BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. 9 . regional imbalances and variations in different environment. Jainism and their educational implication. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. discusses the regional educational development in India. Lesson 2.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. Lesson 5. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Lesson 4. and Jain system of education. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. The need. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. In. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west.

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2 1.6.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.LESSON 1.1.6.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.5.1.6.4.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.5.1.6 Education during British Era 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1 1.4.6.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1.1.1.1.1.1.5.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.3.1.1.1.1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.3.5.1.5 Jain system of education 1.6.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.

1. has a long past history starting in vedic education.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. That 12 . education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.1. in opinion. both present and future. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.9 1.6.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. 1.1. describe the Jain system of Education 4.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.6.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.1. Education in India. British system of education presented the modern western model. India. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. but English in taste. Muslim and British periods.1.7 1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. you will be able to: 1. in morals and in the intellect”.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. 1.8 1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.3. elucidate the education during British Era.1.1. Indian in blood and colour. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. “a class of persons.1. The history of education passed through Buddhist. 1.1.

Pupils were taught. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. followed by explanation by the teacher. 12. Education of Moral. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. It was not merely intellectual. generally. 13. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. from eternal to immorality 2. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. 11. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Education was a private affair of the people. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. Rulers of the country could subsidies it.knowledge was real. with grants of land or money. if they thought fit to do so. Free and Accessible. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. High Status of Teachers. and to agriculture and trade. to light. 13 . corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. 9. 16. Residential Schools. 4. not en masse by the class method. individually. managed entirely by Brahmans. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 14. Individual Teaching. 8. There was. No State Control on Education. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. however. questioning by the pupil. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Method of Study. 10. 3. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. The immediate aim of education. from darkness. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Method of Instruction. Immediate Aim Vocational. It was also moral. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. as it is generally considered to be at present. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Teacher as Parents. Forests as Centres of Education. 6. Curriculum. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Where pupils were many. religious and spiritual. the monitorial plan was followed. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 5. Role of Travel in Education. Religious and Spiritual.

1. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. It was suited to the needs of the society. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . 2. studied Vedas.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. Wide-Spread Education in Women. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today.17. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They were very cordial and intimate. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. lived a life of celebacy. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony.

placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. I take Refuge to Dharma. in which. Right speech 4. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. It was denied only to the ill. Right endeavour 7. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. 15 . killing of any living being. watching dances or listening to music. the most significant of which were the following 1. partaking of food at prohibited times. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. he had to perform the Pababja ritual.4. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Right memory 8. the student remained in a state of Shramana.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. Consequently. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. I take Refuge to Sangh. After attaining the age of 20. the student had his head shaved of all hair. Right knowledge 2. except the Chandals. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. he was qualified to become a monk. medium of Pali. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education.1. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. every class in society. which included abstaining from theft. Right means of livelihood 6. 1. impure conduct.C. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. taking things without being offered. Right contemplation 1.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. etc. Right thought 3. disease and death of the human beings. had the right to receive education. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Right activity 5. the handicapped. use of cosmetics. 2. Education was imparted through the. use of intoxicating things.

objectives of human life. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. has no metaphysical value for life. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. 4. 1. bodily gestures. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. beg for alms. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. nature. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. along with education in script writing. agriculture. Initially.4. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. 8. Whatever its nature and extent. handicrafts. it is regarded as true”. 5. control over sensuous activities. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. depth and range. etc. eat food thrice a day. medicine. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. the science of taming and training animals. military science. On this occasion. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results.3. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. etc. archery. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. archery. so long as it successfully does so. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. therefore. 3. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. arithmetic and religious discussion. Hence. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. a change is not only total but also perpetual. commerce. and. the presence of the monks was essential. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. aspirations and. geology. meaning. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. changing the goals. of clothes. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. animal husbandry. It comprehended education in writing. however. knowledge of reviving the dead. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. 6. After this ritual. As reality is becoming. women occupied a position inferior to men. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. 2. wear three items. Life is in a flux. be considered the aim of education It. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. magic. Even at this stage. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. nothing is of any permanent consequence.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. approach. education was impart in art. These are called later Buddhist schools. etc. 7.. Later on. elephant lore. assumptions. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. a continuous change creating 16 . cottage industries.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. i. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. In fact. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. such as. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Write Eight fold path .. it is much older than the latter.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching.new and peculiar situations. 5. However. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and its refusal to believe in supreme God.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. and to give it a shape that it has today. 1. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. goes to Vardhaman. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. therefore. Validity is effective and consequences.1. Education must. Its chief feature. whatever works are true and good.e. its pessimistic outlook on life. however. Jainism insists 17 .5.

restoring the ideal character of the jiva. and is to be redeemed and liberated. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. b) Right knowledge. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 2. As such. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. more stress on individual aims.1. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Development of personality as an individual. it has a foot in both the words. 9. c) Right conduct. d) To lead a celibate life. and believe in happiness to all. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. 3. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 10.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. 8. 1. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. 2. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 7. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. but on both. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Hence.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 18 . They are: a) Not to injure. b) Not utter falsehood. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. 6. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. thought and deed. 4. 3. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. 5. 1. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul.5. c) Not to steal. e) To renounce the world. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind.

1. 2. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter.4.5. therefore. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. the precious principles of life that bring happiness.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. 8. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. education should develop sense of discrimination. that would be socially desirable.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 19 . 5. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . here and now. 3. and should bring happiness to all. Jiva is essentially karmic. Belief in transmigration of soul. practised and not only aspired for. education must be action based and ideally oriented. What are Triratnas ? . Hence. 3. 4. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Teaching must develop these faculties. success and love.

To set up separate departments of.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. North West Province and Punjab. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. and not for life. However.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. Bombay. 1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. Madras.6.1. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. 2.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854.6. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. 1. 1.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.6. with rally and rout. science. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). philosophy and literature of Europe.6. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. 1. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. 1953). Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. primary 20 . public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal.1.

The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. 1.6. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. To ensure qualitative improvement. At that time M. 1. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. 1. self-respecting and competent. at the primary level. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success.education was neglected.K. In 1882. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. • Universal free primary education. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . namely. Later on. • Secondary education.6.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. secondary education became a step towards university. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system.6. The universities dominated the secondary education. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission).

Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. 10. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. The objective of education was to provide 22 .1. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. all children are to have a common curriculum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. After this stage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? .

1. 2. Right means of livelihood. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. 4. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. education was impart in art. questioning by the pupil. arithmetic and religious discussion.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. along with education in script writing. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. 6. etc. b. Right speech. 2. followed by explanation by the teacher. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. Right knowledge. handicrafts. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. During the Buddhist period. the science of taming and training animals.. military science. Right contemplation.1. 1. 1. 3. a. Right activity. establishment of universities. geology. The immediate aim of education. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. 3. 4. science and English language. Right endeavour. The system of education was well-organised. Right thought. archery. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Right memory. 23 . Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. 5. It was suited to the needs of the society. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education.education of European literature. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil.

R.7. (1984). b. c. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. a. Right conduct. History of Indian Education System. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Improvement of Literature. 24 . a. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2005). Aggarwal. Y.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. more stress on individual aims. 1882. Hence.K. Sharma. 11. 9. Y. Singh. Right faith.K. Development of Educational System in India. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 1937 1. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education.1. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. b. (2009).C. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. J. Sargent report 12. 10. Ltd. and Nath. (2007). 8.C. Development of personality as an individual. Right knowledge. J.

4 1.2.2.8 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.2.2. The 25 .2.3 Kothari Commission 1.2.2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.1 University Education Commission 1.3.6 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.3.2.2.9 1.2 1.3. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.1 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.2.7 1.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.3.2.5 1.LESSON 1.

Post-graduate 26 .2. vocational education. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. medical and legal education. 1986 1. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service.conditions of the teachers. S.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. examination system. secondary and higher education. National Council for Women’s Education 5.2. 1. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National Board of Teacher Education 10. girls and women education besides primary. curriculum.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. There had been vast institutional expansion. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. diversification of courses of studies. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. New Educational Policy.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. analyse the progress of education in free India. 2. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. expansion of vocational. technical. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Kothari (1964-66) 8. standard of teaching.3. you will be able to: 1. 1. explosion of enrolment. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. technological engineering.2.

3. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. However. 1952. 1. 1966. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. Kothari. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. 3.2. 2. A. The Essence and Role of Education. 1. in January 1985. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. material and spiritual. quality. accumulated over the years. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. 4. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country.3. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.2. 1986.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964.3. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 .teaching.S. Education for Equality. Therefore. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. quantity. Government of India. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. Finally. National System of Education. A meaningfully Partnership. utility and financial outlay. Education is the key to our allround development. the chairman of University Grants commission. D. Problems of access. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. 1. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. the New National Policy on Education. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. research et.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. It can train practical aptitudes. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. the minorities and the handicapped. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work.” Thus. 28 . The UNESCO Report. attitudes. Thus. By working with hands. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. the concepts of work experience. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work.

would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. Besides. The Education Commission. According to. if he wishes. “It may be described. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. In 1955. “The aim of these colleges. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. The Radhakrishnan Commission.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. the Commission. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. co-ordinations. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. With adequate planning.” The Mudaliar Commission. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. it will conduce self. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. As such. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started.

” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. With a view to relating education to the life.ot her. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. In addition. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. the rigid streaming of courses. admission requirements to vocational courses. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. the semester and credit system. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. the. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. etc. Therefore. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. The Central Advisory Board of Education. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. raising the special facilities. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. for quality of life in the rural areas. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. Subsequently. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour.. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education.

But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. aimed at this goal. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. manual work resulting in either goods or services. which offer scientific. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. The wave of Basic Education. meaningful. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained.. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. etc.defined S UP W as “purposive. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. preferably spinning and weaving. meaningful. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. giving importance to productivity in the national development. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject.2. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. technological courses including Agriculture. who conceived the System of Basic Education. In short. which swept the country for over two decades. Commerce. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.and the world of work. 31 . felt that education should be centred around a craft. The Father of Nation. which are useful to the community. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. 1. According to committee.

The teachers should make use of. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Food 3. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Health and Hygiene 2. Clothing 5. Productive 2. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Experimentation with materials. Community work and social service.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. 2. Work practice. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. as far as possible. 3. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. 32 . 4. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Culture and recreation 6. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. so that it is educational in essence. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Educative and 3. tools and techniques and 3. locally available materials and tools. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Shelter 4. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. be that the work involved is: 1.

functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. To make education more realistic. inculcate a faith. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. removal of illiteracy. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration.5. Check on educated unemployed 4. etc. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. slum clearance. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. the local community should be actively associated. Community Service In-1972. the concept of Community Service has been visualised.2. Productive Work 33 . Education through work The SUPW should. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Merits of the Programme 1. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. 6. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. 1. as far as possible. improve discipline. It can become an instrument to build character. Reduction of gap in work and education 2.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past.

It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. offering first aid. The community. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. if not productive. traffic control. Define SUPW 34 . Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. in turn. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. AICTE was set up in year 4. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . helping the adults-in productive work. skills and better future for the children. should involve itself in the educational effort.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5.

3. 6. 1. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.2. 35 . Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. 2. 1. e.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. meaningful.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. Dr. which are useful to the community. a. f.2. manual work resulting in either goods or services.2.1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. c. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Radhakrishnan 2. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. 1952 3. d. 1955 4. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Write short note on SUPW.

(2007).. History of Indian Education System.2. R.P. (2009).H. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Development of Educational System in India. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.K. B. and Nath. New Delhi: A. J. 36 . Publishing Corporation.D. Ltd. Rao. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. and Rao. Y. Amala. History of Education. A. History and Problems of Indian Education. Anupama. Y.P. (2005).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Singh.K.(2005). : Sharma. (2007).C.K. P. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.1. V.

3. it came into effect on January 26.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.3. directive principles and duties of citizens.5 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. establishing the structure. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.7 1.3.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.9 1.3.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.6 1. assuring its citizens of justice. containing 395 articles. 1950.3.8 1. equality.369 words in the English language version.2 1. 1949.3. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.1 1. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. Besides the English version. procedures.3. 37 . there is an official Hindi translation.3.3.3. and liberty. Being the supreme law of the country. democratic republic.3. for a total of 117.3.1 Significance of DPSP 1. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.4 1.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.

2. According to the constitution. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. 1947.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 1. learn the role of central and state government on education. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. with Dr. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. administrative. 38 . embodied in Part IV of the constitution. the Drafting Committee was appointed. 1947.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.In the August 14. political. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.3. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution.3. social. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. The Assembly met. economic. you will be able to: 1. legal and environmental.3. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. Through them. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. for 166 days. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. 1.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. 1950.3. 1. understand our Indian constitution. in sessions open to public. After many deliberations and some modifications. 3. Two days later. On August 29. 4. spread over a period of 2 years. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. Dr. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution.

