BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. 9 . In. The need. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. and Jain system of education.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. Lesson 5. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Lesson 4. discusses the regional educational development in India. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Lesson 2. Jainism and their educational implication. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt.

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6.5.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.3.1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.6.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1.4.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.4.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.2 1.3.1.6.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.5.1.1.1.1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1.1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1.1.6.5.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.5.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.LESSON 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.6 Education during British Era 1.1.5 Jain system of education 1.1.6.1.

describe the Jain system of Education 4. 1.6.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.1.1. India. Indian in blood and colour.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.1. in opinion. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. 1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.7 1. you will be able to: 1. Education in India. both present and future.1. elucidate the education during British Era. That 12 . T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. The history of education passed through Buddhist. British system of education presented the modern western model.1. Muslim and British periods.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. 1. in morals and in the intellect”. has a long past history starting in vedic education.3.1. but English in taste. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.6.1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.1.8 1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.9 1. “a class of persons. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.1.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. as it is generally considered to be at present. with grants of land or money. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. There was. Where pupils were many. Method of Study. Curriculum. High Status of Teachers. Pupils were taught. however. Individual Teaching. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 11. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. 12. followed by explanation by the teacher. 16. 10. from eternal to immorality 2. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. 4. religious and spiritual. It was not merely intellectual. Forests as Centres of Education. the monitorial plan was followed. Method of Instruction. managed entirely by Brahmans. Residential Schools. and to agriculture and trade. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher.knowledge was real. 5. 9. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. 13. generally. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. not en masse by the class method. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. individually. 8. Role of Travel in Education. Free and Accessible. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. No State Control on Education. if they thought fit to do so. It was also moral. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. 6. questioning by the pupil. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 13 . corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. The immediate aim of education. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. 14. Immediate Aim Vocational. from darkness. Education was a private affair of the people. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. 3. Teacher as Parents. Education of Moral. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. to light. Religious and Spiritual. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15.

1.3. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India.17.1. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. They were very cordial and intimate. It was suited to the needs of the society. lived a life of celebacy. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. It was freely available to all those who wanted. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. studied Vedas.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . besides preparing for worldly pursuits. 2. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Wide-Spread Education in Women. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . There was no system of paying fees as we find it today.

the student remained in a state of Shramana. Right memory 8. had the right to receive education. impure conduct. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. which included abstaining from theft. the student had his head shaved of all hair. killing of any living being. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Right thought 3. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form.C. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. he was qualified to become a monk. Right means of livelihood 6. 2. use of cosmetics. partaking of food at prohibited times.4. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Right activity 5. It was denied only to the ill. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. 15 . Right speech 4. Buddha was concerned about the suffering.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. use of intoxicating things. taking things without being offered. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. Consequently. watching dances or listening to music. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. I take Refuge to Dharma. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. the handicapped. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Right endeavour 7. in which. etc. 1. every class in society. the most significant of which were the following 1. medium of Pali. Right contemplation 1. I take Refuge to Sangh. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Education was imparted through the. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Right knowledge 2. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. disease and death of the human beings.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. except the Chandals.1. After attaining the age of 20.

2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. arithmetic and religious discussion. be considered the aim of education It. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. Even at this stage. medicine. education was impart in art.. control over sensuous activities. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. wear three items. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. 8. geology. objectives of human life. nothing is of any permanent consequence. has no metaphysical value for life. approach. meaning. 1. therefore. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. a change is not only total but also perpetual. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. depth and range. of clothes. agriculture. archery. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. Whatever its nature and extent. 4. women occupied a position inferior to men. nature. magic. assumptions. changing the goals. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. etc. it is regarded as true”. After this ritual. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. bodily gestures. handicrafts. 7. eat food thrice a day. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. On this occasion. archery. the presence of the monks was essential. etc. Life is in a flux. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. elephant lore. These are called later Buddhist schools. Hence. As reality is becoming. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. commerce. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. and. a continuous change creating 16 . Initially. the science of taming and training animals. etc. knowledge of reviving the dead.3.4. aspirations and. along with education in script writing. 6. animal husbandry. 2. cottage industries. It comprehended education in writing. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. 3. so long as it successfully does so. military science. beg for alms. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. however. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. Later on. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. 5.

But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable..1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Validity is effective and consequences. However.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. its pessimistic outlook on life.e. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. i. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. such as. goes to Vardhaman. 1. In fact. Education must. however. it is much older than the latter. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. Its chief feature. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. whatever works are true and good. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him.5. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Write Eight fold path . What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. therefore. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. and to give it a shape that it has today. Jainism insists 17 .new and peculiar situations. 5. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter.

Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. 8. rather than the interpretation of the universe. 3. 10. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. They are: a) Not to injure. 4. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim.5.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. e) To renounce the world. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. but on both.1. and is to be redeemed and liberated. 1. d) To lead a celibate life. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. thought and deed. 7. and believe in happiness to all. c) Right conduct. 6. 2. 9. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. b) Right knowledge. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. it has a foot in both the words. 5. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Development of personality as an individual. b) Not utter falsehood. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. c) Not to steal. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 1. more stress on individual aims. Hence. 3. 18 . and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. As such. 2.

5. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. that would be socially desirable. 2.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. education must be action based and ideally oriented. 2. 1. What are Triratnas ? . 5. education should develop sense of discrimination. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. 3. Belief in transmigration of soul. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. here and now. Teaching must develop these faculties. success and love. 1. 4. Jiva is essentially karmic. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Teaching should be social and tolerant.4. 8. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. and should bring happiness to all. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Hence. therefore. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue.5. practised and not only aspired for.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 19 . Knowledge is through senses and meditation. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas.

Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. 1.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools.1. with rally and rout. 1953). We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. 1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. Bombay.6. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. North West Province and Punjab. 1. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854).6. To set up separate departments of. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. science. 1. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. primary 20 . and not for life.6. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. However.1. 2.6.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. Madras. philosophy and literature of Europe.

they named these schools as polytechnic schools. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men.K. In 1882. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. 1. namely. Later on. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. To ensure qualitative improvement. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. 1.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. At that time M. The universities dominated the secondary education. self-respecting and competent. at the primary level. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 .6. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. Instead of being a self-sufficient course.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. 1. • Universal free primary education. • Secondary education. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937).education was neglected. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. secondary education became a step towards university. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.6.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944.6.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. After this stage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.At the primary stage (6-11 years). 10. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians.1. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . all children are to have a common curriculum. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11.

archery. etc. military science. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Right thought. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. handicrafts. Right activity. 3. 23 . Right endeavour. 1. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Right knowledge.education of European literature. science and English language. education was impart in art. a. arithmetic and religious discussion. establishment of universities. Right contemplation..8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. geology. 4. The system of education was well-organised. 5. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. Right speech. followed by explanation by the teacher. Right memory. The immediate aim of education. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. 2. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools.1. During the Buddhist period. 1. b. the science of taming and training animals. Right means of livelihood. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. along with education in script writing. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 3. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. 6. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. questioning by the pupil.1. It was suited to the needs of the society. 4. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. 2.

Ltd.C. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). Improvement of Literature. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Development of Educational System in India. (2005). b. Right conduct. c. Hence.K. 24 . Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva.7. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Right faith. Y. Ltd. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Right knowledge.1. Sargent report 12. Development of personality as an individual. 1882. more stress on individual aims. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. a. J. History of Indian Education System. Singh. J. 9. Aggarwal. 11. Sharma. (2009).C. 8. R.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (1984). Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. b. 10. Y. and Nath. a.K. 1937 1.

1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.5 1.3.6 1.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2.1 University Education Commission 1.9 1.7 1.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.LESSON 1.3.2.2.2. The 25 .3 Kothari Commission 1.2.1 1.2 1.3.4 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.2.2.2.2.3.8 1.2.

you will be able to: 1. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education.2. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. New Educational Policy. medical and legal education.3. explosion of enrolment. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. diversification of courses of studies. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. 1. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. curriculum. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. National Board of Teacher Education 10.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. Post-graduate 26 . technical. analyse the progress of education in free India. S. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 2. Kothari (1964-66) 8. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. There had been vast institutional expansion. 1986 1. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4.2.conditions of the teachers. secondary and higher education. technological engineering.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1. vocational education.2. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. examination system. National Council for Women’s Education 5.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. girls and women education besides primary. expansion of vocational. standard of teaching. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.

All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 .4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels.2.3. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. 1966. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. 1986. 1. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. National System of Education. the New National Policy on Education. 1952. 3. 1. quality.2. D. The Essence and Role of Education. accumulated over the years.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. research et. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. Education is the key to our allround development. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1.S. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. 1. However. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. quantity.3. 4. Therefore. A. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. the chairman of University Grants commission.teaching. Education for Equality. utility and financial outlay.2.3. Finally. in January 1985. Problems of access. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. Kothari. A meaningfully Partnership. Government of India.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. material and spiritual. 2.

Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Thus. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. attitudes. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. the minorities and the handicapped. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes.2. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. The UNESCO Report. the concepts of work experience. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. It can train practical aptitudes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. By working with hands. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. 28 .” Thus. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity.

1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. it will conduce self. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. According to. “It may be described. the Commission. “The aim of these colleges. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. In 1955.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. The Education Commission. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop.” The Mudaliar Commission. With adequate planning. co-ordinations. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. As such. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 .employment and promote economic independence of the youth. Besides. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. if he wishes. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. The Radhakrishnan Commission.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations.

Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. for quality of life in the rural areas. The Central Advisory Board of Education. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. the rigid streaming of courses. Therefore. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 .ot her. In addition. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. With a view to relating education to the life. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. raising the special facilities.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. the. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. etc. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W).. the semester and credit system. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. admission requirements to vocational courses. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. Subsequently. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour.

The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. manual work resulting in either goods or services.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. According to committee. meaningful. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. aimed at this goal. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. The wave of Basic Education. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. which swept the country for over two decades.and the world of work. which are useful to the community. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. preferably spinning and weaving. In short. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.defined S UP W as “purposive. Commerce. felt that education should be centred around a craft. The Father of Nation. 31 . which offer scientific. giving importance to productivity in the national development. 1. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”.. meaningful.2. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. who conceived the System of Basic Education. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. etc. technological courses including Agriculture.

2. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Food 3.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. be that the work involved is: 1. tools and techniques and 3. Productive 2. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. 4. 3. as far as possible. Experimentation with materials. The teachers should make use of. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Community work and social service. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Culture and recreation 6. 32 . enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Work practice. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Shelter 4. locally available materials and tools. so that it is educational in essence. Clothing 5. Educative and 3. Health and Hygiene 2.

inculcate a faith. 6. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. 1. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. as far as possible. To make education more realistic.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past.5. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. the local community should be actively associated. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory.2. slum clearance. Community Service In-1972. Education through work The SUPW should. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. removal of illiteracy. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. improve discipline. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. etc. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. It can become an instrument to build character. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. Merits of the Programme 1. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. Check on educated unemployed 4. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Productive Work 33 . work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. offering first aid. Define SUPW 34 . What are the work areas in SUPW 6. in turn. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. traffic control. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. if not productive. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. etc.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. AICTE was set up in year 4. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. skills and better future for the children. should involve itself in the educational effort. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . The community. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. helping the adults-in productive work.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge.

1952 3. which are useful to the community. manual work resulting in either goods or services. meaningful. 1.2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5.1. e. c. Radhakrishnan 2. f. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Write short note on SUPW.2. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 1955 4. Dr. a. 2. d. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 35 . 3. 1. b.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. 6.

Singh. A. Y.K.H. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.P. Development of Educational System in India.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.1. Amala. B. (2007).K. (2007). V. : Sharma. R.P. New Delhi: A.K.. Y. J. Ltd. History and Problems of Indian Education. (2005). New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.C. 36 . (2009).D. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.2. History of Education. P. Anupama. Publishing Corporation. History of Indian Education System.(2005). and Rao. and Nath. Rao.

every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. establishing the structure. containing 395 articles. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3.3. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3.8 1.2 1.3. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.5 1. 1950. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. it came into effect on January 26.1 Significance of DPSP 1.3.4 1. assuring its citizens of justice. Besides the English version.3.3. Being the supreme law of the country.1 1. 37 .3.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. and liberty. 1949. equality.7 1. there is an official Hindi translation. directive principles and duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.6 1.3.3.369 words in the English language version. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. democratic republic.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. procedures. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.3.3. for a total of 117.3.9 1.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.

A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. in sessions open to public. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. 1. 3.3. political. learn the role of central and state government on education. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. administrative. On August 29. 2. for 166 days. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. describe the important constitutional articles related to education.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. spread over a period of 2 years.3.3. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. with Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. 4. Two days later. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. social. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 38 . it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. 1. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. The Assembly met. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. According to the constitution. economic. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. Dr. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. you will be able to: 1. Through them. 1950. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members.3. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. 1947. understand our Indian constitution.In the August 14. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. 1. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 1947. the Drafting Committee was appointed. After many deliberations and some modifications. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. legal and environmental.

to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Minimising inequalities in status. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Article 39A.government. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. sickness and disablement.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Article 42. That the health and strength of workers. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Article 43. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. and shall. Equal pay for both sex. men and women. Protecting children from exploitation. and in other cases of undeserved want. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. old age. Protecting health of the workers. 39 . Condition for dignity of children. Article 41. make effective provision for securing the right to work. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. No abuse of children. Organisation of village panchayat. provide free legal aid. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. The State shall endeavour to secure. Liking wage etc. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. The State shall. on the basis of equal opportunity. in particular. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. for workers. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Equal justice and free legal aid. Article 40. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Right to work.

