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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
Jainism and their educational implication. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. discusses the regional educational development in India. Lesson 5. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. and Jain system of education. Lesson 2. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. Lesson 4. The need. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. regional imbalances and variations in different environment.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. 9 . of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. In. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west.
6.5 Jain system of education 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.6 Education during British Era 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1.LESSON 18.104.22.168 Hunter Commission (1882) 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 Charter Act of 1813 1.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.6.4 Buddhist system of Education 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.4.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.6.2 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1.
3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. British system of education presented the modern western model.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.9 1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1. 1. describe the Jain system of Education 4.3. 1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.1.1. India.6.1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.1. you will be able to: 1.8 1.1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. That 12 . has a long past history starting in vedic education. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. 1. in opinion. Muslim and British periods. elucidate the education during British Era.1.1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. The history of education passed through Buddhist.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.1. Education in India.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. in morals and in the intellect”.1.7 1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.6. both present and future. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. but English in taste. Indian in blood and colour. “a class of persons.
5. to light. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Education was a private affair of the people. if they thought fit to do so. 12. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Teacher as Parents. Religious and Spiritual. Curriculum. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Forests as Centres of Education. Pupils were taught. 13 . Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. 11. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. There was. Role of Travel in Education. Individual Teaching. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. Method of Study. Immediate Aim Vocational. The immediate aim of education. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. 9. Method of Instruction. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7.knowledge was real. No State Control on Education. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. It was not merely intellectual. It was also moral. with grants of land or money. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. 16. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Free and Accessible. generally. however. 6. and to agriculture and trade. 3. not en masse by the class method. High Status of Teachers. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. managed entirely by Brahmans. Where pupils were many. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. Residential Schools. the monitorial plan was followed. as it is generally considered to be at present. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. religious and spiritual. from eternal to immorality 2. from darkness. 14. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. 10. questioning by the pupil. 8. 4. followed by explanation by the teacher. Education of Moral. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. individually. 13.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3.3. Wide-Spread Education in Women. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. studied Vedas. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. 2. It was suited to the needs of the society.17. lived a life of celebacy. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. They were very cordial and intimate. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. 1.
partaking of food at prohibited times. Right knowledge 2.C. watching dances or listening to music. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. in which. use of cosmetics. which included abstaining from theft. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Buddha was concerned about the suffering.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Right speech 4. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. medium of Pali. disease and death of the human beings. had the right to receive education. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. the most significant of which were the following 1. I take Refuge to Dharma. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Right thought 3. After attaining the age of 20. Education was imparted through the.1. Consequently. except the Chandals. 1. dressed himself in yellow clothes. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha.4. the handicapped. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. Right endeavour 7. Right contemplation 1. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. It was denied only to the ill. killing of any living being. impure conduct. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. he was qualified to become a monk. etc. the student had his head shaved of all hair. the student remained in a state of Shramana. taking things without being offered. every class in society. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. Right memory 8. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. use of intoxicating things. 15 . Right means of livelihood 6. I take Refuge to Sangh. 2. Right activity 5.
agriculture. 1. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. eat food thrice a day. 7. Initially.. nothing is of any permanent consequence. elephant lore. therefore. so long as it successfully does so. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. a continuous change creating 16 . archery. etc. 3. changing the goals. Later on. assumptions. animal husbandry. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. military science. commerce. These are called later Buddhist schools. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. 6. handicrafts. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. education was impart in art.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. 8. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. control over sensuous activities. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. etc. It comprehended education in writing. meaning. archery. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. beg for alms. 5. of clothes.3. etc. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. On this occasion. depth and range. 2. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. objectives of human life. it is regarded as true”. Even at this stage. Life is in a flux. After this ritual. be considered the aim of education It. geology. a change is not only total but also perpetual. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. women occupied a position inferior to men. arithmetic and religious discussion. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. has no metaphysical value for life. Hence. approach. bodily gestures. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. medicine. As reality is becoming. however. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. along with education in script writing. Whatever its nature and extent. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. 4. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. and. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. wear three items. knowledge of reviving the dead. cottage industries. the presence of the monks was essential.4. nature. the science of taming and training animals. magic. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. aspirations and.
Education must. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. therefore. such as. i. whatever works are true and good. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet.e.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. In fact. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. its pessimistic outlook on life.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. 5.. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. 1. Validity is effective and consequences. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed.new and peculiar situations.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.1. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. and to give it a shape that it has today. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. however. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. Its chief feature. However. Jainism insists 17 . in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. it is much older than the latter. Write Eight fold path . goes to Vardhaman.
Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. 8.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. 6. As such.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. thought and deed. but on both. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Development of personality as an individual. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection.1. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. 9. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. d) To lead a celibate life. They are: a) Not to injure. b) Not utter falsehood. 3. b) Right knowledge. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. c) Right conduct. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. 5. 2. 1. Hence.5. 18 . more stress on individual aims. 2. and believe in happiness to all. 7. and is to be redeemed and liberated. 10. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. 4. it has a foot in both the words. 3. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. c) Not to steal. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. e) To renounce the world. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. 1. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul.
19 . and should bring happiness to all. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . success and love. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world.5. here and now. 3. 2. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Jiva is essentially karmic. 3. that would be socially desirable.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. practised and not only aspired for. education should develop sense of discrimination. 5. 2. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 1. 4. Hence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Belief in transmigration of soul.5. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. What are Triratnas ? . Knowledge is through senses and meditation. 8. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. 1.4. Teaching should be social and tolerant.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. Teaching must develop these faculties. therefore.
2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. North West Province and Punjab. philosophy and literature of Europe. with rally and rout. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. 1. However. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.1.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. To set up separate departments of. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. 1953). 1. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.6.6. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. Madras.6. primary 20 . and not for life. 1. science. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute.6. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. Bombay. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. 1. 2. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.
The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially.education was neglected. In 1882. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. Later on. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . Courses of studies remained unrelated to life.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. 1.6. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams.6. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. • Secondary education. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published.6. 1. namely.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). The universities dominated the secondary education. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. At that time M. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. self-respecting and competent. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. at the primary level. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. • Universal free primary education. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. 1. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education.K. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). secondary education became a step towards university. To ensure qualitative improvement.
The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. The objective of education was to provide 22 . During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. After this stage. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians.At the primary stage (6-11 years). The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. 10.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. all children are to have a common curriculum. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial.1. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry.
. 6. Right knowledge. a. 4. the science of taming and training animals. along with education in script writing. 4. military science. During the Buddhist period. 2.1. handicrafts. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. arithmetic and religious discussion. etc. b. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The system of education was well-organised. followed by explanation by the teacher. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. Right memory. geology. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. The immediate aim of education.education of European literature. Right endeavour. establishment of universities.1. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. Right speech. 3. archery. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 1. 1. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. 3. education was impart in art. Right thought. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. 2. science and English language. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. Right activity. Right contemplation. 5. questioning by the pupil.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. 23 . It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Right means of livelihood. It was suited to the needs of the society.
K. Aggarwal. (2005). J. 10. 1882.K. 11. a. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 9. Right conduct.7. Sharma. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Development of Educational System in India. more stress on individual aims. a.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. b. (1984). R.C. Sargent report 12. Development of personality as an individual. J. Right knowledge. c. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.1. b. 1937 1. Y. History of Indian Education System. and Nath. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. (2009). Singh. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. 24 . Ltd. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. (2007). Hence. 8.C. Improvement of Literature. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Y. Right faith.
2.9 1.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.LESSON 1.3.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.3.4 1.3.1 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 22.214.171.124. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.2.3 Kothari Commission 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.7 1.5 1.8 1.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2.6 126.96.36.199.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2 1.2.1 University Education Commission 1.2. The 25 .2.
conditions of the teachers. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. Post-graduate 26 . The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. 1. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India.3.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. explosion of enrolment. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. Kothari (1964-66) 8. medical and legal education. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. you will be able to: 1. diversification of courses of studies. S. secondary and higher education.2. technological engineering. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. analyse the progress of education in free India. New Educational Policy. National Council for Women’s Education 5. expansion of vocational. curriculum. technical. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National Board of Teacher Education 10. standard of teaching. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. girls and women education besides primary. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. 1. 1986 1. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2. examination system. 2. vocational education.2. There had been vast institutional expansion.
Therefore.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. quality. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. Education for Equality. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.teaching.2. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. quantity. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Finally.2. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. 1986. Kothari. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. A. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. material and spiritual. However.S. 1. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. in January 1985. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. utility and financial outlay. Government of India. 1.2. 1966. D. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . research et. 4. National System of Education. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. Education is the key to our allround development. the New National Policy on Education.3. 1. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.3. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. 1952. A meaningfully Partnership. the chairman of University Grants commission. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. Problems of access. 3. accumulated over the years. 2. The Essence and Role of Education.3.
work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools.2. the minorities and the handicapped. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Thus. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. 28 .of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. attitudes. It can train practical aptitudes. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1.” Thus. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. By working with hands. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. the concepts of work experience. The UNESCO Report. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage.
employment and promote economic independence of the youth. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. “The aim of these colleges. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. As such.” The Mudaliar Commission. According to. Besides. the Commission. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. The Radhakrishnan Commission. With adequate planning. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . The Education Commission. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. In 1955. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. if he wishes. co-ordinations. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. it will conduce self.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. “It may be described.
the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. the semester and credit system. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs.ot her.. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. etc. for quality of life in the rural areas. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). In addition. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. raising the special facilities. With a view to relating education to the life. the rigid streaming of courses. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. the. admission requirements to vocational courses. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. Therefore. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . Subsequently. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. The Central Advisory Board of Education.
which offer scientific. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. The wave of Basic Education. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred.and the world of work. etc. In short. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. The Father of Nation. who conceived the System of Basic Education. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed.. felt that education should be centred around a craft. aimed at this goal. According to committee. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. preferably spinning and weaving. 31 . 1. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. which are useful to the community.defined S UP W as “purposive. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. which swept the country for over two decades. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. technological courses including Agriculture.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education.2. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. manual work resulting in either goods or services. meaningful. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. giving importance to productivity in the national development. Commerce. meaningful. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.
This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Experimentation with materials. Work practice. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. 4. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. 2. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Productive 2. Culture and recreation 6. be that the work involved is: 1. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. 3. as far as possible. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. The teachers should make use of. tools and techniques and 3. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Food 3. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Health and Hygiene 2. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. locally available materials and tools. so that it is educational in essence. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Educative and 3. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Community work and social service. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. 32 . Shelter 4. Clothing 5.
It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Check on educated unemployed 4. 1. inculcate a faith. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. etc. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. 6. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. removal of illiteracy. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. To make education more realistic. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Education through work The SUPW should. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. the local community should be actively associated. Merits of the Programme 1. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Productive Work 33 . Community Service In-1972.5. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another.2. It can become an instrument to build character. as far as possible. slum clearance. improve discipline. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. the concept of Community Service has been visualised.
the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. should involve itself in the educational effort. if not productive. etc. offering first aid.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. traffic control. helping the adults-in productive work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. The community. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. Define SUPW 34 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. in turn.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. AICTE was set up in year 4. skills and better future for the children.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. helping the adults in festivals and Functions.
f. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. 1. Radhakrishnan 2. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. c. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. d.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1955 4. Dr.2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Write short note on SUPW.2. 6. 2. 1. manual work resulting in either goods or services. which are useful to the community. 35 . 3.1. 1952 3. meaningful. b. e. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. a.2.
1. Amala. Y.2. and Rao. (2007). New Delhi: A. 36 . Publishing Corporation. V. History of Indian Education System. J. Y.K.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Development of Educational System in India.. (2009). New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.K. History of Education.P. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. Rao. : Sharma. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Ltd.(2005). A.P. P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.D.C. History and Problems of Indian Education. R. (2005). and Nath. Anupama. Singh.H.K. B. (2007).
It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3. equality.8 1. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.1 Significance of DPSP 1.2 1.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3. democratic republic.3. 1949. and liberty.9 1.3. 37 .3. 1950.3. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. Being the supreme law of the country. directive principles and duties of citizens.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.6 1.3. procedures. there is an official Hindi translation.5 188.8.131.52. for a total of 117.4 1. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3.369 words in the English language version. establishing the structure.7 1.1 1.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. it came into effect on January 26.3. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. Besides the English version. containing 395 articles. assuring its citizens of justice. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.3.
3. learn the role of central and state government on education. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy.3. 38 . After many deliberations and some modifications. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. understand our Indian constitution. 1. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. you will be able to: 1. 1. According to the constitution. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. describe the important constitutional articles related to education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 1947. for 166 days. 1947. social. Through them. with Dr. 4. 2. political. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. 3. On August 29. in sessions open to public. Two days later.In the August 14. 1950. spread over a period of 2 years. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects.3. The Assembly met. Dr. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. 1. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. legal and environmental. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. economic. the Drafting Committee was appointed. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. administrative. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members.
That the health and strength of workers. Protecting children from exploitation. Article 41. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Organisation of village panchayat.government. No abuse of children. Equal justice and free legal aid. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. in particular. sickness and disablement. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Liking wage etc.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. The State shall endeavour to secure. men and women. 39 . on the basis of equal opportunity. The State shall. Equal pay for both sex. Protecting health of the workers. for workers. Minimising inequalities in status. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. and in other cases of undeserved want. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Condition for dignity of children. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Appropriate concentration of wealth. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Article 42. Right to work. old age. provide free legal aid. Article 39A. and shall. Article 40. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Article 43. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.
