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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. and Jain system of education. Jainism and their educational implication. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. In. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. 9 . Lesson 5. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Lesson 2. The need. Lesson 4. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. discusses the regional educational development in India.
5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .126.96.36.199.3.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.6.4 Buddhist system of Education 188.8.131.52.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.2 1.5.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.3.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.LESSON 18.104.22.168.6 Education during British Era 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 22.214.171.124 Jain system of education 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 126.96.36.199.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 188.8.131.52.5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.
but English in taste. describe the Jain system of Education 4. has a long past history starting in vedic education.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.8 184.108.40.206 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. in morals and in the intellect”. India.6.9 1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.6. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. 1. The history of education passed through Buddhist. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. “a class of persons.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. in opinion.7 1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. elucidate the education during British Era.1. both present and future.1.3. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.1.1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.1. 1.1. Indian in blood and colour. Muslim and British periods. you will be able to: 1.1.1. That 12 . 1.1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. British system of education presented the modern western model. Education in India.
reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Immediate Aim Vocational. to light. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. religious and spiritual. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. The immediate aim of education. 10. 12. however. with grants of land or money. 13. Education of Moral. Forests as Centres of Education.knowledge was real. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. from darkness. 8. Religious and Spiritual. managed entirely by Brahmans. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Method of Study. Residential Schools. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. if they thought fit to do so. There was. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Method of Instruction. No State Control on Education. not en masse by the class method. and to agriculture and trade. individually. as it is generally considered to be at present. the monitorial plan was followed. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. questioning by the pupil. Pupils were taught. 3. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Role of Travel in Education. Education was a private affair of the people. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. 4. 13 . 5. 11. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Teacher as Parents. followed by explanation by the teacher. Curriculum. 9. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. 16. Individual Teaching. High Status of Teachers. It was not merely intellectual. generally. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. 6. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. 14. Free and Accessible. from eternal to immorality 2. Where pupils were many. It was also moral.
Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. It was freely available to all those who wanted. lived a life of celebacy.17. studied Vedas.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised.1. 2. 1. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. Wide-Spread Education in Women. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection.3. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . besides preparing for worldly pursuits. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. It was suited to the needs of the society. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They were very cordial and intimate. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
he had to perform the Pababja ritual.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. 15 .C. in which. Right thought 3. the student remained in a state of Shramana. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. use of intoxicating things. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. etc. Consequently. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. every class in society. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. except the Chandals. Right memory 8. had the right to receive education. 1. killing of any living being. 2. Right means of livelihood 6. Right activity 5. After attaining the age of 20. taking things without being offered. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. which included abstaining from theft. impure conduct. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. watching dances or listening to music. Education was imparted through the. It was denied only to the ill. Right endeavour 7. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. he was qualified to become a monk. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. the student had his head shaved of all hair. Right contemplation 1. partaking of food at prohibited times. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. use of cosmetics. Right knowledge 2.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. medium of Pali. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people.4. the most significant of which were the following 1. dressed himself in yellow clothes. I take Refuge to Dharma. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. disease and death of the human beings. the handicapped.1. Right speech 4. I take Refuge to Sangh.
knowledge of reviving the dead. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. along with education in script writing. control over sensuous activities. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. a continuous change creating 16 . archery. etc. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. medicine. 5. 2. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. a change is not only total but also perpetual. be considered the aim of education It. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. however. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. wear three items. it is regarded as true”. Initially. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. 4. Even at this stage. nothing is of any permanent consequence. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. magic. women occupied a position inferior to men.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. After this ritual. handicrafts. cottage industries. elephant lore.. has no metaphysical value for life. depth and range. Whatever its nature and extent. arithmetic and religious discussion. 3. approach. archery. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results.4. meaning. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. agriculture. military science. 8. beg for alms. nature. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. education was impart in art. Later on. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. assumptions. objectives of human life. changing the goals. 1. It comprehended education in writing. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. the presence of the monks was essential. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. animal husbandry. bodily gestures. eat food thrice a day. and. aspirations and. Life is in a flux. of clothes. the science of taming and training animals. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation.3. These are called later Buddhist schools. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. Hence. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. etc. 7. geology. commerce. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. As reality is becoming. so long as it successfully does so. etc. On this occasion. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. therefore. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. 6.
and its refusal to believe in supreme God. In fact.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. goes to Vardhaman. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Write Eight fold path . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. However. 5. Its chief feature. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. whatever works are true and good. it is much older than the latter. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Validity is effective and consequences. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. therefore.e. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. i. 1. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas.new and peculiar situations. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. however. and to give it a shape that it has today.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. its pessimistic outlook on life. Jainism insists 17 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education must. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter.5. such as.1. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism..
d) To lead a celibate life. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. c) Not to steal. Hence. 8. 10. b) Right knowledge. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. more stress on individual aims. 1. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Development of personality as an individual. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. and believe in happiness to all. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 9.1. 3. As such.5. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. b) Not utter falsehood. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. 7.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 2. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. and is to be redeemed and liberated. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. e) To renounce the world. 4. 18 . Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. 3. thought and deed. c) Right conduct. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. They are: a) Not to injure. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 5. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. it has a foot in both the words. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. rather than the interpretation of the universe. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. but on both. 2. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 1. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. 6.
Jiva is essentially karmic. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. practised and not only aspired for. 2. education should develop sense of discrimination. 4. Hence. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. 19 . that would be socially desirable. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. and should bring happiness to all.4. What are Triratnas ? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. education must be action based and ideally oriented. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 5. here and now. 3. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. 8. 2. success and love. therefore. Belief in transmigration of soul. Teaching must develop these faculties. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma.5. 3.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Teaching should be social and tolerant.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? .
6. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler.6. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. 1.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. 1. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. 1. primary 20 . which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.1. 2. and not for life. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). 1953).6. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. North West Province and Punjab. with rally and rout. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. Madras. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. To set up separate departments of. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods.6. science.1. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. philosophy and literature of Europe.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. However. Bombay. 1.
Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. self-respecting and competent. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. • Secondary education. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission).5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. Then the prevalent education was anti-national.6. To ensure qualitative improvement. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. namely. At that time M. • Universal free primary education.education was neglected.6. at the primary level. The universities dominated the secondary education.6. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. secondary education became a step towards university. 1. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). 1. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. they named these schools as polytechnic schools.K. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. In 1882. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Later on. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. 1. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India.
Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education.At the primary stage (6-11 years). commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 10. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The objective of education was to provide 22 . children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . After this stage. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. all children are to have a common curriculum. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians.
Right memory. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. 4. 3.1. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Right endeavour.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. It was suited to the needs of the society. the science of taming and training animals. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. Right means of livelihood. establishment of universities. Right thought. 5. handicrafts. During the Buddhist period. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. archery. The immediate aim of education. 4.1. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 2. education was impart in art. military science. etc. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. science and English language. Right activity. questioning by the pupil. b. followed by explanation by the teacher. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. geology. along with education in script writing. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. 6. arithmetic and religious discussion. Right contemplation.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 23 . Right speech.. Right knowledge. 1.education of European literature. 3. The system of education was well-organised. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. 1. a.
C. Sargent report 12.K. (1984). b. J. 8. 10. Right faith. Sharma. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. a. b.1. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. and Nath. (2007). Aggarwal. Right conduct.C. 24 .K. Development of Educational System in India. Singh. Hence. Development of personality as an individual. Y. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. 9. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 1937 1. Ltd. R. (2005). J. Y. c.7. History of Indian Education System. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. (2009). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. more stress on individual aims. 1882. Improvement of Literature. Right knowledge. a. 11.
4 220.127.116.11 1.LESSON 18.104.22.168. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124 1.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2 1.3.5 126.96.36.199.3 Kothari Commission 188.8.131.52 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.1 University Education Commission 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.1 1.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3.2. The 25 .3.4 National Policy on Education 1.9 1.2.
secondary and higher education.conditions of the teachers. expansion of vocational. National Council for Women’s Education 5. 2. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. medical and legal education. examination system.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. 1986 1. curriculum. technical.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9.2. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. Kothari (1964-66) 8. technological engineering. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. 1. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. Post-graduate 26 . The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service.3.2. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. National Board of Teacher Education 10. 1. explosion of enrolment.2. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. S. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. There had been vast institutional expansion. analyse the progress of education in free India. girls and women education besides primary. you will be able to: 1.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. diversification of courses of studies. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. vocational education. New Educational Policy. standard of teaching.
the New National Policy on Education.2. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. 1. 4.2. National System of Education. A. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. Education is the key to our allround development. quality. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. Government of India. 1966. Kothari. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. Finally. in January 1985. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission.teaching. research et. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. quantity.3. 1952. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. 2. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.S.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. 1. 1986. 3. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1.3.2. Problems of access. Education for Equality. However. material and spiritual. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency.3. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. utility and financial outlay. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. the chairman of University Grants commission. A meaningfully Partnership. Therefore. The Essence and Role of Education. accumulated over the years. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. 1. D.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels.
It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. The UNESCO Report.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Thus. the minorities and the handicapped. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1.” Thus. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. By working with hands. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. attitudes.2. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. It can train practical aptitudes. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. the concepts of work experience. 28 . the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education.
It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. the Commission.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. The Radhakrishnan Commission.” The Mudaliar Commission. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. As such.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. if he wishes. Besides. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. With adequate planning. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. According to. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. The Education Commission. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. In 1955. it will conduce self. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . “The aim of these colleges. “It may be described. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. co-ordinations.
ot her.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. Subsequently. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. the semester and credit system. etc. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. raising the special facilities. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. the. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. for quality of life in the rural areas. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education.. admission requirements to vocational courses. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. the rigid streaming of courses. In addition. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. Therefore. The Central Advisory Board of Education. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. With a view to relating education to the life.
preferably spinning and weaving. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. The wave of Basic Education. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Commerce. In short. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. aimed at this goal. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995.defined S UP W as “purposive. meaningful. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred.and the world of work. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level.2. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. which swept the country for over two decades. which offer scientific. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. meaningful. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. etc. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. 31 . manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. which are useful to the community. The Father of Nation. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. According to committee. giving importance to productivity in the national development. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. felt that education should be centred around a craft.. who conceived the System of Basic Education. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. technological courses including Agriculture. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. manual work resulting in either goods or services. 1. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions.
Clothing 5. locally available materials and tools. Shelter 4. Culture and recreation 6. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Health and Hygiene 2. be that the work involved is: 1. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. as far as possible. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. The teachers should make use of. Food 3. Some Hints to Teachers 1.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Productive 2. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. tools and techniques and 3. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Educative and 3. 3. 2. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Work practice. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Community work and social service. 32 . The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. 4. Experimentation with materials. so that it is educational in essence. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme.
It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. Productive Work 33 . in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. improve discipline. be allied to the elective chosen by the students.5. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. Check on educated unemployed 4. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. slum clearance. 1. It can become an instrument to build character.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Community Service In-1972. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. as far as possible. Education through work The SUPW should. To make education more realistic. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Merits of the Programme 1. etc. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. 6. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. the local community should be actively associated. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3.2. removal of illiteracy. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. inculcate a faith. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages.
It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. in turn. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. if not productive. traffic control. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. AICTE was set up in year 4. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. should involve itself in the educational effort. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. skills and better future for the children. etc. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. offering first aid. helping the adults-in productive work.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. Define SUPW 34 . The community.
a. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. 6. 35 . 2. 1955 4. which are useful to the community. manual work resulting in either goods or services. e.1. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. f.2. 1952 3. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. 1. d. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. b. Dr. Write short note on SUPW. 1. 3. Radhakrishnan 2.2. c. meaningful.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
B. 36 . P. A. History and Problems of Indian Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. (2009).K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Anupama. History of Indian Education System. New Delhi: A.K. R. Development of Educational System in India. Singh. Rao. : Sharma.P.2.C.(2005). (2007).P. Publishing Corporation..D. (2007).K. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. J. Ltd. Y. (2005).H. and Nath. History of Education. and Rao.1. V. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Amala. Y.
it came into effect on January 26.3. Besides the English version.3. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. 37 .2 1.9 1. 1949.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. establishing the structure. equality. for a total of 117. procedures.5 1.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 1.3. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.3. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.3. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.1 Significance of DPSP 184.108.40.206 1. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. and liberty. democratic republic. 1950. Being the supreme law of the country. directive principles and duties of citizens.3. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. assuring its citizens of justice.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.4 1.3.369 words in the English language version.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.8 1.3. containing 395 articles.6 1. there is an official Hindi translation.3.
11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. understand our Indian constitution. in sessions open to public. 1947.3. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved.3. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. The Assembly met. spread over a period of 2 years. 1. According to the constitution. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands.3. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 1. 2. social. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. political. the Drafting Committee was appointed. 4. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws.In the August 14. Two days later. with Dr. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 1947. 3. After many deliberations and some modifications. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. 1. for 166 days. Dr. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members.3. legal and environmental. economic.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 38 . A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. Through them. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. you will be able to: 1. 1950. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. learn the role of central and state government on education.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. administrative. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. On August 29. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.
