. economic and educational development of the country. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. 4. 219 . Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Every second two thousand children are being born. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. 4.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country.6. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. With the larger families. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. health and happiness of its citizens. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Family is considered as a social unit.3. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. the family programmes are also handicapped. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. When the family is small.

and so on.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. Swollen cities.6. facility for drinking water.e.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils.3. in cinema halls and theatres. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. Many students herded in a small room. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. lack of proper health care. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. 4. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. The gulf between them is widening further. unemployment. toilets. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. teacher index. 220 .” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. pollution of the environment.. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. in parks and other places of public gatherings. In developing countries. 4. in buses and trains. heavy intern I migration etc. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher.6. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. i. are the results of demographic pressures on social life.3. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. organization index and material index.

Hindi and English. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme.3. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. can be studied in science and health education. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. thus. There would be very few audiovisual aids. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. bar graphs etc. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. Regional Language. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. less budget for education.. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. and laboratory equipments. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. blank verses etc. 221 . there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. reproduction. Social Studies Statistics on population education. even text books would be in short supply. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. essays. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. family planning etc. can be taken up. less space facilities. There would be poor library facilities.

Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Children with the help of parents. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 7. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 4. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. deaths. causes of deaths etc. area and average density of population. Canada. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. China. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1.3. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Uttar Pradesh. Brazil. West Bengal. 13. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 11. United States of America. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. 12. They may arrange them as per average density of population. 3. 15. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. 14. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 5. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Children may compare two families. 10. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 9. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Bihar. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation.4. 2. 8.

Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. age at marriage. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children.be opened in their schools. 16. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. 18. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. preferences for sex. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. Comparing life in various respects in two families. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. 17. we have no right to stop 223 . These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage.3. values and role children etc. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. The question. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . on an overall basis. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. Since the program's inception. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. and the child survival components of the news: program. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).3. should be overcome at the intellectual levels.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. “He who is responsible for population growth.their entry into the world”. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. 4.4-6.to emphasize family planning services. especially the expansion of child immunization services . which education can only do. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. More than 45 years ago.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. however.were implemented 224 . continued . at varying places in different regions.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. The Family Welfare Program. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.

and the World Conference on Women. reliance on local women as community health workers. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. a focus on health promotion. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. Moreover. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. the community appears willing to pay for services. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. In April 1996. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. At these meetings. Local programs vary in their approaches. expansion of services to unmarried women. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program.earlier than the safe motherhood components. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. Therefore. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. In October 1997. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. and nominal fees for services. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. men.

4. 3. community. Its main purposes are to create awareness.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. involving the community.emphasizing the needs of the client. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.3. 226 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. nation and the world.3. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1997). so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. economic and educational development 4. family. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. Describe the impact of population growth on social. What are the goals of RCH? 4. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.

less space facilities. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. the causes of population change.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. Canada. b. 7. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.” 2. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Brazil. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. population characteristics. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b.4. his society and the world. a.3. b. his family. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. area and average density of population. 5. United States of America. 227 . 6. characteristics and changes for himself. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. a. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. and the consequences of these processes. 3. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. bar graphs. China. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. less budget for education. 4. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages.

Modern Problems of Education. Ltd.3. V. Jayapoorni.4. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Centre for Women’s Studies. J. (2002). Reddy. Ltd. (2005). Coimbatore. (2004). Kantikar. 228 . Modern Trends in Indian Education. Udaiveer. Bhende. (1992). Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. (2005). Principles of Population Studies. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Changing attitudes to Education in India. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.K. T. N. A. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.

12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.LESSON 4.4.1 Minor games 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4.9 4.4.7 4.5 4.8.10 4.2 Major games 4.4.4.4.8.11 19.4.4.4.3 Indigenous games 4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.4.4.8.4.4 Lead up games 4.4.1 4.8.4 4.2 4.6 4.4.3 4.

perseverance. the youth of the country. full records of physical activities should be maintained. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. as it should 230 .4.4. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. 4. team spirit.4. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. you will be able to: 1. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. leadership and balance in defect. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.4. mental alertness. social fitness. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. 4. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. moral fitness and emotional fitness. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. classify the different types of games. The concept of physical education has been made broader. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. which forms its most valuable assets.

Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. The educational efforts at home. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Every individual is a part of society. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. obedience to rules. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Therefore. To be more precise. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. They are inseparably united together. leadership. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. They go hand in hand. team spirit. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice.

Regarding the significance of physical education.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. Rousseau states. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. nor body but the whole man. a sound health. C.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. Physical exercises. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. 4. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. Just like Education. pleasing manners. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. “Physical education does neither train up the soul.” The Secondary Education Commission.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. H.4. Buck has observed that 232 . ment al. game and sports. mo ral.” Montaigue writes. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical.