Article 41. sickness and disablement. Protecting health of the workers. Equal justice and free legal aid. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment.government. The State shall. No abuse of children. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. on the basis of equal opportunity. The State shall endeavour to secure. men and women. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Article 40. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. for workers. Right to work. Appropriate concentration of wealth. provide free legal aid. Minimising inequalities in status. Protecting children from exploitation. and shall. Equal pay for both sex. Article 42. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. and in other cases of undeserved want. Liking wage etc. make effective provision for securing the right to work. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. That the health and strength of workers. in particular. 39 . to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Condition for dignity of children. Article 43. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Article 39A. Organisation of village panchayat. old age. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength.

The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Article 49. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. and. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Uniform civil code for the citizens. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. industrial or otherwise. in particular. Article 48A. agricultural. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. The State shall take steps. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Article 46. [declared by or under law made by 40 . 2002 for “45. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. in particular. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Article 47. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. See also Article 21A). in particular. to all workers. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Article 48. Article 43A. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Note: Subs. work. The State shall endeavour to provide. Article 45. Participation of workers in management of industries. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. by suitable legislation or in any other way. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Article 44. (Original Article 45. a living wage.

Article 45 . “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. removal. 2002. may be law determine”.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. from spoliation. as the case may be. Article 51. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. disposal or export. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus.Parliament] to be of national importance. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Separation of judiciary from executive. Article 50. Promotion of international peace and security. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.3. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. 1. disfigurement. Article-21A Right to Education. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. destruction.

” 42 . if such person is a minor. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. language or any of them”. and shall protect them. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. 4. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. 7. 3. 5. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. caste. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. ii. 6. 2002. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. race. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. iii. 8. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. in particular. from justice and all forms of exploitations. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. his guardian has given his consent thereto. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. and.

and by drawing. Educational Reforms From time to time. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. & 1. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule.9. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . for its vocabulary. wherever necessary or desirable. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country.3. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. The central government determines targets and promotes education. 43 . primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. the forms. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. 2. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country.

The following pilot projects. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. etc. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. All India Council of Medical Science. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Production of suitable for children and adults f. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. 4. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Local bodies and private enterprise. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. So that they may work well. 5. By starting these projects. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a.3. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. 8. 7. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. to achieve the desired ends. So as to encourage education on right lines. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. 6. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education.. private agencies etc. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. the state governments.

for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. research. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. 1. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. 4. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. are published by it. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. 12. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. education for women. training and statistics. 11. is the state responsibility. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. reports etc. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. handicapped. etc. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. 1.3. 9. books. 10. 3. The 45 . To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state.

Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8.3. Write short notes on a. 1. Article 46 4. 46 . Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. articles in the Directive principles. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 45 b.3. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. 1.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Explain Directive principles 2.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Article 21A c.

Development of Hindi Language 6. 2002. a. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 4. Article 29 and 30 7. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Describe the educational role of State Government. Dr. Ambedkar 2. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 1. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 47 . Article-21A Right to Education. 2002.3.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. a. may be law determine”. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 3. b. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b.5. a. b. Article 46 5. The Directive Principles of State Policy. Article 45 . Clearing House function 9. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.

(2007). 48 . (2008). K.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Ghosh. S. Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. S. (2009). Education in Emerging Indian Society.3. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Dash. K and Narang C. L.1. Bhatia. (2004). New Delhi: Shipra Publications. B. N.

4.3.2 1. Students should be 49 .8 1.4. Christianity.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4.3.4.4.3. Islam.1 Why Moral Education 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.1 1. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.5 1. religious education should be broad based.6 1.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.4.4. Buddhism etc. Jainism.4 Moral education 1.4.4.4.4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4.7 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4.

know the position of religious education in our country 3. integrity. According to E. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. you will be able to: 1. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. duty-consciousness. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. In the complicated and complex society of today.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. Thus. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance..3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. "In A multireligious society like ours.D.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.and dedication. India' can produce men of character. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends.” Education broadens human outlook. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. religious education and the concept of secularism. beauty and goodness so that 50 . An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world.4. 1. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. state meaning and need for moral education 1. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion.4. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. As result of which. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion.

4. if not regularly. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. As a matter of fact. it is clear that the State has no religion. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. castes and creeds. all citizens are free to follow any creed.3. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. According to Article 19. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. As our country is a country of diverse religions. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. Thus. No religious tax can be imposed on them. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes.” From the above. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. 1947 we achieved our freedom.3. at least occasionally. Viewing the defects of religious education. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. through religious practices and 51 . Children attend these organizations.4. They thought that any kind of narrow. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. realizes God in himself. 1. Hence. rancour. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. 1. In short. religion and democracy are same.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. According to Article 22. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal.

teachings. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). aggressive. which can mould. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. He also learns about social. what is done and what is not done etc. It helps to modify habits attitudes. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. which help him for the development of his character. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. one fully developed. when he becomes an adult. and what is evil. It is religious education. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. Good education. If unreleased. intellectual and physical faculties of children. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. As a result of which. for the development of the individual and the society. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. temperament etc.. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. moral and spiritual values. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion.

If we open the pages of history.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. 1. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. This should not be allowed to happen. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. 2. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. which is the basic need of a democratic life. 53 . Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand.4. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people.3. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. 3. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. towards the society. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Therefore. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds.

therefore. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 11. For this. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. 10. examples of patriotism. Life histories of great persons of the world. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8.4. 9. Since all religions have virtues. Write Article 22 2. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. fellow-feeling. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. stories of moral greatness. Gurudwara as. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6.5. churches and mosques 7.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 .

4. Service to others. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 4.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Swadeshi (Patriotism).of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. Brahmacharya (celebacy). the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 5. Patriotism. 7. students. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. in the home. Satyam (truth). Fearlessness. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 5. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Without moral values. 3. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 8. let men see well of one another. 1. the methods of teaching. Purity. 3. The content of the curriculum. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. “Let all be happy and free from disease. 55 . Moral education. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 2. 1. Cultivation of emotions. Ahimsa (Non-violence). the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Aparigarha (Non. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. 6.4. Self sacrifice.acquisitiveness). let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. They will play their role effectively. 8. Asvada (Control of palate).4. Non-injury. 7. 6. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. 2.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. is that which develops moral values. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. therefore.

Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. 3. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Good temper. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Efficiency. religions may be included in the syllabus. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. In the school programme. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics.4. National unity and Spiritual values. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. 11. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. 2. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Discipline. The School Assembly should be held for a few.9. 3. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. minutes in the morning for group singing. Integrity. 4. Asatyam (Non-thieving). discipline. 10. Good manners. Secondary Stage 1. loyalty and self-sacrifice.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Unity of mankind. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. 56 . Sharivashram (Physical work). The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. 1.

The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . 2. 57 . 3. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. should form a normal part of school programme. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated.4. University Stage 1. love of humanity. In this connection. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. 5. 5. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. Silent meditation should be encouraged. patriotism and self-discipline. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. 4. In other words.

2. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. 1. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. Sri Prakasa 6 . 1959 5. For this. In short.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. the. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. a.4. a. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 2. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. b. 58 . Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 1. b. The School Assembly should be held for a few.1. 4. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education.4. Training of Character 3. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully.4. minutes in the morning for group singing. a. Discuss the aims of Religious education. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other.

K. (2003). P. (2007). J. Anmol Publications Pvt. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.H. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi: A. K and Narang C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : Siddiqui. (2008). M. L. (2004).C. Theory and Principles of Education. (2008). Dash.P. N. N. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 59 . Bhatia. B. Pahuja.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ltd.1. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.H.4.

3 1.12 1.5. Although. disparities between provinces/States. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan. i.5.5.e.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5 1.5.. 60 .1 1.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.9 1.2 1.5.7 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.10 1.5.8 1.11 1.5.6 1.4 1.5.5.5.

1. know the education suited to different environments.5. roads. work hard towards this end. 61 . Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. They therefore. 5. you will be able to: 1.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. 2. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. This leads to separatist movements. energy. they take appropriate measures. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. 3.5. 1. etc. Accordingly.1. for example. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. waters. Selfishness of the regional political leaders.5. 8. 7.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.5. 1. 4.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. understand the regional educational development in India 3. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. 6. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.

while others remained educationally backward. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. 2. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. some States became educationally far advanced. and. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. • Separate States (of course viable States). 4.5. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. 62 . The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. Tight security arrangements should be made. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . on the basis of regional development may be formed. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. some average.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. 3. Therefore. Secularism.

certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. and provision of informal education to enable those. Jammu and Kashmir. while some States like Bihar. etc. the Union Government. library buildings. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. NERIST. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. Itanagar. the State Governments. Nagaland and NEHU.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects.14. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities.480. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. After the attainment of independence. However. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. etc. scholarships. remained under developed. approved proposals worth Rs.5. NIT. since its inception in 1998-99.84 crore was released in 2005-06.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.After the Planning Process has originated. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. Rs. Even in each State. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. books. Guwahati. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Regional Centres of IGNOU. In the Central sector. academic buildings. Out of this. 63 . Mizoram.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner.g. Central Universities of Assam. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. Silchar. Funds amounting to Rs. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments.392. 1.. Tezpur. These projects are in various stages of implementation.

The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Government expenditure on education. A provision of Rs.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.187.57 crore and Rs. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.501.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.500.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.05 crore and Rs. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.261. too.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. During 2003-04.40. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Tezpur University. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. 64 .1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.5. Moreover.8 per cent in 05). the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). Out of this an amount of Rs. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.

is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. too. Andhra Pradesh. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. pharma. English. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. Karnataka. Tamil Nadu. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Karnataka. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. engineering and R&D. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. health services and welfare of the citizen population. The Chandigarh Administration. To add to the woes. for instance. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. for which 16 sites. too. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Kerala and Gujarat. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Medical education. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). notes the study. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . 1. Moreover. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. telecom.5. too. Listing the positives.

people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. The working hours of educational institutions. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. which a non-tribal person cannot do. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. Hence it is called as need-based. the working days: an academic . the socio-physical conditions. the teaching methods. even actually looking at the watch. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. In the same manner. For a learner living in a rural area. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors.year. while the former does not. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. in which the learners live. Of course. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. the needs. The living conditions. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. 66 . Then education become realistic and idealistic. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. life-oriented and environment slanted. the curricular subjects. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the interests. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. when he will not be sure of time. and so on. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. the vocations. taking the average in the middle.

5. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.5.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 67 . Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. 1. 2. 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. to suit education to different environments? 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.

(2001). and Nair. S.2.G. C. a. (2001). some of areas which were under the native rulers. 60% 1. Giridhar.H. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.5. S. (2008). A. R.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2002). during the British rule. Educational Development in India.N. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. some States have become more developed than others b. Salim. New Delhi: Authors press. remained undeveloped 3. Education Scenario in India.K. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Education in Developmental Arena. Dubey. 68 . Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. secularism and democracy through Indian education. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. 71 . Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. community development. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. school community and mass media. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. National Integration. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people.

6.6.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.4 2.8 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.1.6.1.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.7 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1.1.1.5.3 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .LESSON 2.1.2 2.1 2.5.1.1.6 Education for Secularism 2.1.9 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.1.

This is the political aspect of democracy. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. there should be made no distinction of caste. creed. socialism and secularism 2. 73 . The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it.1. colour or wealth.1. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. for the people by the people”.2. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. Abraham Lincoln. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy.1.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. 2. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. Democracy thus means power of the people. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. you will be able to: 1. In the matter of admitting students in schools. understand the concept of democracy. 3) Provision of Manual Work.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. socialistic and secular state. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. 2. The students may be associated with the management of the school.1. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. socialism and secularism 2. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.

may be planned. debates. 2.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 74 . Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. Democracy means 2. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it soon spread all over the world. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India.. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. 11) Student Parliament. declamation contest etc. There are different brands of socialism.

3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. the prince and the peasant. none high”.5. 2. service and cooperation. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. Under it. the wealthy and the poor. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 2.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. free from exploitation.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections.1. 2) Socialism aims at equality. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. but on the path of non-violence.5. oppression and disparity. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 7) Special facilities for girls.1. 75 . 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.

76 .6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. According to Holydake. Everyone says. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. 11) State schools. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. secularism is being propagated. 2. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. 5. Write any two main features of socialism. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. “India is a secular-country. "which seeks the development of physical. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children.” In every political and educational corner. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States.

1. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. There is need of making the people open minded. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. 2.opposed to religious education.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. Equality. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 77 . people have narrow mindedness.6. Moral values have to be imbibed. That is why. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. In this type of prevailing situations. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 3) It permits freedom of worship.6. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. 9) It stress free inquiry. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. During the recent past. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. should be independent of religion. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. the belief that the state morals. people started believing in regionalism. 8) It believes in co-existence. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. liberty. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation.1. education etc. “Webster further says. A large number of people is uneducated.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. 5) It implies tolerance. fraternity.

Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Patiala. There should be some internal checking of the material being. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. tours and trips may be organized. In the hands of such teachers. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.6. While doing so. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. students belonging to different religions should be associated. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. Religious Education.1. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. In the celebration of each such function. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. 2. No doubt. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. The very sight of the building. that the central string of all religions is one. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. education. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. 1) Moral Education. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.presented by the students in the gathering. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions.