The State shall endeavour to provide. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Article 48. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. to all workers. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. and. Article 48A. Participation of workers in management of industries. Article 47. a living wage. agricultural. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. in particular. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. work. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Article 49. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. 2002 for “45. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. [declared by or under law made by 40 . of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 43A. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. by suitable legislation or in any other way. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. in particular. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. in particular. Article 46. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. See also Article 21A).by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Article 44. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Note: Subs. (Original Article 45. industrial or otherwise. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Article 45. Uniform civil code for the citizens. The State shall take steps.

removal. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. may be law determine”. Article 45 .Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Separation of judiciary from executive. destruction. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. Article 51. from spoliation. disposal or export. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.Parliament] to be of national importance. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2002. Article-21A Right to Education. as the case may be. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 50. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. 2. disfigurement. Promotion of international peace and security.

2002. race.” 42 . Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. his guardian has given his consent thereto. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. language or any of them”. 6. ii. iii. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. and shall protect them. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. if such person is a minor. 7. from justice and all forms of exploitations. 3. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. 8. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. in particular. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. 5. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. caste. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. and. 4. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i.

These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. 2. and by drawing. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. wherever necessary or desirable.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Educational Reforms From time to time. for its vocabulary. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. the forms. Article 351 gives importance to 6.9. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. The central government determines targets and promotes education. & 1. 43 . The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country.

So that they may work well. So as to encourage education on right lines. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. etc. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. All India Council of Medical Science. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. The following pilot projects. 5. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Production of suitable for children and adults f. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. the state governments. By starting these projects. 8.. to achieve the desired ends. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. 7. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Local bodies and private enterprise. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . private agencies etc. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. 6.3. 4.

books. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. etc. 10. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. is the state responsibility. research. 1. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. 3. handicapped. 11. 4. 9. 12. The 45 . reports etc. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education.3. Material concerning nation-wide interests. training and statistics. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 1. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. are published by it. education for women. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized.

3. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. 1. Article 45 b. 1. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Article 21A c. Write short notes on a. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 5. articles in the Directive principles. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8.3. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? .8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 46 . Explain Directive principles 2. Article 46 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Article 29 and 30 7. Article-21A Right to Education. b. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 2002.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. a. 4.3. 1.5. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Clearing House function 9. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Article 46 5. 47 . Development of Hindi Language 6. Ambedkar 2. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. b. Article 45 . Describe the educational role of State Government. Dr. a. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. a.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. The Directive Principles of State Policy. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 2002. 3. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. may be law determine”.

(2007). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. (2004). New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K. Ghosh. Dash. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in Emerging Indian Society. S. K and Narang C. (2009). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.3. Bhatia.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. N. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. L. Education in Emerging Indian Society. 48 . B. (2008). S.1.

4.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.6 1.4 Moral education 1.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1. religious education should be broad based. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.3.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India. Students should be 49 .1 1.4.4.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4.3.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4.3. Buddhism etc.8 1. Jainism.7 1.4.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.5 1.4.4.1 Why Moral Education 1.2 1. Islam. Christianity.4.4.

2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. duty-consciousness. Thus. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. integrity.” Education broadens human outlook. "In A multireligious society like ours. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. According to E. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. you will be able to: 1.D. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. India' can produce men of character. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. religious education and the concept of secularism. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. In the complicated and complex society of today. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance.4. know the position of religious education in our country 3. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment.4.and dedication. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. state meaning and need for moral education 1. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. As result of which. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life..3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. beauty and goodness so that 50 . An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. 1.

1947 we achieved our freedom. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. all citizens are free to follow any creed. if not regularly. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. As our country is a country of diverse religions. Viewing the defects of religious education. 1.3. Hence. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. through religious practices and 51 . Thus. They thought that any kind of narrow. it is clear that the State has no religion. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. at least occasionally.4. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society.4. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged.” From the above. rancour. religion and democracy are same. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. Children attend these organizations.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. According to Article 22. According to Article 19. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. 1.3. realizes God in himself. No religious tax can be imposed on them. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. As a matter of fact. castes and creeds. In short.

Good education. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. He also learns about social. As a result of which. and what is evil. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. one fully developed.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. It helps to modify habits attitudes. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. aggressive. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. when he becomes an adult. which can mould. what is done and what is not done etc. If unreleased. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. intellectual and physical faculties of children. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. temperament etc. It is religious education. which help him for the development of his character.teachings. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. moral and spiritual values. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action.. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. for the development of the individual and the society.

religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. If we open the pages of history. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. 1. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. This should not be allowed to happen. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. which is the basic need of a democratic life. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided.4. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. 53 . In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. 2. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. towards the society. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible.3. Therefore. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. 3. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4.

List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Life histories of great persons of the world. stories of moral greatness. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Write Article 22 2. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . For this.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Since all religions have virtues. 10. fellow-feeling. examples of patriotism. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1.5. Gurudwara as. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. churches and mosques 7. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. they should be discussed in the right earnest. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 11. therefore. 9. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6.

Non-injury. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Moral education. Asvada (Control of palate). Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Fearlessness. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. It they learn what morality is in their early years. let men see well of one another. 8. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Ahimsa (Non-violence).acquisitiveness).4. 7.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 1. Purity. 55 . Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 3. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Without moral values.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. therefore. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. “Let all be happy and free from disease. Service to others. Self sacrifice. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration).4. Satyam (truth). 7. Swadeshi (Patriotism). 4. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. the methods of teaching. in the home. 2. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 6. 3. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. is that which develops moral values.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 6. Cultivation of emotions. Patriotism. 4. 8. 1. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 5. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Aparigarha (Non. students. The content of the curriculum. They will play their role effectively. 2. 5. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite.

Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. 2. Sharivashram (Physical work). 3. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Good manners. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Discipline. Simple texts and stories concerning different. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. 4. Integrity. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. minutes in the morning for group singing. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Unity of mankind. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Good temper. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Efficiency. 56 . National unity and Spiritual values. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. discipline.4. 11. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics.9. In the school programme. loyalty and self-sacrifice. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. 1. Asatyam (Non-thieving). Secondary Stage 1. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. 3. 10. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. religions may be included in the syllabus.

Silent meditation should be encouraged. love of humanity. University Stage 1. 5. 4. 3. 57 . Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. patriotism and self-discipline. 2. In other words. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion.4. should form a normal part of school programme. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this connection.

Discuss the aims of Religious education.4. the. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. In short. 1. 4. 1. 58 . According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. b. Sri Prakasa 6 . aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. a. 2. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. For this. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. The School Assembly should be held for a few. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. a. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. minutes in the morning for group singing. 1959 5. a. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. 2.4.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. b. Training of Character 3.1.

K and Narang C. K. J. (2007). Bhatia. Anmol Publications Pvt.P. (2004).C. 59 . Pahuja. N. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.H. N. Dash. P. (2008). B. New Delhi: A. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2003). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.4. M. Publishing Corporation. Ltd. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). Theory and Principles of Education.1.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.H. New Delhi : Siddiqui. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. L.

7 1. disparities between provinces/States. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5.10 1.8 1.5.5.e.5.3 1. Although.9 1.12 1.4 1.5 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5. i.6 1.5.5.1 1. 60 .11 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5.2 1.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5..5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5.

work hard towards this end.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 4. 1.5. waters.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. understand the regional educational development in India 3. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. 1. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. This leads to separatist movements. 3. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. for example. 5.5. you will be able to: 1. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. etc. 6.5.5. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. they take appropriate measures. 1. roads. energy. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 61 . 8. 2. know the education suited to different environments.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. They therefore. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. 7.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Accordingly. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies.1.

62 . The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. on the basis of regional development may be formed. some average.5. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. 3. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. while others remained educationally backward. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. and. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. some States became educationally far advanced. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. Secularism. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. 2. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. • Separate States (of course viable States). Tight security arrangements should be made. 4. Therefore. There are many reasons for this during the British rule.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence.

who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Rs. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. library buildings. In the Central sector. 1. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. However.After the Planning Process has originated. and provision of informal education to enable those. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. Central Universities of Assam.g. books. Itanagar. NERIST. etc. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. Guwahati. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. After the attainment of independence. Jammu and Kashmir. the State Governments. Tezpur.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. Nagaland and NEHU..14.392. the Union Government. while some States like Bihar.480. 63 . the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. Regional Centres of IGNOU.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. Mizoram. NIT. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. Funds amounting to Rs. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. Out of this. academic buildings. Silchar. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans.84 crore was released in 2005-06. remained under developed. These projects are in various stages of implementation. etc. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. Even in each State. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. since its inception in 1998-99. scholarships. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. approved proposals worth Rs. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities.5.

Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. 64 . Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west).05 crore and Rs. During 2003-04. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.8 per cent in 05).500. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.57 crore and Rs. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.40. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.261.501.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Moreover. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. A provision of Rs. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. Tezpur University. Out of this an amount of Rs. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. too. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Government expenditure on education. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.5.187. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.

Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Listing the positives. engineering and R&D. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. for instance. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. pharma. too. Medical education. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. telecom. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Tamil Nadu. English.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. too. Andhra Pradesh. Moreover. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. 1. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. too. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. Kerala and Gujarat. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. To add to the woes. notes the study. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. Karnataka.5. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. for which 16 sites. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. The Chandigarh Administration. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Karnataka.

Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners.year. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. For a learner living in a rural area. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. the socio-physical conditions. life-oriented and environment slanted. the curricular subjects. 66 . the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. the working days: an academic . Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. The living conditions. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. even actually looking at the watch. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. when he will not be sure of time. The working hours of educational institutions. the vocations. and so on. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Then education become realistic and idealistic. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. in which the learners live. taking the average in the middle. which a non-tribal person cannot do. In the same manner. while the former does not. the needs. Hence it is called as need-based. the interests. the teaching methods. Of course. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal.

11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.5. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.5. to suit education to different environments? 1. 1.5. 67 . 2.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

and Nair. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Education in Developmental Arena. Salim. New Delhi: Authors press. a. (2002). some States have become more developed than others b. some of areas which were under the native rulers.G. S. (2001).H. Giridhar. A.N. Educational Development in India.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. R. during the British rule. C.5. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2008). remained undeveloped 3. 60% 1. Dubey.K. S. 68 .2. Education Scenario in India. (2001). New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. National Integration. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. secularism and democracy through Indian education. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. community development. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. school community and mass media. 71 .

1.1.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .4 2.1.1 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.1.1.6.9 2.6.1 Main features of Socialism 2.LESSON 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.5.6 Education for Secularism 2.6.1.1.1.5.7 2.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.2 2.8 2.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.3 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.1.1.

socialism and secularism 2. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. creed. Abraham Lincoln. there should be made no distinction of caste. The students may be associated with the management of the school. This is the political aspect of democracy. In the matter of admitting students in schools. colour or wealth. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. socialism and secularism 2. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. Democracy thus means power of the people. socialistic and secular state. understand the concept of democracy. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 73 .1. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. for the people by the people”. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it.1. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.1.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. 2. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and.1. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. 2. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.2. 3) Provision of Manual Work. you will be able to: 1.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 5) Encouragement to Group Work.

. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. 74 . 2.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. it soon spread all over the world. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. may be planned. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. There are different brands of socialism. declamation contest etc. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. debates. Democracy means 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 11) Student Parliament. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3.

5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools.5. but on the path of non-violence.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. Under it. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote.1. none high”. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. the wealthy and the poor. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 2. 7) Special facilities for girls. 75 . free from exploitation. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. the employer and the employee are all on the same level.1. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production.5. oppression and disparity. 2. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. the prince and the peasant. 2) Socialism aims at equality. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. service and cooperation.

According to Holydake. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Everyone says. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. “India is a secular-country. 5. "which seeks the development of physical. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. 2. Write any two main features of socialism.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. secularism is being propagated. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.1. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. 76 . The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’.” In every political and educational corner. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. 11) State schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders.

7) It encourages moral and spiritual values.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. 3) It permits freedom of worship. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation.6. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. 5) It implies tolerance. fraternity. people have narrow mindedness. During the recent past. A large number of people is uneducated. education etc. people started believing in regionalism. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. 2. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated.6.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. should be independent of religion.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. There is need of making the people open minded.1. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. 9) It stress free inquiry. Equality. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. That is why.1.opposed to religious education. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. Moral values have to be imbibed. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. “Webster further says. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. the belief that the state morals. liberty. In this type of prevailing situations. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. 77 . Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. 8) It believes in co-existence.

Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. The very sight of the building. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Religious Education. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. In the celebration of each such function. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. students belonging to different religions should be associated. While doing so. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. tours and trips may be organized. 2. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. education. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. There should be some internal checking of the material being. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution.6. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. No doubt. In the hands of such teachers. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions.presented by the students in the gathering. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University.1. Patiala. 1) Moral Education. that the central string of all religions is one.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools.