Uniform civil code for the citizens. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. [declared by or under law made by 40 . the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. a living wage. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. industrial or otherwise. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. The State shall take steps. Participation of workers in management of industries. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. The State shall endeavour to provide. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Article 48. by suitable legislation or in any other way. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. to all workers. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Article 46. Article 43A. in particular. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Article 45. agricultural. Article 44. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. 2002 for “45. See also Article 21A). The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Article 49. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Note: Subs. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 48A. Article 47. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. in particular. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. (Original Article 45. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. work. and.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. in particular.
2.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Article-21A Right to Education.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 45 . “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. disposal or export. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. 2002. as the case may be. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. disfigurement. Separation of judiciary from executive. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Article 50. Article 51. Promotion of international peace and security. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. removal.Parliament] to be of national importance. 1. destruction.3. from spoliation. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. may be law determine”. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2.
4. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. race. caste. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. and. 5. language or any of them”. 6. 7. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. 8. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. in particular. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. 2002.” 42 . if such person is a minor. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. ii. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. iii. his guardian has given his consent thereto.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. and shall protect them. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. 3. from justice and all forms of exploitations. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish.
Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. 2.3. & 1. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Educational Reforms From time to time. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. and by drawing. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education.9. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. 43 . for its vocabulary. The central government determines targets and promotes education. wherever necessary or desirable. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. Article 351 gives importance to 6. the forms.
8. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. All India Council of Medical Science. 6. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. 4. Local bodies and private enterprise. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. By starting these projects. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. private agencies etc. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Merit scholarships in the public schools c. The following pilot projects. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b.. So that they may work well. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). the state governments. to achieve the desired ends. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. etc. Production of suitable for children and adults f. Organisation For carrying out educational plans.3. 5. So as to encourage education on right lines. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. 7.
Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. reports etc. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 1. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. are published by it. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. 11. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. 12. 1. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. training and statistics.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. The 45 . Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. research. is the state responsibility. 10. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. 3.3. Material concerning nation-wide interests. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. handicapped. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. etc. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. 9. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. books. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. 4. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. education for women.
3. 5. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? .7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Explain Directive principles 2. Write short notes on a. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9.3. 1. Article 21A c. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. 46 . 1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. articles in the Directive principles. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 46 4. Article 45 b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.
may be law determine”. a. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Article 45 . 1. Ambedkar 2. a. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. 2002. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 47 . Article-21A Right to Education. b. Dr. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. The Directive Principles of State Policy.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Describe the educational role of State Government. Development of Hindi Language 6. a. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers.5. 2002. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 46 5. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Clearing House function 9. 4. 3. b.3. Article 29 and 30 7.
Education in Emerging Indian Society. S. K and Narang C.1. K. (2004). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. S. B. N.3. L. 48 . (2007). (2009). Bhatia. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Dash. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2008). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Education in Emerging Indian Society.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Ghosh.
1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4.2 1.4.6 1.3. Jainism.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4.4 Moral education 184.108.40.206 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4. Christianity.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4. Buddhism etc. Islam. Students should be 49 .8 1.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 220.127.116.11.4.4.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.5 1.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.1 Why Moral Education 1.1 18.104.22.168 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4. religious education should be broad based.
. you will be able to: 1. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. duty-consciousness. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. religious education and the concept of secularism. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Thus.4. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. know the position of religious education in our country 3. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life.D. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth.4.” Education broadens human outlook. In the complicated and complex society of today.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. According to E. state meaning and need for moral education 1. As result of which. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. understand the relationship between religion and education 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. 1. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. "In A multireligious society like ours. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. India' can produce men of character. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance.and dedication. integrity. beauty and goodness so that 50 . An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world.
religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. through religious practices and 51 . at least occasionally.4. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. As our country is a country of diverse religions.4. Thus. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate.3.” From the above.3. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. Viewing the defects of religious education. castes and creeds. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. 1. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. According to Article 19. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. 1. According to Article 22. They thought that any kind of narrow. As a matter of fact.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. Children attend these organizations. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. religion and democracy are same.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. if not regularly. No religious tax can be imposed on them. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. In short. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. all citizens are free to follow any creed. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. realizes God in himself. 1947 we achieved our freedom. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. it is clear that the State has no religion. rancour. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. Hence. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal.
To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 .teachings. and what is evil. aggressive. what is done and what is not done etc.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. for the development of the individual and the society. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. moral and spiritual values. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. It is religious education. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. Good education. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. temperament etc. As a result of which. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. If unreleased. It helps to modify habits attitudes. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). He also learns about social. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. which help him for the development of his character.. one fully developed. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. intellectual and physical faculties of children. which can mould. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. when he becomes an adult.
Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. Therefore. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people.4. 3.3. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. If we open the pages of history. 53 . towards the society. This should not be allowed to happen. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. 1. which is the basic need of a democratic life. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. 2. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way.
churches and mosques 7. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1.5. Write Article 22 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. For this. 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Gurudwara as. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. stories of moral greatness. therefore. fellow-feeling.4. 11. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. 10. Life histories of great persons of the world. they should be discussed in the right earnest. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. examples of patriotism. Since all religions have virtues.
6. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). 1. 55 . Non-injury. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’.4.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society.acquisitiveness). Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Swadeshi (Patriotism). the methods of teaching.4. 2. The content of the curriculum. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Cultivation of emotions. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. “Let all be happy and free from disease. Satyam (truth). therefore. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. is that which develops moral values. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 1. 5. Without moral values. students. Patriotism. 2. Self sacrifice. 6. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. in the home. 8. 3. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Purity. Fearlessness. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. They will play their role effectively. 4. Service to others. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 5. Brahmacharya (celebacy).6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Moral education. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. 3. 7. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. let men see well of one another. 8. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Asvada (Control of palate). 7. 4. Aparigarha (Non.
Good manners. The School Assembly should be held for a few. National unity and Spiritual values. Sharivashram (Physical work). The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Asatyam (Non-thieving). The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. 3. In the school programme. 4. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. 3. Discipline. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. religions may be included in the syllabus. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. minutes in the morning for group singing. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Efficiency. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Good temper. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. 2. 1. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. 11. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). 10. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Unity of mankind.9. Secondary Stage 1. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Integrity.4. 56 . Simple texts and stories concerning different. discipline.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. should form a normal part of school programme. 57 . In this connection. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 4. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. love of humanity. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 2. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . 5. 3. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. Silent meditation should be encouraged. patriotism and self-discipline. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. 5. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education.4. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. In other words. University Stage 1.
For this. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. a. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. 2. The School Assembly should be held for a few. b. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. the. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. Training of Character 3.4. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. b. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 1. In short.4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1.1. 58 . According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. Sri Prakasa 6 . 4. Discuss the aims of Religious education.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. minutes in the morning for group singing.4. 1959 5. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. 2. a. a.
B. (2003). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2007). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2008). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. P. Bhatia. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Pahuja.1. L.P. K and Narang C. M. New Delhi : Siddiqui. Ltd. Publishing Corporation. N. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Dash.H. K. Theory and Principles of Education.H.4. J. 59 . N.C. New Delhi: A.
5.4 1.5 1.5.e. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.2 1.8 22.214.171.124 1.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.1 1.5.9 1. 60 . disparities between provinces/States..11 1.6 1. Although.5.5.12 126.96.36.199.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. i.10 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 188.8.131.52 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.3 1.
3. 1. 6. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. work hard towards this end.1.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. for example. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 1. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. 8. They therefore. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. 5. you will be able to: 1. energy.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. know the education suited to different environments. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.5. This leads to separatist movements. etc. they take appropriate measures. Accordingly. roads. 7. 2. 61 .5.5. waters. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. 4. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. understand the regional educational development in India 3. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.
Secularism. Tight security arrangements should be made. • Separate States (of course viable States).6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. some States became educationally far advanced. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. 4. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. 62 . some average. while others remained educationally backward. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region.5. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. 2. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. and. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. Therefore. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. 3. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. on the basis of regional development may be formed. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions.
approved proposals worth Rs. 63 . the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted.14. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has.g. Mizoram.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. Itanagar. Even in each State. and provision of informal education to enable those.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. the State Governments. Rs. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. Out of this. library buildings.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. academic buildings. Guwahati. Jammu and Kashmir. etc. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. the Union Government.84 crore was released in 2005-06. 1. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans.. Regional Centres of IGNOU. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. Funds amounting to Rs. Nagaland and NEHU.After the Planning Process has originated. NERIST. since its inception in 1998-99. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. In the Central sector.480. NIT. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters.5. Tezpur. books. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development.392. remained under developed. etc. After the attainment of independence. Central Universities of Assam. These projects are in various stages of implementation. However. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. while some States like Bihar. Silchar. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. scholarships.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice.
64 . Source: National Portal Content Management Team. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Moreover. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. A provision of Rs. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.05 crore and Rs. too. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. Government expenditure on education.187. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.57 crore and Rs. During 2003-04.5. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. Out of this an amount of Rs.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.501.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.8 per cent in 05).60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.40. Tezpur University.261.500. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).
North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. too. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. pharma. for instance. Medical education. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. engineering and R&D. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. The Chandigarh Administration. Kerala and Gujarat. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. To add to the woes. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. health services and welfare of the citizen population. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. English. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. notes the study. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Andhra Pradesh. Moreover. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). for which 16 sites.5. too. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Karnataka. Karnataka. Tamil Nadu. too. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Listing the positives. telecom.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. 1.
there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. the interests. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. life-oriented and environment slanted. The living conditions. the working days: an academic . Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. while the former does not. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. the socio-physical conditions. Of course. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. The working hours of educational institutions.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. when he will not be sure of time. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. taking the average in the middle. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. For a learner living in a rural area. and so on. In the same manner. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. the needs. Then education become realistic and idealistic. which a non-tribal person cannot do. the teaching methods. even actually looking at the watch. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. 66 .year. the curricular subjects. in which the learners live. Hence it is called as need-based. the vocations. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends.
2. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. 67 . There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.5. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.5. to suit education to different environments? 1. 1. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .
Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. C. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. Salim.G.2. a.K.N. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. some States have become more developed than others b. R. S. and Nair. (2002). S. during the British rule. Giridhar. some of areas which were under the native rulers. Education in Developmental Arena. (2001). (2001).H. Educational Development in India.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.5. 60% 1. Education Scenario in India. A. 68 . Dubey. New Delhi: Authors press. (2008). remained undeveloped 3.
UNIT – II 69 .
community development. semi literate and illiterates. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. National Integration. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. school community and mass media. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. 71 . Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university.
1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.7 2.1.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.3 184.108.40.206.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .220.127.116.11 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 18.104.22.168 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.1.LESSON 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.6.9 2.4 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.8 22.214.171.124.2 2.1 2.5.6 Education for Secularism 2.
there should be made no distinction of caste. In the matter of admitting students in schools.1. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. colour or wealth. 2. The students may be associated with the management of the school.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically.1. This is the political aspect of democracy. Democracy thus means power of the people. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. socialism and secularism 2. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. 5) Encouragement to Group Work.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. Abraham Lincoln. understand the concept of democracy. 3) Provision of Manual Work. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. socialistic and secular state. 73 . 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.2. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’.1. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. creed. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. for the people by the people”. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. you will be able to: 1. socialism and secularism 2.
Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. it soon spread all over the world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 8) Opportunities for Social Service.. 12) Visits to Legislatures. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. declamation contest etc. There are different brands of socialism. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 11) Student Parliament. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students.1. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. 74 .5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. Democracy means 2. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. may be planned. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 2. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. debates.
8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.1.5. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. oppression and disparity. the prince and the peasant.5. the wealthy and the poor. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. none high”. 75 . 2. free from exploitation. but on the path of non-violence. Under it. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. service and cooperation.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 2. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books.1. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. the employer and the employee are all on the same level.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 7) Special facilities for girls.
” In every political and educational corner. 11) State schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Write any two main features of socialism. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. "which seeks the development of physical. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth.1. secularism is being propagated. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. 2. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. 76 .9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. According to Holydake. Everyone says. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. “India is a secular-country. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system.
6.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. people started believing in regionalism. 2) It permits freedom of religion. In this type of prevailing situations. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. During the recent past. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. That is why. 3) It permits freedom of worship.1. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is.6. There is need of making the people open minded. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. A large number of people is uneducated. 8) It believes in co-existence. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. education etc. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. Equality. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. 2. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. “Webster further says. 5) It implies tolerance. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase.opposed to religious education. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations.1. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. liberty. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. should be independent of religion. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. the belief that the state morals. fraternity. 77 . people have narrow mindedness. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. Moral values have to be imbibed. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. 9) It stress free inquiry. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity.
Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. In the hands of such teachers. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. The students may be taken to different centers of religions.presented by the students in the gathering. 1) Moral Education.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. The very sight of the building. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. Religious Education. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show.1. education. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . There should be some internal checking of the material being. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. While doing so. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. that the central string of all religions is one. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution.6. 2. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. students belonging to different religions should be associated. In the celebration of each such function. No doubt. tours and trips may be organized. Patiala.
personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Define Secularism 9.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. No doubt. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The term secularism was first used by 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The word “Seculum” means 7. 2. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions.