The term secularism was first used by 8. No doubt.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Define Secularism 9.1. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The word “Seculum” means 7. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering.7 LET US SUM UP 79 .

The students may be associated with the management of the school. d. 5. This present age 7. Abraham Lincoln.1. 3. a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. 4. c. Explain the concept of Democracy in education.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. Socialism aims at social justice. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. b. Power of the people 2. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. 6. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. for the people and the people”. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Provision of Manual Work. a. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Since socialism stands for equality. Tuition free education b. creed. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. colour or wealth. 4. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. a. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. George Jacob Holydake 80 . The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. 3. there should be made no distinction of caste. Socialism aims at equality. Respect of Individual Personality. Equal Opportunities for Admission.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic.1. 5.

10.C. It permits freedom of religion. Anmol Publications Pvt. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Mohanty. a. b. (2007). education etc. Bhatia. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. J.1. should be independent of religion. the belief that the state morals. 81 . Ltd. Theory and Principles of Education. L. (2003). B.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Dash. P. N.” 9. (2005). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K and Narang C. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2004). Ltd. a. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. N. K. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Pahuja.8. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. J. b. (2008).

6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.2 2.2.6.2.2.9 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.2.2.LESSON 2.2.1 International understanding in the school 2.5.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.10 2.4 2.3 2.2.2.5.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.6. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.2.7 2.2.2.8 2.1 2.

It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. therefore. It involves physical. moral. understandings. A teacher is first and foremost.2. as it is t he aim o f modern education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. The developmental roles of children.an instructor of school children. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. application. social and moral aspects.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. and 4. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. you will be able to: 1. who are placed in his custody. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach.generation to another. as persons. as learners. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. as citizens. a r e 1. social. as workers. 2. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. 3. development. 83 . aims and objectives of the school. mental. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. 2. 2. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. Children are the potential wealth of a nation.2. skills. emotional. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3.

He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. economically effective. intellectually.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a.All education should lead to better behavioural development. The students live. mental. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born.2. inquisitive. morally. The following are some of such roles described in brief. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. 1. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. morally. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. physically fit for socially efficient. member of his community at the outset. mentally. a part of their day in 84 . 2. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. 2. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. social and emotional health. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. Teacher as a Citizen Next. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. experiences and acceptance. He has to look after their physical. He is to become an active member. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. emotionally. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. 3. motivated. and aesthetically to become. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. socially. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. culturally confident.

languages and religions. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. It 85 . Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural.the school being under the custody of teachers. 4. List out the role of teachers towards community development . Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. fine art associations. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. science club.2.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. and most of hours. solve them. creeds. activities of the society into which he is born. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. 2. photographic clubs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Unless. faiths. They will be spending with their parents.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. India is a land of many castes. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. Dr. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to.

foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. folklore and teaching of social studies.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. Let us. social studies. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . At the primary stage the importance of stories. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. Radhakrishnan. Nehruji has explained this as. poems. should be emphasised. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.” Regarding the role of education.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one.2. It should broaden the outlook.5. and make into one strong national unit. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. this integration of the Indian people. with straight backs and look up at the skies. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . therefore. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things.” 2. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. Sampurnanand remarked. b. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. c. The only process is the process of education. stand up straight. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. 1. the citizens of the Republic of India. national anthem and other national songs. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. narrow-minded provincial.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration.is. a. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. the study of language and literature. ‘We should not become parochial.

sports. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. 8. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. debates. 7. 10. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Celebrations of National Days. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. 4. and picnics. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Uniform for School Children. militar y training like the NCC. Taking Pledge. National Days—January 26. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. 3.different social sciences. Co-Curricular Activities. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. 2. 6. Singing of National Anthem. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Reverence of National Flag. Textbooks. 9. languages and literature. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. t he st udent s and t he community. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. dramatics and youth festivals. symposia. tours. ACC. educational excursions. 5. Scouts and Guides. Student Camps. 87 . In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag.

Recognition of Institutions. School Projects. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery.11. 14. iv. 88 . 13. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste.5.2. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Students Exchange and Tours. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. language. iii. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. 2. ii. region or religion. v. Admissions to schools. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. 15. flora and fauna. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . 12. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. Open-Air Dramas. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. Educational and Travel Documentaries. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 16. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. colour. ways of thinking and doing things. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Admissions.

The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . irrespective of national boundaries.vi. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. ix. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. vii.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Community dinners. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. camps.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. 2. Define National Integration 3. cultures and races on equal bases. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. viii.

F. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 2. 2.as important as that of a national citizenship.. and the healthy development. the international level. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. (b) stories of children of other lands.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. Therefore. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. often in connection with anniversaries. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. 5. that war. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. Strong has observed. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. if it happens.2. patriotism is not enough. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Teachers 90 .2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. 3. 6. therefore. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies.” 2. C. of his body and mind. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. This. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war.6. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. 4.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.friendships between children of different countries. Dr. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. In a very real sense. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Radhakrishnan states. Organising of debates and.e.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1.2. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum.6. (c) fairly tales.

While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. an Englishman. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” Well Informed About World Situations. Impartial in their Treatment. Russian. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Indian and American. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. a German. They should not be propagandists.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students.

2. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. Defects of the educational System . It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. 3. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. there is wide spread frustration among all people.2.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. majority of people are. 4.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. As the school is but a miniature society. which results in agitation and aggression language. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. It does not prepare students for life. Wide Spread Frustration . the education function can be carried. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society.Another major. 2.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. Chronic Poverty .come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. leading to. 5. Devaluation of Values .7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. and help the students to over . If this is done. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. understand and indiscipline: 1. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.

community development. etc. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. 2. co-operation. 3. List out the factors causing social tension in schools .2. 93 . He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. 4. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. love. 2. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development.2. fellow feeling. 2. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding.democratic nature.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. sympathy and good will among the nations.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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led to the printing of books. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. He taught his students orally. Define community. Hence. Now internet is being used. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Emphasising this thing. 2.V. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. the invention of the printing press.3. periodicals.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Then came newspapers. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Moreover. books. are increasingly used in education. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. In fact. To make them achieve their aim. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Museums. “All the citizens of the community. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Crow and Crow write. art galleries. During the course of time.

the place of importance. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. It is also an important source of entertainment.telecast. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. In collaboration with the experts. It enlightens public opinion. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. 2. music. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. current affairs and other areas. A lot of work by way of pre.3. Thus. Reynolds. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. 2. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and.classroom teachers. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. for the teacher through school broadcasts. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. rather than on picture.G. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Various talks. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Important happening inventions. art. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. In the emphasis is on sound. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Effective means of presenting music. social studies. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. languages. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. the teacher still occupies. politics. Students listen various talks. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. 101 . “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. “Listening participation” in current history. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Thus. dram appreciation. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science.6.

4. Participation of local teachers and pupils. travel talks. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. mathematics. style. at drawing room. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Before presenting the programme. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. plays. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. 3. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. 5. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. at any place. at recreational centers. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Team-teaching demonstrations. speech. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. projects or creative activities. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. audibility and presentability. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. informal and non-formal education.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. School concerts. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. development of lessons. 102 . Making learning an open system. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. fol classical music. At present. at play. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

3.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.1 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.4.7 2.4.6 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4 Limitations of formal education 2.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.3.4.4.4.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.4.4.4.4.5 2.4.2 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.8 2.3.LESSON 2.4.4.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.4.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4.4.3.4.4.

2.. School is. say the Government or the private enterprise.4.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. starting and ending at -a particular age. compare formal and non formal system of education. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. his mental alertness. open university. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 6. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. imparted at the residence of the teacher. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. 2. the most important agency of formal education. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. the mass media et. In ancient time in India. the community. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 4.2. the family. 4.4. 3. 2. the temple. To realize this objective of education. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. 8. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. 9. 5.3. 2.4. 110 . it was mostly. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 2. 7. Education. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. open school.4. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. Education organised by some agency. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 3. the learner are acquainted.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school.

4. structured education. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. as well as vocational education and training.3. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. diplomas. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Concepts of proportion. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. capacity. 2. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education.4. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Higher Education: Higher education. In general.2. such as a high school or secondary school.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. Some education systems have separate middle schools. the elements of language are first learned. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal.3.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. or post secondary education. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . Through early formal education. also called tertiary. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. or academic degrees.a secondary education. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. depending on the jurisdiction. third stage. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 .

The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs.which will help for nation's development. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.3. 2.4. What are levels of formal educational system? . 2.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. 4. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. and remote dwellers. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. late beginners etc. Agencies can be classified as 2. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. children with disabilities.4. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. is an important agency of formal education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 .

place of instruction. It is much more responsive to needs and change.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. Open university.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. adding up to a true learning society. Thus. systematic.e. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. i. curriculum. Non-formal education includes adult education. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. systematic. it is a more effective tool for rural development. admissions. “Non-formal education should 113 .” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. Adiseshiah. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. to help themselves.formal education. According to Malcolm A. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. Therefore. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system.learning client take some learning objectives. until 1970 it had not been defined. It is functional. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. open learning. etc. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. It unlocks the doors of development plans. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education.. adults as well as children. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. planned. continuing education and on the job oriented education.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. it has its own valid claim to reality. It is deliberate.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. staffed. However. one could say that non-formal education is an active. financially supported life formal education.

modes of teaching. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. Process of sharing. age. national integration. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. 4. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them.S. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. self. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.” According to H. place of education.be marketable and vocationalised. international understanding. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. i.4. 2. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. Part-time education. Flexibility in various aspects of education. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. co-curricular activities.learning pattern. admissions. To help industrial workers to better their skills. 2. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. socialism.” 2. 7. 3. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. 5. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Lawrence. evaluation etc. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.renewal. the Ideas of citizenship.4.S. 114 .4.e. To develop in the student. exploring. 6. Covering life span of an individual. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. curriculum. Preparation for future needs. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. It should lay emphasis on the self. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.4.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.

Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. 2. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 5. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 4. Technical. Meeting the omissions of formal education. 6. To offer Secondary. 9. Eradication of adult literacy.4. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. publication and information dissemination.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 2. 4. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge.4. Universalisation of primary education. working adults. 3. 10. in villages and those who live in towns. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up.4. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 7. school dropouts. • 2.4. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. 5. 8. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. Senior Secondary. 3. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. 115 .

All-round development i. To increase knowledge and 2. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. factory. public libraries. farm. centres of correspondence education. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. if organised in isolation. Therefore.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. 2. To better qualifications. 4.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . 2. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.4. To make if. library. training centres in factories. others are formal and informal.2. self-employment iii.full time to learners – can be home. etc.4. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. Again. etc. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. 3. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. open space. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education.. Institutions for formal education.4. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . effective in modern societal context. Radio and television.

institution. 7. 6. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. radio. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Correspondence lesson. 117 .6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Face Contact programmes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. . . Give examples of non formal education? . Essay Assignments and short answer questions. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Teaching to face teaching. Written tests. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two aims of non formal education. Lecturing T.V. Define non formal education.

To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.4. 2. 4. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. b. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. 118 . adults as well as children. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. the college and the university come under this category. Formal and Non Formal 2. 5. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. systematic. Pre-school level.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2. 2. School 3. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Open School. 7. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. The school. Primary level.” 6. Higher Secondary level and University level. a.4. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. a. 2.4. 4. b. Secondary level. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Open University. 3. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.

P.2. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : 119 . Gupta. Pahuja. Theory and Principles of Education. K. K and Narang C. J. N. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Mohanty. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2003). (2004). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Anmol Publications Pvt. N. Education in Emerging India. L. J. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2008). (2005). B. S.C. (2008). Dash. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2007). Ltd. Bhatia. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.4.

5.5.7 2.5.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5.5.5.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.4.5.4 Open University 2.5 2.1 2.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.5.5.5.3 Objectives of Open University 2.3.5.4.3.LESSON 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.4 Need for Open University 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.3.5.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.4.4.5.4.6 2.2 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.3.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.5.

For them. However. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened.3. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. Any person. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. Thus. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. It is a lifelong process. continuing education is a boon. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. you will be able to: 1. This knowledge may be in political field.5. labourers and half educated individuals. It is a continuous process. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. 2. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. 2.5. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. industries. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. know the need and objectives of open university.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. farmers. economic field or such other fields. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. characteristics of open university 4.5. give the meaning. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. Under these circumstances.5.2.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.

family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress.3. Radio. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Doctors. On the other hand. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. On the other hand. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. Persons engaged in health services. cultured and progressive. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Throughout the country. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. if he gets opportunity to develop them. 2. Cinema. deteriorating to his character and personality.directly related to his job.5.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation.V. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas.literate person. Thus. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. are also contributing their might for the purpose. T. For them too continuing education is essential. After the achievement of independence. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 .V. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Radio and T. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Block Development Officers.