List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The term secularism was first used by 8. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. Define Secularism 9. 2. No doubt. The word “Seculum” means 7. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

a. a. Socialism aims at social justice. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Socialism aims at equality. This present age 7. for the people and the people”. 4.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. 2. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Equal Opportunities for Admission. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. 3. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. a. 5. Power of the people 2. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. 4.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. there should be made no distinction of caste. b. 5. colour or wealth.1. Respect of Individual Personality. In the matter of admitting students in schools. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Provision of Manual Work. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Tuition free education b. Since socialism stands for equality. creed. George Jacob Holydake 80 . The two can move only in the consonance with each other.1. Abraham Lincoln. b. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. d. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. 6. c.

J.8. N. education etc. N. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. a. a. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. P.” 9. (2008). (2004). 81 . Mohanty.1. B. Bhatia. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. L. New Delhi : Pahuja. (2005). It treats all religions on an equal footing. It permits freedom of religion. (2007). b.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.C. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. b. Theory and Principles of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2003). Ltd. Dash. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. should be independent of religion. 10. J. K and Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. the belief that the state morals.

7 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.5.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.4 2.2.6.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.3 2.2.2.5.2.2.2.LESSON 2.6.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.9 2.2.1 2.2.8 2.2.2.2.2.2.2.10 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2 2.

a r e 1. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. as citizens. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. The developmental roles of children. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. mental. as learners. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach.generation to another. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction.an instructor of school children. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. Children are the potential wealth of a nation.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. A teacher is first and foremost.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. development. It involves physical. you will be able to: 1. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. 2. and 4. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. therefore. 2. skills. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. social. as persons. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. 2. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. moral. 83 . as workers. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. 3. aims and objectives of the school.2. social and moral aspects. as it is t he aim o f modern education. understandings. who are placed in his custody. application. emotional.

Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. economically effective. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. mental. 2. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. culturally confident. mentally. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. morally. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. Teacher as a Citizen Next. 1. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. The students live. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. socially. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. emotionally. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. experiences and acceptance. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. inquisitive. teacher has to play the role of a citizen.All education should lead to better behavioural development. 3. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. physically fit for socially efficient. member of his community at the outset. He is to become an active member. 2.2. He has to look after their physical. morally. social and emotional health. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. motivated. a part of their day in 84 . Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. intellectually. and aesthetically to become. The following are some of such roles described in brief. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family.

2. List out the role of teachers towards community development . Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. faiths. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. fine art associations. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. solve them. science club. photographic clubs. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. Dr. creeds.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. It 85 . games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. languages and religions. activities of the society into which he is born. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. They will be spending with their parents. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to.the school being under the custody of teachers.2. India is a land of many castes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. and most of hours.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. Unless. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them.

keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. ‘We should not become parochial.” 2.is. At the primary stage the importance of stories. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. Radhakrishnan. this integration of the Indian people. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . the citizens of the Republic of India. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. Nehruji has explained this as. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. Sampurnanand remarked. Let us. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. It should broaden the outlook. with straight backs and look up at the skies. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country.2. social studies. folklore and teaching of social studies. c. national anthem and other national songs.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. therefore. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. stand up straight. poems.” Regarding the role of education. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. should be emphasised. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. the study of language and literature. and make into one strong national unit. Political integration has already taken place to some extent.5. narrow-minded provincial. The only process is the process of education. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. b. 1.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. a.

schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Taking Pledge. dramatics and youth festivals. languages and literature. 4. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. sports. t he st udent s and t he community. debates. Singing of National Anthem. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. 9. 2. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. 10. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Scouts and Guides. educational excursions. Uniform for School Children. and picnics. militar y training like the NCC. 8. 7. Textbooks. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Student Camps. Co-Curricular Activities. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. symposia. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country.different social sciences. Reverence of National Flag. tours. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Celebrations of National Days. National Days—January 26. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. 3. 5. 87 . ACC. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. 6.

For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. 15.2. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Educational and Travel Documentaries. 2. 12. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged.5. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. flora and fauna. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. ways of thinking and doing things. colour. Admissions to schools. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. ii. region or religion. 14. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Admissions. School Projects. Open-Air Dramas. Students Exchange and Tours. 88 . Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. v. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. iii. iv.11. 13. Recognition of Institutions. 16. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. language.

Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. vii. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. irrespective of national boundaries. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.2. ix. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. cultures and races on equal bases. 2. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.vi. Community dinners. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. viii. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define National Integration 3. camps. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes.

either plunged in or overshadowed by war. (b) stories of children of other lands.friendships between children of different countries. 2.as important as that of a national citizenship. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher..” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. 3. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. Organising of debates and.2. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. 2.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. patriotism is not enough. of his body and mind. C.2. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. often in connection with anniversaries. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. Strong has observed. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. 5. Dr. 6. This. Teachers 90 . 4. (c) fairly tales. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations.e. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. therefore. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. and the healthy development. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. Therefore. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.” 2. if it happens.6.F. the international level. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. Radhakrishnan states. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. that war. In a very real sense.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding.6.

Indian and American. an Englishman. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Russian. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. a German. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should not be propagandists. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. Impartial in their Treatment.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 .” Well Informed About World Situations. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum.

Defects of the educational System . out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. 2. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. Chronic Poverty .7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. and help the students to over . they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. majority of people are. 3.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. Wide Spread Frustration . The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. leading to. there is wide spread frustration among all people. Devaluation of Values . 4.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. As the school is but a miniature society. understand and indiscipline: 1. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society.2. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . the education function can be carried.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them.2. It does not prepare students for life.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. If this is done. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.Another major. which results in agitation and aggression language. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. 5.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only.

8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being.democratic nature.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . sympathy and good will among the nations. 2. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. love. co-operation.2. 5. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. 93 . National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.2. 4. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. community development. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. fellow feeling. 2. etc. 2.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. Define community. Emphasising this thing. are increasingly used in education. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. Then came newspapers.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. Hence. led to the printing of books. periodicals. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. Museums. Now internet is being used. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Crow and Crow write. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In fact. To make them achieve their aim. art galleries. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. the invention of the printing press.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Moreover. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. “All the citizens of the community. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. He taught his students orally.V.3. books. 2. During the course of time. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 .

music. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. In the emphasis is on sound. current affairs and other areas.telecast. A lot of work by way of pre. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Thus. languages. Reynolds. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Effective means of presenting music. Students listen various talks.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. social studies. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Important happening inventions. the place of importance. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Various talks. 2. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. “Listening participation” in current history. politics.classroom teachers. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. the teacher still occupies. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching.6. It is also an important source of entertainment. dram appreciation. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. art. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. 101 . discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. rather than on picture. Thus. It enlightens public opinion. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. It stimulates curiosity and interests. 2. In collaboration with the experts. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force.3.G. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science.

projects or creative activities. fol classical music. mathematics. informal and non-formal education. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. Before presenting the programme. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. Making learning an open system. 102 . It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. School concerts. 4. plays. at play. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. speech. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. At present. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. audibility and presentability. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. at drawing room. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. development of lessons. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. 3. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. Team-teaching demonstrations. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. Participation of local teachers and pupils. at any place. 5. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. style. travel talks. at recreational centers.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4.1 2.LESSON 2.5 2.4.3.3.4 Limitations of formal education 2.3.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4.4.7 2.4.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.4.4.4.2 2.3.4.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.6 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.4.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.4.8 2.

6. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. compare formal and non formal system of education. the temple. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. the community.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2.3. 2.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. 2. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.4. his mental alertness. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. Education associated with a degree or certificate. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 3. open university.4.. imparted at the residence of the teacher. In ancient time in India. the learner are acquainted. Education organised by some agency.4. 7. you will be able to: 1. 9. the mass media et.2. open school. say the Government or the private enterprise. 5. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. the family. 110 .4. the most important agency of formal education. 2. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 4. 3. it was mostly. To realize this objective of education. 4. starting and ending at -a particular age. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. School is. 8. 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. Education.

is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . usually between the ages of zero or three and five.a secondary education. Through early formal education. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. diplomas. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. depending on the jurisdiction. capacity. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. structured education. also called tertiary. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence.3. Concepts of proportion.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. or academic degrees. or post secondary education.2.3.4. third stage. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Some education systems have separate middle schools. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. 2. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Higher Education: Higher education. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. the elements of language are first learned. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.4. In general. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. such as a high school or secondary school. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. as well as vocational education and training. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates.

Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. What are levels of formal educational system? . and remote dwellers.which will help for nation's development. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. children with disabilities. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 .4. Agencies can be classified as 2. 2. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1.4.3. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. is an important agency of formal education. 3. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. late beginners etc.

planned. curriculum. It is functional. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. continuing education and on the job oriented education. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems.learning client take some learning objectives. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. According to Malcolm A.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work.. systematic. Open university. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Therefore. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. place of instruction.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. staffed. it is a more effective tool for rural development. admissions. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. It is much more responsive to needs and change. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. one could say that non-formal education is an active. “Non-formal education should 113 . until 1970 it had not been defined. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. systematic.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. adults as well as children. i. financially supported life formal education. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. It is deliberate. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. However.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. to help themselves. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education.e. it has its own valid claim to reality. Thus. Non-formal education includes adult education.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. open learning. etc.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. It unlocks the doors of development plans. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word.formal education. adding up to a true learning society. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. Adiseshiah.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system.

2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. socialism. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. age. admissions. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs.” 2. 6. co-curricular activities. Covering life span of an individual. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter.4. 2.S. Preparation for future needs. 114 .learning pattern.” According to H. self. To help industrial workers to better their skills. 5.renewal. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. place of education. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. national integration. i. To develop in the student. modes of teaching. exploring. 7. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills.4. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. international understanding. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 4. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth.S. Lawrence. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.be marketable and vocationalised. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. It should lay emphasis on the self. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. Process of sharing. 3. curriculum. 2. Flexibility in various aspects of education.e. the Ideas of citizenship. Part-time education. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.4. evaluation etc.4.

10. 7. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. publication and information dissemination.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Universalisation of primary education.4. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. school dropouts. 6.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.4. 115 . • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 9. 8. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. Eradication of adult literacy. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. working adults. • 2. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. 5.4. in villages and those who live in towns. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Senior Secondary.4. 4. Technical. 5. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 4. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. 3. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. 3. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 2. To offer Secondary. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. 2.

5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. Institutions for formal education. etc. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment.4. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. public libraries.. factory. To make if. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. self-employment iii. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. All-round development i. others are formal and informal. 2. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. To better qualifications.4. open space. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras.2. farm. library.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1.full time to learners – can be home. Radio and television. centres of correspondence education. Therefore. 3. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. 2. if organised in isolation. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. training centres in factories. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. effective in modern societal context. etc. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals.4. 4. To increase knowledge and 2. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . Again.

. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 7. radio. Define non formal education. 6. Face Contact programmes. Lecturing T. Correspondence lesson.V. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. 117 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Give examples of non formal education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Teaching to face teaching. Written tests. . 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. institution. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. List out any two aims of non formal education.

5. 2. The school. a. 2. School 3. b.4. 4. 4. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. 118 . Open School. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Pre-school level. systematic. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. adults as well as children. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Open University. a.2.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Primary level. Formal and Non Formal 2. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. 3. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Secondary level.4. Higher Secondary level and University level.4. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.” 6. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. the college and the university come under this category. b. 7. 2. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution.

B. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Pahuja. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. L. (2008). Gupta. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Theory and Principles of Education. S. (2008). Bhatia. J. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ltd.2. K and Narang C. (2007). New Delhi : 119 .4. N.C. P. (2005). Dash. J. Mohanty. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. K. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2004). (2003).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Education in Emerging India.

6 2.5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.LESSON 2.5.5.3.4.5.5 2.5.5.5.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.5.5.3 Objectives of Open University 2.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.1 2.4.3.7 2.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.3.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.4 Need for Open University 2.3.4.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.5.4.4.2 2.4 Open University 2.5.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.

All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. industries. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools.5. It is a continuous process. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. 2. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . continuing education is a boon.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. This knowledge may be in political field. Any person. For them. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. It is a lifelong process.5. However. labourers and half educated individuals. know the need and objectives of open university. Thus. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. economic field or such other fields. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. farmers. give the meaning. 2. characteristics of open university 4. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.3.2. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. 2.5. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. you will be able to: 1. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. Under these circumstances.5. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3.

V. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. On the other hand. After the achievement of independence. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner.V. Block Development Officers. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened.literate person. Cinema. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. T. 2.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . Radio and T. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. if he gets opportunity to develop them. are also contributing their might for the purpose.directly related to his job. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs.3. Radio. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. deteriorating to his character and personality. Throughout the country. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. For them too continuing education is essential. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures.5. Persons engaged in health services. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. On the other hand. Thus. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. Doctors. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. cultured and progressive.