That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Article 40. Article 41. old age. men and women. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Right to work. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. The State shall. Equal pay for both sex. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Article 42. No abuse of children. Protecting children from exploitation. The State shall endeavour to secure. on the basis of equal opportunity. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Article 43.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. That the health and strength of workers. and in other cases of undeserved want. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. Organisation of village panchayat. and shall. Protecting health of the workers. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. provide free legal aid. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Minimising inequalities in status. 39 . for workers. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Equal justice and free legal aid. in particular. Condition for dignity of children. sickness and disablement. to education and to public assistance in certain cases.government. Article 39A. Liking wage etc.
Article 45. Article 47. Article 46. agricultural. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. 2002 for “45. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Article 48A. in particular. industrial or otherwise. Article 44. a living wage. in particular. See also Article 21A). and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The State shall take steps. in particular. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Participation of workers in management of industries. Article 48. to all workers. [declared by or under law made by 40 . (Original Article 45. Uniform civil code for the citizens. The State shall endeavour to provide. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Note: Subs. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. Article 43A. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. and. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Article 49. work. by suitable legislation or in any other way. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years.
1. Separation of judiciary from executive. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Promotion of international peace and security.Parliament] to be of national importance. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. disposal or export.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. Article 45 . Article-21A Right to Education. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. may be law determine”. destruction. removal. from spoliation. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Article 50. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. as the case may be. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. 2002. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. disfigurement. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. Article 51.
from justice and all forms of exploitations. 5.” 42 . of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. iii. 4. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. 3. if such person is a minor. and. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. 8. race. his guardian has given his consent thereto. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. in particular. 2002. language or any of them”. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. and shall protect them. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. ii. caste.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. 6. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. 7.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country.9. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. Educational Reforms From time to time. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. for its vocabulary. 2. 43 . & 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the forms. wherever necessary or desirable. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. The central government determines targets and promotes education. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. and by drawing. Article 351 gives importance to 6.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1.3. Provision for Education for minorities is given in .
standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. So that they may work well. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. 7. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Production of suitable for children and adults f. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. the state governments. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. All India Council of Medical Science. 5. to achieve the desired ends. etc. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. By starting these projects. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. Local bodies and private enterprise. The following pilot projects. private agencies etc. 4. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Merit scholarships in the public schools c.3. 8. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. 6. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. So as to encourage education on right lines. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 .. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e.
Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. 4. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. is the state responsibility. 3. The 45 . It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. handicapped. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. 11. reports etc. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. training and statistics. research. education for women. etc.3. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. 1. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Material concerning nation-wide interests. 1. 12. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. 9. books. are published by it. 10. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2.
articles in the Directive principles.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Article 45 b. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. 1. 1. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Explain Directive principles 2. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. 46 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. Article 21A c. Write short notes on a.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Article 46 4.3. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.
47 . 1.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. a. b. b. The Directive Principles of State Policy.5. Article-21A Right to Education. Clearing House function 9. a. a. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. 3. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Article 45 . 4. 2002. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Dr. Development of Hindi Language 6.3. Ambedkar 2. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article 29 and 30 7. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 2002. Article 46 5. may be law determine”. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Describe the educational role of State Government. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.
10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Bhatia. (2009). K. N. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ghosh. L. K and Narang C.3. 48 .1. S. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. (2007). (2008). B. Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. S. Dash. (2004).
4.4.4 Moral education 220.127.116.11 Aims of Religious Education 1. Islam.4.8 1. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.1 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 18.104.22.168 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.4.4. Jainism.4.6 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1. Students should be 49 .3.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 22.214.171.124 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4. Buddhism etc.4.5 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.7 1.4.2 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.3. Christianity. religious education should be broad based.4.
3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. Thus. India' can produce men of character. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. religious education and the concept of secularism.4. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. According to E.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. integrity. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. state meaning and need for moral education 1.and dedication.4. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. As result of which.D. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. duty-consciousness..” Education broadens human outlook. beauty and goodness so that 50 . enumerate the aims of religious education 4. know the position of religious education in our country 3. 1. In the complicated and complex society of today. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. "In A multireligious society like ours. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. you will be able to: 1.
” From the above. all citizens are free to follow any creed. through religious practices and 51 .1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. Viewing the defects of religious education. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. 1947 we achieved our freedom.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. if not regularly. According to Article 22. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. According to Article 19. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. Hence.4.4.3. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. As our country is a country of diverse religions. religion and democracy are same. it is clear that the State has no religion. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. 1. Children attend these organizations. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. As a matter of fact. rancour. In short. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. at least occasionally. They thought that any kind of narrow. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. Thus. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. realizes God in himself. castes and creeds.3. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. 1. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. No religious tax can be imposed on them. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education.
They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions.. which help him for the development of his character. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. and what is evil. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. when he becomes an adult. As a result of which. what is done and what is not done etc. If unreleased. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. temperament etc. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. one fully developed. for the development of the individual and the society. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. which can mould. Good education. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge.teachings. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. He also learns about social. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 .” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. It helps to modify habits attitudes. intellectual and physical faculties of children. aggressive. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. It is religious education. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. moral and spiritual values.
3. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. towards the society. 2. This should not be allowed to happen. 53 .3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. which is the basic need of a democratic life. If we open the pages of history. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society.4.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”.3. 1. Therefore. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning.
Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. fellow-feeling. Life histories of great persons of the world.4.5. Write Article 22 2. 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. therefore. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. examples of patriotism. Gurudwara as. churches and mosques 7. 10. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Since all religions have virtues. stories of moral greatness. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. 11. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. they should be discussed in the right earnest. For this. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
6. let men see well of one another. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). 5. Fearlessness. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. 6. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. students. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Without moral values. 1. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. 1. 8. Service to others. 4. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. is that which develops moral values. The content of the curriculum. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. “Let all be happy and free from disease. in the home. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate.4. 7. Self sacrifice. therefore. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Purity. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite.4. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). They will play their role effectively. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Brahmacharya (celebacy). 7. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Satyam (truth). Ahimsa (Non-violence).acquisitiveness). Non-injury. the methods of teaching. 5. 4. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Aparigarha (Non. Patriotism. Moral education. 3. Cultivation of emotions. 8. 55 . personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. 2. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 3. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Asvada (Control of palate).of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. 2. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations.
minutes in the morning for group singing. Sharivashram (Physical work). Good temper. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . National unity and Spiritual values. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. In the school programme. The School Assembly should be held for a few. 10. 4. Discipline. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. 2.9. Efficiency. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. 1. Secondary Stage 1. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. discipline. Unity of mankind. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 3. 56 . Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History.4. Good manners. Simple texts and stories concerning different. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. 11. Integrity. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). 3. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Asatyam (Non-thieving). Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. religions may be included in the syllabus.
In this connection. love of humanity. patriotism and self-discipline. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. should form a normal part of school programme. 5.4. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. 3. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. 57 . Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. Silent meditation should be encouraged. University Stage 1. 4. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In other words. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year .
The School Assembly should be held for a few. 58 .8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. 1. 2. b. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. In short. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.4. For this. b. 1959 5. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.4. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. Training of Character 3. minutes in the morning for group singing. a. Discuss the aims of Religious education. a. a. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 4. the.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Sri Prakasa 6 . To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. 1. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. 2. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b.1.
(2003). 59 .H. Publishing Corporation. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Siddiqui. New Delhi: A. N. Pahuja. Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. M. Dash.4. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2008). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. N. Bhatia. K and Narang C. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.P. P. (2007). B.1. L. (2008).C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K. J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.H.
5.5.8 1.7 1.5..6 1. i. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.5.1 1.4 1.2 1. Although.5.5.11 1.9 1.5.10 1. 60 .5.12 1. disparities between provinces/States.3 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5 1.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 126.96.36.199.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.e.
2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. etc. 8. roads.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. Accordingly. know the education suited to different environments. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. understand the regional educational development in India 3. 1. 4. 3. 5. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 2. waters. 7. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.1.5. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. energy.5.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. work hard towards this end. for example. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. 1. you will be able to: 1. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. 6. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. they take appropriate measures. They therefore.5.5. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. This leads to separatist movements. 61 . 1.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region.
and. 4. 2. • Separate States (of course viable States). remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. Tight security arrangements should be made.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. Secularism. 62 . Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. 3. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. while others remained educationally backward. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. some States became educationally far advanced. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. There are many reasons for this during the British rule.5. Therefore. on the basis of regional development may be formed. some average. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds.
These projects are in various stages of implementation.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Funds amounting to Rs. books. NERIST.392. etc. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. NIT.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. Rs. Nagaland and NEHU. Even in each State.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. academic buildings. remained under developed. In the Central sector. while some States like Bihar. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. Silchar. Out of this. However. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Mizoram. scholarships. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities.480.g. and provision of informal education to enable those. etc. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. approved proposals worth Rs. Itanagar. Jammu and Kashmir. Regional Centres of IGNOU. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Tezpur. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments.84 crore was released in 2005-06. After the attainment of independence. Guwahati. the State Governments. 1. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. 63 .14. library buildings. Central Universities of Assam.5.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. since its inception in 1998-99. the Union Government. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes.After the Planning Process has originated.
A provision of Rs.261. Government expenditure on education. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.05 crore and Rs.8 per cent in 05). The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.40. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. too. 64 .60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.5. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). while the northern region has only 20 per cent.501. Moreover. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.187. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.57 crore and Rs.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Source: National Portal Content Management Team. During 2003-04. Tezpur University.500.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Out of this an amount of Rs. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.
And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Moreover. notes the study. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Karnataka. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Medical education. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. for which 16 sites.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. engineering and R&D. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. telecom. 1. Tamil Nadu. too. To add to the woes. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. too. Listing the positives. Karnataka. pharma. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. too.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Kerala and Gujarat. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. English. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Andhra Pradesh. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level.5. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. for instance. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). The Chandigarh Administration.
They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. while the former does not. life-oriented and environment slanted. and so on. the interests. taking the average in the middle. in which the learners live. Of course. the vocations. In the same manner. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. which a non-tribal person cannot do. the curricular subjects.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. the needs.year. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. The working hours of educational institutions. the socio-physical conditions. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. Hence it is called as need-based. The living conditions. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. when he will not be sure of time. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Then education become realistic and idealistic. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. the teaching methods. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. 66 . the working days: an academic . etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. For a learner living in a rural area. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. even actually looking at the watch.
Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. to suit education to different environments? 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 67 . Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. 1.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2.5.5. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.5. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.
Dubey. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. (2002). Teacher and Education in Indian Society.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. during the British rule. 68 . some States have become more developed than others b. (2001). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. S.G. C. A. a.H.5.K. Education Scenario in India. some of areas which were under the native rulers. Salim. New Delhi: Authors press. R. (2001). S. Giridhar. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. remained undeveloped 3. and Nair. Education in Developmental Arena.2. Educational Development in India.N. 60% 1. (2008).
UNIT – II 69 .
Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. semi literate and illiterates. school community and mass media. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. community development. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. National Integration. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. 71 . characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home.
1.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.6.4 2.6 Education for Secularism 2.7 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.5.1.2 2.1.9 188.8.131.52 2.6.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.LESSON 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1.3 2.
Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. socialism and secularism 2. The students may be associated with the management of the school. In the matter of admitting students in schools.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. 2. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.1. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. creed. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. Abraham Lincoln. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. there should be made no distinction of caste. socialistic and secular state.1. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy.2. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Democracy thus means power of the people. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. This is the political aspect of democracy. colour or wealth. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. socialism and secularism 2.1. understand the concept of democracy. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. 2. 73 . for the people by the people”. you will be able to: 1. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 3) Provision of Manual Work.1.
5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century.1.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. it soon spread all over the world. may be planned. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. 11) Student Parliament. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. 12) Visits to Legislatures. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. 2. There are different brands of socialism. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. debates.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. declamation contest etc. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. Democracy means 2. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 74 . 8) Opportunities for Social Service.
2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. the prince and the peasant. 2. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. service and cooperation. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. oppression and disparity.1. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low.1. none high”. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. free from exploitation. 75 . the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books.5. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. the wealthy and the poor. Under it. but on the path of non-violence. 2. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.5. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 7) Special facilities for girls.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.
5. secularism is being propagated. “India is a secular-country.1.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. 76 . the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. According to Holydake. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Everyone says. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 11) State schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” In every political and educational corner. 2. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. "which seeks the development of physical. Write any two main features of socialism. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’.
3) It permits freedom of worship. should be independent of religion. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. fraternity. 2) It permits freedom of religion. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. Equality. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. During the recent past. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. liberty. people have narrow mindedness.6.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. the belief that the state morals. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. People have different religions and they have different beliefs.opposed to religious education. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness.1. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. There is need of making the people open minded. A large number of people is uneducated. 8) It believes in co-existence. 2.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. 77 . Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. In this type of prevailing situations. “Webster further says. 9) It stress free inquiry. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values.6.1. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. people started believing in regionalism. education etc. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. 5) It implies tolerance. That is why. Moral values have to be imbibed.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values.
that the central string of all religions is one. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. Patiala.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. There should be some internal checking of the material being.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. 2. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. In the celebration of each such function. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Religious Education. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. students belonging to different religions should be associated.6. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education.presented by the students in the gathering. No doubt. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. While doing so. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. education. The very sight of the building. 1) Moral Education. tours and trips may be organized. In the hands of such teachers.1.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Secularism 9. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering.7 LET US SUM UP 79 .1. No doubt.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. 2. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The term secularism was first used by 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The word “Seculum” means 7.