In the matter of admitting students in schools. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. d. a. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. for the people and the people”. 3. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. 4. b. Provision of Manual Work. Equal Opportunities for Admission. 5. 3. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. 2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. a. b. there should be made no distinction of caste. 4. creed. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. The students may be associated with the management of the school. a. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. Socialism aims at equality. 5. Since socialism stands for equality.1. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. George Jacob Holydake 80 . This present age 7.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 6. Socialism aims at social justice. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Power of the people 2. c. Abraham Lincoln. Tuition free education b. Respect of Individual Personality. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. colour or wealth.1.
New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2004). Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Mohanty. J. K and Narang C. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Dash. education etc. (2003). L. B.1. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Pahuja. (2008). should be independent of religion. Anmol Publications Pvt. 81 . Theory and Principles of Education. Ltd. b. a. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 10. K. a. N.C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2005). Bhatia. (2007).8. P. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. b. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. the belief that the state morals.” 9. It permits freedom of religion. N. Ltd. J.
2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.8 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.5.7 2.2.2 2.3 126.96.36.199.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.9 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.6. knowledge and experience of one 82 .6.2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 188.8.131.52 Role of Teachers in International understanding 184.108.40.206.LESSON 2.1 2.2.10 220.127.116.11 2.2.5.
83 . It involves physical.2. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. moral. as it is t he aim o f modern education. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. application. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. and 4. who are placed in his custody. aims and objectives of the school. emotional. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. 3. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4.generation to another. skills. 2. mental. understandings. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. social. as workers. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. The developmental roles of children. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. a r e 1. 2. as citizens. therefore. social and moral aspects.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.an instructor of school children. 2. you will be able to: 1. as persons. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. as learners. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values.2. A teacher is first and foremost. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. development.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms.
The following are some of such roles described in brief. inquisitive. mentally.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. morally. a part of their day in 84 . He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. member of his community at the outset. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. The students live. 2. mental. motivated. social and emotional health. Teacher as a Citizen Next. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. He is to become an active member. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. and aesthetically to become. 3. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen.2. economically effective. emotionally. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. 1. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. intellectually.All education should lead to better behavioural development. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. morally. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. 2. socially. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. He has to look after their physical. experiences and acceptance. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. culturally confident. physically fit for socially efficient. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born.
This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural.2. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out the role of teachers towards community development . Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. India is a land of many castes. languages and religions. solve them. They will be spending with their parents. activities of the society into which he is born. fine art associations. science club. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. photographic clubs. 4. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. 2. Dr. faiths. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance.the school being under the custody of teachers. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. Unless. and most of hours. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. creeds. It 85 .
It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. this integration of the Indian people. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . narrow-minded provincial. folklore and teaching of social studies. social studies. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. ‘We should not become parochial. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. with straight backs and look up at the skies. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man.5. poems. the citizens of the Republic of India. At the primary stage the importance of stories. c. Nehruji has explained this as.” Regarding the role of education. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. b. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. national anthem and other national songs. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer.” 2. the study of language and literature. should be emphasised. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. and make into one strong national unit. therefore. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. stand up straight.is. 1. The only process is the process of education. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. Let us.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. a. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. Sampurnanand remarked.2. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. It should broaden the outlook. Radhakrishnan. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration.
educational excursions. National Days—January 26. 7. dramatics and youth festivals. Student Camps. 9. Scouts and Guides. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. 2. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. symposia. Textbooks. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. ACC. Reverence of National Flag. Co-Curricular Activities. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. militar y training like the NCC. 8. tours. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. 5. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. 3. 10. and picnics. Uniform for School Children. t he st udent s and t he community. 87 . Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. sports. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. 4. Celebrations of National Days. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Taking Pledge. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. 6. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. debates. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Singing of National Anthem. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country.different social sciences. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. languages and literature.
t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Open-Air Dramas. 13.2. 14. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. iii. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. v. 12. ii.5. Admissions to schools. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. region or religion. language. Educational and Travel Documentaries. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. Students Exchange and Tours. School Projects. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Recognition of Institutions. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. 88 . on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Admissions. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 2. flora and fauna. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . ways of thinking and doing things. colour. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. 15. 16. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. iv.11.
It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities.2. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. ix. camps. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. vii. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. cultures and races on equal bases. irrespective of national boundaries. viii. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes.vi. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define National Integration 3.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. 2. Community dinners. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.
lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. (c) fairly tales. Therefore. 5. 2. Dr. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Organising of debates and.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. Strong has observed.2.. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. patriotism is not enough. (b) stories of children of other lands. often in connection with anniversaries.” 2. C. Radhakrishnan states. Teachers 90 . Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. In a very real sense. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.e. 3. of his body and mind.6. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. This. if it happens.friendships between children of different countries.as important as that of a national citizenship.F. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. therefore. 4.2.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . that war. and the healthy development. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. 2. the international level.6.
Russian. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other.” Well Informed About World Situations. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . an Englishman. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Indian and American. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. a German.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. They should not be propagandists. Impartial in their Treatment. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed.
2.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. Defects of the educational System . Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . understand and indiscipline: 1. the education function can be carried. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. majority of people are. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. 4.Another major. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. Wide Spread Frustration . It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. As the school is but a miniature society. It does not prepare students for life. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals.2. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. and help the students to over . These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. Devaluation of Values . Chronic Poverty .For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. 3. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. leading to.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. 5.2. which results in agitation and aggression language. there is wide spread frustration among all people. If this is done.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions.
Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. 2. 4. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. fellow feeling. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. 5.2. sympathy and good will among the nations. co-operation.2. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. 93 .democratic nature. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. love. 3. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. community development. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 18.104.22.168 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 22.214.171.124 Functions and role of schools in the society 126.96.36.199 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 188.8.131.52 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 184.108.40.206 Radio as an agency of education 220.127.116.11 Television as an agency of education 18.104.22.168 Press as a medium of education 22.214.171.124 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
126.96.36.199 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 188.8.131.52 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
184.108.40.206 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
220.127.116.11 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
In fact.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. He taught his students orally. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Define community. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Hence. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. art galleries. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. 2.3. Museums. “All the citizens of the community. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. books. citizens and school leaders must co-operate.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. the invention of the printing press. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Now internet is being used. periodicals. Then came newspapers.V. Emphasising this thing. Crow and Crow write.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. Moreover. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. To make them achieve their aim. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. During the course of time. led to the printing of books. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. are increasingly used in education. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room.
Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. music.telecast. Thus. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Effective means of presenting music. languages. rather than on picture.3.G. A lot of work by way of pre. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. Thus. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. 2. In the emphasis is on sound. current affairs and other areas.classroom teachers. 101 .1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. art. politics. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. the teacher still occupies. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. In collaboration with the experts. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. 2. Reynolds. dram appreciation. Students listen various talks.6. the place of importance. It is also an important source of entertainment. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. for the teacher through school broadcasts. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. Important happening inventions. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. “Listening participation” in current history. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. social studies. It enlightens public opinion. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. Various talks. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher.
Participation of local teachers and pupils. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. travel talks. audibility and presentability. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. Team-teaching demonstrations. at any place. At present. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. style. 3. Making learning an open system. 5. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. informal and non-formal education. speech. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Before presenting the programme. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. 102 . the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. mathematics. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. projects or creative activities. at play. School concerts. 4. fol classical music. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. plays. at drawing room. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. development of lessons. at recreational centers. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 18.104.22.168 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
22.214.171.124 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 126.96.36.199 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 188.8.131.52 Advantages of formal education 2.2 Levels of formal education system 184.108.40.206.3.8 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.5 220.127.116.11 2.4.4 Limitations of formal education 2.7 18.104.22.168 Non formal educational system 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 22.214.171.124 Aims of Non formal education 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 126.96.36.199 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 188.8.131.52 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.4.LESSON 2.
the temple. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner.4. the mass media et. it was mostly. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. School is.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. 3.4. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. the most important agency of formal education. open school. 3. open university. 2. 9.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. To realize this objective of education. 2. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. say the Government or the private enterprise. 7. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. you will be able to: 1. Education organised by some agency. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. imparted at the residence of the teacher. 4. 4..2. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education.4. 2. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. 110 . 2. 8. starting and ending at -a particular age.3. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education.4. 6. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 2. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. compare formal and non formal system of education. 5. the community. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. Education. In ancient time in India. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. the learner are acquainted. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. his mental alertness. the family.
secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. such as a high school or secondary school. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. or post secondary education. Through early formal education. capacity. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 .a secondary education. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. structured education. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. the elements of language are first learned. diplomas. Higher Education: Higher education. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.3. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. third stage. also called tertiary. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six.3. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. In general. or academic degrees.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. depending on the jurisdiction. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills.2. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality.4. as well as vocational education and training. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Concepts of proportion. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. 2.4. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . usually between the ages of zero or three and five.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Some education systems have separate middle schools.
and remote dwellers. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 .4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Agencies can be classified as 2. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. 2. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. 4. is an important agency of formal education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. 2. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.3. late beginners etc. 3.4. children with disabilities.4.which will help for nation's development. What are levels of formal educational system? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. adults as well as children. systematic. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. It is deliberate. “Non-formal education should 113 .” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.e.learning client take some learning objectives.formal education. Therefore. Non-formal education includes adult education. i. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. Open university. continuing education and on the job oriented education. adding up to a true learning society. planned. curriculum. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. It unlocks the doors of development plans. financially supported life formal education. It is functional. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. Thus.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. to help themselves. etc. It is much more responsive to needs and change. until 1970 it had not been defined. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. place of instruction. open learning. admissions. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. According to Malcolm A. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. it is a more effective tool for rural development. one could say that non-formal education is an active. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. systematic.. However. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. staffed. it has its own valid claim to reality. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. Adiseshiah.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population.
secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. 5. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. Process of sharing.4. 3. socialism. It should lay emphasis on the self.4. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. i. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. 6. modes of teaching.4.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. To develop in the student.4. Lawrence. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. 2. 7. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. curriculum. international understanding. 2. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.S.e. Flexibility in various aspects of education. exploring. age. the Ideas of citizenship. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. place of education. Covering life span of an individual. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. co-curricular activities. evaluation etc.learning pattern. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. self.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.” According to H. Preparation for future needs. national integration.be marketable and vocationalised. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. 114 . Part-time education. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. 4.renewal.S. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. admissions. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. To help industrial workers to better their skills.” 2.
3. school dropouts. 10.4. Universalisation of primary education.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country.4. in villages and those who live in towns. 115 . • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. 9. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 2. Senior Secondary. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. Technical.4. Meeting the omissions of formal education. To offer Secondary. 4. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. publication and information dissemination.4. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. 5. 4.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 7. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. 3. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. 6. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. Eradication of adult literacy. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 2. 5.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. • 2. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 8. working adults.
This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . Institutions for formal education. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. To better qualifications. 4.2. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. training centres in factories.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. To increase knowledge and 2. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. others are formal and informal. effective in modern societal context. etc. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras.full time to learners – can be home. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies.4. 2. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. 2. 3. To make if. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. centres of correspondence education. Radio and television.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . Therefore. self-employment iii.4.. farm. All-round development i.4. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. public libraries. etc. Again. factory. open space. library. if organised in isolation.
Give examples of non formal education? .V. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Face Contact programmes. Correspondence lesson. List out any two aims of non formal education. Teaching to face teaching. institution. Written tests. radio. .6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Lecturing T. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. . 117 . Define non formal education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. 6. 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
3. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. b. 4. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. systematic. 118 . Higher Secondary level and University level. Open School. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Pre-school level. Formal and Non Formal 2. School 3. adults as well as children. the college and the university come under this category. a. Secondary level. Primary level. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.” 6.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. The school. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. 4. b. 2.4. 2. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. Open University. 7. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.4.2. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss.4. 5. a. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.
Modern Trends in Indian Education.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.2. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Education in Emerging India. B. K and Narang C. (2008). K. Mohanty. (2003). (2005). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Bhatia. Ltd.C. Gupta. Dash. J. S. Pahuja. J. (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2004). P.4. N. New Delhi : 119 . Theory and Principles of Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2008). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ltd. N. L. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.
5.4 Need for Open University 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.3 Objectives of Open University 2.3.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 18.104.22.168 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 22.214.171.124 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.4.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.5.LESSON 2.1 2.5.4 Open University 2.5.6 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.5 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.2 220.127.116.11 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.
Education is for refinement and enlightenment. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. give the meaning.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. farmers. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. For them. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. Thus. economic field or such other fields.2. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. characteristics of open university 4. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. This knowledge may be in political field.5. continuing education is a boon. 2.5.3. Any person. know the need and objectives of open university. 2. However. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other.5. It is a continuous process. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. Under these circumstances. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. you will be able to: 1. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. industries. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. 2. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 .1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. It is a lifelong process. labourers and half educated individuals.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.5.
if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. are also contributing their might for the purpose.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. Block Development Officers.3. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Doctors. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas.5. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . deteriorating to his character and personality.V. T. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. After the achievement of independence. cultured and progressive. Cinema. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Thus.literate person. Throughout the country. Radio. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening.V. if he gets opportunity to develop them. On the other hand. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. For them too continuing education is essential. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Persons engaged in health services. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. 2. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons.directly related to his job. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. On the other hand. Radio and T.
and Radio.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (4) the fundamentals of economics. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. (17) modern international and national events.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (1) ancient history. 2.V.5. 7. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. 6.. we have not been able to achieve our targets. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (6) folk stories. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. Inspite of the great efforts. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as.5. 123 . These books are not very useful. (13) psychology of child behaviour. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. especially women. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (2) basic religious matters. (16) liking. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (14) information about bringing up young children. Of course. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (10) first aid. (8) psychology of adults.3. 3. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. (15) music. 2. 2. (7) folk songs.3. habits of people of other lands. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. 5. 4. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy.
5. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the objectives of NLM? 3.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It also attempts to pr ovide equality.5. NLM was launched in the year 2. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. attendance restrict ion. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.4. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . of educational opportunities. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. 2. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. lack of time etc.
there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. 3.5. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. it makes use of educational techno logy. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. 2. 4. e. Education is not a once for-all process. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world.unobserved. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. 2. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. but 125 .4. its education is not class room based but home based. No one is too old or too late to learn.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. Which was the first open university in India? . the higher the degree of openness. 5. c. IGNOU was established in the year 6. d. and in teaching. b. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience.
annu al wr it t en examinat io n. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 5. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 3. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. supplementing the existing provision. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. 2. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. or who realised too late that they need it. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals.5. who were deprived of t he same earlier. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies.4. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. cho ice o f co ur ses. 4. 2.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. 3.5. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. it a ims at wider and hig her.who did not get it. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. 126 . 6.4. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 2. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. Mo re o ver. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 2. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 4.
cha ng e t heir life compet ence. a state or nation. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. 6.4. 2. Correspondence tuition. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Every day.2. a society. you have learnt the concept. In the present day world. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 7. Therefore. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . semi – literates. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Self instructional materials. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored.5. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. 3. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 8. Tutor Comments. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. 5.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.5. List out any four methods of Open University? . They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Laboratory works. 127 . 2. school drop outs. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 1. 8. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. 4.
7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 4. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. P r int med ia b. unskilled workers and other professionals. 8. (2) basic religious matters. 1985. Television Lessons.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. d. a. which may include house wives. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. need and characteristics of Open University. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 2. (1) ancient history. 2. a. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. (4) the fundamentals of economics. a. b. aspirants for continuing education. 9. 3. 1988. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. Broad casting lectures c. 7. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. its education is not class room based but home based.ambitious learners.5. 128 .5. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 8. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 7. b. Explain the objectives. agricultural and industrial workers. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. youth. 6.
5. R. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. S. Reddy.S. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K. K. K and Narang C.. Ltd.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Modern Problems of Education. (2004). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.2. 129 . (2007). L. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. (2001). Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Udaiveer. (2004). Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia.
UNIT – III 131 .
CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. the education of women. which may claim the attention of those concerned. Training teachers for all levels of education. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Examination reform. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. and teacher education. wastage and stagnation. 133 . the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. examination. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. In Lesson 2. All which is the need of the hour. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. its causes and remedial measures.
6 3.1.LESSON 3.2 EFA – How? 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.3 New initiatives.1.5 3.3.1 3.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 18.104.22.168.1.1.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.2 3.4 3.1.7 3.1.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.8 3.1. 135 .1.
know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. social. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. 2. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. education received added importance and significance. “The State shall 136 .3. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI).” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. Therefore.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. understands the country. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. 3. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. (EOI) 2.1. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. you will be able to: 1. directed that. therefore. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country.1. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). Eradication of Illiteracy. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. Continuing Education (CE) 1. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. may be political. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. On the other hand. economic or cultural. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE).
Universalization of Enrolment. After the attainment of independence. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . rights and responsibilities. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. the national Government under.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. 3. It enables the parents to send their children to School. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Continuing Education (CE). 137 . From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Three Stages for Universalization. Therefore. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. After the enrolment of the students in school is over.endeavour to provide. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Universalization of Retention. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment.
1990. then to 1976. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. Write Article 45. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. later to 1988. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. 3. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 138 . Therefore.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. It is safe to assure. UNESCO Bulletin states. This target had to be revised to 1970. 1995 (for upper primary stage). While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. educational enterprise. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education.3. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal.1. present and future. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development.
11. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. problem of literacy. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. etc. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. Emphasis must be given on health education. 3. their enrolment and retention. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 139 . adolescent and adult. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. Education of Girls. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. 9. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all.1. Early childhood education should be streamlined. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. NAEP. FELF. 6. 8. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. rural areas. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7.3. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). In order to make the programme of education for all community. Jams and Jellies. their social economic status and occupations. Disabled. creed. slum areas. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. The Social Education. 10. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. and Women’s education programme should be improved. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. Apart from primary education. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). 12. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. nutrition education and sports and games. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. 3. Education of the Impaired. the art of preparing fruit-juice. 5. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. By undertaking survey. sex. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children.
1. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.e. 4. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.3.3 NEW INITIATIVES. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Expand MLL and SSA . Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Wastage and Stagnation. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.1. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.
The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . School Factors . it is considered as wastage. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.first stage of education.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Personal Factors . Familial Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. Social Factors .
142 . Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. . Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Wastage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 7. .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education.
School Factors . Societal Factors .The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . rural or urban 3. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.3. They are described hereunder :1.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. school or society. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. in his home. relating to home.The following factors. Personal Factors . Family Factors .1. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.
discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. 144 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. mid-day meals. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . stationary. uniforms. etc. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. Define Stagnation? 9.
for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Universalization of Enrolment c. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Universalization of Retention 2. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education.1. 3. “The State shall endeavour to provide. 145 . developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc..3.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. Universalization of Provision b. directed that. a. 2. a.1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. 3. 6.1. a. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. improvement of curriculum.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. 4. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA.” 3. Minimum Levels of Learning b. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. 4. b. Hartog Committee. therefore. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment.
Hemchand. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Social Factors 8. Personal Factor b. School Factors d. a. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. introduce graded curriculum. Problems of Elementary Education.K.K.7. improve examination system. New Delhi: 146 . b. T. (2008).1. (2001). Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. (2007). S. a.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 9. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Sharma.N. 3. Familial Factors c. Crescent Publishing Corporation. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.
2.1 22.214.171.124.2.7 Open book examination 126.96.36.199.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 188.8.131.52.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.4.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.6.2 Grade System 3.1 Problems of examination 3.4 Question banks 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.5.2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.5 New evaluation procedures 18.104.22.168.2.5.5.LESSON 3.3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.4.
you will be able to: 1. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. 4.2.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.8 3.2. 3.9 3.3. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. Besides. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. 3. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.2. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.2. 3.2. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. but on the other.2. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . suggest the new evaluation procedures.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . 3.2. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.
3. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. roadside Romeoism. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement.3. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage.. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. waiting rooms for girl students.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. If the students are in sufficient number. hostel facilities. The following steps should be taken up. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex.2. They may cause problems relating to discipline. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. They develop secondary sex characteristics. which the educational authorities have to face. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. etc. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. 149 . by providing free education and liberal scholarships. etc. etc. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. schools for them wherever necessary. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing.
public administrators and statesmen. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too.2. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.4. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. assessment and Finance. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Instruction.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.2. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. 150 . conduct of internal examinations. the examination system has an important role to play. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It is considered as a major sub-system. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. appointment of paper-setters. public interested in education. teachers. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents.
2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. etc. etc.4. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. etc. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. etc. examiners.printing and distribution of question papers. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. announcement of results. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. etc. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. values. payment of remuneration to paper-setters.2. invigilators. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. tabulators. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. training of examiners. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. validity and practicability. establishing reliability. 3.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. scrutinizers. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. introducing objective-based testing.
They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. 3) With respect to method of teaching. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. do not appeal to the students and parents. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. which they are expected to study. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. Rote memorisation. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. Subjects. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education.. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. takes the place of comprehensive learning. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. may also discredit them. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public.2. Vagaries in making. 2) From the angle of content of education. 152 . also forbid the reliability of these examinations. it s a common experience that subjectivity. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. lack of objectivity etc.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. stereotyped questions. 3.4. 7) In connection with the question papers. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education... halo-effect. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. may be introduced. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. . Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. re-numbering of answer scripts. List any two merits of examination. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Spot valuation. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately.. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. 153 . revaluation. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Question Books may be developed in all schools.develop true love for education. 4. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.a part of internal assessment. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests.
Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. In actual practice.5. skills are given importance. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3.3.2. he is given extra credit points.5. The new scheme of assessment. attitudes. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Advantages More autonomy is given to students.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . Every paper is treated equal. In this system.2.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. It is complicated. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. Their interests. 3.2. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. The students can take any course offered in any department. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . When a person chooses to work extra. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.
3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. This system reduces comparison of marks. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison.good. or as a 4 credit course. v. poor. courses can have weightages defined.poor.discipline. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course.2. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. While designing syllabus. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. 3.5. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . only the total credits to be earned is specified. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. An example is a seminar. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. Groupism is encouraged. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. In the new system. These weightages are called credits.
With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment.5.5.5. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.2. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. 3.2. However. 3. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. 156 . 3. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.2.
There are no proper procedures for selection. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India.2. recruitment. 6. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. Therefore. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. . Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.5. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.2. However. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. 3.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships.3. List any four new evaluation procedures. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. In the hierarchy.
6. 3. laboratory equipment. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. etc. inspecting the class-room teaching. whether the syllabus has been covered. staff. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning.. requirements. 158 . There has been dearth of properly trained and well. finding out the adequacy of. wherever necessary. library books. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. qualifications. etc. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. playgrounds. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. They are..1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. submitting of the inspection reports. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. school buildings. disciplinary problems. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. finding out whether the prescribed text. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. complaints and compliments. being realised as two different functions. taking up the follow-up programmes. books are followed.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. of late. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. interpersonal relationships and so on.2. in contrast. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. in a sense.qualified personnel. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. Academic inspection. When they are fully realised. 1.
their professional knowledge. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. aptitude. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. 3.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. courses. course in either educational. In the light of these conceptualisation. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. modern. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. at least. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level... and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. Similarly. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. M. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. or. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision.2. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life.Ed. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. once in five years. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. In the case of departmental candidates.Ed. Insistence on specialisation in the B. 159 .
160 . b. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. 4. 3.2. a. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection.2. 3. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Grade System.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Instruction. 3. c. 2. b.2. 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. assessment and Finance. Administration. d. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. a. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. b.
5. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma.2. Open book examinations. (2005). Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. a.4. (2002). Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . New 161 . Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. K. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. 3. S.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. c. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Question banks. (2004). R and Sharma. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.a part of internal assessment. Educational Reforms. Problems of Education in India. 7. b. a. b. b. K. History and Problems of Education in India. a. Multiple sets of question paper. Vaidya. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline.
examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.6 3.5 3.8 3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. 162 .3.10 3.9 22.214.171.124 3. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3.LESSON 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. 126.96.36.199 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3.3 3.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4 3. 4. 3.3. identify the needs of rural India and social.7 3. 5.3.1 188.8.131.52. impact of Higher Secondary Education.
the Banaras Sanskrit College. etc. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country.specialisation programmes 3. 8 years of general education. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages.. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates.e. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education.g. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. Commission emphasised to continue. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges.3. i. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States.. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. The. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. and 3 years of First Degree Course. in Andhra Pradesh. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Similar is the case with some other States.. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. 2. University Education. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. The Calcutta Madras.. 10 years of general Secondary Education.3. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education.e. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . e. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. Consequent on the recommendations. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre.
to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . 5. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. Provision for transfer of credits to students. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities .3. social. to prepare. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. is also a plus point . to imbibe.confidence in students. 7. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. 6.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. 8. 10. economical and political. However. cultural and economic development of the country. 3. 5) to help for the social. educational channels. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self.a sense of dignity of labour. b. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. and. who desire to change from one stream to another. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. historical. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. habits of hard work and develop . It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical.
50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. at the other. social justice.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education.. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. cultural and' religious tolerance. international understanding. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. Sociologically it is undesirable. and that required to enter the tertiary level.national integration. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. cooperativeness. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. to develop national character. 1.3. Philosophically it is not the conception. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. Psychologically. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. and. on one hand. etc. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. 3. The General Educational Spectrum. democratic living.
adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Commerce and other disciplines. professional. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. vegetable growing.3. fish culture. Biology. technical.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. 166 . Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. In our country. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. India is a land of villages. or other machinery. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. educational and cultural services. horticulture. physics or mathematics.— tube-wells. commerce. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. technological. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. and vocations based on dairy-farming. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. Science. commerce. such as Agriculture. the rural areas have suffered very much.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. In the matter of language. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. All these need for an. 2. rural health. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. medical plants. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. 3. Agriculture is the main occupation. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. chemistry. industrial agricultural production is growing. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. In the vocational spectrum. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels.
Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education.3. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely .etc. interests and aptitudes of the students. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. and 5. social justice. and the needs. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. In time. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . In this way. etc. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . the local resources available. In this it may be concluded. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. 4.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. can be ensured. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. There had been favourable reaction from the students. 3. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits.
(2007).3. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Dash.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. Ltd.a sense of dignity of labour. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. Anmol Publications Pvt. 2. objectives. Mohanty. 3. New Delhi : 168 .8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. J. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.3.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 3. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.C.K. habits of hard work and develop . J. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. b. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Vocational Sepctrum. b. we studied the history. Modern Trends in Indian Education. 3. 3. B. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. a. a.3.3. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. Calcutta University Commission 2.3. a. N. (2008). S. General Educational Spectrum and b. to imbibe. (2001). (2005).