(1) ancient history. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (17) modern international and national events. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation.. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. 123 . 6. (8) psychology of adults. especially women. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T.3. (14) information about bringing up young children. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. 5. Inspite of the great efforts. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. habits of people of other lands. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons.5. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (16) liking. 7. (7) folk songs. (2) basic religious matters. 2. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. 2. (6) folk stories. 4. These books are not very useful. Of course. 2.5. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. and Radio. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (13) psychology of child behaviour.3. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (15) music. 3.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (10) first aid.V. we have not been able to achieve our targets.

r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e .1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.5.5. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 .4. What is the objectives of NLM? 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. lack of time etc. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. NLM was launched in the year 2. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. of educational opportunities.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. attendance restrict ion. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University.

its education is not class room based but home based. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. 2. b. IGNOU was established in the year 6. it makes use of educational techno logy. the higher the degree of openness. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. 4. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. d. e. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. and in teaching. but 125 . its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. Education is not a once for-all process.5. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. c. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. No one is too old or too late to learn. Which was the first open university in India? . 3.unobserved. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education.

Mo re o ver. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 2.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. 3. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. it a ims at wider and hig her. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. 4. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. supplementing the existing provision. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.5. cho ice o f co ur ses.4. 126 . who were deprived of t he same earlier. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 2. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n.4. 3. 2. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country.5.who did not get it. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. 6. 5. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 4. or who realised too late that they need it.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 2.

Every day. semi – literates. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. school drop outs. 3. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. a state or nation. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University.5. 7. cha ng e t heir life compet ence.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 4. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. 8.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. 8. 2. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Correspondence tuition. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . a society.5. 5. 2. List out any four methods of Open University? . Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Self instructional materials. you have learnt the concept. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. 1. Therefore. 6. Laboratory works.4. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. In the present day world. Tutor Comments. 127 .

Television Lessons. a. 1985. which may include house wives. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. need and characteristics of Open University. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 7. unskilled workers and other professionals. (2) basic religious matters. 128 . (1) ancient history. agricultural and industrial workers. b. 6.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6.ambitious learners. 2.5. 7. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. 3. b.5. 8. 4. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 8. 9. its education is not class room based but home based. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. d. 1988. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. Explain the objectives. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. youth. aspirants for continuing education. Broad casting lectures c. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. P r int med ia b. a. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (4) the fundamentals of economics. a. cho ic e o f co u r ses.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2.

(2004). Reddy. Ltd.. New Delhi: Rajat Publication.2. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Modern Problems of Education. Udaiveer. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. (2004).K. L. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia.5. K and Narang C. (2001). (2007). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. S. K. 129 .S.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. R. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

the education of women.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. and teacher education. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. examination. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. its causes and remedial measures. wastage and stagnation. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. In Lesson 2. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. which may claim the attention of those concerned. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. 133 . Examination reform. All which is the need of the hour. Training teachers for all levels of education.

134 .

1.3 New initiatives.1.4 3.5 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.3.LESSON 3.6 3.7 3. 135 .1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.8 3.1.1.2 EFA – How? 3.2 3.1.1.1 3.1.1.3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.

Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. directed that. economic or cultural. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. Continuing Education (CE) 1. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. 3. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. “The State shall 136 . describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. you will be able to: 1. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. social.3. may be political. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. Therefore. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. education received added importance and significance. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. Eradication of Illiteracy. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). understands the country. 2. On the other hand. (EOI) 2. therefore.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1.

Universalization of Retention.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. the national Government under. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Universalization of Enrolment. Three Stages for Universalization. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Due to the adoption of democratic system. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. rights and responsibilities. 137 . After the attainment of independence. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. It enables the parents to send their children to School. 3. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . After the enrolment of the students in school is over. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas.endeavour to provide. Continuing Education (CE). the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Therefore. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. This target had to be revised to 1970.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. educational enterprise. later to 1988. then to 1976. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. UNESCO Bulletin states. Therefore. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. It is safe to assure. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. 1990. present and future. Write Article 45. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence.3. 3. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. 1995 (for upper primary stage). for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. 138 . “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target.

The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. sex. nutrition education and sports and games. 139 . 9. their social economic status and occupations. FELF. Emphasis must be given on health education. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). the art of preparing fruit-juice. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. adolescent and adult. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. slum areas. 10. problem of literacy. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. and Women’s education programme should be improved. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 3. Apart from primary education. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. rural areas. 8. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. Disabled. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. Early childhood education should be streamlined. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. etc. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. The Social Education. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. 3. 5. NAEP.3. 12. their enrolment and retention.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre.1. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Education of the Impaired. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Education of Girls. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Jams and Jellies. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. creed. By undertaking survey. 6. 11. In order to make the programme of education for all community. we have to develop the programme of Adult education.

Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . 4. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Wastage and Stagnation.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Expand MLL and SSA .1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1.3 NEW INITIATIVES.3. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.3.e. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.

first stage of education. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . it is considered as wastage. Personal Factors . Familial Factors .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. Social Factors .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. School Factors .

. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Define Wastage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. . 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. 142 .

in his home. School Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .The following factors. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. They are described hereunder :1. rural or urban 3. Family Factors . school or society.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. Personal Factors . Societal Factors .3.1.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. relating to home.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 144 . stationary.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. Define Stagnation? 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. mid-day meals. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. uniforms. etc.

improvement of curriculum. 4. a. 3. 4. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Universalization of Retention 2. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.1.” 3. 145 . Universalization of Provision b.. 3. directed that. 3. 6. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.1.3. 2. “The State shall endeavour to provide.1. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. therefore. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. a. b. a. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Hartog Committee. Universalization of Enrolment c. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA.

3. b. New Delhi: 146 . introduce graded curriculum. Sharma. School Factors d. (2007). Crescent Publishing Corporation. Familial Factors c.7. improve examination system. Social Factors 8. (2001). T.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. a. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. a.K.N. Personal Factor b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 9.K. S. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Hemchand. (2008). S. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers.1. Problems of Elementary Education.

2.2.2.2.5.2 3.5.5.7 Open book examination 3.1 Problems of examination 3.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.LESSON 3.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.4.4 Question banks 3.5.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.4.5 New evaluation procedures 3.2.1 3.2.2.2.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.3.2.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2.2.2.2.2.5.6.5.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.5.2.4.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2 Grade System 3.2.3.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .1 Advantages of Co-education 3.

2. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.2. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.8 3. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. but on the other. you will be able to: 1. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.3.2.2.2.9 3. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .2. 4. 3. Besides.3. 3. suggest the new evaluation procedures. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. 3. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2.

etc. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided.3. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. schools for them wherever necessary. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated.. They develop secondary sex characteristics. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement.2. 149 . roadside Romeoism. They may cause problems relating to discipline. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. which the educational authorities have to face. etc. hostel facilities. If the students are in sufficient number. waiting rooms for girl students. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. 3. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. The following steps should be taken up. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. etc.

2. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. teachers. With the mass growth of educational enterprise.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.4. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. appointment of paper-setters. public administrators and statesmen. assessment and Finance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. It is considered as a major sub-system. public interested in education. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. conduct of internal examinations.2. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the examination system has an important role to play. 150 . This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. Instruction. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.

maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters.4.printing and distribution of question papers. establishing reliability. training of examiners. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. etc. tabulators. etc. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom.2. announcement of results. invigilators.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. 3. examiners. etc. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. introducing objective-based testing. values. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. etc. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. etc. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. validity and practicability. scrutinizers. pursuing objective-oriented instruction.

instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording.2. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education.. halo-effect.. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. may also discredit them. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. Rote memorisation. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. it s a common experience that subjectivity. lack of objectivity etc. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. 3) With respect to method of teaching. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. which they are expected to study. 7) In connection with the question papers. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education.4. stereotyped questions. 2) From the angle of content of education. do not appeal to the students and parents. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. takes the place of comprehensive learning. 152 .3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. 3. not meant to be assessed in the examinations.. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. Subjects. Vagaries in making.

Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. re-numbering of answer scripts. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. 153 . may be introduced. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. 4. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. List any two merits of examination. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. .develop true love for education.. Spot valuation. revaluation.a part of internal assessment. etc.

5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. In actual practice.3. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.2.5.5. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970.2. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. skills are given importance. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. It is complicated. The new scheme of assessment. In this system. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. attitudes. Every paper is treated equal. he is given extra credit points. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. When a person chooses to work extra. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. 3. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. The students can take any course offered in any department. Their interests. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.2. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .

3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. v. In the new system. courses can have weightages defined.5. The human error of evaluation is ± 10.2. poor. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. only the total credits to be earned is specified. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. These weightages are called credits. While designing syllabus. Groupism is encouraged. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. This system reduces comparison of marks. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper.good. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.discipline. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning.poor. 3. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. An example is a seminar. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. or as a 4 credit course.

the need for re-evaluation should not arise. However.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. 3. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.2.2. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.5. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5. 3. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. 156 .5.2.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. 3. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.

Therefore. List any four new evaluation procedures.2. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. However. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6. 3.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization.5.3. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. . In the hierarchy. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. recruitment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. There are no proper procedures for selection. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.

Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. laboratory equipment. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. requirements. complaints and compliments. Academic inspection. books are followed. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. interpersonal relationships and so on. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. wherever necessary.6. submitting of the inspection reports. 158 . it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. 3. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. qualifications. etc. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. They are. being realised as two different functions. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. school buildings.. When they are fully realised. whether the syllabus has been covered. taking up the follow-up programmes. in a sense. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. etc. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. staff.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. 1. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. inspecting the class-room teaching.. of late. playgrounds.qualified personnel.2. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. disciplinary problems. finding out whether the prescribed text. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. library books. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. finding out the adequacy of. in contrast.

Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors.Ed. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life.. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. at least. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. aptitude. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection.Ed. Similarly. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. their professional knowledge. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives..a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. modern. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field.2. or. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. course in either educational. In the light of these conceptualisation. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. 159 . In the case of departmental candidates. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. once in five years. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. Insistence on specialisation in the B. courses. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. 3. M.

a. b. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Administration. 5. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. b. 160 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country.2. d. 3. assessment and Finance. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. a. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. c. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. 3. 4. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. 2.2.2. a. 3. 3.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Grade System.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. b. Instruction. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance.

Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. (2005). Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. b. 7. a. Multiple sets of question paper. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. (2004). New 161 . 5. c. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. History and Problems of Education in India. Open book examinations. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. (2002). K. 3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma.a part of internal assessment. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Educational Reforms. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. a. a. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. K. S. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline.2. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . b. R and Sharma. b. Vaidya.4. Question banks. Problems of Education in India. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.

4 3. identify the needs of rural India and social.3.LESSON 3.3.3.3. you will be able to: 1. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.8 3.7 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.5 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.3.10 3.1 3.2 3.3. 4.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3. 162 . 3.6 3. 2.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. 5.3 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.9 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education. 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3.3.3.

which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. e. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i... For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. Commission emphasised to continue.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. The.specialisation programmes 3.g.. the Banaras Sanskrit College. 2. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . 10 years of general Secondary Education.3. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. i. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. and 3 years of First Degree Course. etc. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. The Calcutta Madras.3. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education.e. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. in Andhra Pradesh. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Similar is the case with some other States. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines.e. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. 8 years of general education. Consequent on the recommendations. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course.. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. University Education.

who desire to change from one stream to another. 10. However. educational channels. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a.3. 5.confidence in students. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. historical. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. habits of hard work and develop . cultural and economic development of the country. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. Provision for transfer of credits to students. is also a plus point . to imbibe. 7.a sense of dignity of labour. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. 3. to prepare. social. 8. economical and political. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 6. b. and. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . 5) to help for the social.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities .

not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. on one hand. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. Psychologically. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. Sociologically it is undesirable.3.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. cooperativeness. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. democratic living. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. cultural and' religious tolerance. 3. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . at the other. The General Educational Spectrum. and that required to enter the tertiary level. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. to develop national character. etc. Philosophically it is not the conception.. international understanding. 1. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions.national integration. and. social justice.

The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. commerce. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. physics or mathematics.3. Commerce and other disciplines. educational and cultural services. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. In our country. technical. such as Agriculture. technological. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. rural health. professional. chemistry. commerce. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. 166 . Science. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. Biology. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. industrial agricultural production is growing. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. the rural areas have suffered very much. Agriculture is the main occupation.— tube-wells. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. and vocations based on dairy-farming. or other machinery.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. In the matter of language. All these need for an. horticulture. fish culture. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. India is a land of villages. 2. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. In the vocational spectrum. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. vegetable growing. 3. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. medical plants. trade and public services are expanding rapidly.

the local resources available. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum.etc. 4. In time. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . interests and aptitudes of the students. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. In this it may be concluded.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. etc. 3. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. There had been favourable reaction from the students... The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely .3. can be ensured. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . social justice. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. and 5. In this way. and the needs.

New Delhi : Shipra Publications. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. a. 3.3. (2005). Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. S. Dash. (2001). b. to imbibe. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. 2. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. b. Vocational Sepctrum.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. Calcutta University Commission 2.3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. habits of hard work and develop . 3.3. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. B. Modern Trends in Indian Education. we studied the history. Mohanty. (2007). New Delhi : 168 . General Educational Spectrum and b.K. Anmol Publications Pvt.C. objectives. N. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. 3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. J. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. (2008).a sense of dignity of labour. 3. J. Ltd.3. a.