Provision of Manual Work. d. 2. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. for the people and the people”. The students may be associated with the management of the school. creed. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Respect of Individual Personality. a. 4. 5. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Socialism aims at social justice. b. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. George Jacob Holydake 80 . 6. colour or wealth.1. 4. 3. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Abraham Lincoln. This present age 7. Tuition free education b. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 5. c.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Socialism aims at equality. a. Since socialism stands for equality. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. Explain the concept of Democracy in education.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. there should be made no distinction of caste. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Equal Opportunities for Admission. b. Power of the people 2. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 3. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.
10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Anmol Publications Pvt. J.” 9. b. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. education etc. a. New Delhi : Pahuja. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. J.8. Mohanty. (2003). It permits freedom of religion. K and Narang C. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. should be independent of religion. b. Theory and Principles of Education. the belief that the state morals. Modern Trends in Indian Education. N. a. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. P. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ltd. (2005). 10. 81 . (2008).C. K. N. L. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.1. B. Bhatia. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. (2004). (2007). Dash.
2.6.4 2.2.9 2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 18.104.22.168.1 International understanding in the school 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.5.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.10 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2 2.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.8 2.3 22.214.171.124 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.1 126.96.36.199.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 188.8.131.52.7 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.6.LESSON 2.
you will be able to: 1. social. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. as workers. as it is t he aim o f modern education. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. The developmental roles of children. 3. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. 2. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. moral. as persons. application.generation to another. A teacher is first and foremost. therefore. emotional. development.2. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. as learners. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. and 4. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. social and moral aspects. who are placed in his custody. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. as citizens. 2. 2.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. skills.an instructor of school children. understandings.2. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. mental. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. 83 . It involves physical. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. a r e 1. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. aims and objectives of the school.
He has to look after their physical. 3. He is to become an active member.All education should lead to better behavioural development. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. Teacher as a Citizen Next. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. emotionally. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen.2. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. motivated. physically fit for socially efficient. experiences and acceptance. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. member of his community at the outset. a part of their day in 84 . 2. socially.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. The students live. 2. The following are some of such roles described in brief. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. mental. mentally. inquisitive. 1. morally. morally. economically effective. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. intellectually. culturally confident. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. social and emotional health. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. and aesthetically to become.
It 85 . fine art associations. List out the role of teachers towards community development . photographic clubs. faiths. 2. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. India is a land of many castes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. 4. languages and religions.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Dr. They will be spending with their parents. solve them. creeds. and most of hours. activities of the society into which he is born. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. Unless.the school being under the custody of teachers. science club. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community.
maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. the study of language and literature. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. Radhakrishnan. Re-orientation of the Curriculum.” 2.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. the citizens of the Republic of India. b. Sampurnanand remarked.” Regarding the role of education. stand up straight. ‘We should not become parochial. should be emphasised. a.2. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. folklore and teaching of social studies.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. 1. with straight backs and look up at the skies.5.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. social studies. national anthem and other national songs. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. this integration of the Indian people. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. The only process is the process of education.is. therefore. Nehruji has explained this as. c. narrow-minded provincial. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. It should broaden the outlook. Let us. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. poems. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. and make into one strong national unit. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. At the primary stage the importance of stories.
8. Uniform for School Children. Student Camps. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. militar y training like the NCC. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. tours. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. debates. Taking Pledge. and picnics. Scouts and Guides. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. 10. Co-Curricular Activities. Reverence of National Flag. Celebrations of National Days. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. 2. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. 5. 4. 87 . 7. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. languages and literature. 3.different social sciences. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. ACC. dramatics and youth festivals. National Days—January 26. educational excursions. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Textbooks. 6. sports. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. t he st udent s and t he community. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. 9. symposia. Singing of National Anthem. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important.
Educational and Travel Documentaries. Admissions to schools. 13. 12. 15. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. iv.11. flora and fauna. 14. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. v. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and .5. School Projects. region or religion. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. 88 . language. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. ii. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. 16.2. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Students Exchange and Tours. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. colour. Recognition of Institutions. 2. iii. ways of thinking and doing things. Admissions. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Open-Air Dramas. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country.
vii. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. 2. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. cultures and races on equal bases.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. ix. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities.2. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. camps. viii. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define National Integration 3. irrespective of national boundaries.vi. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Community dinners. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 .
lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. often in connection with anniversaries.2. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. 2. Teachers 90 . 4.6. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.. 3. In a very real sense. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. (b) stories of children of other lands. that war. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. therefore. (c) fairly tales.e. patriotism is not enough. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. if it happens.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1.friendships between children of different countries. Strong has observed. 2.F. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Therefore. and the healthy development. This. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. Radhakrishnan states. Dr. 6. Organising of debates and.6.” 2.2. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. the international level. of his body and mind. 5.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. C.as important as that of a national citizenship. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.
While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. a German. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum.” Well Informed About World Situations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Impartial in their Treatment. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Russian. They should not be propagandists. Indian and American. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. an Englishman. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
2.Another major. As the school is but a miniature society.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. the education function can be carried.2. leading to. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . Chronic Poverty . Defects of the educational System . majority of people are. 5. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. Devaluation of Values . out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. there is wide spread frustration among all people. Wide Spread Frustration . and help the students to over . understand and indiscipline: 1.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. 3. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .2. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. 4. which results in agitation and aggression language. If this is done. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. It does not prepare students for life.
democratic nature. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. fellow feeling. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. 3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. co-operation. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.2. 93 . community development. sympathy and good will among the nations. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . 5. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. love. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.2. 2. 4. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. etc.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 184.108.40.206 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 220.127.116.11 Functions and role of schools in the society 18.104.22.168 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 22.214.171.124 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 126.96.36.199 Radio as an agency of education 188.8.131.52 Television as an agency of education 184.108.40.206 Press as a medium of education 220.127.116.11 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
18.104.22.168 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 22.214.171.124 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
126.96.36.199 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
188.8.131.52 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. citizens and school leaders must co-operate.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. led to the printing of books. Crow and Crow write. In fact. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. art galleries.V. Now internet is being used. Then came newspapers. He taught his students orally.3. books. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Museums. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. To make them achieve their aim. Moreover. “All the citizens of the community. are increasingly used in education. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Emphasising this thing. periodicals. 2. the invention of the printing press. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Define community. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. Hence. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. During the course of time. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education.
Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. It stimulates curiosity and interests. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. politics. art. Students listen various talks. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. It enlightens public opinion. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Thus. It is also an important source of entertainment.3. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching.classroom teachers. the place of importance. Effective means of presenting music. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. In collaboration with the experts.G. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. music. the teacher still occupies. 2. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1.telecast. languages.6. Thus. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. 2. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. social studies. Various talks. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. dram appreciation. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Reynolds. current affairs and other areas. In the emphasis is on sound. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Important happening inventions. 101 . A lot of work by way of pre. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. “Listening participation” in current history. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. rather than on picture.
plays.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. Before presenting the programme. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. At present. audibility and presentability. mathematics. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. at play. 5. travel talks. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. 3. development of lessons. projects or creative activities. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. at any place. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. 102 . School concerts. speech. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. Making learning an open system. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. Team-teaching demonstrations. fol classical music. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. 4. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. at drawing room. Participation of local teachers and pupils. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. at recreational centers. informal and non-formal education. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. style.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 184.108.40.206 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
220.127.116.11 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 18.104.22.168 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
4.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .5 2.4.8 22.214.171.124 Limitations of formal education 2.4.6 2.7 126.96.36.199 Advantages of Non formal education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.3.2 2.4.2 Aims of Non formal education 188.8.131.52.4 Non formal educational system 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.2 Levels of formal education system 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.3 Advantages of formal education 18.104.22.168.1 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.4.LESSON 2.
4. 2. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 2. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. compare formal and non formal system of education. Education.4. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught.2. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. 9. 6. the most important agency of formal education. imparted at the residence of the teacher. you will be able to: 1.3. his mental alertness.. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period.4. the temple. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. 110 . the family. 7. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. 3. the community. open university. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. 3. 5.4. 2. the mass media et.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. it was mostly. 2. In ancient time in India. 8. starting and ending at -a particular age. 4.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the learner are acquainted. 4. open school. say the Government or the private enterprise. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. To realize this objective of education. 2. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. Education organised by some agency. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. School is. his moral excellence and his social adjustment.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’.
2.2. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . Higher Education: Higher education. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Through early formal education. such as a high school or secondary school. diplomas. the elements of language are first learned. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . as well as vocational education and training. also called tertiary. Some education systems have separate middle schools. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. usually between the ages of zero or three and five.a secondary education. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills.4. depending on the jurisdiction. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. In general.3. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Concepts of proportion. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. structured education. capacity.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation.4. or academic degrees. third stage. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education.3. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. or post secondary education. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. What are levels of formal educational system? . Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.3.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.which will help for nation's development. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. Agencies can be classified as 2. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 .4. 2. 4. and remote dwellers. late beginners etc. is an important agency of formal education. children with disabilities.
” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems.learning client take some learning objectives. Open university. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Non-formal education includes adult education. curriculum. It is functional.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. Thus. staffed.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. open learning.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. adding up to a true learning society. Therefore. one could say that non-formal education is an active. It is much more responsive to needs and change.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. It is deliberate. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. financially supported life formal education. place of instruction. systematic. According to Malcolm A. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Adiseshiah. “Non-formal education should 113 . It unlocks the doors of development plans. until 1970 it had not been defined. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. systematic. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. etc. admissions. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. to help themselves.formal education. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. i. continuing education and on the job oriented education. it has its own valid claim to reality.. adults as well as children.e. However. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. planned. it is a more effective tool for rural development.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon.
The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved.4.4. 7.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Process of sharing. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. age. self. admissions. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. exploring. Preparation for future needs. evaluation etc. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth.S.be marketable and vocationalised. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. Part-time education. modes of teaching. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.e. 2. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. co-curricular activities.4. To help industrial workers to better their skills. 3. Lawrence. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them.S. Covering life span of an individual. national integration.” 2.renewal.learning pattern. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge.4. Flexibility in various aspects of education. the Ideas of citizenship. 2. socialism. i. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 6. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. place of education. To develop in the student. international understanding. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. curriculum. 5. 114 . 4. It should lay emphasis on the self. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.” According to H. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.
publication and information dissemination. 5. in villages and those who live in towns. 5. 9. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. • 2. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 4. 3. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach.4. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 115 . 3. 10. Universalisation of primary education. Senior Secondary.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. 8. Meeting the omissions of formal education.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. To offer Secondary. school dropouts. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge.4. Technical. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society.4. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 6. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. 2. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. working adults. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 4. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 2. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances.4. Eradication of adult literacy.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 7.
effective in modern societal context. farm. Again. centres of correspondence education. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. 2. 3. To increase knowledge and 2. public libraries. 2.. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. self-employment iii. if organised in isolation. To make if. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals.4. etc. library.4. All-round development i.2. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. Institutions for formal education.full time to learners – can be home. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . open space. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. 4.4. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. etc. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . To better qualifications. Therefore. training centres in factories. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. Radio and television. factory. others are formal and informal. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. radio. 117 . institution.V. Teaching to face teaching. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Correspondence lesson. 7. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Lecturing T. . . Define non formal education. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Face Contact programmes. List out any two aims of non formal education. Written tests. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give examples of non formal education? . 6. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
2.” 6. School 3. 4. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. 2. Formal and Non Formal 2. b. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. a. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 4.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Open School. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. 2. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss.2. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education.4. a. The school. adults as well as children. 118 .7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Higher Secondary level and University level. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Open University. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 5. Open learning and Correspondence Courses.4.4. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. systematic. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Secondary level. 7. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Primary level. b.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. the college and the university come under this category. Pre-school level. 3.
New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Dash. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Education in Emerging India. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ltd. N. (2008). Mohanty. Theory and Principles of Education. J. (2008). J. P.C.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2005). B. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : 119 . Modern Trends in Indian Education. L. (2004). S. K. (2007).4. Bhatia.2. (2003). Pahuja. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Gupta. K and Narang C. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.
5.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.4.4 Open University 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.3.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.5.7 2.5 2.LESSON 22.214.171.124.5.5.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.4 Need for Open University 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52.4.2 184.108.40.206 Methods of teaching in Open University System 220.127.116.11 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.5.3 Objectives of Open University 2.6 2.4.
2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It is a lifelong process. labourers and half educated individuals. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. characteristics of open university 4. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. know the need and objectives of open university. Any person.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. understand the meaning of continuing education 2.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. economic field or such other fields. Under these circumstances. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.5. However.5.5. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education.2. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. For them. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same.3. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. Thus. This knowledge may be in political field.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies.5. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . 2. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. continuing education is a boon. It is a continuous process. give the meaning. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. 2. 2. industries. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. farmers. you will be able to: 1.
thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. cultured and progressive. T. Radio. On the other hand. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. For them too continuing education is essential. Throughout the country. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. Doctors. After the achievement of independence. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress.V.literate person. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Radio and T.5. Persons engaged in health services. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Cinema. deteriorating to his character and personality. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs.3. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. are also contributing their might for the purpose. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. Block Development Officers. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. 2.V. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Thus. On the other hand. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education.directly related to his job.