It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility.4. flexibility and power. coordinative abilities.a properly directed physical education should result in health. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. resourcefulness and smartness. Froebel says. speed. initiative. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. we must exercise the whole human being. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.” In brief. “If we wish to develop the whole being. endurance. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. etc. 233 .” 4. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. strength. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. efficiency and character. happiness. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. elegance. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.

poetry and painting. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. plagues and famines. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. While wars. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Tournaments foster this sentiment. including all racial groups and historical ages. should help in the spiritual development of the student. 234 (i) (ii) . they may form gangs. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Every age has its artists. in greater or lesser degree. If no opportunity is provided to the students. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. these fundamental things have always been present. its adherents and its enemies. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. systems of government. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups.

Write any two importance of Physical Education. etc.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. 235 . 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. obedience. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. bravery and interest in games and sports. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. respect for rules. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. B. self.\ to develop perseverance. to develop tolerance. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education.sacrifice.

6. Be in the uniform. 5. 13. defects. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured.4. Inform health principles. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Be self-confident. and. 8. 4.4. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 7. 236 1. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. 15. 2. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. 16. injuries among pupils should be made. Haag. 4. Always keep the whistle ready. Be sportive. students. 14. Usually parents. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. and readmission after they have recovered. 9.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 10. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 12.H. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Posture screening should be done. 11. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Be punctual. Be well-prepared. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. is essential. Keep the field ready for the activities. Act as a leader. 3. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases.4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. .

2. frolic and jo y. the play. less equipment and less expense.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Such inst incts as imitation. Indigenous games. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character.4. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. 4. chasing. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 4. their development is handicapped. 237 . They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. Lead up games. 4. Moreover.8. 1. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3.

skipping. 238 . on sea-shore. pitching. the play equipment. the number of players and substitutes. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. For each game the rules are many. spiking. They are rules approved by the International Associations. couple tag. driving. with implements or without implements. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Dodging. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. While many of them are played in the open playfields. zig zag relay. Khokho. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. wherever the kids assemble. over ball pass Relay. Cricket. They are played for a shorter duration. hitting. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. boosting.8. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. the games can be modified according to convenience. bowling etc. finding the partner. Ball Badminton. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children.. dribbling. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Volley Ball. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. on mountain tops and on river beds. Throwing. On lawns. Hockey. Shuttle Badminton. snatching the kerchief. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Tennikoit. trapping. Hopping. The dimension of the posts and nets. These games require varied skills such as running. 4. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Tennis. Basket Ball. catching.4. under ball pass Relay. benefit in playing minor games. heading. stopping. Soft Ball. Kabaddy etc. Except a few games. some of them are played indoors. women take part most of the games. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level.With a very few rules. Jump the stick clay and so on. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Jumping. muffling. on hard courts.

Kho-kho. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8. 4. festivals connected with religion and public functions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. List out some major games. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. An example for indigenous game is 8. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . On occasions like marriage. All the fundamental tactics. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes.8. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. and . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.4.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. 7.4. Games may be classified as 6. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. They have an abundant social value. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. these games being popular. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. birth. While observing the players in action. they are in existence. death. For example.4. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball.

c. a. b.4. a. a. 2.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. b. Schools should help students to keep them mentally.4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. a. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Minor and Major 240 . aims and objectives and need of physical education. to secure physical health b. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. to develop physical stamina. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. Posture screening should be done.4. 4. 3. Briefly discuss the different types of games. 4. d. 5. 3. 4. 4.4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 2. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual.

C. Health. (2008). Physical Education and Sports. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Aggarwal. 241 . 4. Foot-ball. Shuttle Badminton. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Khokho. Modern Trends in Indian Education. J. Ball Badminton. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. G.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Cricket. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Soft Ball. Hockey. Kabaddy 7. Volley Ball. Tennikoit.K. Basket Ball. (2008). Tennis.4. Ltd.6. (2009). Khokho 8. J. (2005). Handbook of Physical Education. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Mohanty. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Krishna murthy.

2 Manmade Environment 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment . Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .11 4.5.3 4.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.1 4.5.LESSON 4.8 4.5.5.7 4.9 4.10 4.5.2 4.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.5.5.4 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.6 4.5.5.5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.1 Natural Environment 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.5.

Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. list out the types of environment 3. 2. 3. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. it covers the following elements: 1. Evaluation Ability. Skills. social. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. Attitude. 2. 3. role of teacher in environmental conservation. Details are given below: I.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. education about the environment and education through the environment. 243 . 5. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.5. Awareness. economic.5. Participation. aesthetic and educational factors.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. you will able to: 1. Broadly.educat ion for the environment. 4. 4. population explosion and resource depletion could be. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution.5. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. The best place to start such learning is school. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. political. Essential knowledge about the Environment. 6. Knowledge. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement.

its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. heat sink and wind flow in cities. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. 244 . mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. F. • Biological magnification E. a. 2. Oxidants Other pollutants. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law.B. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. D.

New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Persuasion: i.3. 2. B. 3. Intrauterine device iii. The human ecosystem II. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Control of population growth a. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. 2. Sterilisation. Socio-economic measures. c. 4. Use of medical science i. Abortion iv. Family planning ii. economic. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. The pill ii. Birth control through education b. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. III. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems.

Air pollution abatement ii. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 246 . Planning human intervention on the natural processes. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. (UNESCO.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. e) Recycling. 2. 1983). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Water pollution abatement. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Environmental Education. 3.

to his needs.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.other components of the environment. a. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. telex. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. 4. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.5.4. includes the plants.5. way is called environmental or ecological factor.5.5. Biological environment The biological environment. b. Any constituent or condition of the environment.5. animals and other organisms (biotic). This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. A change in one brings about a change in the other. They interact with each. These are biotic components.5.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. -other. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. He modifies according”. fax agricultural apparatus.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.

etc. are the topics which may be taught in History. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. mineral survey. reasons. natural way of controlling pests. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. windmills. acid rain. need for bio-diversity. air pollutants from industries. change in climate may be added. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. role of trees in building economy. greenhouse effect. sources. effects. industrial pollut io n. desertification 248 . sources of pollut ion. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. alternate sources of energy. use of pesticides. History The rise and fall. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. industrial survey. population. explosion deforestation. of civilizations. noise control. food chain and food-web. biogas plants. solar cookers. nuclear energy. river systems.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. use of medicinal plants. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. maintaining the ecological diversity. effects o f CFC. ozone depletion.. wars and hazards of war. water scarcity. (ii) Air pollution. extinction of species. importance of nitrogen cycle. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. relation between population and pollution. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . ozone layer deplet ion. excellent recreation sites. need for conservation. social studies. preventing siltation of dams. over exploitation of ground water. balance of nature. trees reducing noise pollution. preserving the watersheds. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. noise pollution. t heir role in preventing pollution. supplying timber for various uses. etc. nuclear warfare. evolution. importance of trees in the production of oxygen.

Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment.5. 11. group discussions and seminars. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 13. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 249 . animal and plants. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 12. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 2. 14. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 10. 3. aims and scope.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 5. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 9. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene.may be inc ded in Geography. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. 4. 4. 8. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Peepal and Tulsi. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Providing. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. 6. 7. Organising conferences. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Use public transport wherever it is possible. If it is done. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. 5. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Don’t burn any waste. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. all these can cause serious pollution. Reuse carrier bags. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. used oils down the drain. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. especially plastics. Never put any left over chemicals. World Environmental falls on 250 . it will cause pollution. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. 6. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles.Send their waste oil.

Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. concern for others). and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . viz. (cleanliness. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. To arrange for visiting speakers. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry.4. diversity and stability. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. developing desirable attitudes. Harmony with the nature . Concern for species. CFCs.5. nuclear wars. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. The groups may exchange. Att itudes of balance towards nature. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil.. deforestation. etc. rather than conquest and mastery. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. potable water. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. loss of bio-diversity. and 251 . The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems.mat erials. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. orderliness and beauty). The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. To arrange visits or expeditions. To provide reference materials for children’s use. depletion of ozone. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. values and habits. etc. Social responsibilit y (common good.). dest roying nat ural habitats.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. Conservation of natural resources. To provide materials needed for practical work.

11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. 8. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. preserving natural cycles. 4. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. 4.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.5.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. 252 . Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.

To provide reference materials for children’s use. 6. greenhouse effect.K. water scarcity. sources. population. Modern Problems of Education.K. Udaiveer. 4. Anmol Publications Pvt. sources of pollution. S. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.K. Ltd. concern for others). (2007). a. a. Y. (1997). Publications Pvt. T.K. Environment and Human Rights. b. explosion deforestation. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . importance of trees in the production of oxygen. group discussions and seminars. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. b. Environmental Education. importance of nitrogen cycle. (2007).\ 4. air pollutants from industries. relat ion between population and pollution. Providing. (2004). a. new problems from science and technology. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. June 5 7. Ltd. 3. Social responsibilit y (common good. over exploitation of ground water. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. New Delhi : Sharma. 5. Knowledge. Environmental Education..2.5. 8. Nanda. b. S. Education for values. reasons. To provide materials needed for practical work. a. (ii) Air pollution. effects. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Organising conferences. acid rain. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. New Delhi : Authors Press. Rapid population growth. b. ozone layer deplet ion. Kuldeep. Awareness.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self.our life. should be universal in nature. promote and transmit it to rising generation.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. Therefore. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure.” 5." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. in fact. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum.1. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. The universe is regarded as a thought process. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. It is self-realisation. Education must contribute to development of culture. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. man is essentially a moral being. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Universal Education. According to Rusk'.3. the emancipation of spirit. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. Education according to idealism. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. Spiritual Development. enrichment and transmission of culture. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. moral.