9 3.LESSON 3.8 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.10 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.12 3.11 3.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4.7 3.3 3.4.4. but the lighting of a fire”.4.4.4. Education contributes to human development.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.4.4.4.4.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4.6 3.2 3.1 3. social and 169 .4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.4.13 3.5 3.

Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. cultural and political development of the individual. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. These courses were. 3.4.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877.4. While women constituted only 9. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. you will be able to: 1. In the post —independence period. Dr. Education . state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. There is a close connection between education and development. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5.higher education in particular. For the first time in the history of India. The relevance of women’s education to social. particularly 170 . With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. Home Economics. Nursing. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. community and nation is universally acknowledged. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. Teaching and Fine Arts. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. 3. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. analyze the women and distance education. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. During the year 1937.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. higher education of girls developed immensely. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. economic. although we have miles to go. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. family. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend.

There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. out of 9200 and odd colleges. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . levels and professions.0 16.1 24. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.0 Today.D.9 27.0 43. 3. Even today.2 22. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. In the rest of the country. 3. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.4. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. in our country.4.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. we have more than 1200 institutions.4. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.0 32. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. Kodaikanal.9 14. In 1950-51. The idea of women’s education for equality.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Mother Teresa Women University. Mumbai. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.T Women University. Coimbatore. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Yet.women.N.65 lakhs in 1994-95.2 29.1 31.

53 34.54 12. 2.that of boys. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3.73 10.4.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . 3.4.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .47 65. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.46 82. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.83 47.63 Female % 34. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.4.4%) prefer Arts subjects. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.36 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.27 89. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .34 33.66 66.1 and 14.1 respectively. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.17 52.44 35.56 64.

Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. irrelevance of the content of education. 173 . Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. Also. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. They gave up their studies to enter home life. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. financial difficulty of the parents. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. marriage is a very common I factor. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. particularly. she will only learn fashion. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. what is the need for higher education for her.4. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. distance of the college or university from home. According to a survey. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. In college. Thus. 3. etc. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. promoted and increased. Book banks should be established.hinders the girls from getting higher education. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. and coeducation may spoil her character. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. In every third family. curriculum not suited to their requirements. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. The major hurdles.

Geographic distance of educational institutions. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation.4. Empowerment in a nutshell. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. which is the most dynamic factor of development.4. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. Distance education is a boon to women. There are constraints of time. Education. It enables to study. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. and the limitations of the conventional education system. resources and socio . Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world.economic disabilities faced by women. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Full-time employment. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. 3. It also brings about 174 .8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. space. is the only tool for realising empowerment. 3. It is a productive investment. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges.

They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. 3. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. Empowerment is an active. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. education of women is of paramount importance. higher learning. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. Women are partners in development. empowerment means being assertive. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. The major objectives of women's higher education. This can be achieved through reflection.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . on their own.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. legal awareness and economic independence. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future.4. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. education of women must be given priority in national plans. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. for full development of our human resources. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations.

it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. Scholarships and concessions for women. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. Better opportunities.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. 3. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. Reservation for women. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. will encourage them to venture new grounds.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. which had been the sole domain of men. The educational institutions.4. which is pending for a long time. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. But their number is small. has to be implemented at the earliest. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. The local administration. especially so in the developing countries. who are eager to take up courses. 176 .

IDP Education. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. According to Lindy Hyam.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. But. talents. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 .4. capacities etc.000 women in the country. 3.3 percent. engineering and related technologies (16. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education.9%). Also.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. especially in developing countries like African countries. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Chief Executive. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.8%).1%) and architecture and building (38. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. Australia. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? .

impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. S. 3. A. 4. Annakodi. Mumbai.R. 2. A. and Swain.4.K.4. 3. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Rao. 3. Mumbai. R. a. SNDT Women’s University. Women Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Pattanaikj. create the right attitude towards life. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women.4. and Suryalatha.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. 178 . Coimbatore. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. (2005). R. (2007). (2008). community and the nation. Centre for Women’s Studies. 4. R.C. Mishra. individuals and society b. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Mother Teresa Women University. Rajasthan 5. Women Education. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Coimbatore. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. (2000). Women and Education.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Kodaikanal. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. SNDT Women’s University.to the family. 43% 6. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. S.

5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .8 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5.1 3.5.9 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.2 3.11 3.6 3.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.personality of children in and out of school.7 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching. whole. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5.10 3.LESSON 3.5.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4 3.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5 3.3 3.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. They should be trained.5.5.5.

3. 5. 4.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.5. 180 . analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. list out the agencies of teachers education 3.5. national consciousness. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. social and emotional integration. know the pre service and in service training facilities. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. Lack of physical facilities. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. equality and justice.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. and national character. understand the training teachers for Primary. understanding and strong desire for international peace. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. you will be able to: 1. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. 3. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Shorter working hours. international.

Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise.. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. Inadequate training in practical skills. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. it is called the Extension teacher Education. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate.5.Ed. levels. students. 3. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. and the collegiate teacher education. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. it is called the In-service teacher education. etc. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. the state Government. who have not been trained earlier. inservice and extension education programmes. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. the primary teacher education.Less qualified teacher educators. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. a Diploma course and a Degree course. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.5. If the student teachers are working teachers. the centre. Lop-sided curriculum. higher secondary teacher education. 3. the secondary teacher education.Ed. Depending on the levels. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. (NCERT) New Delhi. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching.. At the diploma level. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. and M.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Also Guidance Bureaux. Expand NCERT 2. state Institutes of Educat ion. Evaluation unit. Education cells. Educational teehnology cells. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. collegiate cells. are established. depart ments etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory .. extensio n service.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. etc. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. non-formal. Science Education units.5.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose .

. material conditions relating to libraries. audio visual aids. and so on. to improve curricular programmes. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. which should include experience in the primary schools too. despite its vast expansion. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. which help breaking isolation from one another .Ed. to prescribe conditions for recognition. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . primary and secondary school teachers. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B.Ed. should be improved on a top priority basis..• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. and 183 . a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. laboratories. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. to offer consultative services.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . to ensure teacher competence. degree. schools and sister institutions.. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training .

it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. etc. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Agriculture.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Modern Techniques of Teaching. though no pre-service training. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. 184 . Psychology of Students. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher .secondary education. methodology and evaluation. Modern Methods of Evaluation. and XII. etc. Meanwhile. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. The problem. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. not came up once again. Workshops. Induction Courses. whether they should have professional education or.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Organisation of Content Courses. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. To meet this exigency. Hence. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed.

For re-orienting the teachers.D.’s are elig ible for M. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.Ed. Degree and M..5.’s for Ph..S. Courses leading to B. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Post-Graduates also undergo B. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. Degree. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. M.. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. State Institutes of Education.Ed. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. (Education) are organized by 185 ..A. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. These facilities are available for regular students. (Education) and M. All B Ed. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. courses and M.. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. in Education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.Ed. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . 3. Ajmer. Pre-service training is for those.Ed. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.Ed. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.Ed..A. training.. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.

Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. 186 .some Faculties of Education of some Universities. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.A. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 3.5.. . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . 6. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. established by tradition and teachers of the past. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . they should be conscientious . Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. and B. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.).8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. 5. of conduct—written or unwritten.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. However. What is the role of ERIC? .. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. 4. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned.A. Hence the employability of M. (Ed). 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. (Ed. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned.

2. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 3. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. 4. National Council of Educational Research and Training. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. b. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Ajmer. a.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 3. However.5. 5.5. 2. Bhopal. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. b. 3. 4. 187 . a.5. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. 3. Shorter working hours. The necessity is however this. they should be conscientious. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. Explain code of conduct for teachers. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Discuss the problems of teacher education. 6.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Dearth of new technology of teaching. a.

New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Corporation. Teacher Education.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda.D. A. B. Publication Pvt. (2003). (2009).5. Ltd Aggarwal. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . P. Teacher Education. Tewari.3. and Teacher Education.N. (2010). J. Mohanty.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

our attention shifts to physical education – its need. consuming the right amounts becomes important. Since food is the source of nutrients. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. preservation of nutrients. In lesson 1. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. objectives. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. objectives. communicable diseases and their prevention. In lesson 4. common ailments of children. If the diet is poor. The person’s environment is equally important. nutritional deficiency diseases.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. the focus is on the school health programmes. objectives and role of the physical education. 191 . Lesson 5 explains the meaning. economic and educational developments. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning.

192 .

193 .7 4.2 4.1.5 4.6 4.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important.3 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. physical.1.9 4.1.1.11 4.1.LESSON 4.10 4.1.e.1.8 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i. mental.1.1 4. emotional and social. It is a miniature society.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody.4 4.

School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student.1. training in first aid and etc. 6. know the need for sex education.g. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To develop healthy health habits among children. 3. 11. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. Instruction. understand school health programmes 2. list the common ailments of children 3. to his family and to the community at large. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. 5. To develop certain skills concerning health. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. 194 . to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. To give information regarding health rules. 4. training of teachers and evaluation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 9. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 8. 10. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 2. e. 7. 4.. 4. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. content of health education. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.1. you will be able to: 1. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. cleanliness and healthful living. explain the importance of First aid 5.

(ii) communit y healt h. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. First aid facilities should be made readily available. 2. organisation of school health days. vaccination.G. etc. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. suitable furniture. The flooring should not be damp. as described below 1. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. Arranging better transportation facilities. inoculation against cholera. direct lighting. There should be regular water supply. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. excusing late.C. cleanliness weeks.4. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. B. Vaccination for small pox. There should be good drainage facilities. (vi) nutrition education. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. The school buildings should be spacious. ( iii) sanit at io n. (iv) co mmunicable diseases.. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. B. is imperative. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. (v) safety education. typhoid. 3. 2. (xii) smoking education etc. 5. (viii) first aid. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. proper doors and windows. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. Triple Antigen Vaccination. minimizing the travelling distance. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. (xl) mental health.coming or absence. play festivals.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes.1. 4.. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. “Play-for-all” programmes. The surroundings of schools should be clean.

Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Have adequate rest and sleep. D. scalds. C. etc. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. bleeding. • When sleeping in groups. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. burns. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. 196 . if epidemic is wide-spread. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. • Find out the cases. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. fractures. wounds. insect stings. • Keep all rooms clean.. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. • Close the schools. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. and other accidents. cuts. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. poisons. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. sports and games in the interest of their health. fainting (epileptic fit). • Take nutritious food. dislocations. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. drowning. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. isolate and notify.

5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. So they easily get illnesses. asthma. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. chicken pox. These diseases are called communicable diseases. polio. fever.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. 4. water or bodily contact. backache.1. Mention the school health programmes. They are: i) The incubation stage.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. pain in the joints. 4.1. List out the Health curriculum 3. 2. which are – cold. Once these germs get into the body. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease.. headache. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. There are three stages in any communicable disease. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. measles etc. tuberculosis. cough. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air.

Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. The symptoms include cold. Throat is affected. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body.This disease is caused by bacteria. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately.It is caused by measles virus. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Ear Infections . Hence it is called a killer disease.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. unhygienic bottle feeding. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Hence liquid diet is recommended.When a child suffers from scabies. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Diarrhoea . Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Mumps . Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. The following are the common communicable diseases. Common Cold . Some suffer cold due to allergy. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Measles . Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. After three or four days of fever. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. etc. The child may have fever. cough and fever. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Others make the children very weak. Scabies . unhygienic living conditions. head-ache and cough. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. sugar and water. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. This is caused by cold virus. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. eating food which is not clean. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Tonsilitis . 198 . Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil.

This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. It begins with fever. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. If proper treatment is not given. By scratching he causes secondary infections. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. Enlist the common ailments of children. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. As the disease progresses. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. Diphtheria . Typhoid . Shortly.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. The child may also have diarrhoea. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. separate. raised pink spots appear on head. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. 199 . the child may die. the child is not able to breathe. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable.• • • • Chicken Pox . The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. face and waist. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. Expand DPT .Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. What are communicable diseases? 6.

which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. exciting and body-oriented. man-woman behaviours. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. In such cases. 4. so-called sex books and periodicals. fainting. eye injury.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. films and jokes. 4. and Community Work and Social Service. and films. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. Wounds . swelling. cuts.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. scorpion stings. It has its rightful place in education too.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. it is a subject of art. Drowning . 5. snakebites. sprains. Sex is popular. dislocation.g. head injury. 3. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. bruises.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. bleeding.1. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. fiction.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Cuts and Bruises . 2.1. sprains. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex.4. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. simple fractures. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. 200 . Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. etc. wounds. It is both biological and psychological. Sprains . Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. drowning.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex.

and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. the religious organisations. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. In today's liberal and interactive society. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. celibacy are age. In secondary schools. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. 3. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. sex education is being recommended in schools. in their ignorance. Hence. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. 2. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common.old values. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. The values of life.. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. but preserve them from disaster and disease. the school. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. they would be treading the path of sure doom. The home. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. Should the boys and girls. We can arm people with knowledge about sex.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. health. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. B. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. try experimenting with their bodies. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control.