(6) folk stories.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (16) liking. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. 5. 2. (2) basic religious matters. 3. 123 . The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. 4.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely.3. (1) ancient history. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (7) folk songs. we have not been able to achieve our targets.V. 2. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities.5. (13) psychology of child behaviour. These books are not very useful. (10) first aid. Of course. 7. (9) fundamentals of philosophy.5. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.. (15) music. and Radio. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (14) information about bringing up young children. Inspite of the great efforts. (8) psychology of adults. habits of people of other lands. 6. 2. (17) modern international and national events. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. especially women. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge.3. (4) the fundamentals of economics.
The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . 2. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. NLM was launched in the year 2. of educational opportunities. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.5. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. lack of time etc.4.5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. attendance restrict ion.
c. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. d. the higher the degree of openness. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. b.4. Which was the first open university in India? . 4. 3. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. 5.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. No one is too old or too late to learn. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system.unobserved. Education is not a once for-all process. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. and in teaching. its education is not class room based but home based. but 125 . The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. e. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. 2. IGNOU was established in the year 6. it makes use of educational techno logy. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing.
3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. it a ims at wider and hig her. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education.4. 5.5. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. who were deprived of t he same earlier. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. cho ice o f co ur ses. 2. 2. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 3. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 4. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 4. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 2.5. supplementing the existing provision. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people.4. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 126 . 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n.who did not get it. 6. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 3. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. or who realised too late that they need it. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 2. Mo re o ver.
The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. school drop outs. 8.2. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. 4. 2. 3. 2. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . In the present day world. 5. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Therefore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. 6. Self instructional materials. 1.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Tutor Comments. Correspondence tuition. semi – literates. Every day. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 7. a society. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. you have learnt the concept. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . a state or nation.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. 127 . Laboratory works. List out any four methods of Open University? .4. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. a.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. its education is not class room based but home based. d. agricultural and industrial workers.5. P r int med ia b. cho ic e o f co u r ses. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. 8. b. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. b. 2. (2) basic religious matters. 2. Television Lessons. 7. a. (1) ancient history. 7. need and characteristics of Open University. 128 . Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. (4) the fundamentals of economics. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 3. a. 4.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 9.5. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. unskilled workers and other professionals. Broad casting lectures c. which may include house wives. 1988. 6. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. youth. 8. Explain the objectives. 1985.ambitious learners. aspirants for continuing education. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals.
L.. (2004). K. (2001). Udaiveer. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Reddy. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. R. 129 . (2007). Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi: Rajat Publication.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. K and Narang C.S. S. (2004).5. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K.2. Modern Problems of Education.
UNIT – III 131 .
and teacher education. Training teachers for all levels of education. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. 133 . wastage and stagnation. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. In Lesson 2. which may claim the attention of those concerned. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. the education of women. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. its causes and remedial measures. Examination reform. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. All which is the need of the hour. examination.
1.3.3 New initiatives.1 3.LESSON 18.104.22.168.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.1.5 3.2 EFA – How? 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.8 3.1 EFA – For whom? 22.214.171.124 3. 135 .4 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.7 126.96.36.199.6 3.
economic or cultural. 2. On the other hand. 3. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3.3. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. Therefore. therefore.1. understands the country.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. may be political. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). directed that. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI).” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. “The State shall 136 . so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. you will be able to: 1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. social. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. Continuing Education (CE) 1.1. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). education received added importance and significance. Eradication of Illiteracy.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. (EOI) 2. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy.
Due to the adoption of democratic system. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Universalization of Enrolment.endeavour to provide. 137 . Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Three Stages for Universalization. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Therefore. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Continuing Education (CE). The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. 3. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Universalization of Retention. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. rights and responsibilities. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. the national Government under. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. It enables the parents to send their children to School. After the attainment of independence.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves.
then to 1976. educational enterprise. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. later to 1988.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal.3. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. UNESCO Bulletin states. 1990. This target had to be revised to 1970.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Therefore. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target.1. 3. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. 1995 (for upper primary stage).CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. present and future. Write Article 45. 138 . We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. It is safe to assure. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence.
etc. rural areas. 8. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Emphasis must be given on health education. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Education of the Impaired.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. Apart from primary education. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 3. 139 . problem of literacy.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. Early childhood education should be streamlined. their social economic status and occupations. 5. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. In order to make the programme of education for all community. FELF. 10. 12. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. 11. 6. NAEP. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. and Women’s education programme should be improved. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. 3. nutrition education and sports and games. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. creed. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Education of Girls. slum areas. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Disabled. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. sex. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all.3. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all.1. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. 9. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. adolescent and adult. By undertaking survey. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. Jams and Jellies. The Social Education. their enrolment and retention. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns.
According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.3 NEW INITIATIVES. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.1. Wastage and Stagnation. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.1. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.e. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. 4. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. 3.3. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Expand MLL and SSA . Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4.
Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. School Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. Social Factors .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Familial Factors . Personal Factors . it is considered as wastage.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .first stage of education.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.
Define Wastage. 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 142 . . Enumerate the causes of Wastage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education.
rural or urban 3. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. Family Factors . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.3.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. in his home. school or society. They are described hereunder :1. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. Personal Factors . School Factors .1. Societal Factors . relating to home.The following factors.
stationary. mid-day meals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 144 . appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Stagnation? 9. uniforms.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. etc. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books.
b. Universalization of Enrolment c. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. a. 145 . 4. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. 6.1.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. improvement of curriculum. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.1.” 3.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Hartog Committee. a. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. Universalization of Retention 2. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. therefore. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. 3. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA.3.1. directed that. a. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.. 4. 3. 3. “The State shall endeavour to provide. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Universalization of Provision b. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.
New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. T.K.K.N. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.1. 3. a. Familial Factors c. Crescent Publishing Corporation. (2007). Teacher and Education in Indian Society.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Social Factors 8. S. a. School Factors d. b.7. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. (2001). Personal Factor b. introduce graded curriculum. New Delhi: 146 . Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. 9. Sharma. (2008). improve examination system. Problems of Elementary Education. S. Hemchand.
2.2.4 Question banks 3.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 188.8.131.52.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 184.108.40.206 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2 Grade System 220.127.116.11 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2.1 Problems of examination 18.104.22.168.2.7 Open book examination 3.5 New evaluation procedures 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.1 3.2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.2.2 188.8.131.52.LESSON 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.5.7 Let us sum up 147 .1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2.
2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. you will be able to: 1.3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. 3. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. suggest the new evaluation procedures. 3. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.9 3. 3. but on the other.2.2.8 3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.3. 4.2. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . 3. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.2. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. Besides. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.2.
many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. If the students are in sufficient number. The following steps should be taken up.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened.. 3. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. They may cause problems relating to discipline. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. which the educational authorities have to face. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. etc. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. waiting rooms for girl students.3. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. etc. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing.2. by providing free education and liberal scholarships.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. 149 . 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. They develop secondary sex characteristics. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. etc. schools for them wherever necessary. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. hostel facilities. roadside Romeoism. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes.
4. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. teachers. public administrators and statesmen. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. assessment and Finance. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. public interested in education. the net-work of examination system has also become vast.2.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 150 . conduct of internal examinations. 3. appointment of paper-setters. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is considered as a major sub-system.2.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. Instruction. the examination system has an important role to play.
etc. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. values. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. reducing the domination of knowledge objective.2. scrutinizers. validity and practicability. establishing reliability. etc. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . invigilators.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. etc. introducing objective-based testing. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. etc. pursuing objective-oriented instruction.printing and distribution of question papers. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. etc. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. announcement of results. examiners. 3.4. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. tabulators. training of examiners.
2. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. 2) From the angle of content of education. it s a common experience that subjectivity. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. 6) With reference to scoring procedure.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. may also discredit them. do not appeal to the students and parents. 7) In connection with the question papers. 3) With respect to method of teaching. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. Rote memorisation. 152 . 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made.. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. halo-effect. Vagaries in making. lack of objectivity etc.4. which they are expected to study. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. takes the place of comprehensive learning. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. Subjects.. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. 3. stereotyped questions.. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed.
What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Spot valuation. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon.. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately.develop true love for education. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. re-numbering of answer scripts. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. 153 .a part of internal assessment. may be introduced. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. 4. revaluation. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. List any two merits of examination. . Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers.
5. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. 3. The students can take any course offered in any department. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. In actual practice.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. Their interests. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure.2.3. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. skills are given importance. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times.5.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. The new scheme of assessment. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .2. Every paper is treated equal. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. In this system. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. he is given extra credit points. It is complicated. When a person chooses to work extra. attitudes.2. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3.
A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v.good. In the new system.2. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. While designing syllabus. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. only the total credits to be earned is specified. An example is a seminar. or as a 4 credit course. 3. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . Groupism is encouraged. This system reduces comparison of marks.discipline.5.poor. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. These weightages are called credits. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. courses can have weightages defined. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. poor. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. v.
5. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.2.2. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. 156 . 3. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992.5. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. 3. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. However. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. 3.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. the need for re-evaluation should not arise.2. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment.5.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In the hierarchy. recruitment. However. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships.3. Therefore.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.5. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India.2. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . .2. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. List any four new evaluation procedures. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . 6. There are no proper procedures for selection. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. 3.
Periodicity of inspection is also less in number.. finding out whether the prescribed text. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. They are. of late. submitting of the inspection reports. books are followed. Separation of Inspection and Supervision.6. finding out the adequacy of. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. 1. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning.2. whether the syllabus has been covered.qualified personnel. playgrounds. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. wherever necessary. 158 . providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. 3. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. inspecting the class-room teaching. being realised as two different functions.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. in a sense. taking up the follow-up programmes. school buildings. interpersonal relationships and so on. qualifications.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. in contrast. When they are fully realised. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. requirements. etc. library books. staff. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. etc. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. laboratory equipment. disciplinary problems. Academic inspection. complaints and compliments.. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner.
administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. aptitude. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection.. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. Similarly. modern. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. 3.Ed. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. M. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. 159 .Ed. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Insistence on specialisation in the B. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. course in either educational.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them.2. or. at least. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. once in five years. In the case of departmental candidates. their professional knowledge. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. courses. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. In the light of these conceptualisation. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought.. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well.
3. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Administration. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom.2. a.2.2. 3. b. 5. 160 . It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 3. 3. Instruction. b. examination reforms and supervision and inspection.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. b. 4. c. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. Grade System. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. assessment and Finance. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. a. a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. d. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Vaidya. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6.4. 5. (2005). R and Sharma.2. S. Educational Reforms. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Multiple sets of question paper. 3.a part of internal assessment. 7. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. History and Problems of Education in India. a. K. Problems of Education in India. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. a. K. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. b. Question banks. Open book examinations. a. (2004). New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. New 161 . b. c. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. (2002). b.
3. 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3. 162 .2 3. 2.LESSON 3.6 3.3.3 3.5 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.9 3.3.3. 5.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. you will be able to: 184.108.40.206 3.3.7 3. 3.3.3. identify the needs of rural India and social.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.10 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education. 4. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.8 3.
2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. in Andhra Pradesh. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education.g. Similar is the case with some other States. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. Consequent on the recommendations.3. 2. and 3 years of First Degree Course. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education.3. i. Commission emphasised to continue. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. the Banaras Sanskrit College. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education..e. The. 10 years of general Secondary Education. e.. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses .3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission.. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. 8 years of general education. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages.. etc. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination.e.specialisation programmes 3. University Education. The Calcutta Madras. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 .
It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. 3. is also a plus point . b. cultural and economic development of the country. 5) to help for the social. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. and. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal.a sense of dignity of labour. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. to imbibe. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. However. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . historical. 10. habits of hard work and develop .3. educational channels. 6. economical and political. to prepare. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. 8.confidence in students. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 5. 7. who desire to change from one stream to another. social. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved .4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. Provision for transfer of credits to students. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9.
Here the choice of subjects is provided for. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. social justice. cultural and' religious tolerance. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. at the other.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. international understanding. and that required to enter the tertiary level. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level.national integration. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. etc. The General Educational Spectrum. Philosophically it is not the conception. 1. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. and. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. to develop national character.. Psychologically. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. democratic living.3.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. cooperativeness. 3. Sociologically it is undesirable. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . on one hand.
For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. India is a land of villages. and vocations based on dairy-farming. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. All these need for an. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. fish culture.3. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. Agriculture is the main occupation. horticulture. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. physics or mathematics. In our country. commerce. technical. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. chemistry. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. In the vocational spectrum. rural health. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. medical plants. educational and cultural services. industrial agricultural production is growing. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. professional. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. 166 .6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. the rural areas have suffered very much. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. such as Agriculture. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. technological. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. Commerce and other disciplines. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. In the matter of language. 2. 3. vegetable growing. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. commerce. Biology.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. or other machinery. Science. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially.— tube-wells.
the local resources available. and 5. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely .7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. In this way. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. etc. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. There had been favourable reaction from the students. In this it may be concluded. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. 4..3. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. In time. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. social justice.. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. interests and aptitudes of the students. and the needs. can be ensured. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.etc. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society.
we studied the history.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3.K. Mohanty.3. General Educational Spectrum and b.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. New Delhi : 168 . Modern Trends in Indian Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.3. 3. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Ltd. a.C.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. 2. Calcutta University Commission 2.3. b. S. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.3. Dash. a. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. a. 3.3. (2001). (2007). habits of hard work and develop . B. J. N. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. objectives. J. b.a sense of dignity of labour. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. (2005). to imbibe. (2008). 3. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. Vocational Sepctrum.
