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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. The need. In. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Lesson 4. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Jainism and their educational implication. discusses the regional educational development in India. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. 9 . of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. Lesson 5. Lesson 2. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. and Jain system of education. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3.
220.127.116.11.1 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .4 Hunter Commission (1882) 18.104.22.168 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 22.214.171.124.6 Education during British Era 126.96.36.199 Jain system of education 1.1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 188.8.131.52 Methods of Jain system of Education 184.108.40.206 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 220.127.116.11.1.3.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 22.214.171.124 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.LESSON 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 126.96.36.199 Features of Buddhist system of Education 188.8.131.52.6.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.2 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.
Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. describe the Jain system of Education 4.1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. British system of education presented the modern western model. Muslim and British periods. The history of education passed through Buddhist. India.1.8 1. Education in India.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. in morals and in the intellect”.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. you will be able to: 1.1.3. both present and future. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.1.6. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1. 1. has a long past history starting in vedic education.1. “a class of persons. in opinion. That 12 .6. 1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.1. 1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. but English in taste.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.9 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. elucidate the education during British Era.7 1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.1. Indian in blood and colour. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.
Role of Travel in Education. 10. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. and to agriculture and trade. as it is generally considered to be at present. religious and spiritual. 5. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Teacher as Parents. It was also moral. The immediate aim of education. 16. Residential Schools. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. 8. Religious and Spiritual. 3. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. Pupils were taught. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Forests as Centres of Education. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. the monitorial plan was followed. 4. 11. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction.knowledge was real. 6. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Method of Study. High Status of Teachers. with grants of land or money. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. from eternal to immorality 2. There was. 9. questioning by the pupil. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Individual Teaching. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Free and Accessible. managed entirely by Brahmans. Method of Instruction. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Where pupils were many. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. followed by explanation by the teacher. Curriculum. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. not en masse by the class method. 12. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. from darkness. Education was a private affair of the people. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. to light. It was not merely intellectual. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. individually. generally. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. 13 . The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. Immediate Aim Vocational. 14. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. No State Control on Education. Education of Moral. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. 13. however. if they thought fit to do so.
Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils.17. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. It was suited to the needs of the society. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. They were very cordial and intimate. lived a life of celebacy.3. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Wide-Spread Education in Women. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. studied Vedas. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . besides preparing for worldly pursuits. 2. It was freely available to all those who wanted.
1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. which included abstaining from theft. I take Refuge to Dharma. every class in society.C. except the Chandals. Right means of livelihood 6. in which.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. the most significant of which were the following 1. 1.1. Right contemplation 1. the student had his head shaved of all hair. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Right endeavour 7. It was denied only to the ill. partaking of food at prohibited times. watching dances or listening to music. killing of any living being. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. Right thought 3. Consequently. 2. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Right speech 4. use of cosmetics. etc. impure conduct. Right memory 8. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. use of intoxicating things. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. he was qualified to become a monk. taking things without being offered. 15 . the student remained in a state of Shramana. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. After attaining the age of 20. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. Education was imparted through the. had the right to receive education. the handicapped. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. Right knowledge 2.4. Right activity 5. I take Refuge to Sangh. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. disease and death of the human beings. medium of Pali.
education was impart in art.. objectives of human life. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. agriculture. 3. however. the presence of the monks was essential. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. etc.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. wear three items. it is regarded as true”. Even at this stage. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. cottage industries. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. magic. Whatever its nature and extent. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. aspirations and. 8. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation.3. assumptions. 4. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. approach. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. On this occasion. nothing is of any permanent consequence. These are called later Buddhist schools. medicine. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. of clothes. knowledge of reviving the dead. and. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. has no metaphysical value for life. control over sensuous activities. 6. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. a change is not only total but also perpetual. 7. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. Initially. commerce. so long as it successfully does so. 5. As reality is becoming. meaning. Hence. archery. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. etc. elephant lore. Life is in a flux. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. bodily gestures. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. 2. therefore. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. archery. be considered the aim of education It. changing the goals. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. It comprehended education in writing. After this ritual. depth and range. 1. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. geology. military science. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. Later on. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. eat food thrice a day. the science of taming and training animals. arithmetic and religious discussion. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. etc. animal husbandry. nature. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. a continuous change creating 16 . handicrafts. beg for alms. along with education in script writing.4. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. women occupied a position inferior to men. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada.
But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. Jainism insists 17 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. However.5. goes to Vardhaman.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. its pessimistic outlook on life. such as. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. whatever works are true and good. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. therefore. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it is much older than the latter. Write Eight fold path . Its chief feature. Validity is effective and consequences.new and peculiar situations. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism.1. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. 5. however.e. In fact. i. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. and to give it a shape that it has today. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. 1.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Education must.
d) To lead a celibate life. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. c) Not to steal. 18 . b) Right knowledge. c) Right conduct. and believe in happiness to all. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone.5. They are: a) Not to injure. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. it has a foot in both the words. 4. rather than the interpretation of the universe. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. 2. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. b) Not utter falsehood. 10.1. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. 1. 3. e) To renounce the world. thought and deed. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Hence. 6. and is to be redeemed and liberated. Development of personality as an individual. 3. 9. 1. but on both.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 5. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. 7. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. 8. 2. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. more stress on individual aims. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. As such. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul.
‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 4. education must be action based and ideally oriented.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Jiva is essentially karmic. 5. 3. 1. and should bring happiness to all. Belief in transmigration of soul. 2. 8. here and now.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.4. What are Triratnas ? . 19 . Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue.5. Teaching must develop these faculties. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Teaching should be social and tolerant.5. that would be socially desirable. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. practised and not only aspired for. therefore. success and love. education should develop sense of discrimination. 3. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Knowledge is through senses and meditation. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. 1.
In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. Bombay.1. 2. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. primary 20 . The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.6. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. 1. However. and not for life. To set up separate departments of.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. science. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. 1. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.6.1. 1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. 1.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. with rally and rout.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. philosophy and literature of Europe.6. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.6. North West Province and Punjab. Madras. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. 1953). which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal.
7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. At that time M. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). • Secondary education.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. The universities dominated the secondary education. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. • Universal free primary education. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. secondary education became a step towards university. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. 1. 1. self-respecting and competent. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education.K. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. 1.education was neglected. namely. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education.6. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. In 1882.6.6. at the primary level. To ensure qualitative improvement.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. Later on.
10. After this stage. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. all children are to have a common curriculum. The report suggested development of adult education scheme.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities.
The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education.. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. education was impart in art. 4. along with education in script writing. The system of education was well-organised. Right means of livelihood.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. followed by explanation by the teacher. 2. 2. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. questioning by the pupil. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. 3. 5. Right speech. 6. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. science and English language. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. arithmetic and religious discussion. Right knowledge. Right memory. It was suited to the needs of the society. military science. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. establishment of universities. b. handicrafts. geology. Right activity. The immediate aim of education. Right thought. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 4. 1. a. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. archery. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. Right contemplation. 23 . 1. Right endeavour.education of European literature. the science of taming and training animals.1. 3. During the Buddhist period. etc.
Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. more stress on individual aims. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Singh. (2009). b. 10. c. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Improvement of Literature.K. b. R.1.7. Right faith. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. 24 . 1882. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.K. a. J. 1937 1. 8.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Development of personality as an individual. a. History of Indian Education System. J.C. 9. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Hence. Aggarwal. and Nath. Ltd. (2007).C. Right conduct. 11. (2005). Development of Educational System in India. Right knowledge. (1984). Y. Sharma. Y. Sargent report 12.
5 184.108.40.206.LESSON 220.127.116.11 1.8 1.1 University Education Commission 1.2.4 1.2.6 18.104.22.168 1.3.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.3 Kothari Commission 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.3. The 25 .2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.1 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.
conditions of the teachers. medical and legal education. curriculum. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. analyse the progress of education in free India. 1. Post-graduate 26 .1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr.2. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. you will be able to: 1. standard of teaching.2. Kothari (1964-66) 8. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. National Board of Teacher Education 10. girls and women education besides primary. secondary and higher education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. S. 1986 1. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. explosion of enrolment. New Educational Policy. expansion of vocational. technological engineering. diversification of courses of studies. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National Council for Women’s Education 5. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. vocational education.2. There had been vast institutional expansion. 2. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. examination system.3. technical. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. 1. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9.
There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. Therefore.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. A. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. Problems of access. 4.2. However. 3. accumulated over the years. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. 1. 1986. the chairman of University Grants commission.teaching. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. 2. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. Finally. 1. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986.3. the New National Policy on Education. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. 1. D.S. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. 1966. 1952.3. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . The national system of education envisages common educational structure. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar.3. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. The Essence and Role of Education. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2. National System of Education.2. Education for Equality. research et. A meaningfully Partnership. material and spiritual.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. Kothari. Education is the key to our allround development. in January 1985. quantity. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. utility and financial outlay. Government of India. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. quality.
Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It can train practical aptitudes. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. the concepts of work experience. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production.” Thus.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. 28 .of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women.2. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. attitudes. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Thus. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The UNESCO Report. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. the minorities and the handicapped. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. By working with hands.
the Commission. Besides. In 1955. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started.” The Mudaliar Commission. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. According to. if he wishes. co-ordinations. The Radhakrishnan Commission. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. As such." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . The Education Commission. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. With adequate planning. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. “It may be described. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. “The aim of these colleges. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop.employment and promote economic independence of the youth.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. it will conduce self. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations.
there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. etc. admission requirements to vocational courses. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. Therefore. In addition.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. With a view to relating education to the life.ot her. the semester and credit system. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. The Central Advisory Board of Education. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. the.. for quality of life in the rural areas. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. raising the special facilities. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. Subsequently. the rigid streaming of courses. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n.
meaningful. 31 .5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. technological courses including Agriculture. who conceived the System of Basic Education. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken.defined S UP W as “purposive. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. meaningful. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. According to committee. felt that education should be centred around a craft. which offer scientific. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf.and the world of work. The wave of Basic Education. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. manual work resulting in either goods or services.. which swept the country for over two decades. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. In short. giving importance to productivity in the national development. aimed at this goal. Commerce. which are useful to the community. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. preferably spinning and weaving. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. etc.2. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. 1. The Father of Nation.
Some Hints to Teachers 1. Community work and social service. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Shelter 4.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. The teachers should make use of. 4. 3. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. 32 . The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Food 3. 2. so that it is educational in essence. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Experimentation with materials. Work practice. Culture and recreation 6. Productive 2. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Clothing 5. tools and techniques and 3. be that the work involved is: 1. Educative and 3. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Health and Hygiene 2. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. locally available materials and tools. as far as possible.
Reduction of gap in work and education 2. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. inculcate a faith.2. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. It can become an instrument to build character. Community Service In-1972. Check on educated unemployed 4. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. slum clearance. 1.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. the local community should be actively associated. improve discipline. removal of illiteracy. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Productive Work 33 . Merits of the Programme 1.5. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. etc. as far as possible. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. To make education more realistic. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. 6. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. Education through work The SUPW should. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3.
helping the adults in festivals and Functions. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. AICTE was set up in year 4. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. traffic control. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. in turn. helping the adults-in productive work. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . skills and better future for the children.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. offering first aid. Define SUPW 34 .and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. if not productive. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. The community. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. should involve itself in the educational effort.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods.
Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. 35 . 6. 1. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 1. b.2. Dr. a. manual work resulting in either goods or services.2. c. e. f.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. 2. Radhakrishnan 2.1. which are useful to the community. 1955 4. meaningful. 1952 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. d. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Write short note on SUPW. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.2.
C. P. Publishing Corporation.P.P. V. Ltd.K. Singh. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. R. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. History of Education. J.K. B. (2009). New Delhi: A. (2005). New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. (2007). Y. 36 .2..H.K. History of Indian Education System. Development of Educational System in India. History and Problems of Indian Education. Rao.(2005).D. (2007).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. : Sharma. A. Amala. Y.1. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. and Rao. Anupama. and Nath.
Being the supreme law of the country. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3. 1949.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. there is an official Hindi translation. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.8 1.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. establishing the structure.3.5 1.2 1. assuring its citizens of justice. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3.3.3. democratic republic.6 1.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. containing 395 articles.4 1.3.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.7 1. 37 . powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3.3.3. for a total of 117. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. Besides the English version. equality. 1950.3. procedures. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.1 Significance of DPSP 1. and liberty. it came into effect on January 26.3. directive principles and duties of citizens.3.9 1.1 1.369 words in the English language version.
for 166 days. spread over a period of 2 years. Dr. with Dr.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. you will be able to: 1. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands.3. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. On August 29. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. The Assembly met. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. legal and environmental. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. 4. 1. 1947. the Drafting Committee was appointed. 2. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. After many deliberations and some modifications. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. economic. administrative. 1. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. in sessions open to public.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. social. learn the role of central and state government on education. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”.3. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. understand our Indian constitution. 1950. 3. 1947. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24.3. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. Through them.3. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. political. 1.In the August 14. According to the constitution. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 38 . Two days later.