As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. first aid and sex education. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. communicable diseases and their prevention. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. when the courses are already overloaded. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. Teacher education institutions are. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 202 . the school health programmes. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. hence. common ailments of children. C. there will no crisis in its implementation.1. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the major components of Sex Education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. 4. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Mention the food nutrients 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. 209 . Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. Let us talk about each of these aspects. If you look at the definition carefully. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day.2. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. minerals. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. 210 . This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients.4.2. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected.

A balanced diet is specific firstly.one in the morning and the other at night. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. In the case of adults. These are: region where the person resides and income.6. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. People in the east of our country prefer rice. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age).sedentary. it is also specific to a given activity level . activity level and physiological stress. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. sex.g. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. dosa are typical of the south. Preferences/customs are also important. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. construction labourer). paratha and poori. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. Even within given States there is considerable variation. 4.g. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. moderate or heavy work. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. for example.2. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). the social and religious practices of that region. In other words. There is no point.

They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. Having more money. nuts and dry fruits. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. Among the social factors. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. however. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. fat and sugar tend to increase. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. while another may hate them. taboos related to food may play an important role. customs. These determine the acceptability of foods. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. As you read this discussion. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. Even among flesh foods. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. One person may be fond of milk products. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income.planning the diet. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. As income increases. In addition to these. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. vegetables and fruits. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. If you think of your own religious group. for example. One must. Judicious selection of food is. However. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Including these 212 . income plays a vital role. however. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. however. as important for the rich as for the poor. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems.

etc. 8) Walk a while after eating.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well.eating is hazardous. 17. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. 8. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. fruits. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . mouth. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. but they should be thrown away. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. if the teachers have good food habits. Define balanced diet. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 213 . 7) One should eat what is needed to live . meat. For this. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. over-eating or under.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. List out any two healthy food habits. green leaves. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. eggs .

b. In fact. e.4. 4. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. good nutrition is essential for good health.2. Vitamin D 5.2. When the diet is inadequate. Night blindness.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Conjuctival xerosis. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. 4. preservation of nutrients. Discuss good food habits. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. c. a. Beri Beri 4. d. Bitot’s spots. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 .2. Corneal xerosis. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Explain food nutrients 4. Keratomalacia 3. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer.

a. R. 4. Nutrition Science. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.M. S. (2009). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. (2008). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. A Text Book of Foods. (2008). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. Health and Nutrition Education.C. (2004).6. 8. 7. a . C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. R.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. Nutrition and Dietetics. Hands. Food and Nutrition Education. Chopra.2. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. mouth.N. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. (2005). minerals. b. Food and Nutrition Education. P. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . Sri Lakshmi B. b. Food should be consumed after eating well.

6.1 Impact on social development 4.3.2 4.3 Impact on Education 4.3.3.3.13 4.7 4.6.3.12 4.3 4. 216 .3.6.2 Impact on economic development 4.1 4.3.4 4.3.LESSON 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.8 4.3.3.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.9 4.3.10 4.3.3.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.11 4.3.3.5 4.

Whenever we talk of sex education. economic and educational development 3. 4. It is not sex education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. family planning and sex education etc.3. community. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. characteristics and changes for himself. therefore. understand the importance of small family norm 5. his family. There is some difference. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. his societ y and the world. population characteristics. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. state the meaning.3. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. It is a much wider co ncept. the stress is.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. the causes of population change. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. and the consequences of these processes. aims at providing the younger generation. objectives and need for population education 2. Population Education. 4. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.4. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.3. 217 .1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. describe the impact of population growth on social.

the society. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. List out any two objectives of Population Education.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 4.3. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the family.3.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Define Population Education 2. the nation and the world.4.

The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. the family programmes are also handicapped. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. which will not be possible without population control. When the family is small. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. 4.6. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. Family is considered as a social unit. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development.3. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. 4. 219 . With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Every second two thousand children are being born.3. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. With the larger families. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. health and happiness of its citizens. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. economic and educational development of the country.

possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. i.3. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. Swollen cities.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. in parks and other places of public gatherings. facility for drinking water.3. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. pollution of the environment. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. 4.6. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’.. 4. lack of proper health care. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. toilets. unemployment. 220 . It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. organization index and material index.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. in cinema halls and theatres. in buses and trains. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. teacher index. Many students herded in a small room.6. heavy intern I migration etc. and so on. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt.e. The gulf between them is widening further. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. In developing countries.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.

There would be poor library facilities. blank verses etc. even text books would be in short supply. thus. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Social Studies Statistics on population education. Regional Language. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. reproduction. family planning etc. and laboratory equipments. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories.. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. can be studied in science and health education. can be taken up. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. There would be very few audiovisual aids.3. less budget for education. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. 221 . material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. bar graphs etc. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. essays. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Hindi and English.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. less space facilities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

West Bengal. They may arrange them as per average density of population. area and average density of population. causes of deaths etc. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. deaths. 7. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . 15. Children with the help of parents.4. 4. 3. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 9. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. 8. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. United States of America. 11. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Brazil. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. 14. Bihar. 5. 10. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Uttar Pradesh. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 13. Children may compare two families. China.3. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 2. 12. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Canada.

automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. 16. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. preferences for sex. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. we have no right to stop 223 . how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. age at marriage. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. 18. values and role children etc. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 17.be opened in their schools.3. The question. Comparing life in various respects in two families. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people.

The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. Since the program's inception. should be overcome at the intellectual levels..6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. More than 45 years ago. at varying places in different regions. on an overall basis. “He who is responsible for population growth. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. which education can only do. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.were implemented 224 . fertility levels have declined throughout the country.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. however.their entry into the world”. and the child survival components of the news: program.to emphasize family planning services.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.3. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. continued . especially the expansion of child immunization services . The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).4-6. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . The Family Welfare Program. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. 4. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.

In October 1997. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. and the World Conference on Women. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Local programs vary in their approaches. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods.earlier than the safe motherhood components. Moreover. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. At these meetings. expansion of services to unmarried women. and nominal fees for services. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . men. the community appears willing to pay for services. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. In April 1996. a focus on health promotion. reliance on local women as community health workers. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Therefore.

improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers.emphasizing the needs of the client. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. Its main purposes are to create awareness. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. 1997). involving the community. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. community. 226 . which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process.3. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. What are the goals of RCH? 4. economic and educational development 4. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. family. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. nation and the world.3. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Describe the impact of population growth on social. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

a. 3. area and average density of population. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. b. a. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. United States of America. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. characteristics and changes for himself. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. less budget for education. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. China. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 7. the causes of population change. and the consequences of these processes. less space facilities. b. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. 6. 4. bar graphs. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Brazil. Canada. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. 5. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. his society and the world. 227 . his family. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures.” 2. a.4. population characteristics.

T. Udaiveer. Changing attitudes to Education in India.K. (2005). New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Bhende. Modern Problems of Education. Centre for Women’s Studies. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development.4. (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Reddy. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 228 . Jayapoorni. (2004). New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House.3. J. Principles of Population Studies. A. Kantikar.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Ltd. V. (2002). Coimbatore. N. (1992).

7 4.4.4 4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.11 19.4.1 Minor games 4.4.4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.10 4.4 Lead up games 4.8.LESSON 4.4.4.4.8.6 4.8.3 Indigenous games 4.2 4.3 4.9 4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .5 4.1 4.8.4.4.4.2 Major games 4.4.4.4.4.

The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. you will be able to: 1. 4.4. social fitness. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. leadership and balance in defect. full records of physical activities should be maintained. team spirit. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. 4. moral fitness and emotional fitness. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. mental alertness.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.4. the youth of the country. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. which forms its most valuable assets. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education.4. The concept of physical education has been made broader. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. perseverance. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. classify the different types of games. as it should 230 . A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5.

Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. obedience to rules. They are inseparably united together. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. leadership. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. To be more precise. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Therefore. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Every individual is a part of society. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. They go hand in hand. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. team spirit. The educational efforts at home.

pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side.” The Secondary Education Commission. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. C. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. a sound health.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. “Physical education does neither train up the soul.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. Rousseau states. mo ral. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. Physical exercises. nor body but the whole man. ment al. H. Regarding the significance of physical education. Buck has observed that 232 . There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. game and sports. 4.4.” Montaigue writes. pleasing manners. Just like Education.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain.

“Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.” In brief. speed.4. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. initiative. flexibility and power. we must exercise the whole human being. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. “If we wish to develop the whole being.a properly directed physical education should result in health.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. endurance. strength. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. efficiency and character. resourcefulness and smartness.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. 233 . etc. Froebel says. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. elegance. coordinative abilities. happiness. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.” 4.

Tournaments foster this sentiment. they may form gangs. including all racial groups and historical ages. these fundamental things have always been present. poetry and painting. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Every age has its artists. While wars. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. should help in the spiritual development of the student. in greater or lesser degree. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. systems of government. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. 234 (i) (ii) . because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. its adherents and its enemies. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. plagues and famines.

3. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. etc. obedience. B. 235 . 2. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. respect for rules. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. bravery and interest in games and sports. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. to develop tolerance. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination .\ to develop perseverance. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education.sacrifice. self. Write any two importance of Physical Education. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit.

236 1.4. 7. and readmission after they have recovered. Usually parents. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Act as a leader. 2. Always keep the whistle ready. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Inform health principles. 8. Be in the uniform. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Posture screening should be done. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 14. Be sportive. 5. Keep the field ready for the activities. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. 6. Be self-confident.4. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 4. 4. 13. defects. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. and. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. 16. Haag. 10. 12. Be punctual. 9. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 11. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 3. . 15.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Be well-prepared.H. students.4. injuries among pupils should be made. is essential.

chasing. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Lead up games. 4. the play.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls.4. 1. 4. 3.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. their development is handicapped. 4. Moreover. frolic and jo y. less equipment and less expense. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. 237 . The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely.8. Indigenous games. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Such inst incts as imitation.

snatching the kerchief. They are played for a shorter duration. the play equipment. on hard courts. on sea-shore. dribbling. For each game the rules are many. women take part most of the games. spiking. Dodging. some of them are played indoors. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Volley Ball. boosting. catching.4. couple tag.. driving. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Khokho. finding the partner. On lawns. under ball pass Relay. Tennis. over ball pass Relay. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. muffling. Throwing. The dimension of the posts and nets. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. benefit in playing minor games. Hockey. skipping. Except a few games. Jump the stick clay and so on. Soft Ball. 238 . Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Kabaddy etc. trapping. heading. the number of players and substitutes. Shuttle Badminton. the games can be modified according to convenience. Jumping. Hopping. These games require varied skills such as running. wherever the kids assemble. Ball Badminton. hitting. stopping. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. on mountain tops and on river beds. Tennikoit. Basket Ball. While many of them are played in the open playfields. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Cricket. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. pitching. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children.8. bowling etc. 4. with implements or without implements. zig zag relay.With a very few rules.

8. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.4.8.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. All the fundamental tactics. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. these games being popular. For example. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 .4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. On occasions like marriage. 7.4. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. While observing the players in action. they are in existence. Games may be classified as 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Kho-kho. List out some major games. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. They have an abundant social value. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. death. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. festivals connected with religion and public functions. 4. birth. and . An example for indigenous game is 8.4.

The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. d. 2.4. to secure physical health b. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. a. to develop physical stamina. 5. 4. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. a. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual.4. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. a. b. Minor and Major 240 . Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 2. b.4. aims and objectives and need of physical education. b. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. a. 3. 4. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.4. Posture screening should be done. 4. Briefly discuss the different types of games.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. 3. c.

Volley Ball.4.C. Kabaddy 7. (2005). Physical Education and Sports. J. Mohanty. Health. Ltd.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews.K. Aggarwal. Tennikoit. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Handbook of Physical Education. Hockey. Shuttle Badminton. (2009). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.6. Basket Ball. 4. Khokho. 241 . (2008). J. Krishna murthy. J. Ball Badminton. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Foot-ball. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Khokho 8. (2008). Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Tennis. Modern Trends in Indian Education. G. Soft Ball. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Cricket.

Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.5.LESSON 4.5.7 4.5.10 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.8 4.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.6 4.1 4.5.11 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.5.4 4.3 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.1 Natural Environment 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.5.9 4.2 4.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.5.5.5.5.5.

explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. education about the environment and education through the environment. 243 . Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Essential knowledge about the Environment.5. social.5. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Knowledge. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. you will able to: 1. 5. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. political. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.educat ion for the environment.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. population explosion and resource depletion could be. 4. The best place to start such learning is school.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. 6. Participation. Broadly. list out the types of environment 3. 3. Skills. 4. Attitude. Details are given below: I. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. aesthetic and educational factors. Evaluation Ability.5. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 4. Awareness. it covers the following elements: 1. 2. economic. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. 3.

soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. D. • Biological magnification E. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. 2. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. F. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Oxidants Other pollutants.B. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. a. 244 .

Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. 2. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. 4. III. Socio-economic measures. Use of medical science i. Sterilisation. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Persuasion: i. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. c. 2. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Abortion iv. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Control of population growth a. B. The pill ii.3. Birth control through education b. Family planning ii. 3. economic. The human ecosystem II. Intrauterine device iii.

Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. (UNESCO. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. 2. Define Environmental Education. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 3. Water pollution abatement. 246 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. e) Recycling. Air pollution abatement ii. 1983). 3.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i.

way is called environmental or ecological factor. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. telex. animals and other organisms (biotic). fax agricultural apparatus.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.5. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. -other. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. These are biotic components. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .5. He modifies according”.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. a. Biological environment The biological environment.5.5. They interact with each.4. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.5. b. Any constituent or condition of the environment. A change in one brings about a change in the other.5. 4. includes the plants.other components of the environment. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. to his needs.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.

etc.. effects o f CFC. extinction of species. relation between population and pollution. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. natural way of controlling pests. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. History The rise and fall. evolution. river systems. sources. noise control. population. biogas plants. ozone layer deplet ion. maintaining the ecological diversity. sources of pollut ion. over exploitation of ground water. excellent recreation sites. mineral survey. industrial pollut io n. supplying timber for various uses. balance of nature. greenhouse effect. change in climate may be added. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . noise pollution. alternate sources of energy. need for conservation. etc. (ii) Air pollution. preserving the watersheds. effects. nuclear warfare. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. acid rain. solar cookers. preventing siltation of dams. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. wars and hazards of war. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. of civilizations. are the topics which may be taught in History. air pollutants from industries. nuclear energy. importance of nitrogen cycle. water scarcity. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. reasons. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. explosion deforestation. need for bio-diversity. trees reducing noise pollution.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. use of pesticides. windmills. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. ozone depletion. desertification 248 . industrial survey. role of trees in building economy. food chain and food-web. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. social studies. t heir role in preventing pollution. use of medicinal plants.

12. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Providing. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. 5.may be inc ded in Geography. 7. 249 . Peepal and Tulsi. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. 13. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Organising conferences. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 3. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 10. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 6. 8. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 11. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. animal and plants. 4. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. group discussions and seminars. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 4.5. 2. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 9.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 14. aims and scope.

Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. it will cause pollution. all these can cause serious pollution. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. especially plastics. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Don’t burn any waste. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. World Environmental falls on 250 . so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. If it is done. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. 6. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Never put any left over chemicals. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. 5. used oils down the drain. or form a car pool for everyday travel. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Send their waste oil. Reuse carrier bags.

viz. Att itudes of balance towards nature. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. nuclear wars.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. concern for others). Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. potable water. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. rather than conquest and mastery. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Conservation of natural resources. CFCs. values and habits. developing desirable attitudes. The groups may exchange. Concern for species. To provide reference materials for children’s use. orderliness and beauty). disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources.mat erials. To provide materials needed for practical work. diversity and stability. To arrange for visiting speakers. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Social responsibilit y (common good. To arrange visits or expeditions.). loss of bio-diversity. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry.5. depletion of ozone. dest roying nat ural habitats. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. etc. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. and 251 . deforestation. To discuss the approach to problems or topics.4. Harmony with the nature . etc. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. (cleanliness..

Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills.5.5. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. 8. 4. preserving natural cycles.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. 252 . 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. 4. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.

5. (1997). b.K. water scarcity. 6. importance of nitrogen cycle. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. 3. Awareness. 4. (ii) Air pollution. 8. sources of pollution.. (2004). Ltd. Social responsibilit y (common good. New Delhi : Authors Press. Modern Problems of Education. b. a. a. S. (2007). over exploitation of ground water. b. sources. 5. a. Udaiveer. Environmental Education. June 5 7. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection.K. Ltd.\ 4. Environment and Human Rights. population. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. a. Publications Pvt. acid rain. reasons. concern for others). effects. To provide materials needed for practical work. Rapid population growth. Providing.K. relat ion between population and pollution. Organising conferences. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population.2. S. Y. T.K. new problems from science and technology. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. b. Environmental Education. air pollutants from industries. ozone layer deplet ion. (2007). To provide reference materials for children’s use. group discussions and seminars. Nanda. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. explosion deforestation. Anmol Publications Pvt. greenhouse effect. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Knowledge. New Delhi : Sharma. Education for values. Kuldeep.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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1.3. man is essentially a moral being. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. Therefore. It is self-realisation. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. Education must contribute to development of culture. Education according to idealism. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. the emancipation of spirit. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation.our life.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. The universe is regarded as a thought process. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. moral. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. in fact. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. According to Rusk'.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism.” 5." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. Spiritual Development. should be universal in nature. Universal Education. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. enrichment and transmission of culture. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality.

while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. Learning through discussion. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. affecting (feeling). Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. The plant can grow. 5. Philosophy. So he should embody. hygiene. Learning through imitation.1. According to idealism. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. 3.1. Learning through reading. so subjects like Religion. So health. no doubt. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. According to Frobel.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Learning through lecturing. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students.3. Learning through questioning. subjects like Languages. For this no particular method has been suggested. 2. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. However. So cognition (knowing). Ethics. a spiritual guide for the child. Herbert advocated instruction method. Science. It considers teacher as. 5.” He is thus. History. He carries the child from darkness to light. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. He sets the environment in which education takes place. friend and guide. Mathematics etc. an indispensable necessity. the school is a garden. 4. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. should be there. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. and collation (striving) should find due place. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. The teacher serves as a living model for the students.3.” 5. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. For intellectual development.the spiritual qualities of mankind. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming.

“The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. 5.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self.perfection and beauty. text books. 5.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. curricula. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Ross explains. Perfection of Human Machine. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. formal lessons or examinations.4.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.1. In the words of Ross. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. time tables. "Education should make 263 • . 2. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.preservation.

4. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. In all.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Chemistry. education should develop the child into Joyous. subjects like history. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. It stresses basic sciences. Biology. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. rational harmoniously balanced. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment.1.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. 264 . It is based on the psychology of the child. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Literature. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Naturalistic curriculum. useful and mature child. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Therefore. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Arithmetic. “Education finds its purpose. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Education also aims at helping the individual t. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. It emphasises physical and health education 5. There is no place for religious and moral education.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. is based on the nature of the child. Zoology. Botany etc Language. 4. Education should. therefore. • 5.

“Give your scholar no verbal lesson. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Learning through experience. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. 5. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Dalton Plan. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. 3. Learning by doing.4. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. he should be taught by experience alone. Rousseau says. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Learning through observation.1. Heuristic method. 5. It discards all rigid.1.4. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. the stage. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. a provider of an ideal environment. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place.1.5. 4.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In the . The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. 2.

Agriculture. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Sciences. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. intellectual. is true. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Vocational and 266 .2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Physical training. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. All Round Development of an Individual. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment.1.5.1. Social Efficiency. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Subjects. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. social and moral aspects. History. The aim of educational development. 5. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. The individual has not only to adjust himself. of human personality is in terms of his physical. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Geography. Personal Social Adjustment.5. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. diversified and flexible. Social Science. Continuous Growth.absolutism of idealism. 5.

alert and resourceful. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. He must be trained.1. In different situations he remains a friend and helper.5. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 5. Methods of teaching should not be fixed.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching.1. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. should find proper place. The subjects.” 5. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Learning by Doing.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. a senior partner and a sincere guide. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.Technical Education. He has to be active. a teacher occupies an important position. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

Art.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic.1.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. 3. rich and happy. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Population Education. Music and Dance. 4. practical. Mathematics. Astrology. Chemistry. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. liberal. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. 5. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Crafts. 5. 4. 3. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. specific.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism.6. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. literary or humanistic education. History. Psychology. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. 5. Biology.1. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Literature. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. It favours child-centered. Sex Education.5.1. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Education is preparation for a complete living. 2. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Study of Subjects like Language. intellectual. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. scientific and psychological education. Biography Philosophy. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. 2. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics.6.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. certainly and clearly.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . easily and pleasantly.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6.5.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.6.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.

Self preservation & Self expression 4. 5. History. a. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Vocational and Technical Education. Languages.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. a. Learning through discussion. pragmatism and realism. Learning through questioning.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. has no end other than growth. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. & curriculum. Learning through reading. Geography. 6.1. Agriculture. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. 5. a. Learning through experience b. Child centered c. naturalism.1. b. Rousseau 5. Sciences. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Learning through lecturing. Education according to pragmatism. Physical training. e.1. Social Science. c. Self Realisation b. in this lesson. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Learning through imitation. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. 3. d. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2.5. 5. Universal Education 2. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Experimentation d. Tours / Excursion e.

New Delhi : Bhatia. Narang C. L. Ltd. N. P. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.P.1. New Delhi : A. K.H. Anmol Publications Pvt. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Publishing corporation. Pahuja. R. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. 271 . Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. (2007). (2004). Theory and Principles of Education. (2003). (2007).P. O.5. P. Foundations of Education. of Pathak.

1 Aims of Education 5.3 Methods of teaching 5.4 Views about teacher 5.4.2.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2.4.2 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2.2.2.5.2.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.1 5.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.4 Views about teacher 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.3.2.2 Curriculum 5.3.5.2.2.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2.2.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.LESSON 5.4.2.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.4.3.4.2.3 Methods of teaching 272 .2 Curriculum 5.5.3.2.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.3.1 Aims of Education 5.2.2.3.

we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2. 2. Gandhiji was primarily a social. mind and spirit.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. you will able to: 1. 5. an artist.2. 273 .2. content and methods. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. 5. economic and political reconstruction in our country.2. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.8 5.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.4 Role of the teacher 5.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.7 5. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.5.6 5.2.2. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. 3. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. Tagore was a poet. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.5.2.

274 . nor the gross animals body. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. self-restraint and service of humanity. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education." Dignity of Labour. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. In the words of Gandhiji.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. "I attach more. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. strength of mind. righteousness. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. mind and soul of children He further observed. it is education of life. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations.2.supporting. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. His scheme of education is life centred. through life and for life. 5. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education.3. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. It really provides opportunity for character building. 'Man is neither mere intellect.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.

2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. General Sciences. metal work.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. wood work. the realization of the ultimate reality. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. 5. Only good individual forms a better society. gardening. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Music. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Drawing and Hindustani. Mother-tongue. leather work have been suggested. Art.3. "Development of the moral character.Training for Leadership.2. According to Gandhi. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . Individual and Social Aims.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.2. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. men of 276 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.trained.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Basic education is other wise known as 4. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.3. proficient.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.

That is why.knowledge.3. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. 5. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. He also advocates freedom for the child. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. 3. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies.2. Education must be child centered. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education.

Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. he was a true Vedantist 5. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. • Education should involve manual work. 5. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. • Cult of non-violence.2. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Gandhi in 1937.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. 5.2. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.3. • Ideal of citizenship.2.” Like all other ideals. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.4. He was a true patriot.K. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . He was deadly against untouchability. He believed in the oneness of humanity. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.

Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. stronger in power than ever before. sentiment. International Understanding. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Music. Dance. wider in range. could help in forging unity among all. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. deeper in. 279 . "Mankind must realise a unity. Chemistry. Religion and Psychology. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Purposeful and Meaningful Education.4. he said.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. (vi) Philosophy.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Zoology. them solve problems of day to day life. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Geography.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. It should help the learner have good physique. the more dedicated and devoted. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. etc.2. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Therefore. It should help. Civics. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding.Language and Literature . Tagore said. That way only. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. International understanding. complete manhood could be attained. Botany. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History.

Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. 280 . Activity Method Heuristic Method. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.” He further says.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.4. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.4. In 1921. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. 5. Tagore rightly says." 5. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.2. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. 5. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.4.2.2.

Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment.g. 10. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. race. 9. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. 281 . Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. It is open to all irrespective of country. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi.

Freedom. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . man making. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Education for Self-realization. Education for Self-reliance. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. 3. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. Purity of thought. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Book learning. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. According to him. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. 4. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building.2." He was against the theoretical type of education. Concept of Education. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Education for strong Moral Character.2.” 5. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Education should make a person self-reliant. work and deeds come out of it. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking.5. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace.5. 2.

Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth.5.5. Secondly he wanted Science. 283 .2. Philosophy and Theology. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching.5. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. The teacher should be the facilitator. 6. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.the learners on different students in the discussion. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. 5. That will serve the purpose of education fully. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. 5. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Thirdly he wished that games. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Discussion Method. Of course.2. philosopher and guide to the students He. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. A physically strong person is the need of the society. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Swami.5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.2. Religion. Every individual should be trained for concentration. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. 5. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Education for Physical Development. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. And above all.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. engineering and technical subjects. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. and pragmatist . 284 . in this lesson.2. We have seen that Tagore. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. legs. ears and eyes. 2. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.6 LET US SUM UP We have. Their educational ideas.2. Write short notes on Basic education. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. 12. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. Gandhiji as a Idealist. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. 3. of course. 5.Substantiate your answer. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. naturalist.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. 5.

5. a.2. 10.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. e. Explain Vishwabharathi. Technique of Correlation 6. Debate and Discussion Method. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Nai Talim 4. Meditation and concentration c. d. 11. a. Teaching while Walking b. 8. 9. 5. Learning by Doing c. 3. wood work. Ideal of citizenship. Education should involve manual work. c. 5. 1937 7. Discussion Method 285 . Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Heuristic Method. a. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. a. gardening. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment.4. Cult of non-violence. metal work. leather work have been suggested. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Self-Study b. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. b. Self realization. Activity Method b. Basic education. f. Activity Method d. c. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12.