9 3.3 3.4.8 3.6 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.220.127.116.11. Education contributes to human development.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4.4.1 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 18.104.22.168 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.12 3.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4.2 3. but the lighting of a fire”.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.7 3.4.10 3.4.11 3. social and 169 .4.4.5 3.4.LESSON 3.13 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.
There is a close connection between education and development. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states.4. 3. Teaching and Fine Arts. particularly 170 . A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. family.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . 3. economic. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. These courses were. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. although we have miles to go. cultural and political development of the individual. Nursing. analyze the women and distance education. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way.higher education in particular.4. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. Education . After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. Dr. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. The relevance of women’s education to social. During the year 1937. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. For the first time in the history of India. While women constituted only 9. you will be able to: 1. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. In the post —independence period. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. community and nation is universally acknowledged. Home Economics. higher education of girls developed immensely. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend.
women.9 14. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.65 lakhs in 1994-95. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.0 43. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.0 32. 3.0 16. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. The idea of women’s education for equality. out of 9200 and odd colleges. Even today.1 24.1 31.D. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. Coimbatore. in our country. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.0 Today. Yet.N. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Mumbai.4. we have more than 1200 institutions. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. Kodaikanal. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. In the rest of the country.T Women University. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. levels and professions.4. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.9 27. 3.2 29.4. Mother Teresa Women University. In 1950-51. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.2 22.
4.53 34.47 65.17 52.73 10. 3.56 64.4.36 3.1 and 14.34 33.27 89. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.66 66. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .54 12. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.46 82. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .44 35.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? . 3. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.that of boys.83 47.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .4%) prefer Arts subjects.4. 2.1 respectively.63 Female % 34.
most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. Book banks should be established. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. she will only learn fashion.hinders the girls from getting higher education. 173 . promoted and increased. Also. Thus. what is the need for higher education for her. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. They gave up their studies to enter home life. In college. and coeducation may spoil her character. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. In every third family. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. According to a survey.4. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. The major hurdles. particularly. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. etc. irrelevance of the content of education. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. distance of the college or university from home. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. curriculum not suited to their requirements. marriage is a very common I factor. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. financial difficulty of the parents. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. 3.
It is a productive investment.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Empowerment in a nutshell. Full-time employment. Geographic distance of educational institutions. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. It also brings about 174 . learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. 3. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. resources and socio . because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. It enables to study.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. space. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Distance education is a boon to women. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. There are constraints of time. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. which is the most dynamic factor of development.economic disabilities faced by women. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Education.4. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. 3. is the only tool for realising empowerment. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously.4.
The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. Women are partners in development. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. education of women is of paramount importance. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. empowerment means being assertive. for full development of our human resources. higher learning. This can be achieved through reflection. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 .4. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. on their own. education of women must be given priority in national plans. Empowerment is an active. The major objectives of women's higher education. legal awareness and economic independence. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. 3. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence.
Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. who are eager to take up courses. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. The local administration. 3. 176 . Reservation for women. which is pending for a long time. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. especially so in the developing countries. But their number is small. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. has to be implemented at the earliest.4. which had been the sole domain of men.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. The educational institutions. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. will encourage them to venture new grounds. Better opportunities. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. Scholarships and concessions for women.
talents. Also. especially in developing countries like African countries.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. IDP Education. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2..1%) and architecture and building (38. According to Lindy Hyam. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . capacities etc. engineering and related technologies (16. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.000 women in the country.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.9%). Chief Executive. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent.4.8%). International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Australia. But. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates.3 percent.
Annakodi. 4. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. 43% 6. R. (2008). R. Mishra. Women and Education. a. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. create the right attitude towards life. Mumbai. A. S. Rao. and Swain. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Mother Teresa Women University. Coimbatore. (2007). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Coimbatore.C. 3. Women Education. 3. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Rajasthan 5. Kodaikanal. 2. Centre for Women’s Studies. Pattanaikj. 4. (2000).14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera.4. A.to the family. individuals and society b.R. Women Education. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. (2005). Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. community and the nation. SNDT Women’s University. and Suryalatha. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. 178 . R. Mumbai. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.4. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. SNDT Women’s University.K.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. S. 3.
LESSON 3. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .11 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.6 3.9 3.2 3.7 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.5.5.5.personality of children in and out of school.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.10 3.1 3.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5.5 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5.8 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation. whole.5.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. They should be trained.5.3 3.5.4 3.
list out the agencies of teachers education 3. understanding and strong desire for international peace. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. and national character. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Dearth of new technology of teaching. international. equality and justice. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. Lack of physical facilities. 180 . social and emotional integration. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Secondary and Higher Secondary level.5. 5. know the pre service and in service training facilities.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. you will be able to: 1. 3. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. 3. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction.5. national consciousness. Shorter working hours.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4. understand the training teachers for Primary. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals.
etc.Less qualified teacher educators. inservice and extension education programmes. Lop-sided curriculum. 3. students. and the collegiate teacher education. Depending on the levels. the state Government. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. higher secondary teacher education. At the diploma level. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Inadequate training in practical skills. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier.Ed. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. levels. a Diploma course and a Degree course. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . it is called the In-service teacher education.5. who have not been trained earlier. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community.Ed.. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate.. it is called the Extension teacher Education.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. (NCERT) New Delhi.5. the secondary teacher education. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. If the student teachers are working teachers. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. the primary teacher education. the centre. 3. and M. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Expand NCERT 2. collegiate cells. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Educational teehnology cells. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . Evaluation unit. depart ments etc.. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . are established. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. 3. Education cells.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. extensio n service. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Science Education units. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. state Institutes of Educat ion. non-formal. Also Guidance Bureaux. etc.
Ed. despite its vast expansion. to ensure teacher competence. degree.. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. audio visual aids. primary and secondary school teachers. to prescribe conditions for recognition. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. should be improved on a top priority basis.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. laboratories.. and so on. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . to offer consultative services. material conditions relating to libraries.Ed. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training .. schools and sister institutions. which should include experience in the primary schools too. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. which help breaking isolation from one another . every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . to improve curricular programmes. and 183 . The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B.
Workshops. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Induction Courses.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. The problem. and XII. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. Psychology of Students. not came up once again. etc. etc. whether they should have professional education or. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. Meanwhile. Organisation of Content Courses. 184 .secondary education. Hence.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. methodology and evaluation. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Modern Techniques of Teaching. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. To meet this exigency. Agriculture. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Modern Methods of Evaluation. though no pre-service training. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively.
Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.A. Post-Graduates also undergo B. Degree and M.. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. M. Pre-service training is for those. Degree.. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.S..A. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.Ed.Ed. (Education) are organized by 185 . (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. (Education) and M. Courses leading to B.. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .’s for Ph.. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. These facilities are available for regular students.’s are elig ible for M. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.. 3.. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.Ed. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. courses and M.Ed. training. Ajmer. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. For re-orienting the teachers.5.Ed.Ed. State Institutes of Education.D. All B Ed. in Education. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.
established by tradition and teachers of the past. they should be conscientious .5. What is the role of ERIC? . (Ed). Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . 6. However. of conduct—written or unwritten. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . (Ed. 5.A.. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.. 4.A. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. Hence the employability of M. 3. and B.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.). as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. . 186 . 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.
3.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 2. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. The necessity is however this. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Shorter working hours. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 5. 4. 2. However. b. Bhopal. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. they should be conscientious. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. Ajmer. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore.5. 3.5. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 187 .5. 3. 3. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. a. b.3. 6. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. a. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. Explain code of conduct for teachers.
New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.3. and Teacher Education. P. Corporation.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda.D. J. A. (2010). Publication Pvt. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .5. Teacher Education. Tewari.N. (2009). B. Teacher Education. Mohanty. Ltd Aggarwal. (2003).
UNIT – IV 189 .
the focus is on the school health programmes. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. economic and educational developments. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. 191 . In lesson 1. nutritional deficiency diseases. consuming the right amounts becomes important. Since food is the source of nutrients. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. communicable diseases and their prevention. objectives.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. common ailments of children. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. The person’s environment is equally important. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. If the diet is poor. preservation of nutrients. In lesson 4. objectives and role of the physical education. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. objectives.
1.9 4. emotional and social.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. 193 .6 4.1 4.1.4 4.1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1.8 4.3 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.1.7 4. It is a miniature society. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1.1.10 4.5 4.1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. The programmes of school health education are quite important. physical. mental.e.1.11 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.2 4.LESSON 4.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.
explain the importance of First aid 5. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 9. 6. 11. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. To develop certain skills concerning health. 7. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To give information regarding health rules. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. 10. 3. to his family and to the community at large. list the common ailments of children 3. Instruction. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. 8. e. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. 4.1.1.g. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. content of health education. understand school health programmes 2. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. know the need for sex education.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 5. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. 194 . you will be able to: 1. 2.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. To develop healthy health habits among children. training of teachers and evaluation.. training in first aid and etc. cleanliness and healthful living. 4.
cleanliness weeks. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. ( iii) sanit at io n. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. The surroundings of schools should be clean.1. suitable furniture. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. There should be regular water supply. Triple Antigen Vaccination.coming or absence. Vaccination for small pox. 3. There should be good drainage facilities. direct lighting. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. B. Arranging better transportation facilities. (viii) first aid. First aid facilities should be made readily available. organisation of school health days. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . etc. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. The flooring should not be damp. (ii) communit y healt h. 4. excusing late. inoculation against cholera. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. vaccination. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. 5. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. play festivals. 2. as described below 1. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. 2. (v) safety education. (xii) smoking education etc..C. B.G. minimizing the travelling distance. The school buildings should be spacious. “Play-for-all” programmes. (vi) nutrition education.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. proper doors and windows. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled.4. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. (xl) mental health. typhoid. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. is imperative.. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided.
• Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. scalds. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. wounds. 196 . C..• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • When sleeping in groups. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. burns. and other accidents. • Take nutritious food. D. poisons. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. cuts. fractures. • Find out the cases. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • Close the schools. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. insect stings. etc. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. bleeding. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. dislocations. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. fainting (epileptic fit). isolate and notify. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. sports and games in the interest of their health. • Have adequate rest and sleep. • Keep all rooms clean. drowning. if epidemic is wide-spread.
They are: i) The incubation stage. Once these germs get into the body. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. pain in the joints. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . So they easily get illnesses. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. 4. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. which are – cold. asthma. backache. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. List out the Health curriculum 3. polio. cough. fever. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. There are three stages in any communicable disease. tuberculosis. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. Mention the school health programmes. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye.1. 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. water or bodily contact. They have less resistence to diseases than adults..1. These diseases are called communicable diseases. headache. chicken pox. measles etc. 2.
nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Important salts and water are lost in this process. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops.It is caused by measles virus. Tonsilitis . Diarrhoea . Ear Infections . The symptoms include cold. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. unhygienic bottle feeding. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Common Cold . The child may have fever. This is caused by cold virus. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Measles . Scabies . cough and fever. head-ache and cough. eating food which is not clean.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system.When a child suffers from scabies. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. unhygienic living conditions. sugar and water. etc. Mumps . Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. 198 . Some suffer cold due to allergy. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. After three or four days of fever. Hence it is called a killer disease. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. The following are the common communicable diseases.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added.This disease is caused by bacteria. Throat is affected. Others make the children very weak. Children catch cold from persons having cold.
The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks.• • • • Chicken Pox . As the disease progresses. raised pink spots appear on head. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. The child may also have diarrhoea. By scratching he causes secondary infections. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. face and waist. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. What are communicable diseases? 6. separate. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Shortly. Enlist the common ailments of children.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Diphtheria . These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. 199 . the child may die. If proper treatment is not given.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. the child is not able to breathe. Typhoid . Expand DPT . So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. It begins with fever.
Cuts and Bruises . which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. wounds. bleeding.4. fiction. Sex is popular.g. sprains.1. In such cases.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. and Community Work and Social Service. films and jokes. dislocation. it is a subject of art. swelling. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. 5. It is both biological and psychological. eye injury. and films.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. etc. man-woman behaviours. simple fractures. Wounds .Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. cuts. head injury. Drowning . bruises. exciting and body-oriented.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. fainting. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. drowning. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. Sprains . so-called sex books and periodicals. It has its rightful place in education too. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. snakebites. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex.1. sprains. 4. 3. scorpion stings. 2. 200 . Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. 4.
There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. in their ignorance. Should the boys and girls. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. In today's liberal and interactive society. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 .. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. Hence. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. the school.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. but preserve them from disaster and disease. sex education is being recommended in schools. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. health. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. try experimenting with their bodies. 2. they would be treading the path of sure doom. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. In secondary schools. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. celibacy are age. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge.old values. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. The values of life. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. 3.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. B. the religious organisations. The home.
Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. when the courses are already overloaded. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. 202 .9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. hence. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. C. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. common ailments of children. there will no crisis in its implementation.1) 2) 3) as a separate course.1. communicable diseases and their prevention. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. What are the major components of Sex Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the school health programmes. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. Teacher education institutions are. first aid and sex education.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 22.214.171.124 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. 209 . What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Mention the food nutrients 2.
Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.4. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . minerals. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.2. Let us talk about each of these aspects.2. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. 210 . you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. If you look at the definition carefully. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied.
Preferences/customs are also important.6. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. Even within given States there is considerable variation. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. dosa are typical of the south. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body.g. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety.sedentary. In the case of adults. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. These are: region where the person resides and income. paratha and poori. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). A balanced diet is specific firstly. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. Those in the west also tend to eat rice.g. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. moderate or heavy work. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. sex. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. People in the east of our country prefer rice.2. it is also specific to a given activity level . 4. There is no point. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. the social and religious practices of that region. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. activity level and physiological stress. construction labourer). In other words. for example.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires.one in the morning and the other at night. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables.
It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. As income increases. These determine the acceptability of foods. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. however. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. taboos related to food may play an important role. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. however. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. As you read this discussion. fat and sugar tend to increase. One person may be fond of milk products. income plays a vital role. vegetables and fruits. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. customs.planning the diet. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Among the social factors. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. If you think of your own religious group. for example. Including these 212 . Having more money. Even among flesh foods. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. One must. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. Judicious selection of food is. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. However. while another may hate them. as important for the rich as for the poor. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. In addition to these. however. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. nuts and dry fruits. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese.
but they should be thrown away. 7) One should eat what is needed to live .milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. etc. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. For this.eating is hazardous. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. fruits. Define balanced diet. 8. green leaves. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 8) Walk a while after eating. over-eating or under. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. meat. List out any two healthy food habits. 213 . Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. if the teachers have good food habits. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 17. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. eggs . mouth.
8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Beri Beri 4.2. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. c. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. In fact. good nutrition is essential for good health. preservation of nutrients. d. b. a. Night blindness. Keratomalacia 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. e. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5.4. Vitamin D 5. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Bitot’s spots. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Corneal xerosis. Conjuctival xerosis. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. When the diet is inadequate. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.2. Explain food nutrients 4. 4. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . 4. Discuss good food habits.2.
New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. a. R. Chopra. mouth. minerals. b. (2008). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.2. (2008). Food and Nutrition Education. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. a . A Text Book of Foods. 4. S. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. (2009). (2005). R. Nutrition Science. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Food and Nutrition Education. Sri Lakshmi B. Hands. P. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru.N. Nutrition and Dietetics.M. b. (2004). vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.6. Food should be consumed after eating well.C. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . 8. Health and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . 7.
3 4.11 4.3 Impact on Education 126.96.36.199.3.3.10 4.3.9 188.8.131.52 4.5 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.LESSON 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.3. 216 .3.8 4.4 4.6.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.12 184.108.40.206 4.1 Impact on social development 4.13 220.127.116.11.6.3.1 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.
economic and educational development 3. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. and the consequences of these processes. aims at providing the younger generation. therefore. family planning and sex education etc. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. It is not sex education. population characteristics. his family. the stress is.3.4. his societ y and the world. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. characteristics and changes for himself. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. you will be able to: 1. 217 . understand the importance of small family norm 5. It is a much wider co ncept. state the meaning.3. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. There is some difference.3.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. 4.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. objectives and need for population education 2. Population Education. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. Whenever we talk of sex education.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. describe the impact of population growth on social. community. the causes of population change.
5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .3.3.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. the nation and the world. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. List out any two objectives of Population Education. the family. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the society. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Define Population Education 2.
the family programmes are also handicapped. health and happiness of its citizens. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. which will not be possible without population control. With the larger families. 219 .6.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. 4. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population.3. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race.3. When the family is small. Family is considered as a social unit. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Every second two thousand children are being born. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. economic and educational development of the country. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. 4. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.
unemployment. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching.e.6. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. in buses and trains. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. lack of proper health care.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. 220 . teacher index.3. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. 4. pollution of the environment. toilets.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. facility for drinking water. Swollen cities. in cinema halls and theatres. Many students herded in a small room.3. heavy intern I migration etc. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. and so on. 4. in parks and other places of public gatherings.6. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. i. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. organization index and material index. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. The gulf between them is widening further. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. In developing countries.. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends.
can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. less budget for education. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. can be studied in science and health education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. There would be very few audiovisual aids. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Hindi and English. 221 . Social Studies Statistics on population education. reproduction. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. and laboratory equipments. family planning etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. even text books would be in short supply. blank verses etc. less space facilities. There would be poor library facilities. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Regional Language. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects.3. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. bar graphs etc.. can be taken up. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. essays.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. thus. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories.
Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. deaths. West Bengal. 9. Children with the help of parents. 8. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. United States of America. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 2. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. area and average density of population. Uttar Pradesh.3. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. causes of deaths etc. Children may compare two families. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Bihar. 3. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. 11. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 14. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. They may arrange them as per average density of population. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Canada.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 15. Brazil. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. 5. China. 7. 10. 13.4. 12. 4. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation.
Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. values and role children etc.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people.3. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. The question. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. we have no right to stop 223 . one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. Comparing life in various respects in two families. age at marriage. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. preferences for sex. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. 17. 16. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. 18. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”.be opened in their schools. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish.
were implemented 224 .4 births per woman in mid-1990s. and the child survival components of the news: program. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. which education can only do.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.to emphasize family planning services.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. however. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. 4. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.4-6. at varying places in different regions.their entry into the world”.. More than 45 years ago. continued . In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. Since the program's inception. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. especially the expansion of child immunization services . The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. The Family Welfare Program.3. “He who is responsible for population growth. on an overall basis. fertility levels have declined throughout the country.
the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. a focus on health promotion. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. reliance on local women as community health workers. Moreover. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. and nominal fees for services. In October 1997. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. Local programs vary in their approaches. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. men. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. Therefore. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. and the World Conference on Women. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. the community appears willing to pay for services. expansion of services to unmarried women. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. In April 1996.earlier than the safe motherhood components. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. At these meetings. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods.
nation and the world.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1997). What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. 3. Describe the impact of population growth on social. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. involving the community. 4. economic and educational development 4. Its main purposes are to create awareness.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training.emphasizing the needs of the client.3. 226 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. community. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. family. What are the goals of RCH? 4.
227 . 5. the causes of population change. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. less budget for education. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 3. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. b. characteristics and changes for himself. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. Canada. a. bar graphs. 7. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 4. 6. China. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. a.” 2. area and average density of population. population characteristics. a. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. his family. Brazil. his society and the world. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. less space facilities. and the consequences of these processes. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures.3. United States of America. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population.4. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.
“Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. T. Modern Problems of Education. 228 . Kantikar.3. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Udaiveer. Coimbatore. (2002). (2005). V. Reddy. N. Jayapoorni. (1992). Principles of Population Studies. A. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Centre for Women’s Studies. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Ltd.4. Ltd. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Bhende. J. (2004). (2005).
9 4.3 4.4.LESSON 4.11 18.104.22.168.4.7 4.4 Lead up games 22.214.171.124.8.4.6 4.10 4.3 Indigenous games 4.2 Major games 126.96.36.199.1 Minor games 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4 4.5 4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 188.8.131.52 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.2 4.4.4.
3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected.4. you will be able to: 1. leadership and balance in defect. classify the different types of games. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.4. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students.4. 4. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. perseverance. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. 4. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. the youth of the country. team spirit.4.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. The concept of physical education has been made broader. as it should 230 . social fitness. full records of physical activities should be maintained. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. mental alertness. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. which forms its most valuable assets. moral fitness and emotional fitness.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. state the meaning of Physical Education 2.
Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. team spirit. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. The educational efforts at home. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. They are inseparably united together. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Therefore. leadership. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Every individual is a part of society. They go hand in hand. obedience to rules. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. To be more precise. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body.
a sound health. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. C. ment al. 4. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. Physical exercises. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. nor body but the whole man. Rousseau states.” Montaigue writes.” The Secondary Education Commission. pleasing manners. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. Regarding the significance of physical education. Just like Education. mo ral. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency.4. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. Buck has observed that 232 . H. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. game and sports.
Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. endurance. “If we wish to develop the whole being. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. coordinative abilities. initiative.” 4. strength.a properly directed physical education should result in health.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. speed. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. elegance. etc. Froebel says.4. happiness. efficiency and character.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. resourcefulness and smartness. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.” In brief. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. we must exercise the whole human being. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. flexibility and power. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. 233 .
Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. 234 (i) (ii) . Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. should help in the spiritual development of the student. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Tournaments foster this sentiment. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. plagues and famines. systems of government. including all racial groups and historical ages. While wars. Every age has its artists. its adherents and its enemies. in greater or lesser degree. poetry and painting. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. they may form gangs. these fundamental things have always been present.
to ensure neuro-muscular coordination .\ to develop perseverance. bravery and interest in games and sports. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit.sacrifice. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. 3. self. Write any two importance of Physical Education.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. B. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. to develop tolerance. 235 . and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. obedience. etc. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. 2. respect for rules. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
10. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 15. Be in the uniform. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Always keep the whistle ready. Be punctual. . Haag. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. 9.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 5. 14. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. and. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Usually parents. students. 2. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Keep the field ready for the activities. 236 1. Be self-confident. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. 11. Be well-prepared. and readmission after they have recovered. Inform health principles.4. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 13. Act as a leader.4. 3.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. is essential. 8. Posture screening should be done. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. injuries among pupils should be made.4.H. Be sportive. 4. 16. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. 12. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 7. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. defects. 6.
Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. Such inst incts as imitation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Indigenous games. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. 4. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. 1. 2. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. 4. Moreover. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. 4. chasing. the play. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy.4.8. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. less equipment and less expense. Lead up games.4. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. As such they are well enjoyed by children. frolic and jo y. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. 3. their development is handicapped. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 237 .
Hopping. catching. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball.4. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Jumping. skipping. the play equipment.. the games can be modified according to convenience. Ball Badminton. Hockey. Tennis. some of them are played indoors. Soft Ball. They are played for a shorter duration. zig zag relay. Dodging. 4. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. on hard courts. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. The dimension of the posts and nets. hitting. Kabaddy etc. spiking. Tennikoit. While many of them are played in the open playfields. couple tag.8. Throwing. trapping. driving. with implements or without implements. under ball pass Relay. These games require varied skills such as running. Khokho. finding the partner. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. stopping. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. bowling etc. Cricket. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. women take part most of the games. snatching the kerchief. dribbling. For each game the rules are many. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. the number of players and substitutes. Except a few games.With a very few rules. on sea-shore. benefit in playing minor games. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. 238 . Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. muffling. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. wherever the kids assemble. Jump the stick clay and so on. boosting. Basket Ball. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. On lawns. Shuttle Badminton. heading. pitching. over ball pass Relay. on mountain tops and on river beds. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Volley Ball.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation.
4. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . For example. they are in existence. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. All the fundamental tactics. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial.8. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. 4. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.8. On occasions like marriage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.4.4. While observing the players in action.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. and . They have an abundant social value. List out some major games. Kho-kho. these games being popular. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. birth. An example for indigenous game is 8.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. Games may be classified as 6. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. festivals connected with religion and public functions. 7. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. death.
9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. 4. a. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. 3. 3. d. b. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. a. Posture screening should be done. a. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education.4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. c. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. physically and emotionally fit and alert.4.4. b. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 2. 2. a. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. to secure physical health b.4. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. 4. 5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. aims and objectives and need of physical education. Minor and Major 240 . the role of physical education teachers and types of games. 4. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Briefly discuss the different types of games. 4. to develop physical stamina. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. b. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual.
Basket Ball. Kabaddy 7. (2008). Cricket.4. Tennis. Khokho 8. Shuttle Badminton.C. Handbook of Physical Education. Soft Ball. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Mohanty. (2008). Ltd. G.K. (2009). 4. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Foot-ball. J. Khokho. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 241 .6. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Physical Education and Sports. Hockey. Volley Ball. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Tennikoit. J. Ball Badminton. Aggarwal. Health. Krishna murthy. (2005).
10 4.11 4.1 Natural Environment 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.8 4.5.1 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.LESSON 4.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.184.108.40.206.6 4.9 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 220.127.116.11.2 Manmade Environment 4.7 18.104.22.168 4.4 4.5.2 22.214.171.124. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.
Attitude. 6. economic. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. 3. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Knowledge. 4. Evaluation Ability. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution.5. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. The best place to start such learning is school. political.5. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. population explosion and resource depletion could be. 2. Awareness. it covers the following elements: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. aesthetic and educational factors. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. 3. social. role of teacher in environmental conservation. Participation. 4. 243 . To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4.5. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 2. 4. Skills. Essential knowledge about the Environment. you will able to: 1. 5.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Details are given below: I. Broadly.educat ion for the environment. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. list out the types of environment 3. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. education about the environment and education through the environment. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4.
2. F. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. heat sink and wind flow in cities.B. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. D. • Biological magnification E. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. a. 244 . Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Oxidants Other pollutants. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle.
Use of medical science i. B. Birth control through education b.3. Abortion iv. Family planning ii. economic. 2. 2. c. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Control of population growth a. III. The human ecosystem II. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Sterilisation. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Persuasion: i. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. 4. Socio-economic measures. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. 3. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. The pill ii. Intrauterine device iii.
Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 2. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. e) Recycling. Define Environmental Education. 3. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 246 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Air pollution abatement ii. 3. 1983). (UNESCO. Water pollution abatement. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.5.5.4. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .5. Biological environment The biological environment. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. b. -other.other components of the environment. way is called environmental or ecological factor. 4.5. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. telex. to his needs. animals and other organisms (biotic). fax agricultural apparatus.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. They interact with each. He modifies according”. Any constituent or condition of the environment. These are biotic components.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.5. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. A change in one brings about a change in the other. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. includes the plants. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.5. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. a.
sources. natural way of controlling pests. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. solar cookers. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . wars and hazards of war. air pollutants from industries. noise pollution. importance of nitrogen cycle. evolution. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. are the topics which may be taught in History. water scarcity.. desertification 248 . Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. greenhouse effect. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. noise control. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. balance of nature. industrial pollut io n. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. effects. explosion deforestation. maintaining the ecological diversity. mineral survey. relation between population and pollution. supplying timber for various uses. change in climate may be added. effects o f CFC.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. extinction of species. need for bio-diversity. need for conservation. (ii) Air pollution. use of pesticides. reasons. over exploitation of ground water. role of trees in building economy. excellent recreation sites. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. use of medicinal plants. population. preserving the watersheds. industrial survey. trees reducing noise pollution. etc. of civilizations. river systems. t heir role in preventing pollution. preventing siltation of dams. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. biogas plants. etc. food chain and food-web. social studies. alternate sources of energy. ozone layer deplet ion. nuclear energy. History The rise and fall. ozone depletion. acid rain. windmills. sources of pollut ion. nuclear warfare. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion.
8. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. 4. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Providing. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 13. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. 12. Peepal and Tulsi. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. aims and scope. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 14. 9. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. 3. 2. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 7. 6. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Organising conferences. 10. 249 . group discussions and seminars. 11. 5.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. animal and plants. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 4. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material.5. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community.may be inc ded in Geography. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals.
If it is done. it will cause pollution. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. or form a car pool for everyday travel. especially plastics.Send their waste oil. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. 5. Reuse carrier bags. World Environmental falls on 250 . Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Never put any left over chemicals. all these can cause serious pollution. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. used oils down the drain. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. 6. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Don’t burn any waste. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
mat erials. concern for others). potable water. and 251 . To discuss the approach to problems or topics.5. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. Social responsibilit y (common good. Concern for species. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. Att itudes of balance towards nature. depletion of ozone. Harmony with the nature .. nuclear wars. (cleanliness. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. Conservation of natural resources.). Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. To provide reference materials for children’s use. orderliness and beauty). The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. To provide materials needed for practical work. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. deforestation. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. To arrange for visiting speakers. values and habits. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. rather than conquest and mastery. developing desirable attitudes. The groups may exchange. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. diversity and stability. viz. etc. dest roying nat ural habitats. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. To arrange visits or expeditions.4. loss of bio-diversity. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. etc. CFCs.
Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. preserving natural cycles. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. 4. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. 4. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.5.5. 8. 252 . It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.
Y. (ii) Air pollution. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise.5. Publications Pvt. S. 3. b. Organising conferences. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. group discussions and seminars. effects. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. b. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. T. Nanda. To provide materials needed for practical work.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Ltd. Kuldeep. Education for values. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Knowledge. (2007). acid rain.K. Providing. Environment and Human Rights. (2007). (2004). importance of nitrogen cycle. water scarcity.K. Rapid population growth.. Udaiveer. Social responsibilit y (common good.\ 4. 5. ozone layer deplet ion. 4. New Delhi : Sharma. population. 8. explosion deforestation. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. S.K.K. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Ltd. Awareness. b. New Delhi : Authors Press. June 5 7. air pollutants from industries.2. 6. a. greenhouse effect. new problems from science and technology. Anmol Publications Pvt. sources. concern for others). reasons. (1997). a. Modern Problems of Education. To provide reference materials for children’s use. a. sources of pollution. a. over exploitation of ground water. relat ion between population and pollution. Environmental Education. b. Environmental Education.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 126.96.36.199 Idealism and aims of Education 188.8.131.52 Idealism and Curriculum 184.108.40.206 Idealism and methods of teaching 220.127.116.11 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and aims of Education 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and Curriculum 126.96.36.199 Naturalism and methods of teaching 188.8.131.52 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 184.108.40.206 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
220.127.116.11 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 18.104.22.168 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. Therefore. Universal Education. in fact.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. man is essentially a moral being.1.our life. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. promote and transmit it to rising generation. It is self-realisation.” 5. According to Rusk'. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . inviolable and hence holy life” In short.3. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. Spiritual Development. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. enrichment and transmission of culture. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Education according to idealism. The universe is regarded as a thought process. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. should be universal in nature. Education must contribute to development of culture. moral. the emancipation of spirit.
“Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection.” 5. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. He sets the environment in which education takes place. Learning through discussion. Philosophy. According to Frobel. Science. It considers teacher as. So he should embody. He carries the child from darkness to light. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man.the spiritual qualities of mankind. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. hygiene. and collation (striving) should find due place. Herbert advocated instruction method.3. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . 5. History. Learning through questioning. a spiritual guide for the child. Mathematics etc.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. so subjects like Religion. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. Ethics. Learning through reading. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. an indispensable necessity. So cognition (knowing). the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. According to idealism. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. friend and guide. the school is a garden.” He is thus. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. For intellectual development. subjects like Languages. The plant can grow. 3. 4.1. affecting (feeling). So health.3. 5. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. Learning through lecturing. no doubt. However. Learning through imitation. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. should be there. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. 2. For this no particular method has been suggested. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching.1.
In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. curricula. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.4.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. In the words of Ross. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. time tables.perfection and beauty. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. text books. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. formal lessons or examinations. Perfection of Human Machine. "Education should make 263 • . 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.preservation. 2. Ross explains.
Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. “Education finds its purpose. Punishment is given by nature in its own way.4. Zoology.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Chemistry. It stresses basic sciences. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. It emphasises physical and health education 5. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Education should. Education also aims at helping the individual t. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Botany etc Language. Therefore. rational harmoniously balanced. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. There is no place for religious and moral education. 4. is based on the nature of the child. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. subjects like history. Literature. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Naturalistic curriculum. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. education should develop the child into Joyous. useful and mature child. therefore. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. It is based on the psychology of the child.1. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. 264 . Arithmetic. In all. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. geography should also be included in the curriculum. • 5. Biology. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality.
a supplier of materials and opportunities. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. 4.4. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. 3. It discards all rigid. he should be taught by experience alone. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. 2. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Rousseau says. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Heuristic method. a provider of an ideal environment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. the stage. 5. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development.4. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .1.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.5. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Learning through observation.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. Dalton Plan. Learning through experience. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. 5.1.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy.1. In the . It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Learning by doing.
1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed.absolutism of idealism. intellectual. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. diversified and flexible. 5. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency.1. Personal Social Adjustment. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. History. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. is true. Continuous Growth. The individual has not only to adjust himself. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Social Science. Social Efficiency. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education.5. Subjects. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Sciences. Physical training. 5.1. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. social and moral aspects. All Round Development of an Individual. of human personality is in terms of his physical.5. Vocational and 266 . Agriculture. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. The aim of educational development. Geography.
Methods of teaching should not be fixed.Technical Education.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. a senior partner and a sincere guide. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. activities and experience should be integrated properly. The subjects. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment.5. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles.1. alert and resourceful.1. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. He has to be active. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.” 5. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. He must be trained. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom.5. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. should find proper place. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. a teacher occupies an important position. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Learning by Doing.
Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. 5. liberal. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Art. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Study of Subjects like Language. 2. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. literary or humanistic education. specific. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Literature. 3. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Biography Philosophy. 4. scientific and psychological education. 3.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society.6. Music and Dance. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. History. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Astrology.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Crafts. 2. rich and happy. Psychology. intellectual. Sex Education. Biology. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. It favours child-centered. Population Education.1. 4.1. Education is preparation for a complete living. 5. 5. Mathematics.6. Chemistry. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Geography are unnecessary 268 . practical.1.5.
4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.5.6. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. easily and pleasantly. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. certainly and clearly.6.1.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Learning through experience b. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. in this lesson. & curriculum. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Vocational and Technical Education. 6. 5. Agriculture. Learning through questioning. History. c. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Universal Education 2. pragmatism and realism.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Education according to pragmatism. naturalism. Rousseau 5. Geography. a.1.7 LET US SUM UP We have.1. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Learning through imitation. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Social Science. Child centered c. Self Realisation b. Tours / Excursion e. Sciences. a. has no end other than growth.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5. e. Learning through reading.5. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Physical training.1. Experimentation d. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. 3. Learning through lecturing. 5. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. a. b. Learning through discussion. d. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Languages.
K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. P. New Delhi : A. of Pathak.5.P. New Delhi : Bhatia. Foundations of Education. Narang C. 271 .P. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education.1. N. O. Ltd. R. (2003).H. Publishing corporation. (2004). Theory and Principles of Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). K. (2007). Pahuja. P. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. L.
22.214.171.124 Aims of Education 5.2 5.2.LESSON 126.96.36.199.2.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.5.3 Methods of teaching 5.4 Views about teacher 5.3.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Methods of teaching 272 .2.2.1 220.127.116.11 Views about teacher 5.4.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2 Curriculum 18.104.22.168 Aims of Education 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.4.4.2 Curriculum 22.214.171.124.3 Methods of Teaching 5.
economic and political reconstruction in our country.2.5. 2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. an artist.7 5.2. 3. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.2. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.2. 273 .9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. you will able to: 1. content and methods. Tagore was a poet. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. Gandhiji was primarily a social.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.5. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. mind and spirit.2. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. 5. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.2. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.8 5.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. 5.6 5.2.4 Role of the teacher 5.
righteousness.supporting. 5. It really provides opportunity for character building. it is education of life. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.3. "I attach more. His scheme of education is life centred. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. self-restraint and service of humanity. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. mind and soul of children He further observed. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. 'Man is neither mere intellect. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. strength of mind. In the words of Gandhiji. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. 274 .” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. through life and for life." Dignity of Labour. This can be matched with any modern concept of education.2. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. nor the gross animals body. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage.
According to Gandhi. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development .the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations.2.Training for Leadership. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Mother-tongue. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. "Development of the moral character. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . gardening.3. the realization of the ultimate reality. wood work. Art. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. metal work. Individual and Social Aims. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. leather work have been suggested. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Only good individual forms a better society. 5. General Sciences. Music. Drawing and Hindustani.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.3.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.trained. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. men of 276 .3. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. proficient.2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. Basic education is other wise known as 4.
That is why. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. He also advocates freedom for the child. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education.3. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. 5. 3. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. Education must be child centered.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST.2.knowledge. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
K. 5. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.4.2. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. he was a true Vedantist 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.2. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . He believed in the oneness of humanity. • Cult of non-violence.” Like all other ideals. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. He was deadly against untouchability. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. Gandhi in 1937. He was a true patriot. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.3. • Education should involve manual work.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. • Ideal of citizenship.
a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner.Language and Literature .Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Therefore.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Civics. It should help the learner have good physique. he said. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. International understanding. stronger in power than ever before. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Tagore said. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Geography. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. International Understanding. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. (vi) Philosophy. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Zoology. 279 . sentiment. It should help. Botany.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Religion and Psychology. etc. Dance. Chemistry. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. complete manhood could be attained. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. deeper in. could help in forging unity among all. "Mankind must realise a unity." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Music. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners.2. That way only.4. them solve problems of day to day life. the more dedicated and devoted. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. wider in range.
That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.4." 5. Activity Method Heuristic Method.” He further says.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.2. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. 5. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.2. 5. 280 .2.4. Tagore rightly says. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.4. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. In 1921.
race. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. It is open to all irrespective of country. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. 10. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. 281 . Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1.g. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. 9.
prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education.” 5. Book learning. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. Education should make a person self-reliant.5. 2. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. According to him. work and deeds come out of it. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Education for Self-realization. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. 4. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. 3. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Freedom.2. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. man making. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education for strong Moral Character. who possess sweet and amicable tempers.2. Education for Self-reliance. Concept of Education. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Purity of thought. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 .5.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. character forming and assimilation of ideas." He was against the theoretical type of education. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all.
Only a selfless person can be good teacher. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.2. 5. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Secondly he wanted Science. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study.5.5.2. Swami. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Of course. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Discussion Method. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. A physically strong person is the need of the society. Philosophy and Theology. 6. That will serve the purpose of education fully. And above all. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Religion. engineering and technical subjects.2. The teacher should be the facilitator. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts.5.the learners on different students in the discussion. 283 . Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta.5. philosopher and guide to the students He. Thirdly he wished that games. Education for Physical Development. 5. 5.
broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. We have seen that Tagore. ears and eyes. Write short notes on Basic education. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. 5. and pragmatist .6 LET US SUM UP We have.Substantiate your answer. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. 2. naturalist. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. of course. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 12. in this lesson.2.2. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. 5. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. legs. Their educational ideas. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. Gandhiji as a Idealist. 284 . In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. 3.
