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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Jainism and their educational implication. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Lesson 2. and Jain system of education. The need. 9 . During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Lesson 5. Lesson 4. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. In. discusses the regional educational development in India. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world.
1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.4.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.6.5 Jain system of education 126.96.36.199.5.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 188.8.131.52.LESSON 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1 18.104.22.168 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 22.214.171.124.3.1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 126.96.36.199 Education during British Era 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.6.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 188.8.131.52 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .5.6.2 1.
1.1.9 1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. That 12 . Education in India. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.1. in morals and in the intellect”. has a long past history starting in vedic education.3. India. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.184.108.40.206 Sargent Report (1944) 1. 1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. elucidate the education during British Era. you will be able to: 1. both present and future. Indian in blood and colour. The history of education passed through Buddhist. Muslim and British periods. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. describe the Jain system of Education 4.8 1. British system of education presented the modern western model.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. 1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. “a class of persons.1.7 1. in opinion.1.6. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. but English in taste.1. 1.
Teacher as Parents. Education was a private affair of the people. Religious and Spiritual. Method of Instruction. 12. followed by explanation by the teacher. questioning by the pupil. 6. 16. Residential Schools. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. managed entirely by Brahmans. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. High Status of Teachers. 13 . Pupils were taught. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. not en masse by the class method. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. from eternal to immorality 2. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. individually. the monitorial plan was followed. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. 14. religious and spiritual. Role of Travel in Education. 3. Free and Accessible. generally. if they thought fit to do so. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. Forests as Centres of Education. Method of Study. however. from darkness. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil.knowledge was real. Education of Moral. with grants of land or money. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. 11. Where pupils were many. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. 10. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. No State Control on Education. to light. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Individual Teaching. 13. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Curriculum. It was not merely intellectual. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. It was also moral. There was. and to agriculture and trade. 9. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. as it is generally considered to be at present. 4. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. The immediate aim of education. 8. Immediate Aim Vocational. 5. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline.
girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. 2. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Wide-Spread Education in Women. They were very cordial and intimate. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. studied Vedas. It was suited to the needs of the society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection.17. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent.3. 1. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . lived a life of celebacy. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
the student remained in a state of Shramana. Right means of livelihood 6. watching dances or listening to music. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. It was denied only to the ill. disease and death of the human beings. 2. in which. Consequently. 1. except the Chandals. etc. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Right memory 8. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. Right contemplation 1. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. Education was imparted through the. medium of Pali. partaking of food at prohibited times. every class in society. I take Refuge to Sangh. Right speech 4. killing of any living being. he was qualified to become a monk. use of cosmetics. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Right thought 3. had the right to receive education. taking things without being offered.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. the handicapped. After attaining the age of 20.4. Right knowledge 2. He was then ordained to obey ten rules.1. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. 15 .C. use of intoxicating things. impure conduct. which included abstaining from theft. the most significant of which were the following 1. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. Right activity 5. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. I take Refuge to Dharma. Right endeavour 7.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. the student had his head shaved of all hair. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. dressed himself in yellow clothes.
be considered the aim of education It. etc. handicrafts. cottage industries. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. however. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. It comprehended education in writing. archery. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. the presence of the monks was essential.4. military science. elephant lore. archery. a change is not only total but also perpetual. so long as it successfully does so. education was impart in art. the science of taming and training animals. etc. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. On this occasion. After this ritual. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. 5. bodily gestures. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. 3. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. it is regarded as true”. of clothes. etc. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. Later on. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. aspirations and. depth and range. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. nothing is of any permanent consequence. objectives of human life. geology. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. animal husbandry. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. a continuous change creating 16 . along with education in script writing. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life.3. Initially. wear three items. commerce. eat food thrice a day.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. assumptions. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. Hence. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin.. medicine. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. 8. therefore. 6. Even at this stage. magic. approach. nature. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. meaning. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. knowledge of reviving the dead. women occupied a position inferior to men. 2. 4. 1. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. Life is in a flux. has no metaphysical value for life. As reality is becoming. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. and. control over sensuous activities. agriculture. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. arithmetic and religious discussion. 7. beg for alms. changing the goals. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. Whatever its nature and extent. These are called later Buddhist schools.
and its refusal to believe in supreme God. Validity is effective and consequences.. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. Jainism insists 17 . the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. and to give it a shape that it has today. it is much older than the latter. Its chief feature. However.new and peculiar situations. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. In fact. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. such as. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. therefore. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. however. whatever works are true and good. Write Eight fold path . and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet.e. goes to Vardhaman. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him.5.1. 1. 5. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. its pessimistic outlook on life. Education must. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. i. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter.
Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. As such.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. it has a foot in both the words. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. Hence. 18 . more stress on individual aims. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. d) To lead a celibate life. 5. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. 6. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. 3. 9. Development of personality as an individual. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 3. and believe in happiness to all. 1. rather than the interpretation of the universe. c) Not to steal. 7. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. but on both. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. and is to be redeemed and liberated. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. 1.5. c) Right conduct. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. e) To renounce the world. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. 2. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. 2.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. b) Right knowledge. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind.1. thought and deed. b) Not utter falsehood. 10. 8. They are: a) Not to injure. 4.
1. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. 3. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. therefore. 2. 2. 1. What are Triratnas ? . success and love. 4. Hence. Teaching must develop these faculties. 5. 19 .5. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Belief in transmigration of soul. here and now.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. and should bring happiness to all. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. that would be socially desirable. education must be action based and ideally oriented. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. practised and not only aspired for. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. 8. education should develop sense of discrimination. Jiva is essentially karmic.5.
To set up separate departments of. philosophy and literature of Europe.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. Bombay. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. 1. science. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. However.6. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians.6.6. 1. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. 1.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.1. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. primary 20 . public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. with rally and rout. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. and not for life. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. 1953). Madras. 1.6. North West Province and Punjab. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. 2. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”.
The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 .7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. self-respecting and competent. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. 1. 1. namely. At that time M. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. • Universal free primary education. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools.K.6. Later on.6. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937.6. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. The universities dominated the secondary education. To ensure qualitative improvement.education was neglected. 1. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). • Secondary education. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. In 1882. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). secondary education became a step towards university. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. at the primary level. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools.
At the primary stage (6-11 years). Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. 10. After this stage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. all children are to have a common curriculum. The objective of education was to provide 22 . The report suggested development of adult education scheme.1. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? .
5. 23 . Right means of livelihood. science and English language. the science of taming and training animals. geology. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. handicrafts. archery. Right endeavour. followed by explanation by the teacher. a. 2. arithmetic and religious discussion. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. Right knowledge. The system of education was well-organised. The immediate aim of education. 2. Right thought. questioning by the pupil. etc. 3. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Right memory. military science. 1. b. It was suited to the needs of the society. During the Buddhist period.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Right speech. 1. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents.. along with education in script writing. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools.education of European literature. 3. 6. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. education was impart in art.1. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. 4.1. Right activity. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 4. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. establishment of universities. Right contemplation.
Ltd. 10. Hence.7. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Singh. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. 9. Right faith.K. and Nath. Aggarwal. Y. Y. 8. b. Sargent report 12. b. History of Indian Education System. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.1. Sharma. (2009). 1882. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Right conduct. Ltd. 24 . (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). more stress on individual aims. J. Right knowledge. Development of personality as an individual. 11. J. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. R.K. Improvement of Literature.C. 1937 1. (1984). a. Development of Educational System in India. a.C. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. c.
Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.220.127.116.11 1.2.1 University Education Commission 1.3.4 National Policy on Education 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.7 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.18.104.22.168 1.2.4 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1. The 25 .2.1 22.214.171.124.2.2.2 1.2.3 Kothari Commission 1.LESSON 1.6 126.96.36.199 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.
1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. 2.2. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. secondary and higher education.3. technical. standard of teaching. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. analyse the progress of education in free India. S. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. technological engineering. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. National Board of Teacher Education 10. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. girls and women education besides primary. New Educational Policy. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. medical and legal education. examination system. Post-graduate 26 . explosion of enrolment.2. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. curriculum.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. Kothari (1964-66) 8. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. There had been vast institutional expansion. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. National Council for Women’s Education 5. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. expansion of vocational. you will be able to: 1. 1986 1. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. vocational education. diversification of courses of studies.conditions of the teachers.2. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9.
material and spiritual. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. in January 1985. 1.2. 1952. 1966. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. However. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . The Essence and Role of Education. National System of Education.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. the chairman of University Grants commission. D. 2.teaching. Therefore. 1986. Kothari. A meaningfully Partnership. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. 4. 1. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. utility and financial outlay. Problems of access.2. quantity.2.3. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country.3.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. 1. 3. accumulated over the years. Government of India.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. research et. quality. A. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. Finally.3. the New National Policy on Education. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. Education is the key to our allround development. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. Education for Equality.S. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.
Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Thus. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the minorities and the handicapped. 28 .4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. It can train practical aptitudes. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. The UNESCO Report. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education.” Thus. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. the concepts of work experience. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes.2. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. attitudes. By working with hands. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools.
“as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. The Radhakrishnan Commission. the Commission. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. As such. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. Besides. if he wishes. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. it will conduce self. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. “The aim of these colleges. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. “It may be described. co-ordinations. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. The Education Commission. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . With adequate planning. According to.” The Mudaliar Commission." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. In 1955. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations.
determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n.. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. etc. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. Therefore. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. the. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. admission requirements to vocational courses. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations.ot her. for quality of life in the rural areas. raising the special facilities.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. With a view to relating education to the life. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. the semester and credit system. In addition. Subsequently. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . The Central Advisory Board of Education. the rigid streaming of courses. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern.
which swept the country for over two decades. aimed at this goal. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. 31 . It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum.2. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. 1. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence.defined S UP W as “purposive. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. The wave of Basic Education. In short. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. meaningful. manual work resulting in either goods or services. meaningful.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. giving importance to productivity in the national development.and the world of work. which are useful to the community.. technological courses including Agriculture. preferably spinning and weaving. etc. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. who conceived the System of Basic Education. felt that education should be centred around a craft. The Father of Nation. According to committee. which offer scientific. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. Commerce. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed.