No abuse of children. Right to work. sickness and disablement. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Article 42. 39 . That the health and strength of workers. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Article 40. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Condition for dignity of children. The State shall endeavour to secure. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. Article 39A. Article 43. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. men and women. for workers. old age. Liking wage etc.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Minimising inequalities in status. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Equal justice and free legal aid. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. in particular. The State shall. Article 41. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. provide free legal aid. and shall. and in other cases of undeserved want. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way.government. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Organisation of village panchayat. Protecting children from exploitation. on the basis of equal opportunity. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Protecting health of the workers. Equal pay for both sex.
work. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. in particular. Article 43A. (Original Article 45. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. a living wage. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Article 44. Article 45. Article 49. by suitable legislation or in any other way. Article 48. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. in particular. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. [declared by or under law made by 40 . The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. The State shall endeavour to provide. to all workers. 2002 for “45. agricultural. See also Article 21A). The State shall take steps. Uniform civil code for the citizens. industrial or otherwise. Article 47. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Participation of workers in management of industries. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. and. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Article 48A. in particular. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Note: Subs. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Article 46. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle.
“The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Article-21A Right to Education. destruction. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Parliament] to be of national importance.3. Article 45 . 2. disposal or export. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. removal. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. as the case may be. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. Article 50. Separation of judiciary from executive. 2002. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. Promotion of international peace and security.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. from spoliation. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Article 51. may be law determine”. disfigurement.
Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. caste. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. race. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. from justice and all forms of exploitations. 2002. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. language or any of them”. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. and shall protect them. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. ii. 3. his guardian has given his consent thereto. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. and. 7. in particular. 6. iii. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. 4. if such person is a minor. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i.” 42 . 8. 5. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish.
Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. 2. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. for its vocabulary. wherever necessary or desirable. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule.9. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. Article 351 gives importance to 6. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies.3. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Educational Reforms From time to time. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. and by drawing.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. the forms. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. The central government determines targets and promotes education. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 43 . & 1.
and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Production of suitable for children and adults f. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. 8. Local bodies and private enterprise. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. 7. 4. By starting these projects. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. The following pilot projects. etc. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. private agencies etc. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Merit scholarships in the public schools c.3. to achieve the desired ends. 5. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. So as to encourage education on right lines. 6. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. the state governments. So that they may work well. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. All India Council of Medical Science. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a..
Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 1. etc. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. reports etc. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. 12. education for women. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. 1. 10.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. 9. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. The 45 . training and statistics. 3. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. is the state responsibility. 4. books. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. 11. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. are published by it. research. handicapped.3.
1. Article 46 4. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Explain Directive principles 2. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8.3. 46 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write short notes on a.3.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 1. articles in the Directive principles. Article 45 b. Article 21A c.
4. 2002.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Article 46 5. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. may be law determine”. Article 45 . 2002. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 47 . Article-21A Right to Education. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. The Directive Principles of State Policy. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. a. 3. Dr. a. Ambedkar 2.3. Describe the educational role of State Government. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Article 29 and 30 7. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Clearing House function 9. b. Development of Hindi Language 6. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers.5. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. b.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. S. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. B. K.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. (2009). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Dash. Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2007).1.3. 48 . New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. (2004). Ghosh. (2008). L. N. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Bhatia. K and Narang C. S.
1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.3 Precautions while introducing 1. religious education should be broad based.4.4 Moral education 188.8.131.52 1.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 184.108.40.206. Buddhism etc.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.1 1.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1. Christianity.4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 220.127.116.11.6 1.3.5 1. Jainism.4.2 18.104.22.168. Students should be 49 .1 Why Moral Education 1.8 1.4. Islam.4.3.
An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. Thus. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. know the position of religious education in our country 3. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. beauty and goodness so that 50 .and dedication. As result of which. In the complicated and complex society of today. India' can produce men of character. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. 1. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.4.4. duty-consciousness. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. According to E. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher.” Education broadens human outlook.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions.D. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. religious education and the concept of secularism. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. "In A multireligious society like ours. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). state meaning and need for moral education 1. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. you will be able to: 1.. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. integrity.
all citizens are free to follow any creed. As our country is a country of diverse religions. castes and creeds. 1. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. They thought that any kind of narrow. Hence. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. at least occasionally. through religious practices and 51 . Children attend these organizations. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. it is clear that the State has no religion. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. Viewing the defects of religious education.4. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. if not regularly.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. As a matter of fact. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. According to Article 22. In short. No religious tax can be imposed on them. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. rancour. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy.3. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. realizes God in himself.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. Thus. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. 1947 we achieved our freedom.4.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. religion and democracy are same.” From the above. According to Article 19.3. 1.
the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. moral and spiritual values. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. one fully developed. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. If unreleased. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. It is religious education. when he becomes an adult.teachings. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . aggressive. Good education. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. and what is evil. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. which can mould. He also learns about social. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. As a result of which. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. It helps to modify habits attitudes. intellectual and physical faculties of children. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. which help him for the development of his character. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. temperament etc. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. for the development of the individual and the society. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion.. what is done and what is not done etc. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice.
1. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly.4. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. 53 . Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. 2. This should not be allowed to happen. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. which is the basic need of a democratic life. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. Therefore. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. If we open the pages of history. towards the society. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. 3. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand.3.
List out any two aims of religious education? 3. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. 9. Write Article 22 2. 11. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples.4.5. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . stories of moral greatness. For this. fellow-feeling. Gurudwara as. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Since all religions have virtues. 10. Life histories of great persons of the world. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. churches and mosques 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. examples of patriotism. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. therefore. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.
Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 8. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. 6. is that which develops moral values. students. 4. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. The content of the curriculum. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 1. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. “Let all be happy and free from disease. Aparigarha (Non. Satyam (truth). Asvada (Control of palate). the methods of teaching. Moral education.acquisitiveness). therefore. They will play their role effectively. 7. 8. 55 .4. 2. Brahmacharya (celebacy). It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. in the home. Fearlessness. Patriotism. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). 7.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 1.4. Self sacrifice. Service to others. 3.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. 5. 2. 3. Cultivation of emotions. let men see well of one another. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Without moral values. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. It they learn what morality is in their early years. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Purity. Ahimsa (Non-violence). 6. 4. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Non-injury. 5. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our.
The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Unity of mankind. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. 3.9. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. 4. 2. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Sharivashram (Physical work). 10. Asatyam (Non-thieving). minutes in the morning for group singing. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Good manners. Integrity. religions may be included in the syllabus. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. 11.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. National unity and Spiritual values. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. discipline. In the school programme. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. The School Assembly should be held for a few. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Discipline.4. Good temper. 3. 1. 56 . two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Efficiency. Secondary Stage 1. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction.
3. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. love of humanity. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. Silent meditation should be encouraged. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. In other words. should form a normal part of school programme.4. 57 . 4. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. University Stage 1. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. 5. patriotism and self-discipline. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. In this connection. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities.
According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. For this. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 1959 5. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Discuss the aims of Religious education. b. In short. Training of Character 3. 2. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. a. 1. b. 58 . Sri Prakasa 6 .4. a.4. 4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. the.4. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. a.1. minutes in the morning for group singing. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. 1. 2.
P.4. Ltd. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.C.1.H. L. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. N. (2003). N. Publishing Corporation. (2004). K and Narang C. Dash. B. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Pahuja. 59 . K. (2008). (2007). M. New Delhi: A. P. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Bhatia.H. (2008). J. New Delhi : Siddiqui.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Theory and Principles of Education. Anmol Publications Pvt.
8 1. 60 .4 1.5.5.e. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5.5.12 1.9 22.214.171.124 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.6 1. Although.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5.5 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5.2 1.5..5.1 1.10 1.5. disparities between provinces/States.7 1.11 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5. i.
This leads to separatist movements. know the education suited to different environments. waters. 5. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.5. 4. energy. etc. 2. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. 1. Accordingly. 1. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence.5. 3. 8. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. 7. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1.5. 61 . you will be able to: 1. for example.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. work hard towards this end. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. They therefore. roads.5. 1. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. understand the regional educational development in India 3.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. they take appropriate measures. 6.1.
There are many reasons for this during the British rule. and. some States became educationally far advanced. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. Secularism. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. 62 . The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. • Separate States (of course viable States). on the basis of regional development may be formed. 3. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. Tight security arrangements should be made. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions.5. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . 4. 2. while others remained educationally backward. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. some average. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. Therefore. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region.
freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. Nagaland and NEHU. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. Itanagar.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. After the attainment of independence. 63 .68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. books. Out of this. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. These projects are in various stages of implementation. In the Central sector.After the Planning Process has originated. Tezpur. academic buildings. However. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e.392.g.84 crore was released in 2005-06.14. the Union Government. Rs. Jammu and Kashmir. Central Universities of Assam. 1. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. since its inception in 1998-99. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. remained under developed.5. the State Governments. etc.480. etc. scholarships. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. Even in each State. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. library buildings. Regional Centres of IGNOU. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. while some States like Bihar. NIT. Guwahati. approved proposals worth Rs. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Mizoram. NERIST. Silchar. Funds amounting to Rs. and provision of informal education to enable those.
5. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.40. During 2003-04.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Moreover. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. too. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. Tezpur University.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.187.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west).57 crore and Rs. 64 . Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Out of this an amount of Rs.261.05 crore and Rs.500. Government expenditure on education.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.8 per cent in 05).60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. A provision of Rs. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.501. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.
And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. for instance. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. Andhra Pradesh. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). for which 16 sites. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Karnataka. too. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Moreover. engineering and R&D. telecom. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Karnataka. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Tamil Nadu. To add to the woes. The Chandigarh Administration. English. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. notes the study. too. too. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Medical education. Listing the positives. 1.5. pharma. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. Kerala and Gujarat.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South.
people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the needs. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. the teaching methods. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. The working hours of educational institutions. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. the curricular subjects. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. the working days: an academic . Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. Of course. in which the learners live. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. while the former does not. which a non-tribal person cannot do. In the same manner. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. and so on. Hence it is called as need-based. life-oriented and environment slanted. Then education become realistic and idealistic. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. even actually looking at the watch. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. the socio-physical conditions. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. For a learner living in a rural area. when he will not be sure of time. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. 66 . But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. The living conditions. taking the average in the middle. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only.year. the vocations. the interests.
10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. 2. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.5. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. 67 .5. 1. to suit education to different environments? 1.5. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.
G. 68 . Giridhar. during the British rule. a. and Nair. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. (2001). New Delhi: Anmol Publications. A. 60% 1. (2002).2. S. (2008). C. R.H.N. Education in Developmental Arena. S. Educational Development in India. remained undeveloped 3. New Delhi: Authors press. (2001). some of areas which were under the native rulers. Salim. Dubey.K.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.5. some States have become more developed than others b. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Education Scenario in India.
UNIT – II 69 .
secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. school community and mass media. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. community development. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. 71 . the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. National Integration. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts.
1.1.1 Main features of Socialism 126.96.36.199.6 Education for Secularism 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .9 2.2 2.6.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.LESSON 2.1.7 2.1.3 2.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.1.8 188.8.131.52 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 184.108.40.206.1.4 2.1.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1 2.1.
The students may be associated with the management of the school. 2. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group.2. colour or wealth. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. socialism and secularism 2. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. socialism and secularism 2. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically.1. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Abraham Lincoln. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. In the matter of admitting students in schools.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. This is the political aspect of democracy.1. 2. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. socialistic and secular state.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. 3) Provision of Manual Work. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. 73 . 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. you will be able to: 1.1. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. creed. there should be made no distinction of caste. for the people by the people”. Democracy thus means power of the people.1. understand the concept of democracy.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic.
it soon spread all over the world. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. declamation contest etc. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. 12) Visits to Legislatures. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. may be planned. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. There are different brands of socialism. 74 . Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. debates. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. 2. Democracy means 2. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at.1. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. 11) Student Parliament.
4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 7) Special facilities for girls. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 2. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 75 . “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. free from exploitation. oppression and disparity.1. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. Under it.5. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 2. the wealthy and the poor. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production.1. service and cooperation. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. none high”. the prince and the peasant.5. but on the path of non-violence.
Write any two main features of socialism.1. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. "which seeks the development of physical. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. 5. secularism is being propagated. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. According to Holydake. Everyone says. “India is a secular-country. 11) State schools. 76 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools.” In every political and educational corner. 2. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values.
5) It implies tolerance. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. 8) It believes in co-existence.6. 2) It permits freedom of religion. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. That is why. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. people started believing in regionalism. In this type of prevailing situations. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity.6.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. people have narrow mindedness. education etc. A large number of people is uneducated. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. During the recent past.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society.1. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. 3) It permits freedom of worship. Equality.opposed to religious education. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. There is need of making the people open minded. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. the belief that the state morals. “Webster further says.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas.1. 9) It stress free inquiry. liberty. should be independent of religion. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. Moral values have to be imbibed. fraternity. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. 2. 77 . there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. 6) It has faith in rational thinking.
The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. While doing so.6. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. Patiala. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. In the hands of such teachers.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. The very sight of the building. that the central string of all religions is one. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . tours and trips may be organized.presented by the students in the gathering. students belonging to different religions should be associated. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. 1) Moral Education. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. Religious Education.1. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. In the celebration of each such function. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. 2. education.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. There should be some internal checking of the material being. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. No doubt. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. The students may be taken to different centers of religions.
The term secularism was first used by 8. The word “Seculum” means 7. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. No doubt. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. Define Secularism 9. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved.1.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.
Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. Provision of Manual Work. b. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 4. b. a. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Tuition free education b. a. Power of the people 2. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. Socialism aims at equality. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. there should be made no distinction of caste. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Respect of Individual Personality. George Jacob Holydake 80 . the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. This present age 7. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Since socialism stands for equality. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. 6. Equal Opportunities for Admission.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Socialism aims at social justice.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. creed.1. 4. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Abraham Lincoln. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. What are the implications of socialism on education 2.1. 5. 5. 3. 2. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. a. 3. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. colour or wealth. c. for the people and the people”. d.
New Delhi : Shipra Publications. b. L. a. Ltd. (2007). J. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. K. N. b. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2003). Mohanty. a. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. B. J. It permits freedom of religion.” 9. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 10. P. 81 . N.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Dash. the belief that the state morals. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2008). School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. New Delhi : Pahuja. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.C. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2005). education etc. should be independent of religion. Bhatia.8. It treats all religions on an equal footing. (2004). K and Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education.1. Ltd.
9 2.2.1 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .1 Role of education in developing National Integration 22.214.171.124.3 2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.LESSON 2.2 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.126.96.36.199 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 188.8.131.52.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.7 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.10 2.2.4 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.
3. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils.2. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. therefore. skills. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. aims and objectives of the school. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. mental. as learners. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. as it is t he aim o f modern education.2. 2. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. and 4. social. as persons. A teacher is first and foremost. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 83 . who are placed in his custody. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. you will be able to: 1. It involves physical. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. moral. emotional. social and moral aspects. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. development. as citizens. understandings. 2. application.generation to another. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental.an instructor of school children. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. as workers. The developmental roles of children. a r e 1. 2. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values.
Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. member of his community at the outset. morally. 2. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. morally. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. He is to become an active member. 1. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y.2. social and emotional health. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. mentally. The following are some of such roles described in brief. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. and aesthetically to become. He has to look after their physical. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. physically fit for socially efficient. socially. emotionally. 2. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. motivated. experiences and acceptance. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. intellectually.All education should lead to better behavioural development. The students live. 3. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. mental. economically effective. a part of their day in 84 . Teacher as a Citizen Next. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. inquisitive. culturally confident.
Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. 2.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. creeds. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. It 85 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. activities of the society into which he is born. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them.the school being under the custody of teachers. They will be spending with their parents. science club. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. languages and religions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out the role of teachers towards community development . there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. Dr. faiths.2. solve them. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. fine art associations. photographic clubs. Unless. India is a land of many castes. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. 4. and most of hours. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened.
but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . therefore. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. Sampurnanand remarked. Nehruji has explained this as.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. Radhakrishnan. poems. the study of language and literature. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform.” Regarding the role of education. should be emphasised.5. narrow-minded provincial. the citizens of the Republic of India. national anthem and other national songs. a.2. 1. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. c. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. It should broaden the outlook. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. with straight backs and look up at the skies. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. The only process is the process of education.” 2. ‘We should not become parochial. and make into one strong national unit.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. stand up straight.is. this integration of the Indian people. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. At the primary stage the importance of stories. b. social studies. folklore and teaching of social studies. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. Let us.
7. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Co-Curricular Activities. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. 9. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. 8. 3. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Celebrations of National Days. tours. National Days—January 26. 5. t he st udent s and t he community. Textbooks. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Uniform for School Children. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. 4.different social sciences. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Scouts and Guides. and picnics. languages and literature. Singing of National Anthem. Student Camps. dramatics and youth festivals. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Taking Pledge. 2. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. debates. sports. 87 . Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Reverence of National Flag. symposia. educational excursions. 6. ACC. militar y training like the NCC. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. 10. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary.
School Projects. Recognition of Institutions. 12. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. 16. 14. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. v.2. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. iii. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . colour. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. ii. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Open-Air Dramas. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. ways of thinking and doing things. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. region or religion. language. iv. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. Admissions. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Admissions to schools.5. 15. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. 88 . Students Exchange and Tours. flora and fauna. Educational and Travel Documentaries. 2. 13. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics.11.
Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.2. viii. Community dinners.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. camps. ix. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. irrespective of national boundaries. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. vii. 2. Define National Integration 3. cultures and races on equal bases.vi. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes.
. Radhakrishnan states. the international level. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. 2. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. of his body and mind. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. 6. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen.F. 3.6. 2. 4. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child.6. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.e. Therefore. C.2.” 2.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.friendships between children of different countries. that war.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1.as important as that of a national citizenship. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged.2. (b) stories of children of other lands. This. and the healthy development. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. 5. therefore. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. patriotism is not enough. if it happens. Dr. In a very real sense. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. Strong has observed. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. (c) fairly tales. often in connection with anniversaries.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. Organising of debates and. Teachers 90 .
They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Indian and American. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Impartial in their Treatment. They should not be propagandists. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Russian.” Well Informed About World Situations. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . a German. an Englishman.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students.
understand and indiscipline: 1. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. there is wide spread frustration among all people.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. 3. Devaluation of Values . It does not prepare students for life. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. Defects of the educational System . The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions.Another major. Wide Spread Frustration .2. the education function can be carried. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. and help the students to over .Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. If this is done. leading to. 2. 4. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. majority of people are.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . As the school is but a miniature society. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. 5.2. which results in agitation and aggression language. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. Chronic Poverty . It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 .
National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. 2. 93 . 4.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. 3. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. community development.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. sympathy and good will among the nations. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination.2. love.democratic nature. List out six characteristics of a good teacher.2. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. etc. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. 5. fellow feeling. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. 2. co-operation. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 184.108.40.206 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 220.127.116.11 Functions and role of schools in the society 18.104.22.168 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 22.214.171.124 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 126.96.36.199 Radio as an agency of education 188.8.131.52 Television as an agency of education 184.108.40.206 Press as a medium of education 220.127.116.11 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
18.104.22.168 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 22.214.171.124 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
126.96.36.199 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
188.8.131.52 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
Hence. Crow and Crow write. books. are increasingly used in education. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Moreover. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. the invention of the printing press. art galleries.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. In fact. He taught his students orally. Emphasising this thing. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. To make them achieve their aim. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. periodicals. led to the printing of books. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. “All the citizens of the community. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. Now internet is being used. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher.3. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them.V. During the course of time. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Then came newspapers.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. 2. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Museums. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Define community.
Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. 101 . It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. politics.telecast. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. the teacher still occupies. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. Important happening inventions. the place of importance. It is also an important source of entertainment.classroom teachers. It enlightens public opinion. music.3. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. current affairs and other areas. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Various talks. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. A lot of work by way of pre. rather than on picture. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Thus. social studies.6. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Students listen various talks. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. 2. In the emphasis is on sound. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication.G. In collaboration with the experts. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. languages. Thus. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Reynolds. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. “Listening participation” in current history. 2.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Effective means of presenting music. dram appreciation. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. for the teacher through school broadcasts. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. art.
plays. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. fol classical music. development of lessons. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. projects or creative activities. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. 3. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. mathematics. style. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Making learning an open system. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. 4. 5. School concerts. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. audibility and presentability. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. speech. at recreational centers. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. at any place.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. At present. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. 102 . at drawing room. informal and non-formal education. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. travel talks. at play. Before presenting the programme. Participation of local teachers and pupils. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Team-teaching demonstrations.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 184.108.40.206 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
220.127.116.11 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 18.104.22.168 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
4.6 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4.1 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .8 2.4.LESSON 2.4.7 22.214.171.124 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4 Non formal educational system 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 18.104.22.168.4.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4.3.
2. compare formal and non formal system of education. 8. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. the community. 4. 2. his mental alertness.4. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner.4. 2. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. say the Government or the private enterprise. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. School is. open university. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 2. 110 . As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. 9. 7. To realize this objective of education. 6. Education.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. the mass media et. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. Education organised by some agency. 2.3. the most important agency of formal education. open school. 2. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. it was mostly.. 3. 3. the learner are acquainted.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Education associated with a degree or certificate.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. 5. you will be able to: 1.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught.4. 4. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. imparted at the residence of the teacher. the temple. the family. In ancient time in India. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. starting and ending at -a particular age.
Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. the elements of language are first learned. and relations are formed and developed through normal play.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. third stage. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 .2.a secondary education. In general. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. diplomas. Through early formal education.4.4. also called tertiary. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. such as a high school or secondary school. capacity. or academic degrees. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. or post secondary education. Higher Education: Higher education. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education.3.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. 2. as well as vocational education and training. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. Some education systems have separate middle schools. depending on the jurisdiction. structured education. Concepts of proportion. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six.3. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen.
Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. 2. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.4. 4. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. late beginners etc. and remote dwellers. 2. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped.4.which will help for nation's development. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . What are levels of formal educational system? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. children with disabilities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. Write any two characteristics of formal education? .4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. is an important agency of formal education. Agencies can be classified as 2. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs.
” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education.e..” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work.formal education. curriculum. It is functional. open learning. it has its own valid claim to reality. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. until 1970 it had not been defined. planned. continuing education and on the job oriented education. Therefore. admissions.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. It is deliberate. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. adding up to a true learning society. Adiseshiah. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. it is a more effective tool for rural development. adults as well as children.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. Non-formal education includes adult education. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. According to Malcolm A. It is much more responsive to needs and change.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. place of instruction. However.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. i. one could say that non-formal education is an active. systematic. staffed. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. “Non-formal education should 113 . Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. Open university. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. financially supported life formal education. It unlocks the doors of development plans. etc. Thus. to help themselves. systematic. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction.learning client take some learning objectives. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn.
4.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. the Ideas of citizenship. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. To help industrial workers to better their skills. Covering life span of an individual. Flexibility in various aspects of education.4.learning pattern. Process of sharing. It should lay emphasis on the self. age.renewal. modes of teaching.S.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.be marketable and vocationalised. 2. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. self. 7.S. curriculum. 3. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. national integration. Lawrence. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. To develop in the student. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. 6. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. Part-time education. place of education. 114 . The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.4. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills.” 2. Preparation for future needs. 5. 4. co-curricular activities. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. i. international understanding. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.e. socialism. exploring.” According to H. admissions.4. 2. evaluation etc.
4. 115 . 4. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. working adults. 3.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 7. Technical. 2.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Universalisation of primary education. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 5. 4. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. Eradication of adult literacy. 5. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach.4. school dropouts. Senior Secondary. 3. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 2. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 8. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 10.4. publication and information dissemination. To offer Secondary. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Meeting the omissions of formal education. 6. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. in villages and those who live in towns. • 2.4. 9. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge.
It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. library. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education.4. others are formal and informal. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. 4. To better qualifications.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. Again.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. open space. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. training centres in factories.4. 2. etc. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . etc. public libraries. effective in modern societal context. Therefore. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. Institutions for formal education. centres of correspondence education. if organised in isolation.full time to learners – can be home.. farm. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . factory. 3. All-round development i. Radio and television. To increase knowledge and 2. 2. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. self-employment iii.2. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. To make if.4.
period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Define non formal education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.V. institution. . List out any two aims of non formal education. Correspondence lesson. . Written tests. Lecturing T. 117 . Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Teaching to face teaching. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. radio. 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. 7. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Face Contact programmes. Give examples of non formal education? .
2. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Formal and Non Formal 2. a.4. 2.” 6. b. The school. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. 3. Pre-school level. 4. b. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. adults as well as children. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. School 3. Higher Secondary level and University level. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.4. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. Open University. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. 2. 7. 4. the college and the university come under this category. Secondary level. systematic.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. 2. 118 . Primary level. Open School.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. 5.4. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society.
4. K. (2005). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2008).C. B.2. Ltd. J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Anmol Publications Pvt. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2003).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Mohanty. Theory and Principles of Education. K and Narang C. Bhatia. New Delhi : 119 . Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2004). (2007). L. N. N. Dash. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Education in Emerging India. Gupta. Pahuja. P. J. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. S.
5.7 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.4.LESSON 22.214.171.124.1 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.5 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.2 2.3 Objectives of Open University 126.96.36.199.5.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.6 188.8.131.52 Continuing education for literate adults 184.108.40.206.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.4 Open University 2.4.4 Need for Open University 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.
However. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. you will be able to: 1. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. give the meaning. Any person. For them.5.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. 2. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.2. economic field or such other fields. labourers and half educated individuals.5. farmers.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. 2. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. Under these circumstances. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. characteristics of open university 4.5. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. It is a continuous process.3. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. It is a lifelong process. continuing education is a boon. Thus. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. This knowledge may be in political field. industries.5. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. know the need and objectives of open university. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.
Doctors. Radio and T. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened.literate person. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further.3.directly related to his job. cultured and progressive. Persons engaged in health services. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. After the achievement of independence. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Radio. if he gets opportunity to develop them. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education.V. For them too continuing education is essential. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Throughout the country. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. are also contributing their might for the purpose. On the other hand. deteriorating to his character and personality. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Cinema. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. On the other hand. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Thus. 2.V. Block Development Officers.5. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . T.