should be there. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. 5. Learning through questioning. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Learning through lecturing. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. Learning through imitation.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Ethics. affecting (feeling). For intellectual development. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. It considers teacher as. 3. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. a spiritual guide for the child. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. History. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. Mathematics etc. The plant can grow. an indispensable necessity. so subjects like Religion.3. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. According to Frobel. He carries the child from darkness to light. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. Science. So cognition (knowing). 5.” 5. no doubt.3. Herbert advocated instruction method. Learning through reading. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. hygiene.1. the school is a garden. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. However. Philosophy. 4. So he should embody. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. subjects like Languages. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. and collation (striving) should find due place. friend and guide. According to idealism.” He is thus.the spiritual qualities of mankind. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. He sets the environment in which education takes place. Learning through discussion. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . 2.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. For this no particular method has been suggested. So health.1.

curricula. formal lessons or examinations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.1.1.4. 5. 2. Ross explains. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. time tables. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. "Education should make 263 • . Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. In the words of Ross.perfection and beauty. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.preservation.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Perfection of Human Machine.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. text books. 5. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.

by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. therefore. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Education should. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. subjects like history. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. is based on the nature of the child. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics.1. Therefore. “Education finds its purpose. In all. Botany etc Language. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. 264 . useful and mature child. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Education also aims at helping the individual t. rational harmoniously balanced.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Chemistry. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Biology. It stresses basic sciences.4. Zoology. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Arithmetic. • 5. Literature. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. It emphasises physical and health education 5. education should develop the child into Joyous. There is no place for religious and moral education. It is based on the psychology of the child. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Naturalistic curriculum. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. 4.

The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. the stage. 4. 5. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Learning through experience. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. It discards all rigid. Learning by doing. 3.1. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally.4. 5. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism.4. Rousseau says.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Heuristic method. 2.5.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Learning through observation. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. In the . and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place.1. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. a provider of an ideal environment. he should be taught by experience alone. Dalton Plan. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. a supplier of materials and opportunities.1.

1. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Sciences.5. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. social and moral aspects. Social Efficiency. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning.1.absolutism of idealism. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices.5. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. The individual has not only to adjust himself. 5. Social Science. is true. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Physical training. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Agriculture. History. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Geography. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Vocational and 266 . In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. The aim of educational development. 5.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. diversified and flexible. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Subjects. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. intellectual. Continuous Growth. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Personal Social Adjustment. All Round Development of an Individual.

Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely.5. The subjects. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Learning by Doing. He must be trained. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. 5. He has to be active. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. activities and experience should be integrated properly.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching.Technical Education. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.5. a senior partner and a sincere guide. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. a teacher occupies an important position. should find proper place.1. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. alert and resourceful. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child.” 5. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education.

4.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Literature.1. History. specific. Chemistry. practical. scientific and psychological education.5. intellectual. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Geography are unnecessary 268 . literary or humanistic education.1. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Mathematics. 2. Psychology. 3. Art. Education must cultivate scientific outlook.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Biography Philosophy. Biology. 5. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Crafts. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. 3. It favours child-centered. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Astrology. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. 4. Study of Subjects like Language.6.1. 2. The basic tenets of realism are 1. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Sex Education. Population Education. liberal. 5. Music and Dance. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Education is preparation for a complete living. rich and happy.6. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 5.

6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.1. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. certainly and clearly.1. easily and pleasantly.

Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. b. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Learning through imitation.5.1. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Rousseau 5. a. c. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Languages. 5. Social Science. pragmatism and realism. has no end other than growth. Learning through discussion. Self Realisation b. Universal Education 2. 5.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Vocational and Technical Education. Learning through experience b. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Learning through lecturing. 6. History. e.1. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Learning through questioning. in this lesson.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. & curriculum. Geography. Learning through reading. Tours / Excursion e. Sciences. Experimentation d. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. d.1. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. 3. a. a. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Child centered c. naturalism.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Physical training. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Education according to pragmatism. 5. Agriculture.