9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. (2007). N. Theory and Principles of Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2002).H. B.5. P.P. Dhiman. K and Narang C.2. C. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. O. New Delhi : Aggarwal. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. (2007). 286 . Ltd. Pahuja. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2004). New Delhi : A. Publishing Corporation. K. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Foundations of Education. (2003). on Bhatia. J. P. L.

4 5.3.3.10 5.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.9 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.3.8 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.6 5.3.2 5.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .7 5.3. In this lesson.3.5 5.1 5.3 5.3.3.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.LESSON 5.11 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.

state the meaning of curriculum 2. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Curriculum is intimately related to education. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. in Russia or in Japan.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. in the U. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. Since the demands.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. While education is learning. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . curriculum. living in the hilly area. the plain area. you will be able to: 1. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. Then in a big country like India. A g o o d curricu lu m. in the form of new experience. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’.3.3.. in fact . Both the processes are integrated. the plateau area and 288 . One is the individual process and the other is the social process. the desert area. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. there is a large number of communities. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. it is identical wit h socializat ion. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4.3. curriculum signifies situations for learning. maintained or eliminated. While education is a process. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. 5. is a means to the process. In it.S. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used.A. In the former sense. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India.under the direction of the school. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. present behaviour may be modified. new behaviour may be acquired. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. In the words of Kerney and Cook. 5. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. From the latter point of view.

irrespective of their needs and environment.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. therefore. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. In fact . customs and needs. It must differ from locality and from society to society. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. environment. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. studying therein. and 289 . We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. according to modern trends in the educational process. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. democratic and socialistic country. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. the learning capacity of children. However. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school.3. too. differs from individual to individual. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. 5. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. Again. From a slave-country we became secular. it is. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. Besides craft. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment.

Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. Understanding Objective. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Self Realisation.g.. remote or immediate. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. Application Objective. etc. They are visionary goals e. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . specific. aims. of classroom.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. They speak of immediate purposes of education. 2. in instructional objectives.. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical.. individual or Social and so on. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. social. 1. moral. emotional. unambiguous and functional. National Integration. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. e. 4. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. They are achievable. they depend on the political. uninspiring and unscientific. tangible. e. eg. Vocational Efficiency. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. 5.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. aesthetic and spiritual development. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. which may or may not be attained. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The word “Curere” means 2. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. They may be ultimate or proximate. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes.g.3. etc. Knowledge Objective..g.. They speak of perfect goals. social. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. Goals of Primary Education. 290 . unsatisfactory. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. So it is inadequate. Goals of Secondary Education. 3. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. etc. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. general or specific.

but it includes the totality of experiences. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.5. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. on the playing fields. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. According to Crow and Crow. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. Raymont rightly says. in the class rooms. finding them very interesting and captivating. educationists.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. needs.3. capacities. Crow and Crow remarks. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children.” 291 . as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. The interests. The old and prevalent curriculum is under.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. abilities. heavy fire.

time in a useful manner. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. aptitudes. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. urges. capacities and abilities. tendencies.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. Due to these variations and differences. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . mental.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. moral. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. They often waste it or rather kill it. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.

The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. development of professional capability at all levels. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. organized. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. 2. To ensure success of the process. Similarly. administrative programme need be planned. phased preparation. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. 293 . there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel.curricular. 3. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously.

18. 5. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. workshop. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. 11. 12. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. a. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 .9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 10. Child Centred Education b. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.3. principles of curriculum construction.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. Run.3.3. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. laboratory. 5. Relation with Life c. 1937 19. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 17. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. in the class room. library.

P. 295 . (2007). Curriculum Development. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Curriculum and Instruction. Innovations in Education. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava.S.3. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi : Isha Books. and Sarita Kumari.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. D.K. (2007). New Delhi : Authorspress. (2007). N. Lakshmi. S. Bhalla.5. S.

4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4 5.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.9 5.4.7.4.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4.4.5 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.10 5.4.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .1 5.4.4.4.4.4.7.6.7.7.3 5.4.8 5.6.4.2 5.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.LESSON 5.4.7 Scientific Attitude 5.

4. open-mindedness.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. you will be able to: 1.4.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . yet real advancement in this area was achieved . It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. explain the concept of scientific attitude. honesty. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. in the economic reconstruction of society. 5. newer and newer industries started growing.5. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. 297 . Gradually. We mean curiosity. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.4. 2. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. know the importance of science education. tolerance for the opinions of others. superstition or emotion. 4.during the second half of this century.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. 3.

Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 5. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 5. Principles are formulated. 5. Central science workshop. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 7. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . seminars and symposiums. Thinking and memory develops. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. 4. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Through examinations. stipends and appreciations in various ways. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 3. 2. Selection for science education. as well as of the society.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO.So that. Love for truth enhances. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Devotion towards nature increases. Through newspapers. 2. 6. 6. After such experience and training. Promotion of science clubs. 4. 5. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Schemes of teaching science.4. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Organisation of science fairs. 3. models and scientific instruments for laboratories.4.

They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. In the inquiry approach. 7. Write any two advantages of Science Education. Training of science teachers. Enquiry teaching is. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils.6. 5.4. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. They encounter many social events as they grow. They ask many questions about the objects they see. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. It is. They experience natural phenomenon. 5.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. therefore. objectivity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. sex or religion. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. each child to “enquiry skill building”. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. After presenting the problem. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. essential that teachers. should provide opportunities to.needs and conditions. For laboratory and workshop techniques.4. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste.

3.Herma Wouk. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. Giving less directions. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. Evidence. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Adopting creative models of teaching. if they like.4. . commands or orders. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 5.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Social sciences. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6.books. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. stern pursuit of accurate data. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. It requires consistent thinking. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. 2. 3.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. 300 . to ask questions and experience things. test. . 5. 4. 5. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? .4.6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Appreciating pupils ideas.

practiced. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. see and feel the need of developing this attitude.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. neighbourhood.(Smith 2008). Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. of vast resources running waste.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. therefore should be unbiased and objective. (Vaidya 2007). open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. and emphasized during the learning process . 5. it must be encouraged. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. school and society at large.7. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. to develop among the learners. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. These include open mindedness. keen observation. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. friends. The students observation. To achieve this we should understand what it means. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. critical thinking and suspended judgments. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts.4. For instance.

looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias.4. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. 5. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. think and work it”. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. rumor. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. 2007). Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. In considering a situation or a problem. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. intuition or wishful thinking”. The intention to respect another’s point of view.7. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. or superstitions. (Das.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. 302 .2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. understanding and logic. he studies all aspects of it. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education.

7. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.4. 5. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.4. but to begin only after careful planning. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. • 5. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil.7. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.

List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience.4. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. 5. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. it must be encourages. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 304 . practiced and emphasized during the learning process. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory.

Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. b. (2006). a.B (2008). b. The intention to respect another’s point of view. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.4. Proper example of the teacher c. Study of superstitions d. (2000). Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. M. 16.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. S. 4. N. a. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. 5.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. objectivity. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Yadav. a. Adopting creative models of teaching. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. 2. Reflections on Scientific attitude. 305 . Vaidya. a. (2008). 5. b. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.S. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.4. Rao. Love for truth enhances. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. 3.4. Wide reading b. D. Planning of activities 5.

2. state the concept. you will be able to: 1.3 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5 5.5. areas of institutional planning.11 5. objectives and characteristics. 5.1 5.5.7 5.8 5.10 5.5.6 5.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.5.LESSON 5.5. 306 .5.5.2 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5. actively.5.4 5.9 5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.

Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. and. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning.3.5. • To make institutional planning more successful. 5. • to make planning development-oriented. every teacher. State and national levels from below. • to involve teachers and school administrators.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. which become the bases for further planning at the district. 5. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions.5. every parent. in the task of educational planning. Institution should be regarded as the unit. teachers and students is not lost sight of. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. and supplement planning from above. executive as well as public. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. and every student in the process of educational planning. each teacher. and each student are regarded as separate entities. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans.

and Personnel services. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. etc. Examinations.curricular Activities. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. which will be discussed in the general.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. it becomes the basis for school inspection. (2) Co. Syllabus. Classwork. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. 308 . it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers.5. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. approved after making necessary modifications. council and.5. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. 5.• implemented. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. Co-curricular activities. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion.

What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . etc. Organisation of Students’ Association.No. charts and apparatus. Equipping of laboratory and library. Editing the school magazine. scientific and historical excursions. hobby-centres. Organisation of Pupils. Improving the internal assessment. 3. Improving the subject competence of teachers. etc. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Organising play-for-all programmes. Organisation of Self-Government Days.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Preparation of models. Organisation of class-room libraries. etc. etc. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. etc. Conducting of educational. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Preparation of instructional material. Running science clubs. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Fair distribution of syllabi. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. 1. Courts. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings.

teacher-managing body. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. students’ associations. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. headmasters associations. and —pupil-pupil. pupils. parent-teacher associations. Administrator-State. teacher-State. parents.5. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. teachers. administrator-pupil. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. which are divided as the in. involving mainly human materials. science teachers’ associations. teacher-pupil. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. teacher-teacher. administrator-supervisor. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. teacherinspector.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. etc. administrator-administrator. ii.group and out-group relationships are as given below i.5.” The human relationships in. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. pupil310 . and solidarity. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. co-operation. understanding. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also.

now-a-days. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. to accomplish. pupil-community leader. pupil-inspector. According to C. to carry out. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. To administer means to manage. It relates to administration of a single educational institution.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. administrator. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management.5. pupil-non-official functionaries. organisation and management. social sciences and other disciplines. It covers personnel and material management. and to serve. Good. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. teacher-community leader. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. V. to attend. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. organisation. pupil-parent. supervision. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. teacher-parent. supervision and superintendence. It is also being modernized to become a technique. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. superintendence. control.State. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. 311 .

He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. 4.The manager should have leadership traits. Worker Participation . Democratic Management . The relationship should change from master. Communication . the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established.Of all the approaches.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. 5. Decision Making . low. without this the efficacy will be handicapped.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. 2. 8. 12. 6. 10. Those. If it is more.Any good management will always have good public relations. Leadership . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. Economic Management . should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 11. This is the latest democratic trend in management.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . Liasion with the Public . 3.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. He should be an artist in human relationships. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . it is not worth-while.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. 9.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. If the cost benefit ratio is less. Motiviation . 7. Cost-Benefit Analysis . He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. 13. Better Human Relationships .The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. Rapport between the Management and Employees .This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. who occupy the managerial positions. Socio-Scientific Approach . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow.

to improve the quality of education it provides. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5.5. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. enrichment of curricula. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. 14. improvement of teaching methods. 313 . The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.too. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. and cooperative performance should be ensured. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . Wastage and duplication should be avoided. 18. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions.These two are.g. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. 19. objective.

Communication 5. (2001). b. Examinations. a. and Personnel services. 4. Leadership c. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. (2003). to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. b. c. Syllabus. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 314 . New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House.5. (1995). 2. it becomes the basis for school inspection. d.5. NUEPA. Singh. b. a. Tarachand and Prakash.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. APH Publishing Corporation.5. R. e. a.M. a. Motiviation d. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Co-curricular activities. Decision Making b. Classwork. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Educational Administration. H.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Fundamental of Educational Management. Instruction. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3.K. f. In group and Out group 5. S.

(b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.Religious and Modern Education 1. Realized the problems of school education.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Community and Mass Media 2.Pre-service and In-services facilities. higher education. First Aid. Healthy Food Habit 4. Preservation of nutrients. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.1 Gurukula system of education.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Examination reforms.I. wastage and Stagnation 3. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.1 School Health Programme.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. nutritional requirement. Common ailments of Children. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Economic 315 .3 Educational Influences of Home. social Impact 3.1 Primary Education : Education for all.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.5 Regional Educational Development in India .3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. Code of conduct for teachers. Communicable diseases .4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. School.4 India's Secular Policy .Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.2 Nutritional deficiencies.Preventive measures. population education.CORE PAPER .teachers should have : 1. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Balanced diet. Sex-education 4.1 Inculcation of Socialism. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .3 Directive Principles . 4. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. 1. 2. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. physical education and environmental education 5. women education and teacher education in India.Article 45 . Inspection and Supervision 3.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. New evaluation procedures. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .

Socialization. Realism.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . and Human Development. R. Curriculum and national goals . Mishra. T.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. B. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Prof. and Dash B. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. (2004) Problems of Education in India.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Saraswathi T.N.C. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Hemchand. Ram S. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.Aim. 5. REFERENCE 1. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Delhi : University Publications 2. Sharma. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Tagore 5. Kalan Paper Packs 10. New Delhi: NCERT 3.1 Idealism.K.K.S.R. and Sharma R. Naturalism and Pragmatism . 316 . Mahatma Gandhi. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. 7. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. (1999) Culture. Taneja V.K. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2005) Foundations of Education. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms.4. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.K.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. and Mohanty R.N.4 4.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Ghanta R. Pandy V.

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