The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. 7. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge.V.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 123 . (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (16) liking. (2) basic religious matters. and Radio. These books are not very useful. (10) first aid. 5. 6. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 2. 2. Of course.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. habits of people of other lands. we have not been able to achieve our targets.5. 3. (15) music. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (13) psychology of child behaviour.3.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (1) ancient history. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. (7) folk songs.5. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education.. 2. (6) folk stories. (14) information about bringing up young children. Inspite of the great efforts. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (8) psychology of adults. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons.3. 4. (17) modern international and national events. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. especially women.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. 2. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. of educational opportunities.5.5. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. NLM was launched in the year 2. attendance restrict ion. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. lack of time etc. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e .4.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background.
its education is not class room based but home based. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. 5. it makes use of educational techno logy. the higher the degree of openness.4. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. 3. IGNOU was established in the year 6. but 125 .” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. Which was the first open university in India? .5. and in teaching. 2. c. No one is too old or too late to learn. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. b.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.unobserved. Education is not a once for-all process. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. 2. 4. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. e. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. d.
6. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. supplementing the existing provision. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 2. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. 3. it a ims at wider and hig her. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 3. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies.4. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. cho ice o f co ur ses. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 2. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n.4.5.who did not get it. 126 . t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 2. 4. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. Mo re o ver.5. or who realised too late that they need it. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 2. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. 4. 5.
5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. 5. 6. Every day. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . List out any four methods of Open University? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 127 . 8. 3. Self instructional materials. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a state or nation.5. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. In the present day world. 1. Correspondence tuition.4.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 2.2. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. 2. 4. semi – literates. Therefore. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. 7. Laboratory works. you have learnt the concept. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. 8.5. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . school drop outs. a society. Tutor Comments.
(2) basic religious matters.ambitious learners. 1988. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. 7.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. d. its education is not class room based but home based.5. which may include house wives. 8. b. a. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 2. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. (4) the fundamentals of economics. unskilled workers and other professionals. Television Lessons. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. cho ic e o f co u r ses. a. P r int med ia b.5. Broad casting lectures c. b. 7. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. aspirants for continuing education. 4. 9. 1985. agricultural and industrial workers. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. (1) ancient history. 128 . 6. Explain the objectives. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. 2. a. 8. 3. need and characteristics of Open University. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. youth.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6.
L. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 129 . (2004). New Delhi: Rajat Publication.. Reddy. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. R. (2001). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. K. K and Narang C. S. (2004).5.K. Ltd. Modern Problems of Education.2.S. Udaiveer. (2007). Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia.
UNIT – III 131 .
examination. All which is the need of the hour. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. In Lesson 2. its causes and remedial measures. Training teachers for all levels of education. 133 . We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. which may claim the attention of those concerned. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. the education of women. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. wastage and stagnation. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. and teacher education.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Examination reform.
5 3.8 22.214.171.124.2 EFA – How? 3.3 New initiatives.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 126.96.36.199 3.7 3.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.1 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1. 135 .188.8.131.52.4 3.3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.1.6 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1 EFA – For whom? 3.LESSON 3.
3. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. you will be able to: 1. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). economic or cultural. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. may be political.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. (EOI) 2.1. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation.1. therefore. education received added importance and significance. Continuing Education (CE) 1. On the other hand. directed that.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. 3. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. understands the country. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. “The State shall 136 . high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. social. 2. Therefore. Eradication of Illiteracy.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy.
It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Therefore. the national Government under. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. Due to the adoption of democratic system. rights and responsibilities. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. 137 . 3. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. It enables the parents to send their children to School. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. After the attainment of independence. Three Stages for Universalization. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Universalization of Enrolment.endeavour to provide. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. Continuing Education (CE). Universalization of Retention. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves.
138 . Therefore.3. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. UNESCO Bulletin states.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. This target had to be revised to 1970. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. educational enterprise. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. later to 1988. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. Write Article 45. 1995 (for upper primary stage). While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development.1.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. 3. 1990. It is safe to assure. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. present and future. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. then to 1976.
sex. The Social Education. problem of literacy. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). 6. adolescent and adult. By undertaking survey. 3. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. Education of Girls. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). etc. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. NAEP. Emphasis must be given on health education.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. 139 . we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. slum areas. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. rural areas. nutrition education and sports and games. creed. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. 9. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. 5. Early childhood education should be streamlined. Jams and Jellies. and Women’s education programme should be improved. Education of the Impaired. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. In order to make the programme of education for all community. 11. 8. their social economic status and occupations. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Disabled. 10.3. the art of preparing fruit-juice.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. their enrolment and retention. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. FELF. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Apart from primary education. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 12. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all.1. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. 3.
3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 .1. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3 NEW INITIATIVES. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.3. Expand MLL and SSA .1. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Wastage and Stagnation. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.e. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3.
first stage of education. it is considered as wastage.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . Familial Factors . Personal Factors . Social Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. School Factors .
7. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Define Wastage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 142 .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. .
5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.3. Family Factors . They are described hereunder :1.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. School Factors . relating to home. in his home. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.The following factors.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .1. rural or urban 3.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. school or society. Societal Factors . Personal Factors .
casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. mid-day meals. stationary. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. Define Stagnation? 9. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? .discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. uniforms. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. 144 .
‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. 2. “The State shall endeavour to provide. b. Universalization of Provision b.. 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. a.” 3. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. 145 .7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. 3. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 4. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. directed that.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. 6. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Hartog Committee. Minimum Levels of Learning b.1. Universalization of Enrolment c. Universalization of Retention 2. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA.1.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. a. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. 3. a. therefore. 4.3. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. improvement of curriculum.1.
Problems of Elementary Education. Hemchand. Personal Factor b.7. 3.1. Social Factors 8. (2008).N. b. Sharma.K. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Crescent Publishing Corporation. S. School Factors d.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2007). S. a. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.K. 9. (2001). New Delhi: 146 . a. T. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. introduce graded curriculum. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Familial Factors c. improve examination system.
6 Inspection and Supervision 184.108.40.206.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2 220.127.116.11.5.3 Modern reforms of examination 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.1 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.1 Problems of examination 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 126.96.36.199.5.LESSON 188.8.131.52.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 184.108.40.206 New evaluation procedures 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2.7 Open book examination 220.127.116.11.2.2.2 Grade System 3.4 Question banks 3.
understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.2.2.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. 3. Besides.3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4. 3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. 3.2. 3.3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.8 3. but on the other.2.2.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. suggest the new evaluation procedures. you will be able to: 1.2.9 3. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .2.
separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. 149 . waiting rooms for girl students. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. etc. etc. They may cause problems relating to discipline. They develop secondary sex characteristics. which the educational authorities have to face. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage.3. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt.2. schools for them wherever necessary. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. If the students are in sufficient number. 3. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. etc. The following steps should be taken up. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. roadside Romeoism.. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. hostel facilities.
The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.2. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. conduct of internal examinations. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. appointment of paper-setters. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the examination system has an important role to play. It is considered as a major sub-system. public administrators and statesmen. Instruction.2. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. public interested in education.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. teachers. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. 3. 150 . assessment and Finance.
4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. reducing the domination of knowledge objective.4. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. values. announcement of results. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. etc. introducing objective-based testing. establishing reliability. tabulators. 3.printing and distribution of question papers.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. training of examiners. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. scrutinizers. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. etc. etc. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance.2. examiners. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. etc. validity and practicability. invigilators. etc.
. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. Subjects. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education.. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. which they are expected to study. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. 152 . Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed.2. Rote memorisation. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. lack of objectivity etc. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. Vagaries in making. stereotyped questions.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education.. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. 2) From the angle of content of education. 3) With respect to method of teaching. takes the place of comprehensive learning. do not appeal to the students and parents. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. 7) In connection with the question papers.4. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. it s a common experience that subjectivity. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. halo-effect. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. may also discredit them.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. 3. not meant to be assessed in the examinations.
Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. may be introduced. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Spot valuation. List any two merits of examination. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Question Books may be developed in all schools.a part of internal assessment. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. re-numbering of answer scripts. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 4. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. revaluation. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. 153 .. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately.develop true love for education. . Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations.
The new scheme of assessment. he is given extra credit points. skills are given importance.5. In this system. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. attitudes. In actual practice. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. It is complicated. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination.2.5. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. When a person chooses to work extra. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. 3. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. Every paper is treated equal. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. The students can take any course offered in any department.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper.3. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . Their interests. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3.2.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.2.
which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. These weightages are called credits. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. poor. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. or as a 4 credit course.poor. This system reduces comparison of marks. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. Groupism is encouraged. 3. courses can have weightages defined.5. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 .3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development.good. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course.discipline. While designing syllabus. only the total credits to be earned is specified. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.2. v. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. An example is a seminar. In the new system.
3. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.2.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education.5. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.2. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. However.2. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.5.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. 3. 3. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. 156 . It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.5.
In the hierarchy. recruitment.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. .5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.2. There are no proper procedures for selection. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. List any four new evaluation procedures. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. 6. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . 3. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Therefore. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization.2. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. However.3. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.
etc. of late. etc. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. school buildings.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. 158 . requirements. disciplinary problems. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. 1. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. in a sense.. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. library books. Academic inspection. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools.qualified personnel.2. qualifications. submitting of the inspection reports.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. When they are fully realised. books are followed. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. in contrast. complaints and compliments. playgrounds. interpersonal relationships and so on. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. They are. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. 3. finding out whether the prescribed text. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. inspecting the class-room teaching. whether the syllabus has been covered. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. Separation of Inspection and Supervision..6. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. taking up the follow-up programmes. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. wherever necessary. being realised as two different functions. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. laboratory equipment. finding out the adequacy of. staff.
once in five years. 3. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. M. aptitude. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties.. course in either educational. Insistence on specialisation in the B. their professional knowledge.2. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision.Ed.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them.Ed. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. courses. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. modern. In the case of departmental candidates. 159 . educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. In the light of these conceptualisation. or. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. at least. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives.. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. Similarly. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions.
b. a. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. d. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. 2. 3. Grade System. 3. b.2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. assessment and Finance. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 4. 3. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 160 . c. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. 3. Administration. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. a. Instruction. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. 5. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. a. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. b. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
K. 3. 5. a. 7. b.2. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Open book examinations. (2005). Oral and practical tests may be taken as . b. Vaidya. (2002). R and Sharma. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Question banks. History and Problems of Education in India. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers.a part of internal assessment. a. a. Educational Reforms.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. New 161 . Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. c. (2004). Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.4. b. Problems of Education in India. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. S. Multiple sets of question paper. K. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.
3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.10 18.104.22.168 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra. 5.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3. 3.LESSON 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.4 3. 2. impact of Higher Secondary Education.8 3.1 3. 162 . you will be able to: 1.3.2 3.5 3.6 3. identify the needs of rural India and social.3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.7 3.3.3. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.9 3.3.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3. 3.
3 years of Higher Secondary Education.3. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines.specialisation programmes 3.. University Education. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. 10 years of general Secondary Education.. the Banaras Sanskrit College. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. 2. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses .. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. Similar is the case with some other States. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. in Andhra Pradesh.. etc. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. The Calcutta Madras. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. e. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. 8 years of general education. and 3 years of First Degree Course. i. The.3.e. Commission emphasised to continue.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. Consequent on the recommendations. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States.g.e.
so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation.3. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. social. However. to prepare.a sense of dignity of labour. 8. b. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. is also a plus point . it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . 5. educational channels. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9.confidence in students. 7. economical and political.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. who desire to change from one stream to another. 3. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. habits of hard work and develop . 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. and. historical. cultural and economic development of the country. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. to imbibe. 5) to help for the social. 6. Provision for transfer of credits to students. 10. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.
to develop national character. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. Psychologically. 3.. cooperativeness. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. international understanding. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . Sociologically it is undesirable.3. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. social justice.national integration. democratic living. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Philosophically it is not the conception. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. and. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. at the other. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. The General Educational Spectrum. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. and that required to enter the tertiary level. etc. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. on one hand. cultural and' religious tolerance. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. 1.
It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. the rural areas have suffered very much. India is a land of villages. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. 3. All these need for an. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. Science. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. chemistry. commerce. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. technological.3. such as Agriculture. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. and vocations based on dairy-farming. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. Agriculture is the main occupation.— tube-wells. commerce. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. Biology. Commerce and other disciplines. physics or mathematics. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. vegetable growing. fish culture. technical. 166 . medical plants. professional. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. educational and cultural services. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. industrial agricultural production is growing. horticulture. 2. In our country. In the matter of language. In the vocational spectrum. or other machinery. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. semi-skilled and unskilled levels.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. rural health.
interests and aptitudes of the students.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. social justice. etc. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. and the needs. In time.etc. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. In this way. 4.. In this it may be concluded. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the local resources available. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. and 5.3. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. can be ensured. 3. There had been favourable reaction from the students.
3. a. S. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. General Educational Spectrum and b. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Calcutta University Commission 2. 3.3.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2007). New Delhi : 168 . New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 2. b. J. Dash. 3. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.3. habits of hard work and develop .a sense of dignity of labour. to imbibe. Anmol Publications Pvt. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.C.3. (2001). to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Mohanty. a. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. objectives. b.3. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. Ltd.3.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2008). Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. we studied the history. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. a. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. J. N. 3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. B. (2005). Vocational Sepctrum.K.