N. of Pathak. Narang C. New Delhi : Bhatia.H. New Delhi : A. Foundations of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.P. (2004). (2007). K. Theory and Principles of Education.5. Publishing corporation. P. (2007). Pahuja. Ltd. 271 . K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.1.P. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. L. R. O. P. (2003).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Anmol Publications Pvt.

2.4.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.LESSON 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.2 Curriculum 5.2.2.2.2.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2.2.3.4.4.2.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.5.1 Aims of Education 5.3.4 Views about teacher 5.2.2.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.3.2.2.1 5.2.4.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2.4 Views about teacher 5.5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.3.2.1 Aims of Education 5.4.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.3.2 Curriculum 5.2.3 Methods of teaching 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2 5.2.3.5.2.

His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.2. Tagore was a poet. 2. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. 273 .” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. 3. an artist.7 5. Gandhiji was primarily a social.2. 5. content and methods.2. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.2. you will able to: 1.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. 5. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.2.6 5. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.2.5. economic and political reconstruction in our country. mind and spirit.5.2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.4 Role of the teacher 5.8 5.2.

He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education.3. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. "I attach more. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. mind and soul of children He further observed. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. His scheme of education is life centred. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. In the words of Gandhiji. 'Man is neither mere intellect. righteousness. it is education of life. It really provides opportunity for character building.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. 5. 274 . self-restraint and service of humanity. through life and for life. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. strength of mind." Dignity of Labour.2. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. This can be matched with any modern concept of education.supporting.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. nor the gross animals body.

the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Only good individual forms a better society. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. "Development of the moral character. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. leather work have been suggested. Music. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.Training for Leadership. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. Individual and Social Aims.2. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. 5. metal work. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. wood work. development of the whole all were directed: towards.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . the realization of the ultimate reality.3. Mother-tongue. General Sciences. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. gardening. Art. According to Gandhi. Drawing and Hindustani.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.trained.2. men of 276 . expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.2. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. proficient. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. Basic education is other wise known as 4.3. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.

5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. That is why. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says.3. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. He also advocates freedom for the child. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.2. 5. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.knowledge. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Education must be child centered.

• Ideal of citizenship. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.4.K. • Education should involve manual work. He was a true patriot. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He was deadly against untouchability.2. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. he was a true Vedantist 5.2.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. • Cult of non-violence. He believed in the oneness of humanity.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . Gandhi in 1937.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.2.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.” Like all other ideals. 5. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.

Mother tongue and other Indian languages. It should help. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Therefore. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. wider in range. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Dance. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. could help in forging unity among all." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. International understanding. deeper in. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. the more dedicated and devoted. That way only. (vi) Philosophy. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. etc. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . complete manhood could be attained.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Tagore said. It should help the learner have good physique. Botany. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in.4. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. them solve problems of day to day life. 279 . Zoology.2. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Civics. he said.Language and Literature . sentiment. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Music. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Geography. stronger in power than ever before. "Mankind must realise a unity. Religion and Psychology. Chemistry. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. International Understanding. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History.

A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.2. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.4.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.4.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. Activity Method Heuristic Method. 5.2.4. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. Tagore rightly says. 5. In 1921. 280 .2. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. Let individualised methods be used for teaching." 5. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.” He further says.

Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. race. 10. 281 . Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. It is open to all irrespective of country. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5.g. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. 9. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore.

“Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. man making. character forming and assimilation of ideas. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Concept of Education. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. Book learning. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. 4. Freedom. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Education for strong Moral Character. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. work and deeds come out of it. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. According to him. Education for Self-reliance. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. He believed in to learning or selflearning.2. 3." He was against the theoretical type of education.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Education for Self-realization. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Education should make a person self-reliant.5. Purity of thought. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual.” 5.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. 2. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. who possess sweet and amicable tempers.2. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education.5.

There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.5. 5. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. 283 . Philosophy and Theology. 5.2. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Thirdly he wished that games. 6.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses.2. Only a selfless person can be good teacher.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. philosopher and guide to the students He. A physically strong person is the need of the society. 5. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Of course. Swami. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.5. That will serve the purpose of education fully. Secondly he wanted Science. Every individual should be trained for concentration. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. The teacher should be the facilitator. engineering and technical subjects. Education for Physical Development.2.the learners on different students in the discussion. Religion. Discussion Method.5. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. And above all. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta.5.