9 184.108.40.206 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.6 3.4.7 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.LESSON 3.4.3 3.4.1 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 220.127.116.11.4.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.13 3.8 18.104.22.168.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.5 3.10 3.4.2 3.12 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”.4.11 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3. Education contributes to human development.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge. social and 169 .14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4.
the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. 3. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. family. higher education of girls developed immensely. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. There is a close connection between education and development. community and nation is universally acknowledged. analyze the women and distance education.4. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. Nursing. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. Education . particularly 170 . it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence.higher education in particular. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. While women constituted only 9. economic. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. Home Economics. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century.4. The relevance of women’s education to social. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. you will be able to: 1. For the first time in the history of India. cultural and political development of the individual.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. During the year 1937. Teaching and Fine Arts. Dr. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. although we have miles to go. In the post —independence period. These courses were. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. 3. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4.
0 16. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.4. Even today. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.women.0 32.65 lakhs in 1994-95. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . we have more than 1200 institutions. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. 3. levels and professions. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. out of 9200 and odd colleges.1 31.9 14. Mother Teresa Women University. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. In the rest of the country. In 1950-51.0 Today. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).4.2 29.9 27. Mumbai. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. in our country.4. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. Kodaikanal. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Coimbatore. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.0 43. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.N.D. 3. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. The idea of women’s education for equality. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. Yet. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.1 24.2 22.T Women University.
3. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .44 35.4.36 3.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.66 66.that of boys. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.63 Female % 34. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.27 89.54 12.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. 2.1 and 14.73 10.34 33.56 64.4.47 65. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.4.4%) prefer Arts subjects.53 34. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. 3. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .1 respectively.46 82.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .17 52.83 47. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
Also. promoted and increased. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. etc.4. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. irrelevance of the content of education. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. 3. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. marriage is a very common I factor. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. In every third family. she will only learn fashion. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. In college. 173 . They argue that when their daughter need not earn. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education.hinders the girls from getting higher education. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. distance of the college or university from home. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. According to a survey. particularly. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Book banks should be established. They gave up their studies to enter home life. what is the need for higher education for her. financial difficulty of the parents. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. and coeducation may spoil her character. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. The major hurdles. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. Thus. curriculum not suited to their requirements.
is the only tool for realising empowerment. Empowerment in a nutshell. Education. Full-time employment. It enables to study.economic disabilities faced by women. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests.4. Distance education is a boon to women.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. 3. There are constraints of time. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. space. which is the most dynamic factor of development.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. resources and socio . Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. 3.4. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. Geographic distance of educational institutions. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. It also brings about 174 . It is a productive investment. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women.
they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. education of women must be given priority in national plans. 3. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. The major objectives of women's higher education.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 .9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. higher learning. on their own. legal awareness and economic independence. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. for full development of our human resources.4. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. education of women is of paramount importance. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. Empowerment is an active. Women are partners in development. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. empowerment means being assertive. This can be achieved through reflection. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future.
The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. The local administration. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. 3. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim.4. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. But their number is small. which had been the sole domain of men.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. The educational institutions. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. will encourage them to venture new grounds. who are eager to take up courses. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. has to be implemented at the earliest. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Scholarships and concessions for women. 176 . especially so in the developing countries. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. Better opportunities. Reservation for women. which is pending for a long time.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women.
Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests.000 women in the country. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). talents. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.3 percent. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. especially in developing countries like African countries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent.1%) and architecture and building (38. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. engineering and related technologies (16.9%).. IDP Education.8%). Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Also.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. 3.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Chief Executive. Australia. According to Lindy Hyam. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. But. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. capacities etc.
43% 6. R. 178 . (2007).4.K. Mishra. community and the nation. Pattanaikj. S.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3.to the family.4.R. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.4. 4. Centre for Women’s Studies. create the right attitude towards life. Mother Teresa Women University. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. R. Women Education. a. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Coimbatore.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Mumbai. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. A.C. 4. individuals and society b. Women and Education. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. SNDT Women’s University. (2008). 3. A. and Swain. Annakodi. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. SNDT Women’s University. Rajasthan 5. 3. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Kodaikanal. (2000). 3. Coimbatore. and Suryalatha. S. Mumbai. Rao. (2005).12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Women Education. R. 2.
11 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.6 3.personality of children in and out of school. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .9 3. whole.4 3. They should be trained.5 3.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.10 22.214.171.124.8 3.LESSON 3.1 126.96.36.199 3.3 3.7 3.
national consciousness. know the pre service and in service training facilities. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. understand the training teachers for Primary. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. international. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 5.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.5. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. Shorter working hours. 3. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. social and emotional integration. 4. understanding and strong desire for international peace. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. 3. Lack of physical facilities. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction.5. and national character. 180 . It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. equality and justice. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. you will be able to: 1. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country.
4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers..Less qualified teacher educators. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. Inadequate training in practical skills.Ed. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. and the collegiate teacher education. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 .5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities.Ed. If the student teachers are working teachers. students. the primary teacher education. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. levels. the state Government. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise.5.. the secondary teacher education. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. and M. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. inservice and extension education programmes. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. it is called the Extension teacher Education. who have not been trained earlier. a Diploma course and a Degree course. Lop-sided curriculum. higher secondary teacher education. At the diploma level. 3. etc. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. 3.5. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. the centre. Depending on the levels. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. it is called the In-service teacher education. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. (NCERT) New Delhi. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course.
• the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Educational teehnology cells. state Institutes of Educat ion. 3. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . are established. Also Guidance Bureaux. Expand NCERT 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Education cells. non-formal. depart ments etc.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. collegiate cells. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . extensio n service. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Evaluation unit. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . Science Education units.
which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. primary and secondary school teachers.. which should include experience in the primary schools too. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. and so on. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. to offer consultative services. despite its vast expansion. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. to ensure teacher competence.Ed. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . laboratories. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240.. schools and sister institutions. should be improved on a top priority basis. audio visual aids. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. degree. to prescribe conditions for recognition. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. to improve curricular programmes. material conditions relating to libraries. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified ..post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre.Ed. and 183 . which help breaking isolation from one another .
in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Meanwhile. 184 . Psychology of Students. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. Workshops. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. not came up once again.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. etc. whether they should have professional education or. The problem. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. and XII. Induction Courses.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively.secondary education. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. To meet this exigency. Modern Methods of Evaluation. Agriculture. Organisation of Content Courses.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . though no pre-service training. Hence. Modern Techniques of Teaching. etc. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. methodology and evaluation.
Ed.S. Ajmer. in Education. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. All B Ed. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. Post-Graduates also undergo B.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Degree.A. These facilities are available for regular students. (Education) and M.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country...Ed. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. courses and M. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.A. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.Ed. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.. State Institutes of Education.Ed. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. M. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.’s are elig ible for M. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.Ed. training.. (Education) are organized by 185 . There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. Pre-service training is for those.5.. Degree and M.Ed. For re-orienting the teachers.’s for Ph. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.D.. Courses leading to B.. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.
5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. 5.). 186 . .some Faculties of Education of some Universities.. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. established by tradition and teachers of the past. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.List any two code of conduct for teachers? ..A. (Ed). However. (Ed. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. of conduct—written or unwritten.5. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . they should be conscientious . Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . and B. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Hence the employability of M. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. What is the role of ERIC? .A. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 3. 6.
2. Ajmer. they should be conscientious. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Explain code of conduct for teachers.3. 2.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 6.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 4. National Council of Educational Research and Training. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. b. The necessity is however this. However. a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b.5. 3. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 3. 3. Shorter working hours. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. these problems are not as such cannot be solved.5. Bhopal. a. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. a. Discuss the problems of teacher education. 187 .5. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 5. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. 3. 4.
Ltd Aggarwal. (2009).D. (2010).3. Tewari. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . B. Mohanty. Teacher Education. Teacher Education. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.5. (2003).N. Corporation. P. A. Publication Pvt. and Teacher Education.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. J.
UNIT – IV 189 .
Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. communicable diseases and their prevention. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. objectives. preservation of nutrients. nutritional deficiency diseases. In lesson 1. Since food is the source of nutrients. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. If the diet is poor. objectives. objectives and role of the physical education. 191 . the focus is on the school health programmes. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. economic and educational developments. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. In lesson 4. common ailments of children. The person’s environment is equally important. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. consuming the right amounts becomes important.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual.
9 4. 193 .1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.e. It is a miniature society.1.6 4. emotional and social. for giving health education to the children under its custody.10 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.5 4. physical.8 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1.4 4.1.1 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.11 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community. mental.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1.7 4.1.LESSON 4.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.
To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 9. content of health education. cleanliness and healthful living.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. 3. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 4. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. you will be able to: 1. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. list the common ailments of children 3. 4. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. understand school health programmes 2. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. 10. 4.g.1. To develop healthy health habits among children. 8. explain the importance of First aid 5. training in first aid and etc. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. 7. 6. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. to his family and to the community at large. To give information regarding health rules. know the need for sex education. Instruction.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 194 . To develop certain skills concerning health. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.. 2.1. training of teachers and evaluation. e. 11. 5.
C. Toilet rooms should be amply provided.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. inoculation against cholera. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. play festivals. (ii) communit y healt h. B. Arranging better transportation facilities. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. (xl) mental health. organisation of school health days. etc. vaccination. There should be good drainage facilities. as described below 1. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. (v) safety education. (vi) nutrition education. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. direct lighting. The school buildings should be spacious. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. 3. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided.G. The flooring should not be damp.1. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. minimizing the travelling distance. suitable furniture. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. typhoid. 2. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . (viii) first aid. proper doors and windows. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body.. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. 4. Triple Antigen Vaccination. (xii) smoking education etc. B.coming or absence. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. There should be regular water supply.4. cleanliness weeks. excusing late.. The surroundings of schools should be clean. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. “Play-for-all” programmes. Vaccination for small pox. is imperative. 2. First aid facilities should be made readily available. 5. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. ( iii) sanit at io n.
• When sleeping in groups. 196 . fainting (epileptic fit).. bleeding. etc. C. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. • Close the schools. dislocations. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. wounds. cuts. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. poisons. scalds. and other accidents. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. • Keep all rooms clean. fractures. burns. isolate and notify. • Take nutritious food. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. insect stings. if epidemic is wide-spread. D. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. • Have adequate rest and sleep. • Find out the cases. sports and games in the interest of their health. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. drowning.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles.
1. Mention the school health programmes.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the Health curriculum 3. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. tuberculosis. They are: i) The incubation stage. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. cough.1. So they easily get illnesses. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. There are three stages in any communicable disease. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. 4. backache. which are – cold.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. measles etc. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. water or bodily contact. headache. Once these germs get into the body. 2. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. These diseases are called communicable diseases. pain in the joints. asthma. 4. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . fever. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. polio. chicken pox..5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years.
Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Throat is affected. The symptoms include cold. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage.It is caused by measles virus. Others make the children very weak. Tonsilitis .• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. etc. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness.When a child suffers from scabies. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. 198 . The following are the common communicable diseases. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Mumps . The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Children catch cold from persons having cold. head-ache and cough. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. After three or four days of fever. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Common Cold . eating food which is not clean. Hence liquid diet is recommended.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear.This disease is caused by bacteria. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. cough and fever. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. unhygienic bottle feeding. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Measles . Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. unhygienic living conditions. Hence it is called a killer disease. Scabies . Ear Infections . This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. This is caused by cold virus.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Diarrhoea . sugar and water. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. The child may have fever.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. As the disease progresses. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. Diphtheria . face and waist. The child may also have diarrhoea. What are communicable diseases? 6.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. 5. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. By scratching he causes secondary infections. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist the common ailments of children. 199 .• • • • Chicken Pox . the child is not able to breathe.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. It begins with fever. the child may die. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. Typhoid . If proper treatment is not given. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. raised pink spots appear on head. Shortly. Expand DPT . separate.
Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. etc. dislocation. 5. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. It has its rightful place in education too. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts.1. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. Sprains . It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. swelling. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. it is a subject of art. wounds.4. bruises. sprains. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. scorpion stings. head injury. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological.g. 2.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. It is both biological and psychological. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. man-woman behaviours. fiction. eye injury. and films. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. cuts. 4. films and jokes.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. Drowning . It is essential for ensuring better family life in future.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. snakebites. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. simple fractures.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. Cuts and Bruises . 3.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. 4. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. 200 . fainting. sprains. Wounds . In such cases. drowning. bleeding.1. so-called sex books and periodicals. Sex is popular. and Community Work and Social Service. exciting and body-oriented.
and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. in their ignorance. the school. sex education is being recommended in schools. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. but preserve them from disaster and disease. celibacy are age. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. they would be treading the path of sure doom. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. The values of life. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. 2. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. 3. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. health. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. the religious organisations. The home. Should the boys and girls. B. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. Hence. In secondary schools.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. In today's liberal and interactive society.. try experimenting with their bodies.old values.
Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. common ailments of children. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. first aid and sex education. Teacher education institutions are. communicable diseases and their prevention. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. What are the major components of Sex Education. 4. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. hence. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. when the courses are already overloaded. 202 . Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. the school health programmes.1. C. there will no crisis in its implementation. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 188.8.131.52 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the food nutrients 2. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. 209 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s.2.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . 210 . U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s .2. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied.4. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. minerals. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. Let us talk about each of these aspects. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. If you look at the definition carefully. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.
Preferences/customs are also important. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. dosa are typical of the south. People in the east of our country prefer rice. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . it is also specific to a given activity level . The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. paratha and poori. activity level and physiological stress. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). moderate or heavy work. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. 4. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. Even within given States there is considerable variation. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. These are: region where the person resides and income. There is no point.one in the morning and the other at night. sex. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. for example.6. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south.2. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. the social and religious practices of that region. In other words.g. construction labourer). A balanced diet is specific firstly. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. In the case of adults. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.sedentary. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). Rice or rice preparations such as idli. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns.g.
These determine the acceptability of foods. As you read this discussion. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. for example. One must. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. taboos related to food may play an important role. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. however. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. however. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Having more money. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. customs. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. As income increases. One person may be fond of milk products. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. as important for the rich as for the poor. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. nuts and dry fruits. income plays a vital role. while another may hate them. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. In addition to these. However. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. vegetables and fruits. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. If you think of your own religious group. however. Among the social factors. fat and sugar tend to increase. Including these 212 . Even among flesh foods. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. Judicious selection of food is.planning the diet. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods.
3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 8.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. green leaves. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. but they should be thrown away. etc. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. eggs . 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 7) One should eat what is needed to live . don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. Define balanced diet. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. meat. if the teachers have good food habits. mouth. List out any two healthy food habits.eating is hazardous. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 8) Walk a while after eating. For this. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 17. fruits. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. over-eating or under. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 213 . 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost.
planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Vitamin D 5. Explain food nutrients 4. 4. Bitot’s spots. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. When the diet is inadequate. Keratomalacia 3. Corneal xerosis. e. b. 4.2. good nutrition is essential for good health. Discuss good food habits. a. d. Beri Beri 4.4. Conjuctival xerosis. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 .2. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. preservation of nutrients. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. c. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. In fact.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. Night blindness. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2.
Health and Nutrition Education.C. 7. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Nutrition and Dietetics. Chopra. Sri Lakshmi B. (2009). (2008). R.6. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. 8. a . R. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Food and Nutrition Education. minerals.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . mouth. 4. Food and Nutrition Education.2. Nutrition Science. Hands. (2008). b. (2004). Food should be consumed after eating well. (2005). U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . P.N. b.M. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. a. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. S. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. A Text Book of Foods.
3.8 4.3 4.1 184.108.40.206.7 4.2 220.127.116.11 Impact on Education 4.10 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168 4.4 4.3.9 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3. 216 .1 Impact on social development 188.8.131.52 4.LESSON 4.13 4.6.
There is some difference.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.3. It is not sex education. 4.3. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. Whenever we talk of sex education.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. state the meaning. describe the impact of population growth on social.3. family planning and sex education etc. community. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. Population Education. and the consequences of these processes. his societ y and the world. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. economic and educational development 3. It is a much wider co ncept. his family. understand the importance of small family norm 5. the stress is.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. therefore. 217 . A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. aims at providing the younger generation.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. characteristics and changes for himself. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. you will be able to: 1. 4. objectives and need for population education 2. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. population characteristics. the causes of population change.
5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . the family. the society.4. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the nation and the world.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. Define Population Education 2. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.3. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. 4. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. 4. 219 .3. With the larger families. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. 4. When the family is small. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. Family is considered as a social unit.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. economic and educational development of the country. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress.3.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. which will not be possible without population control.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. health and happiness of its citizens. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare.6. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. the family programmes are also handicapped. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. Every second two thousand children are being born. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries.
We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. Swollen cities. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. Many students herded in a small room. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. In developing countries. i. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher.e. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth.6. in buses and trains. The gulf between them is widening further. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. 4. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.6. toilets. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. unemployment. organization index and material index. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. 220 . The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. facility for drinking water. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. teacher index. heavy intern I migration etc.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. in parks and other places of public gatherings. 4.3. in cinema halls and theatres.3.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. lack of proper health care. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. and so on. pollution of the environment..
. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. can be studied in science and health education. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. family planning etc. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. bar graphs etc. Social Studies Statistics on population education. There would be poor library facilities. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. essays. blank verses etc. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility.3. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. even text books would be in short supply. and laboratory equipments. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hindi and English. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. reproduction. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. can be taken up. less space facilities. 221 . 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. There would be very few audiovisual aids. thus. less budget for education. Regional Language. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers.
They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. United States of America. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Canada. 10. 11. 7. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. West Bengal. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. deaths.3. 15. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 13. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 8. Uttar Pradesh. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. 3. causes of deaths etc. China. area and average density of population. 4. 12. 5. 14. Children with the help of parents. 9. They may arrange them as per average density of population. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 2. Bihar.4. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Children may compare two families. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Brazil. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living.
values and role children etc. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. The question.3. 18. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. 16. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. age at marriage. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. we have no right to stop 223 . Comparing life in various respects in two families. preferences for sex.be opened in their schools. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. 17.
on an overall basis.4-6.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. Since the program's inception. which education can only do. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.to emphasize family planning services. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. at varying places in different regions.were implemented 224 .3. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. More than 45 years ago. especially the expansion of child immunization services . In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).. and the child survival components of the news: program.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. 4. continued . The Family Welfare Program. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3.their entry into the world”. however. “He who is responsible for population growth.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.
reliance on local women as community health workers. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. In October 1997. a focus on health promotion. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. and nominal fees for services. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. and the World Conference on Women. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. In April 1996. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. Local programs vary in their approaches. men. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. the community appears willing to pay for services. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well.earlier than the safe motherhood components. At these meetings. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. Moreover. expansion of services to unmarried women. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. Therefore. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women.
What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. nation and the world.emphasizing the needs of the client. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. 1997). CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. community. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.3. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. Describe the impact of population growth on social. Its main purposes are to create awareness. family. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. What are the goals of RCH? 4. economic and educational development 4. involving the community. 226 .11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. 4. 3.3. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion.
Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. 227 . b. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. a. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. 3. a. Canada. bar graphs. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. population characteristics. China. Brazil. less budget for education. 5. 7. his society and the world.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.” 2. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. less space facilities. and the consequences of these processes. the causes of population change. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. characteristics and changes for himself. 6. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. b. 4. a. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. his family. area and average density of population.4. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers.3. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. United States of America.
Ltd. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Principles of Population Studies. (2005). New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Udaiveer. Coimbatore. Centre for Women’s Studies. Ltd. (2005). (2002).14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Reddy. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Modern Trends in Indian Education. N. Modern Problems of Education. Jayapoorni. (2004).K.3.4. T. 228 . Bhende. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (1992). New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. J. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Kantikar. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. A. V.
4.8.3 184.108.40.206.4.4 Lead up games 4.4.7 4.4.10 4.6 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .LESSON 220.127.116.11.4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.1 4.3 Indigenous games 4.9 4.2 18.104.22.168 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124.4 4.4.1 Minor games 4.5 4.11 19.2 Major games 4.
which forms its most valuable assets. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. 4. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. 4. moral fitness and emotional fitness. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. classify the different types of games.4. mental alertness. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country.4. as it should 230 . list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. the youth of the country.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education.4. you will be able to: 1. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. full records of physical activities should be maintained.4.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. social fitness. The concept of physical education has been made broader. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. leadership and balance in defect. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. team spirit. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. perseverance.
Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. obedience to rules. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Therefore. To be more precise. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. The educational efforts at home. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. leadership. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. team spirit. They go hand in hand. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Every individual is a part of society. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. They are inseparably united together. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance.
social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. pleasing manners.4. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. Buck has observed that 232 . Regarding the significance of physical education.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. mo ral. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. nor body but the whole man. H. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. Rousseau states. ment al. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. game and sports.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. 4.” The Secondary Education Commission. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind.” Montaigue writes. C.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. Physical exercises. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. a sound health. Just like Education.
we must exercise the whole human being.4. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. resourcefulness and smartness. strength.” In brief.a properly directed physical education should result in health. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. initiative. speed. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. flexibility and power.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. endurance. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. happiness. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. “If we wish to develop the whole being. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development.” 4. 233 . elegance. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. Froebel says. etc. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. coordinative abilities. efficiency and character.
234 (i) (ii) . While wars. Every age has its artists. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. they may form gangs. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. plagues and famines. poetry and painting. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. If no opportunity is provided to the students. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. its adherents and its enemies.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. systems of government. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. in greater or lesser degree. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. these fundamental things have always been present. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. including all racial groups and historical ages. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students.
to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. 3. obedience. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. respect for rules. to develop tolerance.sacrifice.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. 235 . bravery and interest in games and sports. 2.\ to develop perseverance. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . self. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. B. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. etc. Write any two importance of Physical Education.
6.4. Haag.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 2. 4. 16. Emergency care procedures should be followed. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Be self-confident. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 4. Inform health principles. Be punctual. 8. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Keep the field ready for the activities. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Be sportive. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students.4. is essential. injuries among pupils should be made. 9. 12. 15. students.H. Be in the uniform. 236 1. Usually parents. 3. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. 11.4. and readmission after they have recovered. defects. . Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Posture screening should be done. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Always keep the whistle ready. Act as a leader. and. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. 7. 13. Be well-prepared. 14. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. 10. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. 5.
4. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. Moreover. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. 1. chasing. 4.8. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. As such they are well enjoyed by children. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. frolic and jo y. Such inst incts as imitation.4. 4. Indigenous games. Lead up games.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. their development is handicapped. the play. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules.4. less equipment and less expense. 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. 237 .1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls.
Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. 238 . skipping. wherever the kids assemble. Hockey. heading. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. On lawns. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. on sea-shore. finding the partner. on mountain tops and on river beds. Shuttle Badminton. Except a few games. with implements or without implements. women take part most of the games. stopping. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Tennis. Soft Ball. catching. the number of players and substitutes. bowling etc. Tennikoit. Cricket. boosting. Ball Badminton. spiking. Jump the stick clay and so on. Dodging. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. For each game the rules are many. Volley Ball. under ball pass Relay. the games can be modified according to convenience. 4. snatching the kerchief. trapping.With a very few rules. Kabaddy etc. driving. hitting. couple tag. Hopping. Basket Ball. some of them are played indoors. These games require varied skills such as running. Khokho.8. benefit in playing minor games. While many of them are played in the open playfields.. over ball pass Relay. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. muffling. on hard courts.4. pitching. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. The dimension of the posts and nets. Throwing. Jumping. dribbling. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. zig zag relay.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. They are played for a shorter duration. the play equipment.
these games being popular. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . birth. On occasions like marriage. and . List out some major games. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. While observing the players in action. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Games may be classified as 6.4. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. They have an abundant social value. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games.4. For example. 4. they are in existence. festivals connected with religion and public functions. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.8. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. An example for indigenous game is 8.8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 7.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. death.4. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. Kho-kho. All the fundamental tactics. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm.
Briefly discuss the different types of games. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Posture screening should be done.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. 4. a. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 4. d. a. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. 4. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. 4.4. a.4. 2.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Minor and Major 240 . aims and objectives and need of physical education.4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. to secure physical health b. b. to develop physical stamina.4. a. c. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 3. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. b. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 5. b. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. 3. Schools should help students to keep them mentally.
G. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Krishna murthy. 241 . Health. Foot-ball. Ball Badminton. (2008). Tennikoit. Aggarwal. Khokho. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2008). Kabaddy 7.C. Hockey. Soft Ball. J. Khokho 8.6. (2005). 4. Mohanty. Cricket. (2009).4. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. Handbook of Physical Education. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.K. Physical Education and Sports. Volley Ball. Tennis. J. Shuttle Badminton. Ltd. Basket Ball.
5.5.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.7 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .126.96.36.199 Manmade Environment 4.3 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.8 4.11 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .1 Natural Environment 4.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 188.8.131.52 4.5.1 4.5.9 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.10 4.LESSON 4.5.2 4.4 4.5.5.
To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. 6. Participation.5. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. 2. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. economic. Skills.educat ion for the environment. social. aesthetic and educational factors. political. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Essential knowledge about the Environment. 4.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. 4. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. it covers the following elements: 1. Attitude. The best place to start such learning is school. 3. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. 2. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. 243 . list out the types of environment 3.5. Knowledge. Evaluation Ability. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Awareness. population explosion and resource depletion could be. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. role of teacher in environmental conservation. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. education about the environment and education through the environment. Broadly. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4.5. Details are given below: I. you will able to: 1. 5.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast.
Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Oxidants Other pollutants. D. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. a. • Biological magnification E. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. 2. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle.B. F. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. 244 . Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population.
and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Sterilisation. Persuasion: i. 3. Abortion iv. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution.3. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Use of medical science i. Control of population growth a. c. III. The human ecosystem II. Birth control through education b. Family planning ii. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. 2. The pill ii. economic. B. 2. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. 4. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Socio-economic measures. Intrauterine device iii.
Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Water pollution abatement. e) Recycling.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. (UNESCO. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Air pollution abatement ii. 246 . Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 2. Define Environmental Education. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. 1983).
5. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. They interact with each. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. Biological environment The biological environment.5. A change in one brings about a change in the other. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. fax agricultural apparatus.5. -other. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . Any constituent or condition of the environment. animals and other organisms (biotic). to his needs.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. a. telex. includes the plants. way is called environmental or ecological factor.5. He modifies according”. b. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.other components of the environment.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.4. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.5. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.5. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. 4. These are biotic components.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.
supplying timber for various uses. role of trees in building economy. greenhouse effect. sources. air pollutants from industries. use of pesticides. wars and hazards of war. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. trees reducing noise pollution. population. industrial pollut io n. etc. biogas plants. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. noise pollution. solar cookers. use of medicinal plants. need for conservation. industrial survey. balance of nature. relation between population and pollution. History The rise and fall. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. change in climate may be added. mineral survey. ozone depletion. extinction of species. are the topics which may be taught in History. water scarcity. alternate sources of energy. t heir role in preventing pollution. need for bio-diversity. river systems. social studies. explosion deforestation. importance of nitrogen cycle. food chain and food-web. excellent recreation sites. noise control. preventing siltation of dams. over exploitation of ground water. acid rain. ozone layer deplet ion. maintaining the ecological diversity. windmills. sources of pollut ion. effects o f CFC. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. (ii) Air pollution.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. reasons. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. etc. natural way of controlling pests. effects. nuclear energy. nuclear warfare. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . preserving the watersheds. of civilizations. desertification 248 . role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. evolution..
6. animal and plants. 7. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 13. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 3. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 12. aims and scope. 5. 10. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 4. 249 . group discussions and seminars. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 9. 8. 14. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Providing. 11. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials.may be inc ded in Geography. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Developing awareness about environmental issues.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 4. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Peepal and Tulsi. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals.5. 2. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Organising conferences. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues.
Use public transport wherever it is possible. World Environmental falls on 250 . especially plastics. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. If it is done. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Never put any left over chemicals. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. used oils down the drain. it will cause pollution. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. all these can cause serious pollution. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Reuse carrier bags. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Don’t burn any waste. 6. or form a car pool for everyday travel. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry.Send their waste oil. 5. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem.5. Social responsibilit y (common good. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. To arrange for visiting speakers. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. and 251 . their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions.. depletion of ozone. orderliness and beauty). Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. Harmony with the nature . rather than conquest and mastery. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. viz. etc. Concern for species.4. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Conservation of natural resources. deforestation. To provide materials needed for practical work. To provide reference materials for children’s use. CFCs. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. etc. loss of bio-diversity. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions.mat erials. nuclear wars.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. (cleanliness. Att itudes of balance towards nature.). The groups may exchange. dest roying nat ural habitats. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. diversity and stability. values and habits. To arrange visits or expeditions. concern for others). The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. developing desirable attitudes. potable water.
Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. 8. preserving natural cycles. 4. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. 4.5. 252 .5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.
b. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. a. New Delhi : Anmol 253 .K. over exploitation of ground water. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Publications Pvt.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Awareness. concern for others).K. reasons. S. a. T. (2004). b. Providing. 3.K. (ii) Air pollution. To provide reference materials for children’s use. new problems from science and technology. a. ozone layer deplet ion. acid rain. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection.. explosion deforestation.\ 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Rapid population growth. Kuldeep. Udaiveer. (2007). To provide materials needed for practical work.2. Education for values. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. 8. Environment and Human Rights. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. water scarcity. relat ion between population and pollution. Anmol Publications Pvt. greenhouse effect. Modern Problems of Education. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. 6. Ltd. group discussions and seminars. 5. June 5 7. (2007). sources of pollution. a. Environmental Education. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. S. b. New Delhi : Sharma. Knowledge. air pollutants from industries. Y. New Delhi : Authors Press. Nanda.K. sources. population. b. Organising conferences. importance of nitrogen cycle. Environmental Education. 4. Social responsibilit y (common good. Ltd.5. effects. (1997).
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 184.108.40.206 Idealism and aims of Education 220.127.116.11 Idealism and Curriculum 18.104.22.168 Idealism and methods of teaching 22.214.171.124 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 126.96.36.199 Naturalism and aims of Education 188.8.131.52 Naturalism and Curriculum 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and methods of teaching 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 18.104.22.168 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
22.214.171.124 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 126.96.36.199 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
According to Rusk'. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. the emancipation of spirit. Spiritual Development. enrichment and transmission of culture. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality.our life. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . Universal Education. Education must contribute to development of culture. Education according to idealism. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. man is essentially a moral being. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation.” 5. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. Therefore. The universe is regarded as a thought process.1. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. promote and transmit it to rising generation. should be universal in nature. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage.3. It is self-realisation.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. in fact. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. moral.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum.
For this no particular method has been suggested. So he should embody. 5. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. 5. 2. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. Learning through questioning. friend and guide. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. should be there. Mathematics etc. The teacher serves as a living model for the students.3. a spiritual guide for the child. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. The plant can grow. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. no doubt. So health. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. According to idealism. 4. Learning through imitation. History.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching.the spiritual qualities of mankind. Ethics.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Learning through discussion. an indispensable necessity. He sets the environment in which education takes place.” 5. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. subjects like Languages. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Learning through lecturing. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. According to Frobel.3. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . So cognition (knowing). Herbert advocated instruction method. It considers teacher as. Science.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. He carries the child from darkness to light.1. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. hygiene. However. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. For intellectual development. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race.1.” He is thus. and collation (striving) should find due place. 3. so subjects like Religion. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. Learning through reading. affecting (feeling). the school is a garden. Philosophy.
Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. "Education should make 263 • .4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.preservation.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. text books. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. 2. formal lessons or examinations.1. Ross explains. Perfection of Human Machine. 5. curricula. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.1.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.perfection and beauty. time tables. In the words of Ross. 5.
Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Botany etc Language. Education also aims at helping the individual t. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Chemistry. Literature.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. rational harmoniously balanced. 264 . It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Zoology. Naturalistic curriculum. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. • 5. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. It stresses basic sciences. Arithmetic. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Therefore.1. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. “Education finds its purpose. useful and mature child. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Biology. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that.4. is based on the nature of the child. In all. education should develop the child into Joyous. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Education should.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. subjects like history. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. There is no place for religious and moral education. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. 4.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. therefore. geography should also be included in the curriculum. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. It is based on the psychology of the child.
In the . 5. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. 4. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Learning by doing. 2. the stage.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. It discards all rigid.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. a provider of an ideal environment. Learning through experience. 5. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers.4. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Heuristic method.5. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Here the emphasis is on the individual method.1.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1.1.4. a supplier of materials and opportunities.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . 3. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Dalton Plan. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Learning through observation.1. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. he should be taught by experience alone. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Rousseau says.
Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Social Efficiency. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared.5. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Continuous Growth. intellectual. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. All Round Development of an Individual. Physical training. diversified and flexible.5. Personal Social Adjustment. The aim of educational development.1. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. History. social and moral aspects.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. is true.1. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. 5. Subjects. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Geography. Social Science. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. 5. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Sciences. Vocational and 266 . Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements.absolutism of idealism. Agriculture. of human personality is in terms of his physical.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. In different situations he remains a friend and helper.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education.” 5. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. He has to be active. 5.1.Technical Education. activities and experience should be integrated properly. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. should find proper place. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. alert and resourceful. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.1. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.5. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom.5. He must be trained. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. The subjects. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. a senior partner and a sincere guide.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. a teacher occupies an important position. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. Learning by Doing. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely.
scientific and psychological education.1. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Chemistry. Astrology. Literature. It favours child-centered. Study of Subjects like Language. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. literary or humanistic education. 2. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Population Education.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. 5.6. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 2. Music and Dance. Geography are unnecessary 268 . 5. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Crafts. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. 3. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Psychology. practical. Biology. rich and happy. 4.5. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Education is preparation for a complete living. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Art. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Sex Education. liberal.1. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Biography Philosophy. 5.6. 4.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education.1. intellectual. History. Mathematics. 3. specific. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing.
4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. certainly and clearly. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.6.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.5. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . easily and pleasantly.
Agriculture.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. c. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. a. 3. Self Realisation b. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Universal Education 2. Tours / Excursion e. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. 5.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Learning through lecturing. Experimentation d. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. History.5. in this lesson. a. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Sciences. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Languages. b. Social Science. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.1. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4.1. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life.1. Learning through experience b. 6.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Physical training. Geography. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. & curriculum. 5. naturalism. Child centered c. Learning through discussion. Learning through imitation. Learning through questioning. Rousseau 5. a. 5. d. has no end other than growth. e. pragmatism and realism. Learning through reading. Education according to pragmatism. Vocational and Technical Education.
5. R.H. N. P. Ltd. K.P. New Delhi : A. (2003). P. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Pahuja. (2004). Foundations of Education.1. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Narang C. (2007). Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. Theory and Principles of Education. O. (2007). 271 . Publishing corporation. of Pathak.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. L. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. New Delhi : Bhatia.P.
188.8.131.52 5.1 Aims of Education 184.108.40.206 Methods of teaching 5.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.2.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.3.4 Views about teacher 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.3.2.LESSON 5.4 Views about teacher 5.2.2 Curriculum 220.127.116.11 Gandhiji as Naturalist.18.104.22.168 Aims of Education 5.1 Aims of Education 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .22.214.171.124 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2.2 Curriculum 126.96.36.199.2.4.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.3.
2. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. mind and spirit. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. economic and political reconstruction in our country.4 Role of the teacher 5. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. Gandhiji was primarily a social. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.2. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. you will able to: 1.2.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.8 5. 3. Tagore was a poet. 2. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.2.5.7 5. 5.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.2.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. 273 . Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. content and methods. an artist.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5.5. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.2. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.2.6 5. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.
Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. This can be matched with any modern concept of education.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education." Dignity of Labour. 'Man is neither mere intellect. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. mind and soul of children He further observed. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. strength of mind. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote.3. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. 274 . It really provides opportunity for character building. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. "I attach more. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.2. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. nor the gross animals body.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. it is education of life. righteousness. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. In the words of Gandhiji. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. His scheme of education is life centred. through life and for life. self-restraint and service of humanity.supporting. 5. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour.
According to Gandhi. wood work.2. metal work. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. the realization of the ultimate reality. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Mother-tongue. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. "Development of the moral character. leather work have been suggested. Individual and Social Aims. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. General Sciences. Only good individual forms a better society. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. 5. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 .the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. development of the whole all were directed: towards.3.Training for Leadership. gardening. Art. Drawing and Hindustani. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Music. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies.
Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. proficient. Basic education is other wise known as 4. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.3. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.3.trained. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.2. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. men of 276 .
faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. Education must be child centered. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. 5.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. That is why.2. He also advocates freedom for the child. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist.knowledge. 3. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 .
2.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. He was a true patriot. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. he was a true Vedantist 5. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.4. He was deadly against untouchability.” Like all other ideals. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.2. 5. • Ideal of citizenship. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 5.2. Gandhi in 1937. • Cult of non-violence.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He believed in the oneness of humanity. • Education should involve manual work.3.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.K.
Geography. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. them solve problems of day to day life. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. sentiment.2. Chemistry. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth.Language and Literature . Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. It should help the learner have good physique. Music. International understanding. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Therefore. wider in range. complete manhood could be attained. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. 279 . a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Religion and Psychology. Dance. etc. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. "Mankind must realise a unity.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. he said.4.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Tagore said. That way only. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. (vi) Philosophy. stronger in power than ever before. Botany. the more dedicated and devoted. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Civics. International Understanding. could help in forging unity among all. Zoology. It should help. deeper in.
3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. In 1921. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.4. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.” He further says.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.4. Activity Method Heuristic Method. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. 5. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”." 5. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. 5. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. Tagore rightly says. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.4. 280 . Let individualised methods be used for teaching.2. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.2.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.2. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.
It is open to all irrespective of country. race. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. 10. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 9. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4.g.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. 281 . Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Purity of thought. 2. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Education for Self-realization. Concept of Education. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Education for Self-reliance.” 5. 4. 3. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Education should make a person self-reliant. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him.2. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. Book learning. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man.2.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. According to him. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. The whole beauty of life is linked with it.5. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only.5.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court." He was against the theoretical type of education. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Freedom. man making. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Education for strong Moral Character. work and deeds come out of it. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education.
5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.2. 5. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. A physically strong person is the need of the society. Philosophy and Theology. That will serve the purpose of education fully. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. 283 . philosopher and guide to the students He. The teacher should be the facilitator. Swami.the learners on different students in the discussion. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Every individual should be trained for concentration. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Education for Physical Development.5. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. 5.5. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. engineering and technical subjects. Thirdly he wished that games. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth.5. Religion. Secondly he wanted Science. Discussion Method. Of course.2. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. 6. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things.5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.2. And above all. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses.
begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. 5. Gandhiji as a Idealist.Substantiate your answer. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. of course. We have seen that Tagore. naturalist. Their educational ideas. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda.6 LET US SUM UP We have.2. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. 284 .2. ears and eyes.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. 2. Write short notes on Basic education. and pragmatist . 12. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. legs. 5. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. 3. in this lesson.