4.4.13 3.4.2 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”.4.4.4.LESSON 3.10 3.6 3.4.4. Education contributes to human development.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.9 22.214.171.124 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.5 3.4.8 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.12 3.4. social and 169 .7 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 126.96.36.199 3.1 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.188.8.131.52 3.
Teaching and Fine Arts. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. economic. The relevance of women’s education to social. you will be able to: 1. family. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. higher education of girls developed immensely.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. particularly 170 . During the year 1937. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. For the first time in the history of India.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. These courses were. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. analyze the women and distance education.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. although we have miles to go. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. There is a close connection between education and development. Home Economics. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. community and nation is universally acknowledged. cultural and political development of the individual. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5.higher education in particular. Nursing. In the post —independence period. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. Education . 3. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916.4. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. Dr. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. While women constituted only 9.4.
1 31. levels and professions. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.0 16.9 14. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. In the rest of the country. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. out of 9200 and odd colleges.N.4.T Women University.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.4.65 lakhs in 1994-95.2 22.1 24. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. we have more than 1200 institutions. Mumbai. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. Even today. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Kodaikanal. 3.0 Today. Mother Teresa Women University. 3. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. in our country.0 43.9 27.2 29. The idea of women’s education for equality. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Yet. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.D. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.0 32.women. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .4. In 1950-51. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Coimbatore.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.27 89.44 35.4. 3.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . 2.54 12. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .53 34.1 respectively.46 82.4%) prefer Arts subjects.56 64.17 52.36 3.47 65. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.73 10. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.that of boys.63 Female % 34. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.1 and 14.83 47.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.34 33. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .66 66.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .
what is the need for higher education for her. she will only learn fashion. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Also. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. promoted and increased. 3. particularly. They gave up their studies to enter home life. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. According to a survey. 173 . etc. financial difficulty of the parents. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. Book banks should be established. distance of the college or university from home.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas.hinders the girls from getting higher education. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. and coeducation may spoil her character. marriage is a very common I factor. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. In every third family.4. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. The major hurdles. In college. curriculum not suited to their requirements. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Thus. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. irrelevance of the content of education.
It enables to study. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. is the only tool for realising empowerment. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Geographic distance of educational institutions. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. resources and socio .7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Education. Empowerment in a nutshell. space. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women.4. It also brings about 174 . learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Distance education is a boon to women.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses.economic disabilities faced by women. 3.4. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. and the limitations of the conventional education system. It is a productive investment. There are constraints of time. 3. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. Full-time employment. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. which is the most dynamic factor of development.
The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . The major objectives of women's higher education.4. empowerment means being assertive.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. higher learning. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. education of women must be given priority in national plans. Empowerment is an active. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. for full development of our human resources. legal awareness and economic independence. Women are partners in development.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. This can be achieved through reflection. education of women is of paramount importance. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. on their own. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. 3. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers.
UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. Better opportunities. will encourage them to venture new grounds. which had been the sole domain of men.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community.4. 176 . The educational institutions. Reservation for women.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. The local administration. who are eager to take up courses. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. But their number is small. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Scholarships and concessions for women. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. especially so in the developing countries. which is pending for a long time. 3. has to be implemented at the earliest.
engineering and related technologies (16. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Also. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. IDP Education. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.4. According to Lindy Hyam. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. Chief Executive.1%) and architecture and building (38. But. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? .9%).000 women in the country. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. Australia.8%). there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. capacities etc. especially in developing countries like African countries. talents. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 .3 percent. 3..
Kodaikanal. 4. R.C. S. Mishra. SNDT Women’s University.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3.4. A. 3. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. R. Rajasthan 5. Centre for Women’s Studies.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. individuals and society b.4. Pattanaikj. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Women Education. Annakodi.K. 2. Mumbai.to the family. 178 . Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. (2008). 3. Women and Education. Coimbatore. Rao. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. 43% 6. S. (2007). Mumbai.R. SNDT Women’s University. 3. (2000). Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Mother Teresa Women University. (2005). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. 4. and Suryalatha. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Women Education. R. create the right attitude towards life. community and the nation.4. a. Coimbatore. A. and Swain.
LESSON 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5 3.5.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.9 3.7 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.2 3.5.6 3.1 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. whole.184.108.40.206.3 3.5.5. They should be trained. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5.4 3.8 3.11 3.10 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.personality of children in and out of school.
Secondary and Higher Secondary level. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. you will be able to: 1. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. know the pre service and in service training facilities. 180 . They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Lack of physical facilities. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. 4. equality and justice. understand the training teachers for Primary.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understanding and strong desire for international peace. social and emotional integration. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. 3. and national character.5. 3. 5. Dearth of new technology of teaching. national consciousness. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. international. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels.5. Shorter working hours.
At the diploma level. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. inservice and extension education programmes. and M.Less qualified teacher educators. levels.Ed. Inadequate training in practical skills. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. and the collegiate teacher education. it is called the Extension teacher Education. If the student teachers are working teachers. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. the state Government. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. who have not been trained earlier. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course.. 3.Ed. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. it is called the In-service teacher education. the secondary teacher education. etc.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. the centre.5. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. 3. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. a Diploma course and a Degree course. higher secondary teacher education. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. the primary teacher education. students. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Lop-sided curriculum. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. Depending on the levels..5. (NCERT) New Delhi. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 .
Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. non-formal. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . depart ments etc. Science Education units. 3. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education cells. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory .. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. etc. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. are established. Expand NCERT 2. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. collegiate cells. Evaluation unit.5. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Educational teehnology cells. Also Guidance Bureaux. state Institutes of Educat ion. extensio n service. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. which should include experience in the primary schools too. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . despite its vast expansion. degree. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas.. and 183 . primary and secondary school teachers.. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . which help breaking isolation from one another . schools and sister institutions. laboratories.Ed. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. and so on. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities .• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . to ensure teacher competence. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. to prescribe conditions for recognition. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department.Ed.. to offer consultative services. audio visual aids. material conditions relating to libraries. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. to improve curricular programmes. should be improved on a top priority basis.
Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. and XII. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. Modern Methods of Evaluation. though no pre-service training. Agriculture. etc.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Psychology of Students. Modern Techniques of Teaching.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Hence. Workshops. etc. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. methodology and evaluation. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. 184 . (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. not came up once again. Organisation of Content Courses.secondary education. Induction Courses. To meet this exigency. The problem. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. whether they should have professional education or. Meanwhile. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education.
(RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. All B Ed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.5. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.Ed..A.. Degree. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. training. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . in Education.Ed.S. For re-orienting the teachers. (Education) are organized by 185 . The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. Ajmer. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education..’s for Ph. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. courses and M. State Institutes of Education.Ed. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.Ed.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Ed. These facilities are available for regular students.. 3.’s are elig ible for M. M.Ed. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented... Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. Courses leading to B.A. Pre-service training is for those. (Education) and M.D. Degree and M. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. Post-Graduates also undergo B. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.
some Faculties of Education of some Universities.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. However. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively.). 4. 186 . 5. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . Hence the employability of M. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics.A.5. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. they should be conscientious . and B. (Ed. What is the role of ERIC? . 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. established by tradition and teachers of the past. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . of conduct—written or unwritten. 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. . as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned.. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. (Ed). Give your answer as instructed in each question b.A. 3.
3. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Discuss the problems of teacher education. a. 6. 3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Bhopal. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. b. 4.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. a. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities.5. 2. b. they should be conscientious. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations.5. Ajmer. 3. 2. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. The necessity is however this. 4. However. a. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. 3. these problems are not as such cannot be solved.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain code of conduct for teachers. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Shorter working hours. 187 . the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore.3.5. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 5. Dearth of new technology of teaching.
Mohanty. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. (2010). (2009). Publication Pvt. A. B. Teacher Education. Tewari. J.3.N. P. Ltd Aggarwal. (2003). and Teacher Education. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . Teacher Education.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda.D. Corporation.5.
UNIT – IV 189 .
first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. preservation of nutrients. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. 191 . objectives and role of the physical education. The person’s environment is equally important. Since food is the source of nutrients. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. nutritional deficiency diseases. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. objectives. the focus is on the school health programmes.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. economic and educational developments. common ailments of children. In lesson 4. consuming the right amounts becomes important. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. communicable diseases and their prevention. In lesson 1. objectives. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. If the diet is poor. Lesson 5 explains the meaning.
1.1.1. 193 .1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.3 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.1.4 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.2 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. emotional and social.1. mental.9 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important. physical. for giving health education to the children under its custody.220.127.116.11 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.11 4.1 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. It is a miniature society.10 4.e.8 4.LESSON 4.7 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.6 4.1.
10. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 194 . explain the importance of First aid 5. understand school health programmes 2. 4. 7. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. Instruction. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. training in first aid and etc. e. training of teachers and evaluation. 5. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner.. 6. 2. 3. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12.1.1. you will be able to: 1. know the need for sex education. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. list the common ailments of children 3.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 11. To develop healthy health habits among children. To give information regarding health rules.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. content of health education. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. 4. to his family and to the community at large. 8. 9. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 4.g. To develop certain skills concerning health. cleanliness and healthful living. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health.
B. 5. typhoid.1. is imperative. The surroundings of schools should be clean. inoculation against cholera.coming or absence. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. First aid facilities should be made readily available. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. as described below 1. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. play festivals. cleanliness weeks.G. 2. excusing late. There should be regular water supply. 4. Arranging better transportation facilities. direct lighting. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided.C. (xii) smoking education etc. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. minimizing the travelling distance. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. 3. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. (viii) first aid. (ii) communit y healt h. proper doors and windows. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. 2.4. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. etc. organisation of school health days. The flooring should not be damp. (vi) nutrition education. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. (x) choice aid use of health services and products.. ( iii) sanit at io n.. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. suitable furniture. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. There should be good drainage facilities. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. The school buildings should be spacious. (xl) mental health. Triple Antigen Vaccination. vaccination. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. “Play-for-all” programmes. (v) safety education. Vaccination for small pox. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . B.
. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. scalds. fainting (epileptic fit).• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. D. • When sleeping in groups. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. cuts. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. etc. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. 196 . • Close the schools. if epidemic is wide-spread. sports and games in the interest of their health. • Take nutritious food. wounds. insect stings. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. • Have adequate rest and sleep. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. fractures. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. C. isolate and notify. • Find out the cases. drowning. poisons. and other accidents. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. bleeding. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. dislocations. • Keep all rooms clean. burns.
They have less resistence to diseases than adults. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. water or bodily contact. 4. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. These diseases are called communicable diseases. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. Once these germs get into the body. List out the Health curriculum 3. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. backache. cough.1. measles etc.. polio. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . chicken pox. asthma. which are – cold. So they easily get illnesses.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. headache. They are: i) The incubation stage. Mention the school health programmes. pain in the joints. 2. There are three stages in any communicable disease. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. tuberculosis.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. 4. fever.
there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Hence it is called a killer disease. Children catch cold from persons having cold. unhygienic living conditions. Important salts and water are lost in this process. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. This is caused by cold virus. Tonsilitis .This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. etc. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. sugar and water. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Ear Infections . Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. unhygienic bottle feeding. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Scabies . Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. The child may have fever. cough and fever. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. After three or four days of fever.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems.When a child suffers from scabies. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Others make the children very weak. Throat is affected.It is caused by measles virus. The following are the common communicable diseases. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose.This disease is caused by bacteria. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Diarrhoea . The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Mumps . rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Common Cold . The symptoms include cold. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. head-ache and cough. eating food which is not clean.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Measles . In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. 198 . Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold.
The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. Diphtheria .This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. 5.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. raised pink spots appear on head. Enlist the common ailments of children. It begins with fever.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. 199 . By scratching he causes secondary infections. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. What are communicable diseases? 6. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day.• • • • Chicken Pox . Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. If proper treatment is not given. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. the child is not able to breathe. face and waist. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. As the disease progresses. separate. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the child may die. The child may also have diarrhoea. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. Expand DPT . These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. Typhoid . Shortly. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days.
Cuts and Bruises . eye injury. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. Drowning . snakebites. 3. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups.4.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. and Community Work and Social Service. bleeding. 5. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. 4. it is a subject of art.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. sprains.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. It has its rightful place in education too. exciting and body-oriented. simple fractures. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. dislocation.g.1. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. In such cases. head injury. fainting. 2. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. It is both biological and psychological.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. sprains. Sex is popular. etc. films and jokes.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. bruises.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. and films. drowning. 200 . which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. 4.1.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. fiction. man-woman behaviours. scorpion stings.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. cuts. Wounds .8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. swelling. wounds. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. Sprains . which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. so-called sex books and periodicals.
Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. try experimenting with their bodies. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. Should the boys and girls. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world.. The home. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. In today's liberal and interactive society. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. health. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. celibacy are age. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. the school. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. In secondary schools. but preserve them from disaster and disease. they would be treading the path of sure doom. 2. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. sex education is being recommended in schools. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. in their ignorance. 3.old values. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. The values of life. Hence. B. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. the religious organisations. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers.
and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. hence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. first aid and sex education. common ailments of children. Teacher education institutions are. there will no crisis in its implementation. C. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. when the courses are already overloaded.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. What are the major components of Sex Education. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. 202 . 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. communicable diseases and their prevention. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. the school health programmes.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 18.104.22.168 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the food nutrients 2. 209 . Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Rickets is the deficiency of 5.
2. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. Let us talk about each of these aspects.2. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. minerals. If you look at the definition carefully. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. 210 . is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day.4. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods.
dosa are typical of the south. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. Even within given States there is considerable variation. moderate or heavy work. Preferences/customs are also important. There is no point. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. In other words. paratha and poori. for example. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. Those in the west also tend to eat rice.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier.g. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.g.sedentary. activity level and physiological stress. A balanced diet is specific firstly. sex.one in the morning and the other at night. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. it is also specific to a given activity level . So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . People in the east of our country prefer rice. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. the social and religious practices of that region. 4. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. construction labourer). In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . In the case of adults. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body.6. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness.2. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). These are: region where the person resides and income. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e.
A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. As you read this discussion. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. One must. One person may be fond of milk products. Including these 212 . These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. Even among flesh foods. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. however. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. As income increases. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. however. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. If you think of your own religious group. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. while another may hate them. In addition to these. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. taboos related to food may play an important role. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. as important for the rich as for the poor. for example. nuts and dry fruits. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. Among the social factors. These determine the acceptability of foods. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. vegetables and fruits. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. fat and sugar tend to increase. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. customs. Having more money. income plays a vital role. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. however.planning the diet. Judicious selection of food is. However.
eggs . don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. fruits. green leaves. 17. 213 . if the teachers have good food habits. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 8) Walk a while after eating. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost.eating is hazardous. 8.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. meat. mouth. Define balanced diet. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. etc. List out any two healthy food habits. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. over-eating or under. but they should be thrown away. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. For this. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Conjuctival xerosis. a. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. good nutrition is essential for good health.2. Beri Beri 4. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 .2. When the diet is inadequate. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2.2.4. Night blindness. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. preservation of nutrients. 4. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Discuss good food habits.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. In fact. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. e. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. b. Keratomalacia 3. Vitamin D 5. Bitot’s spots. Corneal xerosis. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Explain food nutrients 4. c. d. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4.
P. Sri Lakshmi B. Health and Nutrition Education. b. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. 7. 4. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. (2005). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 .N. A Text Book of Foods. a.C. minerals. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. b. Nutrition Science.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. 8. Food and Nutrition Education. a . (2009). (2008). Food and Nutrition Education. S.2. Hands. (2004). Food should be consumed after eating well. R. mouth. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Nutrition and Dietetics. (2008). plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.M. Chopra. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . R.6.
3.3.13 4.3.12 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.6.1 4. 216 .22.214.171.124 4.3.3 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3.11 4.3.4 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.2 Impact on economic development 126.96.36.199.9 4.LESSON 4.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.5 4.7 4.3.8 188.8.131.52.3 Impact on Education 4.10 4.
” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. the causes of population change. family planning and sex education etc.3. and the consequences of these processes. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. characteristics and changes for himself. aims at providing the younger generation. There is some difference. describe the impact of population growth on social. you will be able to: 1. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. 4. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. therefore. It is a much wider co ncept. Population Education. his family. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. objectives and need for population education 2. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. understand the importance of small family norm 5.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. It is not sex education. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. the stress is. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as.3. 217 . Whenever we talk of sex education. state the meaning. population characteristics. 4. community. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. economic and educational development 3. his societ y and the world.4.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.
4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . the family. the nation and the world.3.4. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. List out any two objectives of Population Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Population Education 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the society. 4.
6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner.3. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. With the larger families. health and happiness of its citizens. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. which will not be possible without population control. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. 219 . the family programmes are also handicapped. 4. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future.3. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom.6. 4. economic and educational development of the country. When the family is small. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Family is considered as a social unit. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. Every second two thousand children are being born. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous.
Many students herded in a small room.e. in parks and other places of public gatherings. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. in buses and trains.3. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. toilets. in cinema halls and theatres.3. Swollen cities.6. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development..3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. unemployment. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils.6. 4. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. teacher index. In developing countries. and so on. 4. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. 220 . facility for drinking water. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. i. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. The gulf between them is widening further.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. heavy intern I migration etc.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. organization index and material index. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. pollution of the environment. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. lack of proper health care. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils.
can be taken up. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. family planning etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Hindi and English. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. Regional Language. less space facilities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. thus. bar graphs etc. There would be poor library facilities. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. reproduction. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. There would be very few audiovisual aids. essays. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. can be studied in science and health education. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Social Studies Statistics on population education. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies.3. and laboratory equipments. blank verses etc. less budget for education. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. 221 . even text books would be in short supply. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners.
China. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. 4. 5. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population.3. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 12. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. United States of America. area and average density of population. 9. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 11. 8. 3. Children may compare two families. 10. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Uttar Pradesh. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Children with the help of parents. 2. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. 13. 14. deaths. Canada. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 15.4. Brazil. Bihar. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. West Bengal. 7. causes of deaths etc.
age at marriage. 17. values and role children etc. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. 18. 16. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised.be opened in their schools.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. The question. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. we have no right to stop 223 . how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. preferences for sex. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Comparing life in various respects in two families. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife.
which education can only do.. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. The Family Welfare Program.4-6. “He who is responsible for population growth. the total fertility rate decreased from 6.to emphasize family planning services.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. especially the expansion of child immunization services . continued . at varying places in different regions. 4. Since the program's inception. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. on an overall basis.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage.3.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. More than 45 years ago. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. however. and the child survival components of the news: program.their entry into the world”. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. fertility levels have declined throughout the country.were implemented 224 .
various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. and the World Conference on Women. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Local programs vary in their approaches. the community appears willing to pay for services. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . In April 1996. In October 1997. reliance on local women as community health workers. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. men. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. Therefore. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. a focus on health promotion. and nominal fees for services. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. Moreover. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program.earlier than the safe motherhood components. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. At these meetings. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. expansion of services to unmarried women.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. Describe the impact of population growth on social. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers.3. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. community. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. family. What are the goals of RCH? 4.3. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. 226 . so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. nation and the world. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. 3. economic and educational development 4.emphasizing the needs of the client. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. 1997). Its main purposes are to create awareness. involving the community.
” 2. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. population characteristics. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. characteristics and changes for himself. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. United States of America. b. 5. 6.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. and the consequences of these processes. 7. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. bar graphs. less budget for education. 4. Canada. China. a. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. b. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. area and average density of population. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. 227 . his family. Brazil. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.4. less space facilities. 3. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.3. a. the causes of population change. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. his society and the world.
(2005). (1992). Modern Problems of Education. Changing attitudes to Education in India.3. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Centre for Women’s Studies. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Bhende. (2004). (2002). V. J. Ltd. Ltd. Reddy. Jayapoorni. 228 . Coimbatore. Udaiveer. T. Kantikar. A. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. N.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty.K. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2005). Principles of Population Studies. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House.4. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.
10 184.108.40.206.3 Indigenous games 220.127.116.11 4.3 4.4.1 18.104.22.168.2 4.9 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.2 Major games 188.8.131.52 Minor games 4.LESSON 4.4.4 Lead up games 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.11 19.4.5 4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .7 4.
It contributes to the development of physical fit ness.4. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. team spirit. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. as it should 230 . moral fitness and emotional fitness.4.4. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. you will be able to: 1. the youth of the country. 4.4.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. 4. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. mental alertness. full records of physical activities should be maintained. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. perseverance.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. social fitness. which forms its most valuable assets. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. The concept of physical education has been made broader. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. leadership and balance in defect. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. classify the different types of games.
education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. They go hand in hand. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. The educational efforts at home. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. leadership. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . They are inseparably united together. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Every individual is a part of society. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. To be more precise. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Therefore. team spirit. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. obedience to rules.
H. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks.4. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. Just like Education. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. C. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. pleasing manners.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. game and sports. 4. Physical exercises. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. ment al. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system.” Montaigue writes. Regarding the significance of physical education. Buck has observed that 232 .” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. a sound health. nor body but the whole man. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences.” The Secondary Education Commission. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. Rousseau states. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. mo ral.
endurance. flexibility and power. “If we wish to develop the whole being. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. initiative.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. Froebel says. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility.” 4. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent.4. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance.” In brief. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. resourcefulness and smartness. speed.a properly directed physical education should result in health. coordinative abilities. happiness. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. we must exercise the whole human being. elegance. etc. strength.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. 233 . Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. efficiency and character.
systems of government. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. plagues and famines. poetry and painting. If no opportunity is provided to the students.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Tournaments foster this sentiment.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. 234 (i) (ii) . This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. should help in the spiritual development of the student. these fundamental things have always been present. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. they may form gangs. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. its adherents and its enemies. Every age has its artists. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. in greater or lesser degree. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. including all racial groups and historical ages. While wars.
and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. self. obedience. Write any two importance of Physical Education. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. B.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. 235 . to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to develop tolerance. bravery and interest in games and sports. etc. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.sacrifice. 2. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.\ to develop perseverance. respect for rules.
Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Keep the field ready for the activities. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 15. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. 3.4. Be punctual. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Be well-prepared. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. 10. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Haag. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Always keep the whistle ready. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. 7. 12. students. 9. 13. 11. 2. is essential. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 236 1. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education.H.4. defects. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Be sportive. 16. Be self-confident. Act as a leader. 4. 14. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. . and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. and readmission after they have recovered. 4. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Posture screening should be done.4. Be in the uniform. Inform health principles. 6.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 5. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Usually parents. 8. and.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. injuries among pupils should be made.
the play. Moreover. Such inst incts as imitation. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. 237 .4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. 4. 4. 4.8. less equipment and less expense.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. frolic and jo y. Indigenous games. As such they are well enjoyed by children. 1.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. their development is handicapped. Lead up games. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. chasing. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. 3. 2.
dribbling. Jump the stick clay and so on. on sea-shore. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications.4. the games can be modified according to convenience. Tennikoit. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. 238 . finding the partner. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. trapping.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Jumping. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Tennis. spiking. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. with implements or without implements. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. bowling etc. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Hopping. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Basket Ball. 4. stopping. pitching. boosting. On lawns. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. skipping. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Throwing. couple tag. driving. some of them are played indoors. the number of players and substitutes. Hockey.8. catching. For each game the rules are many. women take part most of the games. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games.. Shuttle Badminton. the play equipment. Soft Ball. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. The dimension of the posts and nets. They are played for a shorter duration. Kabaddy etc. snatching the kerchief. wherever the kids assemble. Volley Ball. heading. benefit in playing minor games. zig zag relay. Except a few games. under ball pass Relay. Cricket. on hard courts. Ball Badminton. These games require varied skills such as running. over ball pass Relay. Khokho. on mountain tops and on river beds. hitting. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. muffling.With a very few rules. Dodging. While many of them are played in the open playfields.
the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. List out some major games. 7. An example for indigenous game is 8. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . For example. birth. they are in existence.4. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. death.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. festivals connected with religion and public functions. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. All the fundamental tactics. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4.8.4. and .8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. On occasions like marriage. Games may be classified as 6. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. They have an abundant social value. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. While observing the players in action. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. these games being popular. Kho-kho. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.
Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. to develop physical stamina. 4. 3. aims and objectives and need of physical education. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. b. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Minor and Major 240 . Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. b. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. d.4. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 2.4. Posture screening should be done.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. 4. to secure physical health b. a. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. 3.4. 5. a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. a. 4. 4. b.4. a. Briefly discuss the different types of games. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. 2. c.
J. Foot-ball. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Handbook of Physical Education. Modern Trends in Indian Education.C. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.6. 241 . Physical Education and Sports. Khokho 8. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Hockey. G. Ball Badminton.K. (2008). New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. J. Soft Ball. J. Tennis. Cricket. Shuttle Badminton. (2005). Krishna murthy. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008). Mohanty. Aggarwal.4. Health. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Khokho. Tennikoit. 4. Basket Ball. Kabaddy 7. (2009). Volley Ball.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews.
5.1 Natural Environment 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.3 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 184.108.40.206 4.5.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .220.127.116.11 4.9 4.5.4 4.10 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.6 4.5.2 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.7 4.5.1 4.5.5.LESSON 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.2 Manmade Environment 4.
2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. 5. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. 2. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Broadly. 4.educat ion for the environment.5. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4.5. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. 3. Evaluation Ability. list out the types of environment 3. 4. 6. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. Participation. population explosion and resource depletion could be. it covers the following elements: 1. Awareness. Knowledge. 2. you will able to: 1. 243 . explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. economic. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. 3. Essential knowledge about the Environment. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. aesthetic and educational factors. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. education about the environment and education through the environment. Attitude. Skills. social.5. The best place to start such learning is school. political. role of teacher in environmental conservation. Details are given below: I. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 4.
Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Oxidants Other pollutants. F. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. heat sink and wind flow in cities.B. 2. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. D. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. 244 . its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. • Biological magnification E. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. a.
2. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Socio-economic measures. 2. economic. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Sterilisation. The human ecosystem II. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Use of medical science i. Abortion iv. c. B. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1.3. The pill ii. Birth control through education b. 4. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Family planning ii. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. 3. Control of population growth a. Persuasion: i. III. Intrauterine device iii.