284 .2. Their educational ideas. 5. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. in this lesson. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. legs. We have seen that Tagore.6 LET US SUM UP We have. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. 3.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 12. naturalist. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1.Substantiate your answer. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. Write short notes on Basic education. 5. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. ears and eyes. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. and pragmatist . Gandhiji as a Idealist. of course.2.

gardening. 2. Education should involve manual work. 11. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. Heuristic Method. Ideal of citizenship. a. c. Technique of Correlation 6. 9. Debate and Discussion Method. Basic education. 5. Discussion Method 285 . 3.4. Activity Method d. 1937 7. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. a. metal work. Self-Study b. d. a. Self realization. c. Learning by Doing c. 8. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. e. 5. leather work have been suggested. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Teaching while Walking b. Activity Method b. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 5. b. wood work. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Cult of non-violence. f. Meditation and concentration c. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. 10. a. Explain Vishwabharathi. Nai Talim 4.

Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Foundations of Education.2. P. C. Dhiman. Publishing Corporation. on Bhatia. O. K and Narang C. Pahuja. (2007). Anmol Publications Pvt. B.P. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education.H.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash.5. J. Theory and Principles of Education. 286 . New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ltd. P. K. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. L. (2004). New Delhi : A. N. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Aggarwal. (2002). N. (2003).

3.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3 5. In this lesson.5 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2 5.3.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.4 5.3.6 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3.3.3.8 5. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.LESSON 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.1 5.3.11 5.10 5.7 5.3.9 5.

2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. it is identical wit h socializat ion. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. Since the demands. maintained or eliminated. In the words of Kerney and Cook. in Russia or in Japan.S. 5. is a means to the process. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. A g o o d curricu lu m. in fact . understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. While education is a process.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes.3. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. In it. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. From the latter point of view.. in the U.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static.under the direction of the school. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. 5. the plateau area and 288 . Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . there is a large number of communities. new behaviour may be acquired.A. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. in the form of new experience. the plain area. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. In the former sense. Both the processes are integrated. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4.3. curriculum. curriculum signifies situations for learning. present behaviour may be modified. state the meaning of curriculum 2. While education is learning. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. Then in a big country like India. living in the hilly area. Curriculum is intimately related to education. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. the desert area. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan.3. you will be able to: 1. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child.

studying therein. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. However. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. differs from individual to individual. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. irrespective of their needs and environment. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. and 289 . In fact . We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. environment. democratic and socialistic country. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. therefore. according to modern trends in the educational process. From a slave-country we became secular. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. It must differ from locality and from society to society. the learning capacity of children. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. 5. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. customs and needs. Again. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage.3. it is. too. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. Besides craft.

The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived.. etc. emotional. The word “Curere” means 2. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. uninspiring and unscientific. aesthetic and spiritual development. Goals of Primary Education. Vocational Efficiency. unambiguous and functional. of classroom. in instructional objectives. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. etc. National Integration.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. general or specific. They speak of immediate purposes of education.. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. social. tangible.. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. which may or may not be attained. eg. social. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. remote or immediate. 2. Goals of Secondary Education. 3.g. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. specific. they depend on the political. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made .. They speak of perfect goals. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students.g. Understanding Objective. individual or Social and so on. aims. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. Application Objective. 290 . moral. 1. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and.. Knowledge Objective. They are achievable. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes.g. They may be ultimate or proximate. 4. So it is inadequate. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. They are visionary goals e. etc. Self Realisation.3. unsatisfactory. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. e.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. e.

activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. Crow and Crow remarks. capacities. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.” 291 . activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. The interests. educationists. According to Crow and Crow. abilities. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. but it includes the totality of experiences. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. on the playing fields. needs. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children.5. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. heavy fire. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. Raymont rightly says. finding them very interesting and captivating. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. in the class rooms.3.

Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. moral. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. mental. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. time in a useful manner. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. capacities and abilities. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. urges. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. They often waste it or rather kill it. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. Due to these variations and differences. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. tendencies. aptitudes.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic.

analysis and concretise the curricular elements. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. 2. development of professional capability at all levels. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. 3. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. administrative programme need be planned. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives.curricular. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. organized. 293 . Similarly. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. phased preparation. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. To ensure success of the process. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels.

Relation with Life c. library. 5. 5. Child Centred Education b. Run. 18. 1937 19. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 11. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. laboratory. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. in the class room.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. 10.3.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. 12.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 17.3. a. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. workshop. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.3. principles of curriculum construction. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 .

295 .5. Bhalla. (2007). S. N. New Delhi : Isha Books.K. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. Curriculum Development. and Sarita Kumari. P. (2007).3. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2007). (2001). D. Curriculum and Instruction. Lakshmi. S. New Delhi : Authorspress. Innovations in Education.S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.