(3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. habits of people of other lands. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (6) folk stories. (8) psychology of adults. Inspite of the great efforts.5. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. 6.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (17) modern international and national events. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities.V. 2. (10) first aid. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (15) music. (1) ancient history. 2. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (4) the fundamentals of economics. especially women. 3. (2) basic religious matters. (16) liking. we have not been able to achieve our targets. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (14) information about bringing up young children. 2.3. and Radio. (7) folk songs. Of course. 4. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation.3. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. 7. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons.5. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (13) psychology of child behaviour. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. 5. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. 123 . (9) fundamentals of philosophy.. These books are not very useful.

r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. lack of time etc. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. 2. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background.4. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. of educational opportunities. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. attendance restrict ion. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5.5.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. NLM was launched in the year 2.

but 125 . T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. it makes use of educational techno logy.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. Which was the first open university in India? . its education is not class room based but home based. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. Education is not a once for-all process. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. d.4. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . e. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. 2. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. and in teaching. IGNOU was established in the year 6. 5.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. c. the higher the degree of openness. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. b. No one is too old or too late to learn. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. 4. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world.unobserved. 3. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. it a ims at wider and hig her. 2. 4. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. annu al wr it t en examinat io n.5. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country.4. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n.4. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. 126 . 4.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.who did not get it. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. Mo re o ver. or who realised too late that they need it. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 2. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 2. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. 5. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. supplementing the existing provision. 3. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. cho ice o f co ur ses. 2. 6.5. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 3. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people.

a state or nation. 3. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Laboratory works.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. List out any four methods of Open University? . a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living.5. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. 8. you have learnt the concept.5. a society. semi – literates. Tutor Comments. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. 1. 5. 127 .4. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Therefore. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. In the present day world. school drop outs.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 2. 6.2. 8. Every day. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. 2. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Correspondence tuition. 7. 4. Self instructional materials.

3. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 9. 1988. (4) the fundamentals of economics. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. a. (2) basic religious matters.ambitious learners. b. a. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. 7. (1) ancient history. 128 . b. 7. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 2. its education is not class room based but home based. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. need and characteristics of Open University. 8. unskilled workers and other professionals. Explain the objectives. 2. Broad casting lectures c. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. which may include house wives. 8. a. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. agricultural and industrial workers. Television Lessons. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes.5. youth. d.5. 6. aspirants for continuing education.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. P r int med ia b.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. 1985. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc.

.K. R. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K. K and Narang C. (2001). Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. 129 .5. Udaiveer.S. Reddy. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2004). Modern Problems of Education. (2007).2. L. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Ltd. S. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004).

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

All which is the need of the hour. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. examination. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. and teacher education. Training teachers for all levels of education. In Lesson 2. its causes and remedial measures. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. which may claim the attention of those concerned. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. wastage and stagnation. Examination reform. the education of women. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. 133 . Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India.

134 .

1.6 3.1 3.3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.2 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.5 3.8 3.1.LESSON 3.2 EFA – How? 3.3 New initiatives.1.7 3.1.3.4 3.1.1.1.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3. 135 .1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.

Eradication of Illiteracy.3. Continuing Education (CE) 1.1. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. 3. education received added importance and significance. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. understands the country. economic or cultural. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. Therefore. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. directed that. social.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. therefore. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. you will be able to: 1. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. 2. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. may be political. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. (EOI) 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL).1. “The State shall 136 . On the other hand.

In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision.endeavour to provide. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Therefore. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. It enables the parents to send their children to School. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls .” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. 137 . the national Government under. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. After the attainment of independence. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Universalization of Retention. 3. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Universalization of Enrolment. Three Stages for Universalization. Continuing Education (CE). the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. rights and responsibilities. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child.

that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. present and future. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. then to 1976. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. later to 1988. It is safe to assure. 138 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. educational enterprise. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. Therefore. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. UNESCO Bulletin states. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. This target had to be revised to 1970. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. 1990. 1995 (for upper primary stage). “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need.1. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. Write Article 45.

3. Education of the Impaired. 9. In order to make the programme of education for all community. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. sex. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Early childhood education should be streamlined. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. their social economic status and occupations. etc. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. 5. NAEP. 6. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 8. Disabled. The Social Education. Jams and Jellies. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. 3. problem of literacy. slum areas.1. Apart from primary education. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. 3. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. their enrolment and retention. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. 10. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. By undertaking survey. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. creed. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. 139 .The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. FELF. Education of Girls. nutrition education and sports and games. and Women’s education programme should be improved. rural areas. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Emphasis must be given on health education.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. 12. adolescent and adult. 11. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.e.1. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.3. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. 3. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Wastage and Stagnation.1.3. Expand MLL and SSA . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.

The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. School Factors . Familial Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. it is considered as wastage. Personal Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Social Factors .first stage of education.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Define Wastage. 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. . Enumerate the causes of Wastage. . 142 .

a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. relating to home. Societal Factors . They are described hereunder :1.1. rural or urban 3. school or society.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. in his home.3. Family Factors . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. School Factors .The following factors. Personal Factors .

stationary. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Stagnation? 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. 144 . casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. uniforms. mid-day meals.

4. Universalization of Provision b. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all.1. a.3. improvement of curriculum.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. 3. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation.” 3. 3. 2. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. Hartog Committee. Minimum Levels of Learning b.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. directed that. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. therefore. Universalization of Enrolment c. b. a.1. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. 3. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. 145 . “The State shall endeavour to provide. 6.1. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. 4. Universalization of Retention 2. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA.

Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. New Delhi: 146 .9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. a. S. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. a. Personal Factor b. Crescent Publishing Corporation. School Factors d.1.7. S. improve examination system. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. (2007).N. (2008). introduce graded curriculum. Sharma. Familial Factors c. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Social Factors 8. b. T. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 9. Hemchand.K. 3. Problems of Elementary Education.K.

4.2.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.6.1 Problems of examination 3.5.3.2.2 3.2.2.2.2.4.2.2.2.2.5.5.5.4.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2.2.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.5 New evaluation procedures 3.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .2.4 Question banks 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.7 Open book examination 3.1 3.2 Grade System 3.LESSON 3.5.2.5.3.5.2.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2.

It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.2.2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. 3. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. 3.3.2. suggest the new evaluation procedures. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . but on the other. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. 3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.9 3.2. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.3. you will be able to: 1.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2.2. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .2.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. 3. Besides.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.8 3. 4.

etc. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. roadside Romeoism.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. They develop secondary sex characteristics. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. They may cause problems relating to discipline. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. hostel facilities. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing.3. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education.. which the educational authorities have to face. etc. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. etc. If the students are in sufficient number. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. waiting rooms for girl students. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. 3. schools for them wherever necessary. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. The following steps should be taken up. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. 149 . which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances.2. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated.

4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. public interested in education. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. 150 . With the mass growth of educational enterprise.4. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. It is considered as a major sub-system. appointment of paper-setters.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Instruction. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. the examination system has an important role to play. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. public administrators and statesmen.2. assessment and Finance.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. conduct of internal examinations. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.2. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. 3. teachers.

2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. establishing reliability. etc. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. examiners.2. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. values. etc.4. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. validity and practicability. announcement of results. introducing objective-based testing. 3. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. training of examiners. tabulators. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. etc.printing and distribution of question papers. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. etc. etc. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. scrutinizers. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. invigilators.

Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview.2. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. may also discredit them. not meant to be assessed in the examinations.. 3. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. 2) From the angle of content of education. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. it s a common experience that subjectivity. stereotyped questions. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. 152 . 7) In connection with the question papers. do not appeal to the students and parents. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education.. Rote memorisation. takes the place of comprehensive learning. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. lack of objectivity etc. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education.. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. Vagaries in making.4. Subjects. halo-effect. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. which they are expected to study. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. 3) With respect to method of teaching. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education.

List any two merits of examination. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. etc. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests.a part of internal assessment.. 4. may be introduced.develop true love for education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. revaluation.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Spot valuation. . re-numbering of answer scripts. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. 153 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.

Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. Their interests. When a person chooses to work extra. The students can take any course offered in any department. he is given extra credit points.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. skills are given importance.3. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .2.5.2. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures.2. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. It is complicated. attitudes. Every paper is treated equal. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. In this system. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. The new scheme of assessment. 3. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .5. In actual practice.

While designing syllabus. poor. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . v. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester.good. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. These weightages are called credits.2. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. In the new system. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. This system reduces comparison of marks. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning.poor. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. Groupism is encouraged.5. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. or as a 4 credit course. instead of specifying number of paper/courses.discipline. only the total credits to be earned is specified. 3. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. An example is a seminar. courses can have weightages defined.

The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.5. However. 3. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. 3. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.2. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.5.2. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. 3. the need for re-evaluation should not arise.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.5. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.2. 156 .

3. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. . Therefore. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. recruitment. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . 6. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India.3. However.5.2.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. List any four new evaluation procedures.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. What is the reason for introducing grade system? .2. There are no proper procedures for selection. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In the hierarchy.

Separation of Inspection and Supervision. library books. qualifications. playgrounds. Academic inspection. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. finding out whether the prescribed text.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. inspecting the class-room teaching. 3. taking up the follow-up programmes. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. 158 . The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. in a sense. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. of late. complaints and compliments. laboratory equipment. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. being realised as two different functions. submitting of the inspection reports. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. disciplinary problems. staff. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner.. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. They are. wherever necessary. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning.2. etc. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. school buildings. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. When they are fully realised.. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. books are followed. interpersonal relationships and so on. requirements.6. whether the syllabus has been covered.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. etc. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. 1.qualified personnel. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. in contrast. finding out the adequacy of.

3.Ed. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. 159 . It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. courses. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. Similarly. Insistence on specialisation in the B. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. their professional knowledge. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. or.. modern. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. course in either educational.. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. aptitude. at least. In the light of these conceptualisation. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. In the case of departmental candidates. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. M.Ed. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions.2. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. once in five years.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. b. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. c. assessment and Finance. 160 . 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. 3. Administration.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. 3.2. Grade System. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. b. 2.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. a. d. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. b. Instruction. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. 4. 3. 3.2. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

(2002). (2005). New 161 . Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. 3. History and Problems of Education in India. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. a. Multiple sets of question paper. K. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Educational Reforms.a part of internal assessment. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. a. 7. (2004). Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Vaidya. 5. b. S. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6.2. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. c. Problems of Education in India. K. b.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. R and Sharma. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. a. Question banks. Open book examinations. b. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma.4.

8 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. 162 . state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3.3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. 4.4 3. 5.6 3.3.3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education. you will be able to: 1.2 3.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. 3.7 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.5 3.3. 2.10 3.3.9 3.3 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 3.LESSON 3.3. identify the needs of rural India and social. 3.

e. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919.e.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. Consequent on the recommendations. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses .g. in Andhra Pradesh. 10 years of general Secondary Education.3.. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. and 3 years of First Degree Course. 8 years of general education. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education..specialisation programmes 3.. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education.e. 2.. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. University Education. The.3. The Calcutta Madras. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. i. Commission emphasised to continue. etc. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Similar is the case with some other States. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. the Banaras Sanskrit College. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates.

It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. to prepare.3. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. economical and political. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. historical.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. cultural and economic development of the country. 7.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. 10. social. educational channels. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. who desire to change from one stream to another. However. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. habits of hard work and develop . 6. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. to imbibe. 5) to help for the social. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self.a sense of dignity of labour. and. Provision for transfer of credits to students. 3. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. 5. 8. b. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . is also a plus point .confidence in students. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical.

The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. democratic living. Sociologically it is undesirable. to develop national character.national integration. cultural and' religious tolerance. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . The General Educational Spectrum. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. cooperativeness. Philosophically it is not the conception. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. 1. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. etc. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level.. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. 3. and. international understanding.3. and that required to enter the tertiary level. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. at the other. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. on one hand. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. social justice.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Psychologically.

The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. Biology. horticulture. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. technological. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. and vocations based on dairy-farming. Agriculture is the main occupation. commerce. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas.— tube-wells.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. educational and cultural services. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. In the matter of language. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. rural health. or other machinery. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Science. 166 . adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. medical plants. All these need for an. fish culture. vegetable growing. 3. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities.3. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. industrial agricultural production is growing. In our country. chemistry. technical. In the vocational spectrum. 2. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. Commerce and other disciplines.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. commerce. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. such as Agriculture. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. the rural areas have suffered very much. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. physics or mathematics. India is a land of villages. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. professional. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels.

interests and aptitudes of the students. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. 4. There had been favourable reaction from the students. In time. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. can be ensured. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2.etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In this way.. social justice. and the needs. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education.3. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . and 5. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. etc. In this it may be concluded.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India.. the local resources available. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits.

to imbibe. N. Vocational Sepctrum. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. S. objectives. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. J.3. Modern Trends in Indian Education.3. Ltd.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. habits of hard work and develop .3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.C. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (2001). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Mohanty. New Delhi : 168 . (2005). 3. a. (2007). a. Calcutta University Commission 2. 3. 3. B. b.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Dash. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. 3. a.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3.a sense of dignity of labour. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. J.3.3. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. 2.K. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. we studied the history. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. (2008). General Educational Spectrum and b.