(i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. 1937 7. Ideal of citizenship. 11.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. c. d. Self-Study b. Nai Talim 4. 5. Discussion Method 285 . Teaching while Walking b. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Meditation and concentration c. Where the whole world forms its one single nest.4. Cult of non-violence. a. 10. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Education should involve manual work. Activity Method d. Self realization. Explain Vishwabharathi. Basic education. 5. f. Learning by Doing c. Technique of Correlation 6. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. 9. 5. 2. b. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. leather work have been suggested. Heuristic Method. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. a. Activity Method b. 3. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. gardening. wood work. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. metal work. a. c. Debate and Discussion Method. 8. e. a.2.
(2007).H. (2004). Pahuja. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. N. C. N. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. P. Ltd. Theory and Principles of Education. Dhiman. (2003). 286 .P. J. P. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K and Narang C. O. New Delhi : Aggarwal. (2007).5. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. New Delhi : A.2. L. Publishing Corporation. B. K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2002). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Foundations of Education. on Bhatia.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash.
3.7 220.127.116.11 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.10 5.1 5.3 5.LESSON 5.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.9 5.6 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .2 5. In this lesson.18.104.22.168 5.4 5.3.8 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.
3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. Curriculum is intimately related to education. it is identical wit h socializat ion. present behaviour may be modified.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India.3. in Russia or in Japan. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society.S. Both the processes are integrated. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. curriculum. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely.under the direction of the school. 5. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. While education is a process. there is a large number of communities. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. state the meaning of curriculum 2. the plateau area and 288 . A g o o d curricu lu m. Then in a big country like India. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. in the U. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. is a means to the process. From the latter point of view. In the former sense. In it. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”.. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . new behaviour may be acquired.3. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. Since the demands. you will be able to: 1. in fact . in the form of new experience.A.3. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. curriculum signifies situations for learning. the desert area. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. living in the hilly area. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. the plain area. maintained or eliminated. While education is learning. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. In the words of Kerney and Cook.
A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. and 289 . The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. according to modern trends in the educational process. Again. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. too. environment. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. studying therein. the learning capacity of children. 5. it is.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. Besides craft.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. differs from individual to individual. From a slave-country we became secular. democratic and socialistic country. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. irrespective of their needs and environment.3. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. customs and needs. In fact . Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. therefore. However. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. It must differ from locality and from society to society. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar.
National Integration. which may or may not be attained.. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. Understanding Objective. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. So it is inadequate. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. They are visionary goals e. e. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. individual or Social and so on. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. etc. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. emotional. unambiguous and functional. 290 .3. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. Vocational Efficiency. 5. in instructional objectives. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. aesthetic and spiritual development. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. tangible. The word “Curere” means 2. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. social. moral. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. remote or immediate.g. Application Objective. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . etc. uninspiring and unscientific. 1. Goals of Primary Education. They speak of perfect goals. They speak of immediate purposes of education.. unsatisfactory. aims.g. specific.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture.. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. 4. they depend on the political. They are achievable. general or specific. Goals of Secondary Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They may be ultimate or proximate.g. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. etc.. of classroom. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. 2. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. eg. Knowledge Objective. Self Realisation. 3. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. e. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. social.
activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. According to Crow and Crow.3. but it includes the totality of experiences. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. on the playing fields. capacities. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. The interests. Crow and Crow remarks. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. heavy fire. educationists. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. abilities.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. The old and prevalent curriculum is under.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. in the class rooms. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.5. finding them very interesting and captivating.” 291 . Raymont rightly says. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. needs.
Utility Curriculum should include those subjects.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. Due to these variations and differences. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. moral. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. They often waste it or rather kill it. urges. time in a useful manner. mental. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. capacities and abilities. tendencies. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. aptitudes. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner.
curricular. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. 2. 3. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. development of professional capability at all levels. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. organized. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. phased preparation. administrative programme need be planned. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. To ensure success of the process. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. Similarly. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. 293 . H has to know and understand the content and process of learning.
Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum.3. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. in the class room. Relation with Life c.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. 11. principles of curriculum construction. library. 5.3. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. a. Child Centred Education b. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . 5. 17. laboratory. 12. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. Run. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10. 18. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. workshop. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 1937 19.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
D. 295 . New Delhi : Authorspress. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.S. (2007). (2007). Curriculum and Instruction.5. Curriculum Development. S. Innovations in Education. (2001). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. P. Lakshmi.K.3. N. New Delhi : Isha Books. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. and Sarita Kumari.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S. Bhalla. (2007).
2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4.10 22.214.171.124.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.LESSON 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 126.96.36.199 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.1 188.8.131.52.7.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 5.2 5.4 5.3 18.104.22.168.9 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.5 5.4.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.
All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition.5. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.4. honesty. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . explain the concept of scientific attitude.during the second half of this century. 297 . which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. 5. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. tolerance for the opinions of others. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons.4. 2. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. 4. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. superstition or emotion. 3.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. know the importance of science education. 5. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. We mean curiosity. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. you will be able to: 1. open-mindedness.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. newer and newer industries started growing.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings.4. Gradually. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. in the economic reconstruction of society.
models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 2. 5.4.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. as well as of the society. Organisation of science fairs. 6. stipends and appreciations in various ways. seminars and symposiums. Schemes of teaching science. 3. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 4. Promotion of science clubs. Principles are formulated. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Central science workshop. After such experience and training. Devotion towards nature increases. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Love for truth enhances. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs.So that. 5. 7. 5. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 6. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. 4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Through newspapers. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 3. Through examinations. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1.4. Thinking and memory develops. Selection for science education. 5. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. 2.
They encounter many social events as they grow. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 .6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. therefore.needs and conditions. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. For laboratory and workshop techniques. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. They ask many questions about the objects they see. 7. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. In the inquiry approach. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. It is. 5. essential that teachers. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. Enquiry teaching is. They experience natural phenomenon. objectivity. should provide opportunities to. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs.6. After presenting the problem. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. Write any two advantages of Science Education. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. 5. Training of science teachers.4. sex or religion. each child to “enquiry skill building”.
2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. 300 . Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences.4. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook.6. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions.books. 5. test. . Appreciating pupils ideas. 6. 3. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 3. to ask questions and experience things.Herma Wouk. commands or orders. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. It requires consistent thinking. Giving less directions. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. if they like. . What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. 4.4. Adopting creative models of teaching. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. stern pursuit of accurate data. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Social sciences. 5. Evidence.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. 2.
Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions.4. therefore should be unbiased and objective. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. (Vaidya 2007).7. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. To achieve this we should understand what it means. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. practiced. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. it must be encouraged. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. neighbourhood. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. These include open mindedness. school and society at large.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. of vast resources running waste. For instance. 5. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. and emphasized during the learning process . friends. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way.(Smith 2008). The students observation. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. to develop among the learners. keen observation. critical thinking and suspended judgments. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”.
Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. In considering a situation or a problem.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. understanding and logic. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. or superstitions. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. 2007).4.7. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. The intention to respect another’s point of view. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. think and work it”. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. intuition or wishful thinking”. 302 . 5. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. he studies all aspects of it. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. (Das. rumor. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. He is patient and reserved in his judgement.
5. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.7.7. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. but to begin only after careful planning. • 5. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.4.4.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.
5. 304 .4. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. 5. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. practiced and emphasized during the learning process.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. it must be encourages.
4. Yadav. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. objectivity. (2008).B (2008). a. Vaidya. (2000). It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. 5. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. a. (2006).4. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Adopting creative models of teaching. Reflections on Scientific attitude. Planning of activities 5. 5. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Wide reading b. 3. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. 16.4. Rao. a. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. 305 . b. Study of superstitions d. D. a.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. b. 2. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.S.4. Love for truth enhances. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. M. S. Proper example of the teacher c. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. b.5. N. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. The intention to respect another’s point of view.
2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.7 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.1 5. areas of institutional planning. understand the human relationships in educational institutions. actively.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124.5 5.10 5.5. state the concept.6 5. you will be able to: 1.9 5.2 5. 306 .12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5.4 126.96.36.199.5.8 5. objectives and characteristics.11 5. 5.5.LESSON 5. 2. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.188.8.131.52 5.5.
• To make institutional planning more successful. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 .5. 5. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. Institution should be regarded as the unit. • to involve teachers and school administrators. • to make planning development-oriented. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. executive as well as public. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. and each student are regarded as separate entities.3. State and national levels from below. 5. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. and every student in the process of educational planning. and supplement planning from above.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. every parent.5. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. and. in the task of educational planning. teachers and students is not lost sight of.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. each teacher. every teacher. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. which become the bases for further planning at the district. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n.
5. 308 . (2) Co. etc.5. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. Co-curricular activities. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. approved after making necessary modifications. which will be discussed in the general.• implemented.5. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. council and. Syllabus. Classwork. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. and Personnel services. it becomes the basis for school inspection. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.curricular Activities. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. Examinations.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. (3) TeachingLearning Aids.
etc. scientific and historical excursions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Conducting of educational. Fair distribution of syllabi. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Undertaking remedial instruction services. Courts. Organisation of cultural and literary activities.No. hobby-centres. Equipping of laboratory and library. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Running science clubs. Preparation of models. Improving the internal assessment. Organising play-for-all programmes. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. etc. etc. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. charts and apparatus. 2. 3. Preparation of instructional material.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Organisation of class-room libraries. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Editing the school magazine. Organisation of Pupils. Improving the subject competence of teachers. etc. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Organisation of Students’ Association. etc. 1. Celebrating of national and international festivals.
ii. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. pupils. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. Administrator-State. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. understanding. parent-teacher associations. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators.” The human relationships in. co-operation. etc. administrator-pupil. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. teacher-State. headmasters associations. pupil310 . teacher-teacher. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. teacher-managing body. and solidarity. science teachers’ associations.5. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. students’ associations. and —pupil-pupil. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. administrator-administrator. teacherinspector. which are divided as the in. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. teachers. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. parents.5. teacher-pupil. involving mainly human materials. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. administrator-supervisor.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. pupil-non-official functionaries. organisation and management.State. pupil-community leader. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. supervision. pupil-parent. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. teacher-community leader. to attend. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. Good." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. To administer means to manage. now-a-days. It covers personnel and material management. social sciences and other disciplines. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. control. teacher-parent. administrator.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. According to C. 311 . have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. supervision and superintendence. to carry out. organisation. V. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. It is also being modernized to become a technique. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. to accomplish. superintendence.5. pupil-inspector. and to serve.
The relationship should change from master.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. 5. This is the latest democratic trend in management. If it is more. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 10.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 11. Communication . it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. it is not worth-while. Those.Of all the approaches. If the cost benefit ratio is less.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. Liasion with the Public .Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. 13. 12. who occupy the managerial positions. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. 7.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. Motiviation . low. 2.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.The manager should have leadership traits.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. Cost-Benefit Analysis . He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. Better Human Relationships . Leadership .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. 9.Any good management will always have good public relations. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. Decision Making . Worker Participation . 8. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. Economic Management . Democratic Management . 6. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . He should be an artist in human relationships.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. 4. 3. Rapport between the Management and Employees . Socio-Scientific Approach .He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner.
5. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. 5.5. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. enrichment of curricula. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. objective.These two are. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. to improve the quality of education it provides. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. 313 .g. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. and cooperative performance should be ensured. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. 14. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.too. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. improvement of teaching methods. 5. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 18. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. 19.
(2001). Co-curricular activities. Fundamental of Educational Management. a. d. a. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. a. b. Instruction. R. 4. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Motiviation d. NUEPA. c.5. Leadership c. b. Examinations. Educational Administration. a. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Tarachand and Prakash. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. S. H.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. e. b. f.5. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.K. APH Publishing Corporation. 314 . it becomes the basis for school inspection. Communication 5. and Personnel services. Singh. Decision Making b.5. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Classwork.M. (1995). Syllabus. In group and Out group 5. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. 2. (2003).
women education and teacher education in India.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. School. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. Economic 315 . Examination reforms. First Aid. 4. New evaluation procedures.Religious and Modern Education 1. social Impact 3.Article 45 . Community and Mass Media 2. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Balanced diet. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. nutritional requirement.1 Inculcation of Socialism. wastage and Stagnation 3.4 India's Secular Policy .5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.1 School Health Programme. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. higher education.teachers should have : 1.Preventive measures.1 Primary Education : Education for all. 1. Code of conduct for teachers. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.3 Educational Influences of Home.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. 2. Inspection and Supervision 3. Preservation of nutrients.2 Nutritional deficiencies.CORE PAPER .3 Directive Principles .2 Secondary Education : Co-education.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Common ailments of Children. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Realized the problems of school education. Communicable diseases .3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.5 Regional Educational Development in India .Pre-service and In-services facilities. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .1 Gurukula system of education. population education. Sex-education 4.I. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. physical education and environmental education 5.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. Healthy Food Habit 4.
C.K. Pandy V. and Human Development. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2004) Problems of Education in India.4. (2005) Foundations of Education.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. and Sharma R.N.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Naturalism and Pragmatism .Aim. Realism.1 Idealism.S. and Dash B.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Saraswathi T. 316 . Mahatma Gandhi. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. and Mohanty R.4 4. Ram S.R.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Tagore 5. Hemchand.K.K. Sharma. B. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. T. Delhi : University Publications 2. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. REFERENCE 1. Ghanta R. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Curriculum and national goals . Meerut : Surya Publication 6. (1999) Culture. 5. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Socialization. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.N. curriculum and teacher's role 5.K. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. Prof. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Mishra. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Taneja V. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. R. 7. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
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