3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (UNESCO. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Define Environmental Education. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. 246 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Water pollution abatement. 1983). Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. 2. e) Recycling. Air pollution abatement ii.
fax agricultural apparatus.other components of the environment. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. includes the plants.4.5. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. Any constituent or condition of the environment.5.5. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. A change in one brings about a change in the other. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism.5.5.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. Biological environment The biological environment. a.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. telex. animals and other organisms (biotic). These are biotic components. 4. They interact with each. way is called environmental or ecological factor. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.5. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. -other. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. b. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. to his needs. He modifies according”.
Physics Topics like conservation of energy. windmills. noise pollution. need for conservation. relation between population and pollution. ozone depletion. are the topics which may be taught in History. etc.. evolution. alternate sources of energy. solar cookers. wars and hazards of war. greenhouse effect. social studies. mineral survey. air pollutants from industries. acid rain. biogas plants. population. nuclear warfare. industrial pollut io n. extinction of species. industrial survey. need for bio-diversity. effects o f CFC. noise control. balance of nature. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . reasons. nuclear energy. change in climate may be added. food chain and food-web. supplying timber for various uses. (ii) Air pollution. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. use of medicinal plants. trees reducing noise pollution. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. effects. sources of pollut ion. History The rise and fall. explosion deforestation. etc. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. desertification 248 . over exploitation of ground water. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. of civilizations.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. preventing siltation of dams. river systems. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. ozone layer deplet ion. importance of nitrogen cycle. natural way of controlling pests. water scarcity. sources. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. use of pesticides. maintaining the ecological diversity. preserving the watersheds. excellent recreation sites. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. t heir role in preventing pollution. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. role of trees in building economy.
10. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. 7. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. group discussions and seminars. Organising conferences. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 14. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 249 . Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 6. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 11. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 4. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 8. 4. 9. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 13. 5. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 2. 3. Providing. Peepal and Tulsi. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 12. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin.may be inc ded in Geography. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. animal and plants.5. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. aims and scope. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’.
Don’t burn any waste. World Environmental falls on 250 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. all these can cause serious pollution. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. 5. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. 6. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. If it is done. Never put any left over chemicals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. used oils down the drain. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. especially plastics. Reuse carrier bags. it will cause pollution. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Use public transport wherever it is possible. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal.Send their waste oil. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so.
etc. dest roying nat ural habitats. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature.mat erials. diversity and stability. and 251 . To provide reference materials for children’s use. Concern for species. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. potable water. deforestation. (cleanliness. concern for others). To arrange visits or expeditions. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions.).4. depletion of ozone. developing desirable attitudes. CFCs. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. rather than conquest and mastery. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem.. loss of bio-diversity. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. To arrange for visiting speakers. Social responsibilit y (common good. The groups may exchange. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Harmony with the nature . prevention of irretrievable loss of species. etc. To provide materials needed for practical work.5. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. values and habits. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. viz. Att itudes of balance towards nature. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. orderliness and beauty). Conservation of natural resources. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. nuclear wars. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources.
It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. 252 .Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. 4. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. preserving natural cycles.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. 8.
Y.K. S. Anmol Publications Pvt.K. (ii) Air pollution. acid rain. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion.. S. (2007). Publications Pvt. sources of pollution.\ 4. effects. reasons. b. New Delhi : Sharma. water scarcity.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. b. 8. Environmental Education. importance of trees in the production of oxygen.K. Environmental Education. (2004). relat ion between population and pollution. Knowledge. T. 6. group discussions and seminars. (2007). Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 4. sources. explosion deforestation.2. a.K. Social responsibilit y (common good. Organising conferences. Modern Problems of Education. new problems from science and technology. b. Udaiveer. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. 3. 5. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. ozone layer deplet ion. a. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. (1997). air pollutants from industries. Environment and Human Rights. New Delhi : Authors Press. Awareness. population.5. Nanda. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . Education for values. concern for others). importance of nitrogen cycle. Ltd. Providing. Kuldeep. a. greenhouse effect. To provide reference materials for children’s use. a. June 5 7. To provide materials needed for practical work. Ltd. Rapid population growth. b. over exploitation of ground water.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 18.104.22.168 Idealism and aims of Education 22.214.171.124 Idealism and Curriculum 126.96.36.199 Idealism and methods of teaching 188.8.131.52 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and aims of Education 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and Curriculum 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and methods of teaching 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 126.96.36.199 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
188.8.131.52 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 184.108.40.206 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
1.our life. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. The universe is regarded as a thought process. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. should be universal in nature. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. the emancipation of spirit. It is self-realisation. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Education must contribute to development of culture. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. Universal Education. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. enrichment and transmission of culture. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. man is essentially a moral being. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. Education according to idealism. Spiritual Development. moral. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. promote and transmit it to rising generation. in fact. According to Rusk'.3. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. Therefore.” 5.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism.
According to idealism. 3. 4. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. For this no particular method has been suggested. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. Ethics. He sets the environment in which education takes place. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1.1. subjects like Languages. affecting (feeling).the spiritual qualities of mankind. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. friend and guide.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Herbert advocated instruction method. Learning through questioning. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection.3. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. Learning through reading. However.1.” 5. Learning through discussion. Philosophy. So cognition (knowing). 5. He carries the child from darkness to light. should be there. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . 2. So he should embody.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. Science. a spiritual guide for the child. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. According to Frobel. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education.3. Mathematics etc. 5. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. For intellectual development. hygiene. so subjects like Religion.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. It considers teacher as. Learning through lecturing. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. an indispensable necessity. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. and collation (striving) should find due place. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. the school is a garden.” He is thus. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. So health. no doubt. Learning through imitation. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. The plant can grow. History.
4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. 2. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.perfection and beauty. 5. time tables. Ross explains.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. curricula.4. Perfection of Human Machine. text books. "Education should make 263 • . formal lessons or examinations. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.1. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.preservation.1. 5. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. In the words of Ross.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Botany etc Language. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Education should.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Literature. It is based on the psychology of the child.4.1. There is no place for religious and moral education. useful and mature child. 264 . rational harmoniously balanced. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Zoology. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. In all. education should develop the child into Joyous. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Arithmetic. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. is based on the nature of the child. “Education finds its purpose. Therefore. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. It stresses basic sciences.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Biology. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. • 5. Education also aims at helping the individual t. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. subjects like history. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. geography should also be included in the curriculum. therefore. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. 4. Naturalistic curriculum. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Chemistry.
naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.1. Learning through observation. Here the emphasis is on the individual method.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. the stage. 5. Rousseau says. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. It discards all rigid.4. Learning by doing.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. a supplier of materials and opportunities. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.4. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development.1. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. 2. 5. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. 4. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. a provider of an ideal environment. Dalton Plan.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. Learning through experience. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. he should be taught by experience alone.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. In the . “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Heuristic method. 3. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally.
The aim of educational development. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Social Science. History. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. All Round Development of an Individual. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Agriculture. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Continuous Growth. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences.1. intellectual. Continuous reconstruction of Experience.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Social Efficiency. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Geography.5. Physical training. Sciences. 5. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment.absolutism of idealism. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. social and moral aspects. is true. diversified and flexible. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Vocational and 266 . 5.5. Subjects.1. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Personal Social Adjustment.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism.1. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. a senior partner and a sincere guide. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. He has to be active. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. should find proper place. alert and resourceful. activities and experience should be integrated properly.5. Learning by Doing. He must be trained. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” 5. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. a teacher occupies an important position. 5.Technical Education.1. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . The subjects. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy.
Music and Dance.1. Sex Education. History. 2. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Mathematics. 2. rich and happy. scientific and psychological education.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Crafts. 5. Population Education. specific. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life.6.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Biology. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. literary or humanistic education. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Astrology. 5. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. 3. Education is preparation for a complete living. Art. practical. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. liberal. It favours child-centered. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 5. Psychology. 3. Chemistry. Education must cultivate scientific outlook.1. Literature. 4. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable.1. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. intellectual. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Study of Subjects like Language.6. Biography Philosophy. 4.5. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. The basic tenets of realism are 1.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. certainly and clearly. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.220.127.116.11. easily and pleasantly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6.
Learning through lecturing. e. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Geography. 3. Sciences.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Learning through reading. Learning through discussion. Languages. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Learning through questioning. Child centered c. a. Tours / Excursion e. has no end other than growth. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Rousseau 5. Demonstration and Observation 270 . We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Experimentation d. Learning through imitation.1. History. 6.1. a. 5. pragmatism and realism.5. b. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Vocational and Technical Education. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Education according to pragmatism. Agriculture. d. a. Social Science. 5. Physical training. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. in this lesson. 5. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Learning through experience b. & curriculum. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. naturalism. c.1. Universal Education 2.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Self Realisation b.
P.P. P.1. Theory and Principles of Education. Narang C. Foundations of Education. (2007). 271 . N. New Delhi : Bhatia. R.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Publishing corporation. (2007). Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. (2003). Pahuja. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.5.H. K. O. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. P. L. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. (2004). of Pathak.
18.104.22.168.2 Curriculum 5.2.1 Aims of Education 22.214.171.124 Methods of teaching 5.2.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.4 Views about teacher 126.96.36.199.LESSON 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 188.8.131.52 Methods of teaching 272 .2 Curriculum 5.5.2 5.4.1 5.2.1 Aims of Education 184.108.40.206.2.4.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.4 Views about teacher 5.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.3.3.1 Aims of Education 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2.
political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2. an artist.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.7 5.2. 5. content and methods. Tagore was a poet. you will able to: 1.8 5. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. 5. 3.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. Gandhiji was primarily a social. 273 .3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. economic and political reconstruction in our country. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. 2. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.5.6 5. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.2.2. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.2.5. mind and spirit.4 Role of the teacher 5.
nor the gross animals body. strength of mind. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body.3. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. it is education of life. mind and soul of children He further observed. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. through life and for life. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim.2.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. His scheme of education is life centred." Dignity of Labour. It really provides opportunity for character building.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. 5. In the words of Gandhiji. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. self-restraint and service of humanity. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. righteousness.supporting. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. 274 . "I attach more. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. 'Man is neither mere intellect.
Drawing and Hindustani.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue.2. Individual and Social Aims. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. 5. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner.3. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Art. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Mother-tongue. metal work. gardening. Music.Training for Leadership. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. wood work. According to Gandhi.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. leather work have been suggested. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Only good individual forms a better society. General Sciences. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. "Development of the moral character. the realization of the ultimate reality.
3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Basic education is other wise known as 4. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.2.2.trained. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. proficient.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. men of 276 . Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.
He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. That is why.3. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He also advocates freedom for the child. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 3. Education must be child centered. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST.knowledge. 5. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots.
He believed in the oneness of humanity.3. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. • Cult of non-violence. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. He was deadly against untouchability. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .2. 5.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. he was a true Vedantist 5.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.K.2. • Education should involve manual work. Gandhi in 1937. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. He was a true patriot. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. • Ideal of citizenship. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.” Like all other ideals.2.4.
2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Civics. It should help. the more dedicated and devoted. complete manhood could be attained. Purposeful and Meaningful Education.Language and Literature . Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Religion and Psychology. deeper in. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. could help in forging unity among all. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students.2. That way only." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. It should help the learner have good physique. "Mankind must realise a unity. Chemistry. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Botany. Dance. Zoology. Music. sentiment. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. wider in range. etc. he said. Tagore said. Therefore. 279 . he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. (vi) Philosophy. Geography. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. International Understanding. stronger in power than ever before.4. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. them solve problems of day to day life. International understanding.
It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. 5.2. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. In 1921. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.” He further says. Tagore rightly says.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.4.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.4. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.2. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. 5. Activity Method Heuristic Method.4. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. 280 . Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners." 5. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.2. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.
Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. race. 281 . Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. It is open to all irrespective of country. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. 9. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. 10. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6.g. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4.
2. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Education for Self-realization. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Freedom.5. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. man making. work and deeds come out of it. Purity of thought. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education should make a person self-reliant. Education for Self-reliance. According to him. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man.5. Book learning.2. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Concept of Education. 2. 3. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. 4. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.” 5. The whole beauty of life is linked with it.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Education for strong Moral Character. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself." He was against the theoretical type of education. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. He believed in to learning or selflearning. character forming and assimilation of ideas. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life.
He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. philosopher and guide to the students He. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Swami.5. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Every individual should be trained for concentration. 6. Religion. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Philosophy and Theology. engineering and technical subjects.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Discussion Method. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.2. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.5. The teacher should be the facilitator. That will serve the purpose of education fully. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. A physically strong person is the need of the society.5. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Thirdly he wished that games. Education for Physical Development. And above all. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses.2.2. 283 . The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other.5. 5. Secondly he wanted Science. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. 5. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. 5.the learners on different students in the discussion. Of course.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. in this lesson. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda.2. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. We have seen that Tagore. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. naturalist. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. Gandhiji as a Idealist. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11.2. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature.Substantiate your answer. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. and pragmatist . 3. 5. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. Write short notes on Basic education. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. 284 .Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. 2. Their educational ideas.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. 5.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. ears and eyes.6 LET US SUM UP We have. of course. legs. 12.
d. Technique of Correlation 6. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Cult of non-violence. b. 5.4. c. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. a. Explain Vishwabharathi. a. Activity Method d. 5. 10. Education should involve manual work. f. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 8. c. Basic education. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Meditation and concentration c. 1937 7. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. 9. metal work. wood work. Ideal of citizenship.2. Heuristic Method. Self realization. 11. 2. e. a. leather work have been suggested. 5. Learning by Doing c. Debate and Discussion Method. Nai Talim 4. Self-Study b. Activity Method b. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Teaching while Walking b. Discussion Method 285 .8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. gardening. 3. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.H. Ltd. Publishing Corporation.5. K and Narang C. New Delhi : Aggarwal. C. Theory and Principles of Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2003). (2007). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. L. N. (2002). P. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Dhiman. Pahuja. New Delhi : A. (2004). B. J. O. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash.P. 286 . on Bhatia. K. (2007). N. Foundations of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. P.2.