1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.6 3.4.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.LESSON 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4.4.7 3.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.11 3.4.2 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.9 3.4.4.12 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.4.4.4.4.1 3. social and 169 .4.3 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”. Education contributes to human development.8 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.10 3.4.13 3.4.5 3.4.

particularly 170 . can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. family. although we have miles to go. Home Economics.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. you will be able to: 1. economic. analyze the women and distance education. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. There is a close connection between education and development. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. In the post —independence period. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. Nursing.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. Teaching and Fine Arts. During the year 1937. These courses were. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. higher education of girls developed immensely. While women constituted only 9. For the first time in the history of India. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. community and nation is universally acknowledged. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity.higher education in particular. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916.4. 3. Dr. 3. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. The relevance of women’s education to social. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. cultural and political development of the individual. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development.4.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. Education . it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women.

the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.2 22.2 29. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.D. Mother Teresa Women University. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.9 14. Coimbatore. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.4. Yet. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.T Women University. out of 9200 and odd colleges. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.1 24. levels and professions. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.4.9 27.1 31. 3.0 32.0 43. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Even today. in our country.0 Today.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Kodaikanal.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. 3.women.65 lakhs in 1994-95. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.0 16. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. In the rest of the country.N. In 1950-51.4. Mumbai. The idea of women’s education for equality. we have more than 1200 institutions.

83 47.34 33.4.4.66 66.4%) prefer Arts subjects.36 3.27 89.that of boys.73 10. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 respectively. 2. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . 3.46 82. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.56 64. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.53 34. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .17 52.54 12.44 35. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.1 and 14.47 65.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. 3.63 Female % 34.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .

The major hurdles. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. she will only learn fashion. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. and coeducation may spoil her character. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law.hinders the girls from getting higher education. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. They gave up their studies to enter home life. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. what is the need for higher education for her. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. irrelevance of the content of education.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. In college. 173 . Also. Thus. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. curriculum not suited to their requirements. etc. marriage is a very common I factor. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. promoted and increased. Book banks should be established. In every third family. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. 3. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. According to a survey. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. distance of the college or university from home.4. particularly. financial difficulty of the parents.

4. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Education. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Full-time employment. 3. space. It enables to study. It is a productive investment.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. is the only tool for realising empowerment. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. 3.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. Geographic distance of educational institutions. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Empowerment in a nutshell. which is the most dynamic factor of development.economic disabilities faced by women. There are constraints of time. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Distance education is a boon to women.4. It also brings about 174 . resources and socio . It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face.

Women are partners in development. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. education of women is of paramount importance. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. legal awareness and economic independence. for full development of our human resources. empowerment means being assertive. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex.4. This can be achieved through reflection. Empowerment is an active. on their own. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. education of women must be given priority in national plans.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. higher learning. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. 3. The major objectives of women's higher education. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated.

UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures.4. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. 3. The local administration. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. which is pending for a long time. The educational institutions. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. Scholarships and concessions for women. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. Reservation for women. But their number is small. will encourage them to venture new grounds. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. has to be implemented at the earliest.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. 176 . especially so in the developing countries. Better opportunities. which had been the sole domain of men. who are eager to take up courses. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard.

talents. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. engineering and related technologies (16.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. IDP Education. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent.3 percent. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%).She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century.8%). where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. especially in developing countries like African countries. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. Also. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.9%).000 women in the country. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . According to Lindy Hyam. But. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.4. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.1%) and architecture and building (38. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. capacities etc. Chief Executive. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Australia. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? ..

(2007). S. community and the nation. 178 . Mumbai. Women Education. S. 3.C. Kodaikanal.R. Pattanaikj. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Centre for Women’s Studies. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Mumbai. 4. SNDT Women’s University. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Coimbatore. R. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Coimbatore. Mishra. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. (2008). Mother Teresa Women University.4.4. 3. 3. 2.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Rajasthan 5. Women and Education. Annakodi. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. R. a. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. SNDT Women’s University. A. (2005).K. 4. (2000). Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. and Suryalatha. individuals and society b. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. A. Women Education. create the right attitude towards life.4.to the family. Rao. 43% 6. R. and Swain.

10 3.11 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.8 3.5.3 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .7 3.5.5.personality of children in and out of school.6 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. whole. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.5.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5.5.5.2 3.9 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5.1 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4 3.5.5.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5. They should be trained.LESSON 3.

Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. 5. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. national consciousness. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. Shorter working hours. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. 3. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. 4. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. know the pre service and in service training facilities.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. equality and justice. understand the training teachers for Primary.5. Dearth of new technology of teaching. and national character. social and emotional integration. Lack of physical facilities. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. international.5. understanding and strong desire for international peace.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. you will be able to: 1. 3. 180 . It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching.

and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Depending on the levels. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. etc.Less qualified teacher educators. the secondary teacher education.Ed. Lop-sided curriculum. students. it is called the In-service teacher education. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. inservice and extension education programmes. the centre. At the diploma level. (NCERT) New Delhi. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. levels. Inadequate training in practical skills..5. and M. and the collegiate teacher education. If the student teachers are working teachers. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. 3. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education..5. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. 3. it is called the Extension teacher Education. the primary teacher education. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. a Diploma course and a Degree course. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training.Ed. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. the state Government. who have not been trained earlier.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. higher secondary teacher education.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching.

Expand NCERT 2.. Education cells. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Evaluation unit. state Institutes of Educat ion. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Also Guidance Bureaux. depart ments etc.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY.5. Educational teehnology cells. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Science Education units. 3. etc. extensio n service. non-formal. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. collegiate cells. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . are established. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

which should include experience in the primary schools too. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. audio visual aids. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. which help breaking isolation from one another . schools and sister institutions. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department.. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. degree.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . to offer consultative services. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . and so on. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . primary and secondary school teachers. should be improved on a top priority basis. to prescribe conditions for recognition. to ensure teacher competence. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. and 183 .. material conditions relating to libraries. to improve curricular programmes. despite its vast expansion. laboratories.Ed.Ed.. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B.

efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. and XII. Workshops. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. 184 .ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. etc. Modern Techniques of Teaching.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. though no pre-service training. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Organisation of Content Courses. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. To meet this exigency. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. The problem. Psychology of Students. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. Induction Courses.secondary education. Meanwhile. methodology and evaluation. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. etc. Hence. Modern Methods of Evaluation. not came up once again. whether they should have professional education or. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Agriculture.

Ed..5. (Education) are organized by 185 . For re-orienting the teachers. M.. (Education) and M. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.Ed. courses and M. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. Degree.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. in Education. State Institutes of Education..Ed.S. Degree and M. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Pre-service training is for those. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. Courses leading to B. These facilities are available for regular students. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates..A.A.. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. training. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.Ed. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.Ed. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.D. Post-Graduates also undergo B. All B Ed. Point out two defects in primary teacher training ..Ed..’s are elig ible for M. Ajmer. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.’s for Ph. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. 3.

. they should be conscientious . this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.. 3.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Hence the employability of M. (Ed. 6. 186 .A. However. of conduct—written or unwritten. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. What is the role of ERIC? . 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned.5. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 5. and B. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and .List any two code of conduct for teachers? . Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. established by tradition and teachers of the past. (Ed). and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.A.).8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

187 .5. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 3. they should be conscientious. a. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. 4.5. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. 4. Ajmer. b. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore.3. a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. 3. National Council of Educational Research and Training. Explain code of conduct for teachers. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Bhopal. Discuss the problems of teacher education.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 6. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. a.5. The necessity is however this. Shorter working hours. 3. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. However. b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 5. 3. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.

5.D. Publication Pvt. Ltd Aggarwal. P. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . Teacher Education. J. Corporation. Mohanty. (2003). A.N. Tewari. (2010). B.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. and Teacher Education. Teacher Education. (2009). New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.3.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. If the diet is poor. objectives. consuming the right amounts becomes important. objectives and role of the physical education. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. Since food is the source of nutrients. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. 191 . ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. economic and educational developments. the focus is on the school health programmes. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. The person’s environment is equally important. objectives. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. nutritional deficiency diseases. In lesson 4. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. preservation of nutrients. common ailments of children. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. In lesson 1. communicable diseases and their prevention.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation.

192 .

9 4.2 4. mental.7 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.LESSON 4. It is a miniature society.3 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1.1.5 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i. for giving health education to the children under its custody.e.1.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1 4.4 4.1.1.11 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.6 4.10 4.1.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community. The programmes of school health education are quite important. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.1. emotional and social. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. 193 . physical.8 4.1.

4. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community.1. 4. know the need for sex education. 6. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. you will be able to: 1. 8. To develop certain skills concerning health. 7. 5. understand school health programmes 2.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. content of health education. training in first aid and etc. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. e.1. 10. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. To give information regarding health rules. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. list the common ailments of children 3. cleanliness and healthful living. explain the importance of First aid 5. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. 9..g. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 3. 4. 194 . 11. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. Instruction. To develop healthy health habits among children. to his family and to the community at large. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. training of teachers and evaluation.

. Triple Antigen Vaccination. inoculation against cholera. minimizing the travelling distance. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. (xl) mental health. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. (viii) first aid. B. suitable furniture. “Play-for-all” programmes.1. direct lighting. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. etc. (v) safety education. There should be regular water supply. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. 3. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. 2. First aid facilities should be made readily available. play festivals. vaccination. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. 4. ( iii) sanit at io n. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. (ii) communit y healt h. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. The school buildings should be spacious. 5. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. cleanliness weeks.. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. proper doors and windows. organisation of school health days. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. Vaccination for small pox. (xii) smoking education etc.C. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. (vi) nutrition education. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. is imperative.4. excusing late. There should be good drainage facilities.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. The surroundings of schools should be clean. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 .G. typhoid. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. as described below 1.coming or absence. 2. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. B. Arranging better transportation facilities. The flooring should not be damp.

D. isolate and notify.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. fainting (epileptic fit). burns. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. poisons. wounds. • Close the schools. • Keep all rooms clean. cuts. • Find out the cases. if epidemic is wide-spread. fractures. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. etc.. • When sleeping in groups. • Have adequate rest and sleep. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. dislocations. drowning. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. scalds. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. 196 . bleeding. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. sports and games in the interest of their health. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. and other accidents. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. • Take nutritious food. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. C. insect stings. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious.

. They are: i) The incubation stage. pain in the joints. water or bodily contact. Mention the school health programmes. There are three stages in any communicable disease. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. headache. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. tuberculosis. which are – cold. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. backache. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. fever.1. measles etc. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. chicken pox. 2. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. asthma. 4. List out the Health curriculum 3. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. So they easily get illnesses.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection.1. polio. 4.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. These diseases are called communicable diseases. cough. Once these germs get into the body.

Measles .This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. sugar and water.This disease is caused by bacteria. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Hence it is called a killer disease. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added.It is caused by measles virus. unhygienic bottle feeding. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Mumps . Others make the children very weak. Common Cold . After three or four days of fever. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. This is caused by cold virus. cough and fever. unhygienic living conditions. Diarrhoea . The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. etc. Throat is affected. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Tonsilitis . head-ache and cough. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. 198 . Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Some suffer cold due to allergy. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. The child may have fever. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Ear Infections . Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. The following are the common communicable diseases.When a child suffers from scabies. The symptoms include cold. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. eating food which is not clean. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Scabies .

The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Typhoid . The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. Shortly. If proper treatment is not given. The child may also have diarrhoea.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Expand DPT . The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. 199 . face and waist.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. 5. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Diphtheria . the child is not able to breathe. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.• • • • Chicken Pox . raised pink spots appear on head. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. What are communicable diseases? 6. As the disease progresses. Enlist the common ailments of children. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. the child may die. By scratching he causes secondary infections. It begins with fever. separate.

etc. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. Sprains . Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. bleeding.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. Cuts and Bruises . sprains. dislocation. Sex is but an integral part of human personality.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. simple fractures. fainting. It has its rightful place in education too. so-called sex books and periodicals. scorpion stings. man-woman behaviours. it is a subject of art. Drowning . and Community Work and Social Service.4. 200 . 4. drowning.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. Wounds . cuts.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. fiction. 2. bruises. sprains. head injury. and films. Sex is popular. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. swelling. 4.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. snakebites. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. films and jokes.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. 5. wounds. exciting and body-oriented.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e.1.g. In such cases. It is both biological and psychological.1. 3. eye injury. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.

There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. In today's liberal and interactive society. Hence. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. health. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. in their ignorance. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. sex education is being recommended in schools. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. The values of life.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. In secondary schools. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education.. the religious organisations. 2. try experimenting with their bodies. the school.old values. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. The home. celibacy are age. Should the boys and girls.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. but preserve them from disaster and disease. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. they would be treading the path of sure doom. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. 3. B. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A.

Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach.1. common ailments of children. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. 4. communicable diseases and their prevention. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. Teacher education institutions are. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. there will no crisis in its implementation.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. C. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. What are the major components of Sex Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. the school health programmes. hence. when the courses are already overloaded. 202 . The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. first aid and sex education.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. 209 . Mention the food nutrients 2. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6.