Heuristic Method.2. Explain Vishwabharathi. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Technique of Correlation 6. c. Nai Talim 4. Teaching while Walking b. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. 3. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Meditation and concentration c. 2. Cult of non-violence. wood work. Debate and Discussion Method. Self-Study b. b. a. Ideal of citizenship. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. 10. Discussion Method 285 . 5. Education should involve manual work. Activity Method d. a. leather work have been suggested. a. a. metal work. 11. 5. gardening.4. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. 8. e. 9. 1937 7. c. Activity Method b. f. d. Self realization. Where the whole world forms its one single nest.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Learning by Doing c. Basic education. 5.
K and Narang C. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2002). Anmol Publications Pvt. J. N. Theory and Principles of Education.5. (2003). K. B.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. Publishing Corporation. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. L. C.H. on Bhatia. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Pahuja. New Delhi : A. 286 . Dhiman. O.2. N. (2004). P. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. Ltd. (2007).P. P. New Delhi : Aggarwal. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.
1 126.96.36.199 5.2 5.9 188.8.131.52. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.6 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.10 5.7 5.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3. In this lesson.3.LESSON 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.8 5.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.5 5.3.4 5.11 5.
adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely.3. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. in fact . From the latter point of view.A. In the words of Kerney and Cook. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. In it. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. Curriculum is intimately related to education. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . 5. curriculum signifies situations for learning.3.S. in the U. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. While education is a process. While education is learning. Then in a big country like India. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. in Russia or in Japan. new behaviour may be acquired. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. maintained or eliminated. A g o o d curricu lu m..under the direction of the school. Both the processes are integrated. it is identical wit h socializat ion.3. there is a large number of communities. you will be able to: 1. in the form of new experience. Since the demands. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. the plain area. present behaviour may be modified. the desert area.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the plateau area and 288 . curriculum. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. state the meaning of curriculum 2. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. 5. living in the hilly area. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. is a means to the process.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. In the former sense.
After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. However. democratic and socialistic country. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. 5. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. Besides craft. therefore. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. It must differ from locality and from society to society. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. irrespective of their needs and environment. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. according to modern trends in the educational process. environment. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. and 289 . differs from individual to individual. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. the learning capacity of children. it is. customs and needs. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. too.3.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. Again. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. studying therein. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. From a slave-country we became secular. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. In fact . The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft.
. social. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. They speak of immediate purposes of education. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . e. Goals of Secondary Education. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. remote or immediate. 290 .. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Goals of Primary Education. in instructional objectives. So it is inadequate. 3. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. individual or Social and so on. they depend on the political. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands.g. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes.g. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. moral. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. unambiguous and functional. The word “Curere” means 2. 2. Self Realisation.. They speak of perfect goals. uninspiring and unscientific. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. aims. unsatisfactory. Vocational Efficiency. etc.g. aesthetic and spiritual development.. National Integration. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. 4. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. etc. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. specific. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. tangible. They are visionary goals e.. of classroom.3. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. They may be ultimate or proximate. social. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. Knowledge Objective. general or specific. eg. 1. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. which may or may not be attained. Application Objective. emotional. e. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. Understanding Objective. 5. They are achievable.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. etc.
there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. on the playing fields.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. in the class rooms. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. but it includes the totality of experiences. finding them very interesting and captivating. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. The old and prevalent curriculum is under.” 291 . “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. educationists.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.3. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. heavy fire. Crow and Crow remarks. The interests.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization.5. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. needs. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. abilities. According to Crow and Crow. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. Raymont rightly says. capacities.
time in a useful manner. urges.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. They often waste it or rather kill it. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. capacities and abilities. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. tendencies. moral. aptitudes. mental. Due to these variations and differences. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure.
produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. 3. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. 2. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. organized. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. administrative programme need be planned. Similarly. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. phased preparation. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. development of professional capability at all levels. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. To ensure success of the process. 293 . learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework.curricular. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives.
18. Child Centred Education b.3. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee.3. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 17. 5. workshop. laboratory. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 1937 19. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Relation with Life c.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Run. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. 5. library. principles of curriculum construction.3. 11. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. 12. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 10. a. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. in the class room. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 .
(2001). D. N. New Delhi : Isha Books.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. P. (2007). and Sarita Kumari. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. S.K. 295 . Innovations in Education.3. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Curriculum and Instruction. Bhalla.5. (2007). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. Lakshmi. Curriculum Development. (2007). S. New Delhi : Authorspress.S.
2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 184.108.40.206.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .5 220.127.116.11.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.6.2 5.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4.7.LESSON 5.4.1 5.4.8 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.6.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.9 5.4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.10 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.3 18.104.22.168.4.4 5.7 Scientific Attitude 22.214.171.124.4.4.
All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners.during the second half of this century.5. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. tolerance for the opinions of others. 3. We mean curiosity.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. 297 . Gradually. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. 5. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. in the economic reconstruction of society. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. superstition or emotion. 5. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. you will be able to: 1.4. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. honesty. yet real advancement in this area was achieved .4.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. explain the concept of scientific attitude. 4. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. know the importance of science education. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. 2. newer and newer industries started growing. open-mindedness.
6. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Principles are formulated. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Through newspapers. 3. 6.4. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. 5. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. seminars and symposiums. Devotion towards nature increases. Love for truth enhances. Organisation of science fairs. Thinking and memory develops. stipends and appreciations in various ways. 4.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. 5. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 7. Schemes of teaching science. 2. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Central science workshop. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people.4. Through examinations. as well as of the society. 4. Promotion of science clubs. 3. After such experience and training. 5. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Selection for science education.So that. 2. models and scientific instruments for laboratories.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 5.
4.4. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. For laboratory and workshop techniques.6. It is. objectivity. Write any two advantages of Science Education. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. essential that teachers. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. 7. 5. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. After presenting the problem. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. They ask many questions about the objects they see. sex or religion. should provide opportunities to. They experience natural phenomenon. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. They encounter many social events as they grow.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . each child to “enquiry skill building”. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. Training of science teachers. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. therefore. Enquiry teaching is. In the inquiry approach. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste.needs and conditions.
What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? .4. Social sciences. 5. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. 5. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. . stern pursuit of accurate data. 3. 4. Adopting creative models of teaching. It requires consistent thinking. 6. test.Herma Wouk.books. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. . Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. commands or orders. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”.4.6.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Giving less directions. if they like. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Evidence. 300 . Appreciating pupils ideas. 5. to ask questions and experience things. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 3.
it must be encouraged. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. of vast resources running waste. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed.7. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . see and feel the need of developing this attitude.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. practiced. and emphasized during the learning process . Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. The students observation. For instance. 5. to develop among the learners. These include open mindedness. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. school and society at large. (Vaidya 2007). In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. To achieve this we should understand what it means. keen observation. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. critical thinking and suspended judgments.(Smith 2008). The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits.4. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. friends. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. neighbourhood. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. therefore should be unbiased and objective.
He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. In considering a situation or a problem. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. he studies all aspects of it. 2007).7. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. intuition or wishful thinking”. understanding and logic. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. (Das. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge.4. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. rumor. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. think and work it”. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. 302 . or superstitions. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. 5. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth.
A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. 5.4. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. but to begin only after careful planning. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.7. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. • 5. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.4.7. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .
Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. 5. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude.4. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. 5. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. it must be encourages.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. 304 . Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.
(2000). Discuss the importance of science education 14.4. Planning of activities 5. b. M. Reflections on Scientific attitude. Proper example of the teacher c.S.5. 305 . What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Adopting creative models of teaching. b. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. S.B (2008).9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13.4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Study of superstitions d. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. N. (2006). New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. 5. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. Vaidya. The intention to respect another’s point of view.4. a. (2008). Love for truth enhances. 5. Rao. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Wide reading b. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. 4. a. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. 16. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. objectivity. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. 3. b. 2. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. a. Yadav. D. a.
3 5.5.9 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5.7 126.96.36.199. areas of institutional planning. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.5.2 5. 306 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.8 5. you will be able to: 1.5 5. state the concept.4 5.5.1 5.5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5. 5.11 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5. objectives and characteristics.LESSON 5.10 5.6 5. 2.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.5. actively.5.
which become the bases for further planning at the district. in the task of educational planning. every teacher. • to make planning development-oriented. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. Institution should be regarded as the unit.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. each teacher. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. 5. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning.3. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. State and national levels from below. and every student in the process of educational planning. every parent. • To make institutional planning more successful. and each student are regarded as separate entities. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. and. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution.5. teachers and students is not lost sight of. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. • to involve teachers and school administrators. and supplement planning from above. 5.5. executive as well as public. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education.
• implemented. council and. Examinations. and Personnel services. 5. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction.5. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.curricular Activities. Classwork. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. (2) Co.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. 308 . etc. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Co-curricular activities. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. approved after making necessary modifications. Syllabus.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan.5. which will be discussed in the general. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Editing the school magazine. Organisation of Students’ Association.No. 2. Preparation of instructional material. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Organisation of class-room libraries. etc.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Organising play-for-all programmes. Organisation of Pupils. charts and apparatus. hobby-centres. scientific and historical excursions. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. 1. Celebrating of national and international festivals. etc. Fair distribution of syllabi. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Improving the subject competence of teachers. etc. 3. Preparation of models. Improving the internal assessment. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Courts. Conducting of educational. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. etc. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. etc. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Running science clubs. Equipping of laboratory and library. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
teacher-teacher. administrator-pupil. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. students’ associations. involving mainly human materials. understanding.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system.5. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. and —pupil-pupil. which are divided as the in. etc. co-operation. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. ii. pupils. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. headmasters associations. teacher-pupil.5. administrator-administrator. parent-teacher associations. pupil310 . If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved.” The human relationships in. science teachers’ associations. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. parents. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. teacher-State. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. teacher-managing body. teachers. Administrator-State. teacherinspector. and solidarity. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. administrator-supervisor.
to attend. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. superintendence. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. to carry out. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 311 . Good. teacher-community leader. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. social sciences and other disciplines. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. pupil-non-official functionaries. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. To administer means to manage. pupil-inspector. supervision. Management may be taken as a narrow concept.State. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. now-a-days. pupil-parent. pupil-community leader. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. to accomplish.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. control. It is also being modernized to become a technique.5. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. and to serve. V. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. According to C. teacher-parent. organisation and management. It covers personnel and material management. supervision and superintendence. organisation. administrator. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. etc.
There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. 3. 5.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. He should be an artist in human relationships. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. 9.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. Democratic Management . low. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . 7.The manager should have leadership traits. 2.Any good management will always have good public relations. Rapport between the Management and Employees . 10. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. The relationship should change from master. 8.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. 4. it is not worth-while. Socio-Scientific Approach . Liasion with the Public .He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. 12. Better Human Relationships . Motiviation . should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.Of all the approaches. 6. Communication . 11. If the cost benefit ratio is less. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. Economic Management . He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. If it is more. Worker Participation . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. This is the latest democratic trend in management.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. 13.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. Those. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . Cost-Benefit Analysis . who occupy the managerial positions.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. Decision Making . Leadership .
Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.5. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. improvement of teaching methods. 313 . Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.5. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. to improve the quality of education it provides. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. 14. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17.too. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. 18.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept.g. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. and cooperative performance should be ensured.These two are. objective. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. enrichment of curricula. 5. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . 19. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Decision Making b. Syllabus. 2. Examinations. In group and Out group 5.5. Communication 5. d. c. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. e. Co-curricular activities. Instruction.M. b. b.5. Singh. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. a. Motiviation d. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.5. (2001). it becomes the basis for school inspection. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. and Personnel services. 4. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Leadership c. R. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. b. NUEPA. (1995). a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Classwork. (2003). S. a. f. APH Publishing Corporation. a.K. Tarachand and Prakash. Fundamental of Educational Management. H. Educational Administration. 314 .
Imbalances and Variations in different environment.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . New evaluation procedures. Preservation of nutrients.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Inspection and Supervision 3.I. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. Balanced diet. Economic 315 . population education. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. 4. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. Community and Mass Media 2.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Code of conduct for teachers.1 Gurukula system of education. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.3 Directive Principles . women education and teacher education in India.1 Primary Education : Education for all. Examination reforms. higher education.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. physical education and environmental education 5. Realized the problems of school education.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Healthy Food Habit 4. 2. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. Sex-education 4. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. School. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.4 India's Secular Policy .teachers should have : 1.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.Article 45 . UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.3 Educational Influences of Home.CORE PAPER .5 Regional Educational Development in India . UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. wastage and Stagnation 3.Pre-service and In-services facilities.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .Preventive measures.1 School Health Programme. First Aid. Communicable diseases . 1.Religious and Modern Education 1.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. social Impact 3. nutritional requirement. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Common ailments of Children.2 Nutritional deficiencies. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .
K. curriculum and teacher's role 5. R. Saraswathi T.4. Delhi : University Publications 2.S.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. (1999) Culture. and Human Development.C. Prof.4 4. Hemchand. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. 316 .2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.Aim.N. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. 5.N.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. 7.1 Idealism.K. Sharma. and Sharma R. Naturalism and Pragmatism . and Dash B.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Tagore 5. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. New Delhi: NCERT 3. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Curriculum and national goals .K. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . and Mohanty R. Pandy V.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.R. Ghanta R. (2004) Problems of Education in India. Taneja V. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.K. Socialization. Mishra. REFERENCE 1.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2005) Foundations of Education. Realism. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Ram S. T. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. B. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Mahatma Gandhi.
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