4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.9 5.2 5.4.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.4.5 5.6.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4 5.4.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.4.7.4.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.7.1 5.4.4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.10 5.6.4.7.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.8 5.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .3 5.4.LESSON 5.7.4.

They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. 5. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. 3. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. We mean curiosity. newer and newer industries started growing. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . know the importance of science education. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. 2. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. tolerance for the opinions of others. honesty. 5. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. you will be able to: 1.4. in the economic reconstruction of society.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. 297 . Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. explain the concept of scientific attitude. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age.5. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. 4.4.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. Gradually.during the second half of this century. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. open-mindedness.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. superstition or emotion. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes.4.

Schemes of teaching science. 4. stipends and appreciations in various ways. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Love for truth enhances. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Through examinations. 2. 3. 5. 5. Central science workshop. 5. 4. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work.So that. After such experience and training. Promotion of science clubs.4. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 6. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Principles are formulated. Devotion towards nature increases. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. seminars and symposiums. as well as of the society.4. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Selection for science education. 6. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 5. Thinking and memory develops.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Through newspapers. 3. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. 2.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Organisation of science fairs. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. 7.

Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. each child to “enquiry skill building”. should provide opportunities to. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. In the inquiry approach.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. 5.needs and conditions. objectivity. After presenting the problem. Write any two advantages of Science Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. Enquiry teaching is. therefore.6. 7. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other.4. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They ask many questions about the objects they see. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. They experience natural phenomenon. essential that teachers. Training of science teachers. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. They encounter many social events as they grow. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. It is. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . sex or religion. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations.4. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. For laboratory and workshop techniques. 5.

5. 5. 5. 3. 3. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. . It requires consistent thinking. Evidence. Giving less directions. Social sciences. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions.books. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. stern pursuit of accurate data.Herma Wouk.4. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Appreciating pupils ideas. 300 . proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. test. . Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 6. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4.4.6.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. to ask questions and experience things. Adopting creative models of teaching. if they like. commands or orders.

therefore should be unbiased and objective.7. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. These include open mindedness. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. These characteristics of any scientific 301 .1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. keen observation. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. school and society at large. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. it must be encouraged. friends. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. of vast resources running waste. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. For instance. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education.(Smith 2008). neighbourhood. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The students observation.4. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. (Vaidya 2007). They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. to develop among the learners. and emphasized during the learning process . 5. practiced.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. critical thinking and suspended judgments. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. To achieve this we should understand what it means.

5. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. (Das. 302 . or superstitions. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. In considering a situation or a problem. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences.7. rumor. think and work it”. 2007). intuition or wishful thinking”. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. he studies all aspects of it. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth.4. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. understanding and logic. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. The intention to respect another’s point of view.

Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .7.7.4. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. but to begin only after careful planning.4. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. • 5.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. 5. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.

The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. 5. it must be encourages. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. 304 .• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. 5. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook.4.

Wide reading b. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude.4. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Yadav. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop.S. b. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. (2000). A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. objectivity.B (2008). New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. Vaidya. Rao. 3. The intention to respect another’s point of view. New Delhi : Anmol Publications.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. b. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. M. Love for truth enhances. N. D. Study of superstitions d. 5.4.4. a. Adopting creative models of teaching. 5. 2. Planning of activities 5. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. (2006). the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. a. a. 305 .5. a. Reflections on Scientific attitude. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (2008). A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. S. b. Proper example of the teacher c. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. 16. 4.

306 .5.5 5.5.5. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.9 5.5.3 5.5. state the concept.4 5. 5. actively. objectives and characteristics.5.11 5.LESSON 5.5.1 5.6 5. areas of institutional planning.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. you will be able to: 1.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2 5.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.8 5.5.5.7 5.5.5.5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.10 5.

executive as well as public. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.5. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. and each student are regarded as separate entities. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. Institution should be regarded as the unit.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. 5.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. which become the bases for further planning at the district. and supplement planning from above. every parent. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. and every student in the process of educational planning. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 .3. each teacher. • To make institutional planning more successful. 5. • to involve teachers and school administrators. in the task of educational planning. every teacher. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.5. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. teachers and students is not lost sight of. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. and. • to make planning development-oriented. State and national levels from below.

and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes.curricular Activities.• implemented. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. 5. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. Classwork. etc.5.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. and Personnel services. (2) Co. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. Co-curricular activities. (3) TeachingLearning Aids.5. it becomes the basis for school inspection.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. 308 . Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. which will be discussed in the general. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. approved after making necessary modifications. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. Examinations. council and. Syllabus.