3.LESSON 22.214.171.124 5.3.5 5.3.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.6 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3.4 5.3.1 5.3.7 5.3 5.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.11 5.3.2 5.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.3. In this lesson. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.8 5.10 5.
In the words of Kerney and Cook. in the form of new experience. there is a large number of communities. the plain area. From the latter point of view.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. in the U. Curriculum is intimately related to education. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static.3. is a means to the process. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’.A. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. maintained or eliminated. 5. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . In it. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. in Russia or in Japan. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. curriculum signifies situations for learning.. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India.S.3. While education is a process. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. Then in a big country like India. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. new behaviour may be acquired. A g o o d curricu lu m. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. in fact . Since the demands. it is identical wit h socializat ion. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. the desert area. In the former sense. the plateau area and 288 . While education is learning. curriculum. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. 5. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. living in the hilly area.under the direction of the school. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. state the meaning of curriculum 2. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Both the processes are integrated. you will be able to: 1.3. present behaviour may be modified.
physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. if it is to educate the whole of the personality.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. differs from individual to individual. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs.3. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. Again. In fact . So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. democratic and socialistic country. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. the learning capacity of children. It must differ from locality and from society to society. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. and 289 . We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. according to modern trends in the educational process. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. From a slave-country we became secular. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. irrespective of their needs and environment. it is. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. environment. therefore. However.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. 5. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. too. customs and needs. Besides craft. studying therein.
The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. e. They speak of immediate purposes of education..3. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. uninspiring and unscientific. Goals of Secondary Education. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and.g. They are visionary goals e. aesthetic and spiritual development. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. unambiguous and functional. Self Realisation. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. 3. social. The word “Curere” means 2. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. 1.. Vocational Efficiency. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. remote or immediate. in instructional objectives. 2. Knowledge Objective. e. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 4. eg.. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. aims. 5. They may be ultimate or proximate. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. specific. 290 .. Goals of Primary Education. etc. they depend on the political. moral. unsatisfactory. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. Application Objective. So it is inadequate. National Integration. tangible. They are achievable.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. social. etc. general or specific. They speak of perfect goals.. Understanding Objective. which may or may not be attained. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.g. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education.g. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. individual or Social and so on. of classroom. emotional.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country.
Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. educationists. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others.3. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum.” 291 . The old and prevalent curriculum is under. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. in the class rooms. abilities.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. on the playing fields. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. Raymont rightly says. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. finding them very interesting and captivating. capacities.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.5. heavy fire. The interests. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. According to Crow and Crow. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. needs. but it includes the totality of experiences. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. Crow and Crow remarks.
urges. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. moral. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. time in a useful manner. Due to these variations and differences. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. aptitudes. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. capacities and abilities. tendencies. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. mental. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . They often waste it or rather kill it.
analysis and concretise the curricular elements. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. 3. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. phased preparation. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. development of professional capability at all levels. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. 293 . In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. To ensure success of the process. organized. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. Similarly. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. administrative programme need be planned.curricular. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. 2.
9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . laboratory. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. a. Relation with Life c. workshop.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.3. principles of curriculum construction. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. Run. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 18. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. 5. library. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. in the class room.3. 11. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. 10. 12. Child Centred Education b. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 17. 1937 19. 5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
and Sarita Kumari.3. Lakshmi. (2007). New Delhi : Isha Books. Innovations in Education. 295 . New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. New Delhi : Authorspress. S. (2007).5. S. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. Curriculum Development.S. (2007). Curriculum and Instruction. P.K. D. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Bhalla. (2001).12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. N.
4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.8 5.5 5.4 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.2 5.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 184.108.40.206.9 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 220.127.116.11.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 18.104.22.168.4.LESSON 5.3 22.214.171.124.4.1 5.4.
2. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. tolerance for the opinions of others. 4. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. Gradually.4.during the second half of this century. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. 3. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. explain the concept of scientific attitude. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . know the importance of science education.5. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. superstition or emotion.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. 5. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.4. We mean curiosity. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. newer and newer industries started growing. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. 5. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. open-mindedness. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. in the economic reconstruction of society. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . 297 . you will be able to: 1. honesty.
Promotion of science clubs. Central science workshop. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Principles are formulated. 2. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Love for truth enhances. 2. After such experience and training. models and scientific instruments for laboratories.4. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 5. 4. 5. 5. 3. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 6. 7. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 6. Through newspapers. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Thinking and memory develops. seminars and symposiums. Devotion towards nature increases. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 3. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Schemes of teaching science. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Selection for science education. 4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop.4. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Organisation of science fairs. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 5. as well as of the society. Through examinations. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work.So that. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. They encounter many social events as they grow. Enquiry teaching is.needs and conditions. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. After presenting the problem. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. therefore. essential that teachers. 5.6. Training of science teachers.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. It is. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. They experience natural phenomenon. 5. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. For laboratory and workshop techniques. Write any two advantages of Science Education. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. should provide opportunities to. objectivity.4. In the inquiry approach. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They ask many questions about the objects they see. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. sex or religion. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 .1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. each child to “enquiry skill building”. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. 7. which is essential for developing scientific outlook.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.4. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . stern pursuit of accurate data. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Adopting creative models of teaching. 5. to ask questions and experience things. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. It requires consistent thinking. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. . proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. test. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. commands or orders. Giving less directions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3.4.6. Evidence.Herma Wouk. Social sciences. 2. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook.books. 4. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. 300 . Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. 6. if they like. . 5.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. 5. Appreciating pupils ideas.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.
critical thinking and suspended judgments. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. These characteristics of any scientific 301 .7. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. To achieve this we should understand what it means. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. to develop among the learners. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. of vast resources running waste. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. keen observation.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. therefore should be unbiased and objective. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. friends.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. practiced. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. it must be encouraged. For instance. (Vaidya 2007). 5. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience.(Smith 2008). school and society at large. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. These include open mindedness. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. neighbourhood.4. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. The students observation. and emphasized during the learning process .
The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. understanding and logic. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. In considering a situation or a problem. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. intuition or wishful thinking”. rumor. or superstitions. 5. 2007). 302 . Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. think and work it”. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. (Das. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias.4. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. he studies all aspects of it. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live.7. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions.
The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.7. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly.7.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.4. 5. but to begin only after careful planning. • 5. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil.4. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.
and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook.4. 5.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. it must be encourages. 304 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. 5. practiced and emphasized during the learning process.
a. (2000). Reflections on Scientific attitude.B (2008). 3. 2. The intention to respect another’s point of view. a. (2008). b. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Yadav. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. b. M.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. objectivity. N. Planning of activities 5. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. a. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. 4. a. (2006). b. Wide reading b. Vaidya.4. Adopting creative models of teaching.4. 5.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. Study of superstitions d. 16.5.S. 305 . Love for truth enhances. 5. Discuss the importance of science education 14. D.4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. S. Rao. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Proper example of the teacher c. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs.
12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. you will be able to: 1.3 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.1 5. state the concept.7 5.10 5.5.8 5.4 5. objectives and characteristics. 2. actively.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.5. 5.5 5.5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.9 5. areas of institutional planning.5.5.5. 306 .6 5.2 5.11 126.96.36.199.5.LESSON 188.8.131.52 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.
5. Institution should be regarded as the unit. and each student are regarded as separate entities.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. and. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. State and national levels from below. executive as well as public. every teacher. each teacher. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. teachers and students is not lost sight of. in the task of educational planning. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. • to involve teachers and school administrators. and every student in the process of educational planning.5. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. and supplement planning from above. 5. • To make institutional planning more successful. which become the bases for further planning at the district. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. every parent.3. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . • to make planning development-oriented. 5.
Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. Co-curricular activities. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. approved after making necessary modifications.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. (2) Co. etc. (3) TeachingLearning Aids.curricular Activities. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. which will be discussed in the general. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion.• implemented. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. Classwork. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. Syllabus. 5. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.5.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers.5. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. council and. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Examinations. 308 . and Personnel services.
2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. 3. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Preparation of models. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Conducting of educational. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Improving the internal assessment. Organisation of class-room libraries. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. 1. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. charts and apparatus. Organisation of Pupils. Organisation of Students’ Association. etc. Running science clubs. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 .THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. etc. Equipping of laboratory and library. etc. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. 2. hobby-centres. Editing the school magazine. Undertaking remedial instruction services. etc. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. scientific and historical excursions. Preparation of instructional material. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Preparation of audio-visual aids.No. Courts. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Fair distribution of syllabi. Organising play-for-all programmes.
7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. teachers. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. students’ associations. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. etc. science teachers’ associations. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. teacher-pupil. teacher-State. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. administrator-supervisor. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. administrator-administrator. teacher-managing body. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.” The human relationships in. headmasters associations. teacherinspector. co-operation. Administrator-State. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. pupils. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. and —pupil-pupil. which are divided as the in. teacher-teacher.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. pupil310 . The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. and solidarity.5. involving mainly human materials. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. parents.5. administrator-pupil. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. parent-teacher associations. understanding. ii.
supervision and superintendence. to accomplish. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. and to serve. It covers personnel and material management. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. etc.5. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. organisation. superintendence. organisation and management. control. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. social sciences and other disciplines. According to C. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. Good. teacher-parent. to carry out.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. pupil-non-official functionaries." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. now-a-days. To administer means to manage. teacher-community leader. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is also being modernized to become a technique. 311 . As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. administrator. pupil-parent. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. V. supervision. pupil-community leader. pupil-inspector.State. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. to attend.
Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. 9. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. If the cost benefit ratio is less. Economic Management . 4. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. Worker Participation .Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 7.The manager should have leadership traits. This is the latest democratic trend in management.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. The relationship should change from master. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. Liasion with the Public . Rapport between the Management and Employees .This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. 6. Better Human Relationships . 5. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.Any good management will always have good public relations. 8.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. 10. Those.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. Motiviation . 12. Leadership . who occupy the managerial positions. 3. 11. Cost-Benefit Analysis . Decision Making .Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. Democratic Management . it is not worth-while. If it is more.Of all the approaches. Socio-Scientific Approach .lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . 13.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. 2. low.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . He should be an artist in human relationships. Communication .
and cooperative performance should be ensured. objective. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. to improve the quality of education it provides. 19. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. 5. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. 313 . Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 14.These two are. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. improvement of teaching methods.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. enrichment of curricula. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . 5. 18. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.g. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.5.too.5.
New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Singh. Decision Making b. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. In group and Out group 5. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Leadership c. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. a. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. e. Tarachand and Prakash. Communication 5. it becomes the basis for school inspection. S. NUEPA. b. c. Instruction. a. b. (2001). Syllabus. 314 . H.K. 4.M.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Fundamental of Educational Management. (1995).5. d.5. b. Motiviation d. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. APH Publishing Corporation.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. R. (2003).5. a. 2. and Personnel services. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Classwork. Educational Administration. a. f. Co-curricular activities. Examinations.
First Aid. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. Realized the problems of school education. School. women education and teacher education in India. Code of conduct for teachers. higher education. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. 4. population education. Preservation of nutrients. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. Sex-education 4.teachers should have : 1.1 Primary Education : Education for all.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.Religious and Modern Education 1. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . 2.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Balanced diet.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Healthy Food Habit 4.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.1 Gurukula system of education. physical education and environmental education 5.3 Educational Influences of Home. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Common ailments of Children. 1. Examination reforms. Economic 315 . UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.5 Regional Educational Development in India .2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .2 Nutritional deficiencies. social Impact 3.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Community and Mass Media 2.Pre-service and In-services facilities. wastage and Stagnation 3. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.I.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.CORE PAPER .4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .Article 45 .Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. nutritional requirement. New evaluation procedures. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.Preventive measures.1 School Health Programme. Communicable diseases . Inspection and Supervision 3. Buddhist and Jain system of education.4 India's Secular Policy .2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .3 Directive Principles .
R.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. and Mohanty R.K. and Dash B. Curriculum and national goals . Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Saraswathi T.K.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Hemchand.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9.N.Aim. (2004) Problems of Education in India. curriculum and teacher's role 5.4. REFERENCE 1. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. Pandy V. Tagore 5.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Kalan Paper Packs 10. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. 316 . Naturalism and Pragmatism . and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. (1999) Culture. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. T. Socialization.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Sharma. R. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. and Sharma R. B. Mahatma Gandhi.K. Taneja V. Ram S.C.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Mishra. Delhi : University Publications 2. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.S. Ghanta R. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. (2005) Foundations of Education. and Human Development.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.4 4.N. 7.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.K. Prof.1 Idealism. Realism. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. 5. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.
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