But how do we select these foods? The major aim. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Let us talk about each of these aspects.2. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. 210 . vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s.4. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. minerals. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.2. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. If you look at the definition carefully.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied.

for example. dosa are typical of the south.6. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati.sedentary. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . Rice or rice preparations such as idli. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. A balanced diet is specific firstly. paratha and poori. moderate or heavy work. In other words. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.one in the morning and the other at night. There is no point. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). construction labourer). Even within given States there is considerable variation.g. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. These are: region where the person resides and income. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. it is also specific to a given activity level . In the case of adults. People in the east of our country prefer rice. 4. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. sex. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. Preferences/customs are also important. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age).g. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. the social and religious practices of that region. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . activity level and physiological stress. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning.2. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress).

A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual.planning the diet. If you think of your own religious group. As income increases. nuts and dry fruits. As you read this discussion. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. Having more money. however. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. as important for the rich as for the poor. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. for example. In addition to these. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. One person may be fond of milk products. however. while another may hate them. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. Judicious selection of food is. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. income plays a vital role. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. however. However. customs. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. taboos related to food may play an important role. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Including these 212 . These determine the acceptability of foods. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. Among the social factors. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. Even among flesh foods. One must. vegetables and fruits. fat and sugar tend to increase. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. For this. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 8) Walk a while after eating. 17. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. Define balanced diet. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. List out any two healthy food habits. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.eating is hazardous. fruits. 8. if the teachers have good food habits. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. mouth. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . 213 . green leaves. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. but they should be thrown away. eggs . over-eating or under. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. etc. meat.

Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . When the diet is inadequate. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer.4. Vitamin D 5. c. Conjuctival xerosis. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Beri Beri 4. Bitot’s spots. 4. preservation of nutrients. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss good food habits. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Keratomalacia 3. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life.2. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. a. Corneal xerosis. In fact. d. good nutrition is essential for good health. Explain food nutrients 4. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Night blindness.2. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. b. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. 4.2. e.

P. a .M. Nutrition and Dietetics. Food and Nutrition Education. Food should be consumed after eating well. b. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . Chopra. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . (2009). R. Nutrition Science. S. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Health and Nutrition Education. 4.C. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. a.N. Hands. Sri Lakshmi B. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. minerals. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. mouth. (2005).6. R.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. (2008). b. A Text Book of Foods. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. (2004). 8. Food and Nutrition Education. 7. (2008).

3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.10 4. 216 .3.3.8 4.1 4.6.3.7 4.3 4.3.3 Impact on Education 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3.3.3.6.3.3.2 4.4 4.11 4.3.3.2 Impact on economic development 4.5 4.12 4.9 4.3.LESSON 4.6.3.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3.13 4.3.

you will be able to: 1. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. 4. It is not sex education. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. describe the impact of population growth on social. population characteristics. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. characteristics and changes for himself. his societ y and the world. Whenever we talk of sex education. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. therefore.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning.4. 217 . community. his family. 4. family planning and sex education etc.3. aims at providing the younger generation. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. and the consequences of these processes.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Population Education. It is a much wider co ncept. understand the importance of small family norm 5. economic and educational development 3. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. state the meaning. There is some difference.3. objectives and need for population education 2. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. the causes of population change. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. the stress is.

the nation and the world. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. Define Population Education 2. 4. List out any two objectives of Population Education. the family. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.4. the society.3.3.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Every second two thousand children are being born. which will not be possible without population control. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Family is considered as a social unit.6. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum.3. When the family is small. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. 4. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. the family programmes are also handicapped. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. With the larger families. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. 219 . The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. 4. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. economic and educational development of the country. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries.3. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. health and happiness of its citizens. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development.

Many students herded in a small room. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development.e. i. heavy intern I migration etc. in parks and other places of public gatherings. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. 220 . are the results of demographic pressures on social life. teacher index. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. facility for drinking water.6.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. 4. 4. lack of proper health care.3. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. in buses and trains.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. in cinema halls and theatres. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index.6.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious.. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. pollution of the environment.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. Swollen cities. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. The gulf between them is widening further. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. and so on.3. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. unemployment. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. organization index and material index. toilets. In developing countries. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.

Hindi and English. can be taken up. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. blank verses etc. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. even text books would be in short supply. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. 221 . bar graphs etc. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. there will be lacuna in many other spheres.. Social Studies Statistics on population education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. Regional Language. There would be very few audiovisual aids. can be studied in science and health education. There would be poor library facilities. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject.3. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. family planning etc. reproduction. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. less budget for education. and laboratory equipments.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. less space facilities. thus. essays.

They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 15.4. 11. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. deaths. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. China. Bihar. 12. West Bengal. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. 8. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 5.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 10. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 13. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Brazil. They may arrange them as per average density of population. causes of deaths etc. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Children may compare two families. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. 2. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. area and average density of population. United States of America. 9. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times.3. Children with the help of parents. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. 7. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Uttar Pradesh. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Canada. 3. 4. 14.

9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families.3. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. values and role children etc. 17. 16. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 18. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. we have no right to stop 223 . age at marriage. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.be opened in their schools. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. preferences for sex. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. Comparing life in various respects in two families. The question. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size.

which education can only do. fertility levels have declined throughout the country..4-6. the total fertility rate decreased from 6.to emphasize family planning services.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage.their entry into the world”. The Family Welfare Program. continued . especially the expansion of child immunization services . should be overcome at the intellectual levels.were implemented 224 .3.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. More than 45 years ago.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. 4. and the child survival components of the news: program. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. on an overall basis. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. Since the program's inception. however. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . at varying places in different regions. “He who is responsible for population growth.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.

men. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. Therefore. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. the community appears willing to pay for services. In October 1997. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. In April 1996. At these meetings. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. Moreover. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. and nominal fees for services. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. and the World Conference on Women. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. expansion of services to unmarried women. Local programs vary in their approaches. reliance on local women as community health workers. a focus on health promotion.earlier than the safe motherhood components. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding.

1997). What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. family. involving the community. 226 . What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. 4. nation and the world. Describe the impact of population growth on social. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. economic and educational development 4. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. Its main purposes are to create awareness.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.3. What are the goals of RCH? 4. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.emphasizing the needs of the client.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. community.

Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. population characteristics. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. bar graphs.4. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. area and average density of population. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. a. a. 227 . 5. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. China. 3. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. a.3. and the consequences of these processes. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. the causes of population change.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. 4. 6. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Brazil. United States of America. his society and the world. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. characteristics and changes for himself. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. less budget for education. his family. less space facilities. 7. Canada. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. b.” 2. b.

Coimbatore. Kantikar. T.4. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Bhende. Ltd. J. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. 228 . (2005). New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Principles of Population Studies. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Jayapoorni. (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K.3. Ltd.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. A. Udaiveer. Modern Problems of Education. V. (1992). (2002). N. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2004). Centre for Women’s Studies. Reddy.

4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4 Lead up games 4.5 4.4.10 4.3 4.8.4.8.4.2 Major games 4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.3 Indigenous games 4.4.8.1 Minor games 4.9 4.4.4.1 4.4.4.4.4.4.LESSON 4.11 19.2 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.6 4.4.8.4 4.4.7 4.

understand the importance of Physical Education 4. perseverance. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. 4. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. as it should 230 . moral fitness and emotional fitness. social fitness. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. The concept of physical education has been made broader. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. classify the different types of games. full records of physical activities should be maintained.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. mental alertness.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. you will be able to: 1. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. which forms its most valuable assets. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students.4.4. leadership and balance in defect. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.4. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness.4. the youth of the country. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. team spirit. 4.

They go hand in hand. obedience to rules. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. The educational efforts at home. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. leadership. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Every individual is a part of society. Therefore. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. team spirit. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. To be more precise. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. They are inseparably united together. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end.

“Physical education does neither train up the soul. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action.” The Secondary Education Commission. Rousseau states. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. nor body but the whole man.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. Buck has observed that 232 . “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain.4. ment al.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. 4. Regarding the significance of physical education. Just like Education. pleasing manners. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. C. Physical exercises.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.” Montaigue writes. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. game and sports. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. H. a sound health. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. mo ral.

Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. happiness. speed. 233 .These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. elegance.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief.a properly directed physical education should result in health. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. Froebel says. “If we wish to develop the whole being. initiative. we must exercise the whole human being. strength. efficiency and character. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development.” In brief. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. flexibility and power. resourcefulness and smartness. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.4. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.” 4. coordinative abilities. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. etc. endurance.

have come and gone in the long record of mankind.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Tournaments foster this sentiment. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. While wars. in greater or lesser degree. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. including all racial groups and historical ages. plagues and famines. these fundamental things have always been present. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. poetry and painting.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Every age has its artists. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. 234 (i) (ii) . systems of government. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. they may form gangs. its adherents and its enemies. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina.

Write any two importance of Physical Education. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination .sacrifice. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. obedience. 3. respect for rules. B. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. 235 . Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. bravery and interest in games and sports. 2.\ to develop perseverance. self. to develop tolerance.

Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Be in the uniform. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 3. 7. 14. defects. 11. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. and readmission after they have recovered. and. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 8. Always keep the whistle ready.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities.4. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. 5. Act as a leader. . Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Inform health principles. Keep the field ready for the activities. Be punctual. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Be self-confident. At least now its importance should be duly recognized.H. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 15. students. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Haag. Be well-prepared. 236 1. 2.4. injuries among pupils should be made.4. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 10. 13.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 12. 4. is essential. Be sportive. 9. Usually parents. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. 16. 4. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. 6. Posture screening should be done. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students.

their development is handicapped. 4. 4. As such they are well enjoyed by children. chasing.8. 4. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. frolic and jo y. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. 3.4. Moreover. less equipment and less expense. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. Lead up games. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Indigenous games. the play.4. 2. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. 237 . 1. Such inst incts as imitation. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely.

women take part most of the games. skipping. Jump the stick clay and so on.4. 238 . Ball Badminton. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. spiking. snatching the kerchief. Volley Ball. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. They are rules approved by the International Associations. trapping. hitting. These games require varied skills such as running. muffling. boosting. While many of them are played in the open playfields. couple tag. pitching.With a very few rules. some of them are played indoors. zig zag relay. heading. Dodging. finding the partner. Hockey. For each game the rules are many. catching. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. the games can be modified according to convenience.. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. bowling etc. On lawns. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. on sea-shore. stopping. with implements or without implements. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. the number of players and substitutes. Tennikoit. The dimension of the posts and nets. on hard courts. Soft Ball. Khokho. Tennis. Shuttle Badminton. benefit in playing minor games. driving.8. Basket Ball. Cricket. the play equipment. Kabaddy etc. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. wherever the kids assemble. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Jumping. 4. over ball pass Relay. dribbling. Throwing. Hopping. They are played for a shorter duration. on mountain tops and on river beds. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. under ball pass Relay. Except a few games.

4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . While observing the players in action. List out some major games. Games may be classified as 6. For example. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. birth. they are in existence. 4. They have an abundant social value. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. and . death. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. these games being popular. An example for indigenous game is 8. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.4. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. 7. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. All the fundamental tactics.8. On occasions like marriage. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. Kho-kho.8. festivals connected with religion and public functions.

Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 4.4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. 3. 4. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. b. 2. 4. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers.4. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. physically and emotionally fit and alert. b. aims and objectives and need of physical education. a. 4. b. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. to develop physical stamina.4. 2. c. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. 5. d. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Posture screening should be done. 3. a. a.4. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Minor and Major 240 . It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. to secure physical health b.

Basket Ball. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Krishna murthy. Khokho 8. Kabaddy 7.6. Aggarwal. (2008). Tennikoit. Volley Ball. J.4.C. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Shuttle Badminton. 4. J. Health. Foot-ball. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. 241 . New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Khokho. Ltd. Ball Badminton. J.K. Cricket. G. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2009). Tennis. (2005). Soft Ball. Hockey. Handbook of Physical Education. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. (2008). Mohanty. Physical Education and Sports. Modern Trends in Indian Education.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews.

The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.4 4.11 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.5.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.5.5.5.9 4.LESSON 4.10 4.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .2 Manmade Environment 4.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.1 4.5.8 4.5.6 4.5.5.1 Natural Environment 4.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.7 4.

Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. 4. 2. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological.5. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. 243 .5. Knowledge. 3. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. Attitude. 4.educat ion for the environment. it covers the following elements: 1. political. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Awareness. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. population explosion and resource depletion could be. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. 3. you will able to: 1. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4. social. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. 5. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 6. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Skills. 2. aesthetic and educational factors. Details are given below: I. education about the environment and education through the environment.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Participation.5. list out the types of environment 3. Essential knowledge about the Environment. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. Evaluation Ability. The best place to start such learning is school. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. economic. Broadly.

Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. a. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. • Biological magnification E. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Oxidants Other pollutants. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle.B. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. D. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. 2. F. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. 244 . its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C.