Organisation of class-room libraries. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning.No. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Preparation of models. hobby-centres. Organisation of Students’ Association. 3. Courts.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. scientific and historical excursions. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. 1. Equipping of laboratory and library. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. etc. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . etc. Improving the internal assessment. Organising play-for-all programmes. Conducting of educational. etc. etc. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Running science clubs. Organisation of Pupils. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. 2. Fair distribution of syllabi. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. charts and apparatus. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Preparation of instructional material. Editing the school magazine.

5. administrator-supervisor. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. understanding. teacher-managing body. ii. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. and solidarity. parent-teacher associations. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. parents. headmasters associations. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations.” The human relationships in. pupil310 . co-operation. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. teacher-State. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. pupils. students’ associations. teacherinspector. teacher-pupil. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. etc. teacher-teacher. administrator-pupil. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. teachers. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. which are divided as the in. and —pupil-pupil.5. involving mainly human materials. Administrator-State. science teachers’ associations. administrator-administrator.

and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. now-a-days. and to serve. administrator. teacher-community leader. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. It covers personnel and material management. organisation. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. pupil-non-official functionaries. social sciences and other disciplines. pupil-parent. etc.5. According to C. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Good. teacher-parent." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. supervision. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. It is also being modernized to become a technique. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. organisation and management.State. superintendence. 311 . to attend. V. pupil-community leader. control. pupil-inspector. To administer means to manage. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. supervision and superintendence. to carry out. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. to accomplish. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration.

This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. Communication . 12. 6. 9.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. 4. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. 10. it is not worth-while. Those. Economic Management . 13. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . The relationship should change from master. without this the efficacy will be handicapped.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. If the cost benefit ratio is less.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. Socio-Scientific Approach . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. Leadership . Rapport between the Management and Employees .He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. Democratic Management . 5. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees.The manager should have leadership traits. Better Human Relationships . 7.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. If it is more. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 11. 3. He should be an artist in human relationships.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . Cost-Benefit Analysis . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior.Of all the approaches. low. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. 8.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. who occupy the managerial positions.Any good management will always have good public relations. Liasion with the Public . 2. Motiviation . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. Decision Making .The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. This is the latest democratic trend in management.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . Worker Participation . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.

It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.5. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.g.too. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. 19. enrichment of curricula. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. 5. improvement of teaching methods. 14. to improve the quality of education it provides. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. 18. and cooperative performance should be ensured. Wastage and duplication should be avoided.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. objective. 5.These two are.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. 313 . Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning.

NUEPA. Educational Administration. S. d. Leadership c. a. Fundamental of Educational Management. H. Decision Making b. Co-curricular activities. Instruction. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration.5.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Singh. f. it becomes the basis for school inspection. a. Examinations. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. b. (2001). b. (1995). New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. (2003). R. Motiviation d. Tarachand and Prakash.5. 4. Syllabus. Classwork.5. c. a.M. and Personnel services. a.K. b. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. APH Publishing Corporation. In group and Out group 5. 314 . e. 2. Communication 5.

2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .I. social Impact 3.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. New evaluation procedures.1 Gurukula system of education. nutritional requirement. higher education.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.CORE PAPER .Preventive measures. First Aid. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. physical education and environmental education 5. Buddhist and Jain system of education.Religious and Modern Education 1. 1.Pre-service and In-services facilities.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Realized the problems of school education. Communicable diseases . Code of conduct for teachers.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . wastage and Stagnation 3.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. 4.4 India's Secular Policy .Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. Balanced diet.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Sex-education 4. Inspection and Supervision 3. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.Article 45 . Economic 315 . Examination reforms.1 School Health Programme. Common ailments of Children.1 Inculcation of Socialism. School.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.teachers should have : 1. 2. Healthy Food Habit 4. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . population education. Community and Mass Media 2.2 Nutritional deficiencies. women education and teacher education in India. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.3 Directive Principles . Preservation of nutrients. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.1 Primary Education : Education for all.3 Educational Influences of Home. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.5 Regional Educational Development in India .

Ram S. and Mohanty R. Delhi : University Publications 2. Naturalism and Pragmatism . New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. Saraswathi T.K. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5.N. REFERENCE 1.K. Realism. Sharma. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. (2004) Problems of Education in India. T. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. (2005) Foundations of Education. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms.4 4. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. 7.Aim. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. Mahatma Gandhi. 5.K.N. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.K. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.1 Idealism. Prof. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. Curriculum and national goals . Ghanta R. Hemchand.C.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. R. 316 . Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. B.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Pandy V. Socialization.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.4.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Taneja V. New Delhi: NCERT 3. and Dash B.S. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Mishra. (1999) Culture.R. and Human Development. Tagore 5. and Sharma R. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Kalan Paper Packs 10.

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