2.3. Sterilisation. Abortion iv. The human ecosystem II. III. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Socio-economic measures. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Birth control through education b. Persuasion: i. Family planning ii. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. B. Use of medical science i. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. 3. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Control of population growth a. c. Intrauterine device iii. 4. The pill ii. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. economic. 2.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. Define Environmental Education. 246 . 3. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. e) Recycling. (UNESCO. Water pollution abatement. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Air pollution abatement ii. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 2.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 1983). Planning human intervention on the natural processes.

satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. includes the plants. telex. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. They interact with each. way is called environmental or ecological factor. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . Biological environment The biological environment. -other. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.5. He modifies according”. b.5.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. to his needs.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4.4. A change in one brings about a change in the other. fax agricultural apparatus. Any constituent or condition of the environment.5. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. 4.other components of the environment. animals and other organisms (biotic). This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. These are biotic components. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. a.5.5. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.5.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.

Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. mineral survey. desertification 248 . natural way of controlling pests. alternate sources of energy. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. industrial pollut io n. effects o f CFC. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. need for conservation. (ii) Air pollution. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. change in climate may be added. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. importance of nitrogen cycle. are the topics which may be taught in History. trees reducing noise pollution.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. reasons. nuclear warfare. river systems. solar cookers. population. relation between population and pollution. biogas plants. use of medicinal plants. History The rise and fall. noise pollution. explosion deforestation. food chain and food-web. extinction of species. greenhouse effect. water scarcity. noise control. air pollutants from industries. supplying timber for various uses. windmills. industrial survey. balance of nature. use of pesticides. effects. excellent recreation sites. acid rain. over exploitation of ground water. preserving the watersheds. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. ozone layer deplet ion. sources. role of trees in building economy. evolution. etc. nuclear energy. need for bio-diversity. maintaining the ecological diversity. ozone depletion.. etc. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. wars and hazards of war. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. sources of pollut ion. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. t heir role in preventing pollution. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . preventing siltation of dams. of civilizations. social studies.

5.5. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 12. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 11. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising conferences. 4. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. group discussions and seminars. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 14. 13. 9. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 4. 6. 2. animal and plants. 7. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres.may be inc ded in Geography. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. aims and scope. Providing. 10. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. 249 . Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Peepal and Tulsi. 8. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 3. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology.

as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. 6.Send their waste oil. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Don’t burn any waste. or form a car pool for everyday travel. 5. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. World Environmental falls on 250 . Never put any left over chemicals. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. it will cause pollution. all these can cause serious pollution. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. especially plastics. Use public transport wherever it is possible. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. If it is done. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Reuse carrier bags. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. used oils down the drain.

4. depletion of ozone. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. orderliness and beauty). To provide materials needed for practical work. etc. Conservation of natural resources. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Social responsibilit y (common good. Concern for species. developing desirable attitudes. Att itudes of balance towards nature. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. and 251 . diversity and stability.. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. CFCs. To arrange visits or expeditions. loss of bio-diversity. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. To arrange for visiting speakers. (cleanliness. etc. The groups may exchange.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. values and habits. concern for others). concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources.5. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. viz. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes.mat erials. To provide reference materials for children’s use. deforestation. nuclear wars. dest roying nat ural habitats.). Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. potable water. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. rather than conquest and mastery. Harmony with the nature .

4. 8. preserving natural cycles. 4.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.5.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. 252 .5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. 4. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

6. importance of nitrogen cycle. ozone layer deplet ion. (ii) Air pollution. b. Environment and Human Rights. Nanda. b.2. (2004).5. 4. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion.. Modern Problems of Education. (1997). Awareness. over exploitation of ground water. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. (2007). Rapid population growth. S. Ltd. Y. sources of pollution. population. a.K. greenhouse effect. To provide materials needed for practical work. Organising conferences. Social responsibilit y (common good. sources. 5. June 5 7. effects. T. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . Publications Pvt. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. a. New Delhi : Authors Press. water scarcity. Environmental Education. relat ion between population and pollution.\ 4.K. explosion deforestation. (2007). Kuldeep. concern for others). New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. acid rain. 3. Education for values. To provide reference materials for children’s use.K.K. a. Knowledge. b. Environmental Education. Ltd. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. group discussions and seminars. 8. a. Providing.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. S. air pollutants from industries. New Delhi : Sharma. reasons. Anmol Publications Pvt. new problems from science and technology. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Udaiveer. b.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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The universe is regarded as a thought process. enrichment and transmission of culture. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Education according to idealism. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. in fact. Spiritual Development. Education must contribute to development of culture. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. man is essentially a moral being. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm.our life.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. the emancipation of spirit. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . Therefore.3. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. should be universal in nature. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. inviolable and hence holy life” In short.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. Universal Education. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. moral. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. According to Rusk'.1. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe.” 5. It is self-realisation. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation.

He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Learning through imitation. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. 3. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. 5. 4. Learning through questioning.3. According to Frobel. He sets the environment in which education takes place. the school is a garden. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. It considers teacher as. He carries the child from darkness to light. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 .the spiritual qualities of mankind. 2. Science. a spiritual guide for the child. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. For intellectual development. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. hygiene. So he should embody. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. History. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. The plant can grow. 5. Philosophy.1. Mathematics etc.” 5.3. no doubt. Learning through discussion. should be there. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. Learning through reading. So health. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. For this no particular method has been suggested. subjects like Languages. affecting (feeling). a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. and collation (striving) should find due place. So cognition (knowing). friend and guide. so subjects like Religion. Learning through lecturing. However. Herbert advocated instruction method. Ethics. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. an indispensable necessity.1.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. According to idealism.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types.” He is thus. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. text books. curricula. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. "Education should make 263 • .4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century.4.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. 2.preservation. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.1.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Perfection of Human Machine. In the words of Ross.perfection and beauty. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. 5. formal lessons or examinations. time tables. Ross explains. 5. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.

Chemistry. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour.4. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. It is based on the psychology of the child. “Education finds its purpose. Naturalistic curriculum. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Education also aims at helping the individual t.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. rational harmoniously balanced. education should develop the child into Joyous.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Education should. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. It stresses basic sciences. useful and mature child. In all. 264 . Therefore. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. 4. therefore. Botany etc Language. Literature. Arithmetic. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. is based on the nature of the child. There is no place for religious and moral education.1. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. subjects like history.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Biology. Zoology. It emphasises physical and health education 5. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. • 5. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction.

5. Learning by doing. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a provider of an ideal environment.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.4. Dalton Plan. he should be taught by experience alone. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. It discards all rigid. Rousseau says. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. 4.1. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. the stage.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.1. Learning through experience. Learning through observation. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Heuristic method.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method.5.1. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 .” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. 5. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. 3. In the .3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. 2.

Vocational and 266 . It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Continuous Growth. 5. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order.5.5. of human personality is in terms of his physical. All Round Development of an Individual. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. The individual has not only to adjust himself. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Social Science. Geography. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Personal Social Adjustment. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Physical training. Sciences. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. social and moral aspects. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Social Efficiency. 5. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Subjects. History.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. intellectual. is true. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems.absolutism of idealism.1.1. The aim of educational development. Agriculture. diversified and flexible.

” 5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.Technical Education.1. The subjects. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . He must be trained. He has to be active. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. should find proper place. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. a senior partner and a sincere guide. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. 5. alert and resourceful. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. activities and experience should be integrated properly. a teacher occupies an important position. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. In different situations he remains a friend and helper.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Learning by Doing.

1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1.6. specific. Biology. 5. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Astrology. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. The basic tenets of realism are 1.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Mathematics. Music and Dance. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. 4. 3. Geography are unnecessary 268 . rich and happy. Sex Education. 2.5. literary or humanistic education. 5. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Biography Philosophy. History. 4.1. practical. Art. 5. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. intellectual. scientific and psychological education. 2. 3.1. Satisfaction of individual and social needs.6. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Population Education. Chemistry. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Literature. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Crafts. It favours child-centered. Psychology. Study of Subjects like Language. liberal. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things.1. Education is preparation for a complete living.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1.6. easily and pleasantly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.5.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . certainly and clearly.1.6.

Learning through imitation. Geography. Agriculture. Learning through questioning. 3. Vocational and Technical Education. Education according to pragmatism. 6. Tours / Excursion e. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Sciences. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism.1. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Self Realisation b. pragmatism and realism. has no end other than growth. Learning through discussion. a. c. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. a. a.1.7 LET US SUM UP We have. d. Languages.1. History. Experimentation d. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Learning through lecturing. 5. b. & curriculum.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Demonstration and Observation 270 . We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Learning through reading.5. e. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5. in this lesson. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Social Science. Physical training. Universal Education 2. Child centered c. naturalism. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Rousseau 5. Learning through experience b.

(2003).H. Publishing corporation. R. P.P. Ltd.1. P. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.5.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman.P. of Pathak. (2004). Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : A. O. N. (2007). Narang C. (2007). Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Bhatia. Pahuja. L. K. Anmol Publications Pvt. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. 271 .

3 Methods of Teaching 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2 Curriculum 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.3.2.3.4.5.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.4.5.3 Methods of teaching 5.2.2.2.2.2.5.2.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2.4.4.LESSON 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.4 Views about teacher 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.2.2 Curriculum 5.1 Aims of Education 5.3.2.2 5.2.2.2.3.1 Aims of Education 5.3.4.2.2.2.3.1 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2.4 Views about teacher 5.

content and methods. you will able to: 1. an artist. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.7 5. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. 2.5.2.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. 5.2.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2.2.8 5.2. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. economic and political reconstruction in our country.5. 3. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.2. mind and spirit. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. 5. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.2.6 5. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. Gandhiji was primarily a social. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.4 Role of the teacher 5. Tagore was a poet.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. 273 .2.

Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor." Dignity of Labour. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. righteousness. it is education of life. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. 274 . In the words of Gandhiji. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. nor the gross animals body. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. His scheme of education is life centred.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. 'Man is neither mere intellect. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations.2. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. mind and soul of children He further observed. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. self-restraint and service of humanity. through life and for life. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. It really provides opportunity for character building.supporting. 5. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.3. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. strength of mind. "I attach more. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim.

2. leather work have been suggested.3. Drawing and Hindustani. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . wood work. Art. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue.Training for Leadership. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Music. the realization of the ultimate reality. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. 5. According to Gandhi. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. Mother-tongue. General Sciences. Individual and Social Aims. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. "Development of the moral character.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. development of the whole all were directed: towards. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Only good individual forms a better society. gardening. metal work.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self.

Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.3.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.2.3.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. men of 276 . expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.2. proficient. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. Basic education is other wise known as 4.trained.

Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. He also advocates freedom for the child. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.knowledge. 5. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations.3. 3. Education must be child centered. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. That is why. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies.2. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 .

• Ideal of citizenship.K. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.2.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. 5. he was a true Vedantist 5. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. He believed in the oneness of humanity.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.4. He was a true patriot. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Gandhi in 1937. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .2. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. 5. • Cult of non-violence.2. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. He was deadly against untouchability. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.” Like all other ideals. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. • Education should involve manual work.

English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Therefore. Religion and Psychology. Music. he said. That way only. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Geography.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . the more dedicated and devoted. etc. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. stronger in power than ever before. Chemistry.4. (vi) Philosophy. It should help the learner have good physique. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. sentiment. could help in forging unity among all. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts.Language and Literature . complete manhood could be attained. International understanding." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. "Mankind must realise a unity. International Understanding. Civics.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Botany. them solve problems of day to day life. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Dance. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. deeper in. Zoology. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. 279 .2. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. wider in range.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. It should help. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Tagore said. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding.

5. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.4. 280 . A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there." 5. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.” He further says. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.4. Tagore rightly says. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.4.2. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.2. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. In 1921. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. 5.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. Activity Method Heuristic Method. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.2.

281 . It is open to all irrespective of country. 9. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. 10. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. race. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12.g. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7.

4. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education for Self-realization. who possess sweet and amicable tempers.2. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Education for Self-reliance. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. He believed in to learning or selflearning. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Education should make a person self-reliant.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. According to him. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Concept of Education.5. 2. work and deeds come out of it.2. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building.” 5." He was against the theoretical type of education. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. man making. Book learning. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education.5. Freedom. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. Education for strong Moral Character. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. 3.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Purity of thought.

That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. That will serve the purpose of education fully. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Philosophy and Theology. 5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. 5. Of course.2.5. philosopher and guide to the students He. 5. engineering and technical subjects. Religion. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. 6.5. Discussion Method. Secondly he wanted Science. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.5.2. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and .2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Thirdly he wished that games. Swami.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. The teacher should be the facilitator. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Education for Physical Development. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. A physically strong person is the need of the society. Every individual should be trained for concentration.2.5. And above all. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. 283 . He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.the learners on different students in the discussion. Education should help in the physical development of an individual.

What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. 12. 5. and pragmatist . of course.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.6 LET US SUM UP We have. Gandhiji as a Idealist. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. legs. 5. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. We have seen that Tagore. ears and eyes. Write short notes on Basic education. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. naturalist. 3. Their educational ideas. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims.Substantiate your answer.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. 284 . curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action.2. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. in this lesson.2.

Nai Talim 4. c. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 1937 7. 2. Heuristic Method. Activity Method d. Self realization. a. Debate and Discussion Method. Activity Method b. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. 11. e. f. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 8. Education should involve manual work.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. Discussion Method 285 . Teaching while Walking b. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. a. metal work. Basic education. leather work have been suggested. wood work. Learning by Doing c. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. 5. Meditation and concentration c. gardening. Explain Vishwabharathi. Cult of non-violence. d.2. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Self-Study b. 5. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.4. Ideal of citizenship. a. Technique of Correlation 6. b. 5. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 10. 9. a. c.

Foundations of Education. (2002). P.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. N. New Delhi : Aggarwal. K and Narang C. (2007). (2003). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. C. Publishing Corporation. Pahuja. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. L. on Bhatia. 286 . (2007). New Delhi : A. Anmol Publications Pvt. N. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. K. P. B.H.2. J.5. (2004). Dhiman. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ltd.P. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. O.

3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.3.3 5.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.2 5.11 5.10 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.8 5. In this lesson.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.5 5.1 5.LESSON 5.3.3.3.3.9 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.7 5.3.3.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .4 5.6 5.

“It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. living in the hilly area. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. From the latter point of view. there is a large number of communities. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s .S. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. in the U.3. In the former sense. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5.3. In the words of Kerney and Cook. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. While education is a process.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. curriculum. 5. state the meaning of curriculum 2. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. the desert area. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. A g o o d curricu lu m.. curriculum signifies situations for learning. present behaviour may be modified. you will be able to: 1.under the direction of the school. the plateau area and 288 . One is the individual process and the other is the social process. the plain area. maintained or eliminated. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. In it. Curriculum is intimately related to education.3.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. it is identical wit h socializat ion. 5. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. in the form of new experience. new behaviour may be acquired. While education is learning. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. Since the demands. Then in a big country like India. Both the processes are integrated. in fact .A. in Russia or in Japan. is a means to the process.

The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. studying therein. Again. Besides craft. irrespective of their needs and environment. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. the learning capacity of children. It must differ from locality and from society to society. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. However. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. From a slave-country we became secular. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. and 289 .coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. environment. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. it is. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. too. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. therefore.3. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. 5.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. democratic and socialistic country. according to modern trends in the educational process. In fact . customs and needs. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. differs from individual to individual.

The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. which may or may not be attained. social.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3.. social. They are achievable. 290 ..3.. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. aesthetic and spiritual development. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . specific. in instructional objectives. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.g. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. uninspiring and unscientific. 4.. Application Objective. National Integration. Knowledge Objective. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. they depend on the political. eg. unambiguous and functional. The word “Curere” means 2. Understanding Objective. 3. etc.g. So it is inadequate. tangible. aims. e. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. emotional. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. individual or Social and so on. Goals of Secondary Education. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. of classroom. Goals of Primary Education. Vocational Efficiency. e. They may be ultimate or proximate.g. They speak of immediate purposes of education. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Self Realisation. unsatisfactory. etc. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. general or specific. etc. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. moral. They speak of perfect goals. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. 1. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. They are visionary goals e. remote or immediate. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes.. 5.

The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. Raymont rightly says. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. The interests. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. in the class rooms. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. According to Crow and Crow. educationists. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. finding them very interesting and captivating. capacities. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.5. on the playing fields. needs. Crow and Crow remarks. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. heavy fire. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization.” 291 . should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. but it includes the totality of experiences.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. abilities.3.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced.

Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. tendencies. capacities and abilities. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. moral. time in a useful manner. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. They often waste it or rather kill it. Due to these variations and differences. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. aptitudes. mental. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. urges.

organized. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. 3. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. phased preparation. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. 2. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes.curricular.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. 293 . development of professional capability at all levels. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. administrative programme need be planned. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. To ensure success of the process. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. Similarly.

Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . Run.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. 18. 12. in the class room.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. 17. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 5. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.3. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum.3. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. 11. 5.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. a. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. 1937 19. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. Relation with Life c. library.3. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. Child Centred Education b. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. laboratory. principles of curriculum construction.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. workshop.

N.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S. New Delhi : Authorspress. Curriculum Development. Curriculum and Instruction. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. P. D. 295 . (2007). (2007). Innovations in Education. Bhalla. (2007). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. S.5.K. New Delhi : Isha Books.S. (2001).3. and Sarita Kumari. Lakshmi.

2 5.7.5 5.7.4.9 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.10 5.LESSON 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.7.4 5.6.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .3 5.4.4.4.4.4.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.6.4.4.1 5.4.8 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4.4.4.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.7.

They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.during the second half of this century. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. 3. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . in the economic reconstruction of society. Gradually.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4.4. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes.4. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. know the importance of science education. explain the concept of scientific attitude. you will be able to: 1.5. 2.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. newer and newer industries started growing. open-mindedness. honesty.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. 5. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. We mean curiosity. tolerance for the opinions of others. superstition or emotion. 297 . we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. 4. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. 5. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.

The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 .4. Through newspapers. 5. 4. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 7. 2. Devotion towards nature increases. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Organisation of science fairs. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Thinking and memory develops. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. as well as of the society. 5.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. 5. 5. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Promotion of science clubs. Through examinations. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. seminars and symposiums.4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 2. Schemes of teaching science. Central science workshop. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. After such experience and training.So that. Selection for science education. 6. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Love for truth enhances. 3. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Principles are formulated. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. 4. stipends and appreciations in various ways. 3. 6. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. should provide opportunities to. After presenting the problem.needs and conditions. each child to “enquiry skill building”. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other.6. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs.4. Write any two advantages of Science Education. 5. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. They experience natural phenomenon. essential that teachers. In the inquiry approach.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. therefore. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. objectivity. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. Enquiry teaching is. 7. Training of science teachers. It is. 5.4. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. They ask many questions about the objects they see. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. sex or religion. They encounter many social events as they grow. For laboratory and workshop techniques. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . which is essential for developing scientific outlook.

7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Evidence.books. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. stern pursuit of accurate data. 5. Social sciences. to ask questions and experience things. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. It requires consistent thinking. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 5. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. 3. Adopting creative models of teaching. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. .Herma Wouk. 4.6.4. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. 300 . Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. 6.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Giving less directions. test. commands or orders. Appreciating pupils ideas. 2. 5. . if they like.

keen observation. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. therefore should be unbiased and objective. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. practiced. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. These include open mindedness.4.7. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. neighbourhood. critical thinking and suspended judgments. To achieve this we should understand what it means. it must be encouraged. school and society at large. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning.(Smith 2008). It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. The students observation. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. 5. friends. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. (Vaidya 2007). It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. to develop among the learners. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. and emphasized during the learning process . For instance. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. of vast resources running waste. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents.

think and work it”. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes.4. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. In considering a situation or a problem. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. 5. 2007). Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. understanding and logic. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. (Das.7. rumor. 302 . or superstitions. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. he studies all aspects of it. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. intuition or wishful thinking”.

7. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. 5. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. • 5. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.4.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil.4. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. but to begin only after careful planning. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.7. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. 5. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. it must be encourages. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. 304 . see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.

the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. (2006). Love for truth enhances.S. 2. Rao. 16. a. Study of superstitions d. D. objectivity.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. New Delhi : Anmol Publications.4. 4. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. a. N. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.5. b. S. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. Proper example of the teacher c.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. 305 . The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. 5. M.4.4. Planning of activities 5. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. (2008). b. b. 5. Vaidya. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. The intention to respect another’s point of view.B (2008). Yadav. Wide reading b. Discuss the importance of science education 14. a.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Adopting creative models of teaching. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. 3. (2000). Reflections on Scientific attitude. a. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs.

5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5. you will be able to: 1.4 5.1 5.5.8 5.5.5.5.3 5. objectives and characteristics.11 5.5.5.6 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5. state the concept. actively.5. 5. 2.5.5 5.5. areas of institutional planning.LESSON 5. 306 .9 5.10 5.2 5.7 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.

• to involve teachers and school administrators. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning.5.3.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. State and national levels from below. which become the bases for further planning at the district. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. • to make planning development-oriented. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. teachers and students is not lost sight of. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. in the task of educational planning. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. and every student in the process of educational planning. 5. 5. and. and supplement planning from above. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 .5. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. Institution should be regarded as the unit. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. and each student are regarded as separate entities. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. every parent. every teacher. executive as well as public. each teacher. • To make institutional planning more successful.

and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. (2) Co. 308 .6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. Syllabus. approved after making necessary modifications. Examinations. Co-curricular activities. and Personnel services. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. etc. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. 5. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.curricular Activities. Classwork. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion.5.• implemented. which will be discussed in the general. council and.5. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. it becomes the basis for school inspection. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.

Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Organisation of class-room libraries. etc. Editing the school magazine. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Equipping of laboratory and library.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. etc.No. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Preparation of models. etc. 1. Organisation of Students’ Association. Organising play-for-all programmes. etc. Organisation of Pupils. 3. Running science clubs. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Courts. hobby-centres. scientific and historical excursions. Improving the internal assessment. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. etc. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. charts and apparatus. Preparation of instructional material. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Conducting of educational. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Fair distribution of syllabi. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. pupil310 . The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. and solidarity. teacherinspector. Administrator-State. teacher-teacher. teachers. parent-teacher associations. etc. and —pupil-pupil. co-operation. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships.5. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations.” The human relationships in. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. administrator-supervisor. which are divided as the in. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. pupils. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. administrator-administrator. ii. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. headmasters associations. science teachers’ associations. teacher-managing body. teacher-State.5.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. involving mainly human materials. administrator-pupil. parents. teacher-pupil. students’ associations. understanding.

V. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. teacher-community leader. to carry out. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. and to serve. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. pupil-non-official functionaries. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. organisation and management. It is also being modernized to become a technique. administrator. superintendence. To administer means to manage. According to C." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. organisation. etc. pupil-inspector.5. control. now-a-days.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. Good. supervision. 311 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. supervision and superintendence. pupil-community leader. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. to attend. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. to accomplish.State. teacher-parent. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. It covers personnel and material management. social sciences and other disciplines. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. pupil-parent.

This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. Those. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. He should be an artist in human relationships. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. who occupy the managerial positions. Leadership . Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .Any good management will always have good public relations. Cost-Benefit Analysis . Decision Making . This is the latest democratic trend in management. 7.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. Motiviation . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. 8. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. Rapport between the Management and Employees . should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. If the cost benefit ratio is less.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. Socio-Scientific Approach . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. Liasion with the Public . Economic Management .He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. 6. If it is more.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 13. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . low.Of all the approaches. 2. 3.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . 4. 11. Communication . He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. 10. Worker Participation . without this the efficacy will be handicapped. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. 5. Better Human Relationships . it is not worth-while. Democratic Management .The manager should have leadership traits.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. The relationship should change from master. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. 9. 12.

It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 19. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . objective. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. characteristics and areas of institutional planning.5. and cooperative performance should be ensured. 313 .too. enrichment of curricula. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. 5. 14. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. to improve the quality of education it provides.These two are.5. 18. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. improvement of teaching methods.g. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.

12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Fundamental of Educational Management. In group and Out group 5. Instruction. a. f. Tarachand and Prakash. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b.5. NUEPA. 4. a. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. a. Educational Administration. Decision Making b. (2001). b.5. Leadership c. and Personnel services. 314 . d. 2. a. b.K. Syllabus. Singh. (2003). Motiviation d. Examinations. S. it becomes the basis for school inspection. c. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.5. e. Classwork.M. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. APH Publishing Corporation. Co-curricular activities. (1995). Communication 5. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. R. H.

5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Economic 315 .1 Primary Education : Education for all. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .1 Gurukula system of education. Community and Mass Media 2. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.Pre-service and In-services facilities.Article 45 . higher education. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Healthy Food Habit 4.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.teachers should have : 1. Communicable diseases .5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. 4. wastage and Stagnation 3. Inspection and Supervision 3. School. New evaluation procedures. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.Preventive measures.3 Educational Influences of Home.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. Balanced diet. population education. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. nutritional requirement. social Impact 3. Realized the problems of school education.3 Directive Principles . women education and teacher education in India.Religious and Modern Education 1. physical education and environmental education 5. First Aid. Common ailments of Children. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. 2.4 India's Secular Policy . (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Code of conduct for teachers. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.2 Nutritional deficiencies. 1.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Sex-education 4.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Examination reforms.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.CORE PAPER .I.1 Inculcation of Socialism.1 School Health Programme. Preservation of nutrients.5 Regional Educational Development in India .

K. REFERENCE 1. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. B.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Curriculum and national goals . (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. and Mohanty R.Aim. Tagore 5. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. 5. Prof.K. Naturalism and Pragmatism .N. Ram S. and Human Development. Socialization. T. 316 . (2005) Foundations of Education. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.N. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.S. and Sharma R. Taneja V. Hemchand. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. (1999) Culture. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles .K. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. Delhi : University Publications 2.1 Idealism.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. (2004) Problems of Education in India. Mishra.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. and Dash B. Sharma.4. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Kalan Paper Packs 10.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. New Delhi: NCERT 3. 7.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Saraswathi T.K. Mahatma Gandhi. R. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Ghanta R. Pandy V.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.R.4 4. Realism. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.C.

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