Health and Hygiene 2. Educative and 3. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Productive 2. The teachers should make use of. Experimentation with materials. so that it is educational in essence. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Work practice. be that the work involved is: 1. Some Hints to Teachers 1. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Clothing 5. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. 3. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. tools and techniques and 3. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. 2. locally available materials and tools. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Culture and recreation 6. 32 . enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Shelter 4. Community work and social service. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Food 3. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. as far as possible. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. 4.
work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. To make education more realistic. removal of illiteracy. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. slum clearance. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. Check on educated unemployed 4. Community Service In-1972. It can become an instrument to build character. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful.5. Productive Work 33 .2. the local community should be actively associated. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. inculcate a faith.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. 1. Education through work The SUPW should. etc. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. 6. as far as possible. improve discipline. Merits of the Programme 1. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience.
and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. helping the adults-in productive work. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. skills and better future for the children. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. if not productive. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. The community.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. in turn. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. traffic control. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . etc. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. offering first aid.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Define SUPW 34 . AICTE was set up in year 4. should involve itself in the educational effort.
a. meaningful. 1. f. 1952 3. d. Radhakrishnan 2. 3. 1955 4. 35 . Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. e. c. Dr. 6. Write short note on SUPW.2. which are useful to the community. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. 1.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.1. manual work resulting in either goods or services.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2.2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. b.
Publishing Corporation.C. Ltd. Y. and Nath. History of Education.(2005).P. 36 . Y.H. J. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. P.2. New Delhi: A.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.P.1. A. V.K.K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.K. (2007). Amala. and Rao. Anupama. Rao. Development of Educational System in India. (2007).D. R. History and Problems of Indian Education. (2009). : Sharma. B. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. (2005).. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. History of Indian Education System. Singh.
there is an official Hindi translation.3. containing 395 articles.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.369 words in the English language version.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. equality. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. it came into effect on January 26. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. directive principles and duties of citizens.1 Significance of DPSP 1. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.2 1. establishing the structure. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.3.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3. democratic republic.3. assuring its citizens of justice. for a total of 117.4 1. Being the supreme law of the country.3.8 1.3. and liberty. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. 1950.9 188.8.131.52.5 1. 1949.3. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.3.6 1.1 1. 37 . procedures.3.3. Besides the English version.7 1. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.
in sessions open to public. 2. you will be able to: 1. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. understand our Indian constitution.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. social. learn the role of central and state government on education. 1947. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 1950. 38 . Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. embodied in Part IV of the constitution.3. for 166 days. political. Through them. Dr. with Dr.In the August 14. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. 1. After many deliberations and some modifications. According to the constitution. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. 1. 4. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws.3.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. 1. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. economic. The Assembly met. On August 29. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. 1947.3. spread over a period of 2 years.3. legal and environmental. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. administrative. the Drafting Committee was appointed. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. 3. Two days later. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands.
No abuse of children. Article 39A. Protecting health of the workers. on the basis of equal opportunity. Minimising inequalities in status. Article 40. Organisation of village panchayat. provide free legal aid. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Protecting children from exploitation. 39 . and shall. Equal justice and free legal aid. make effective provision for securing the right to work. The State shall endeavour to secure. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. That the health and strength of workers. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Condition for dignity of children. Equal pay for both sex. Article 42. Appropriate concentration of wealth.government. Article 43. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. Liking wage etc. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. The State shall. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Right to work. Article 41. old age. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. for workers. men and women.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. and in other cases of undeserved want. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. in particular. sickness and disablement. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment.
The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Article 48A. The State shall endeavour to provide. (Original Article 45. work. Article 44. in particular. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. by suitable legislation or in any other way.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Article 47. [declared by or under law made by 40 . The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. industrial or otherwise. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Note: Subs. Article 43A. 2002 for “45. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Article 48. and. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. to all workers. in particular. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Participation of workers in management of industries. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Article 49. agricultural. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. The State shall take steps. Article 46. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Uniform civil code for the citizens. in particular. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. a living wage. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. See also Article 21A). establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Article 45.
Parliament] to be of national importance. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2.3. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. Promotion of international peace and security. Separation of judiciary from executive. Article-21A Right to Education. 1. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. destruction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 50. disfigurement. 2. disposal or export. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Article 45 . from spoliation. 2002. may be law determine”. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. as the case may be. Article 51. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. removal.
2002. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. and. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. caste. 8. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. race.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. language or any of them”.” 42 . ii. 4. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. and shall protect them. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. 3. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. 7. his guardian has given his consent thereto. 5. 6. in particular. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. iii. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. if such person is a minor. from justice and all forms of exploitations. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”.
style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. & 1. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. 2. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. wherever necessary or desirable. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. for its vocabulary. 43 . The central government determines targets and promotes education. and by drawing. the forms. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Provision for Education for minorities is given in .3. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education.9. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Educational Reforms From time to time. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4.
the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Promoting Inter-state understanding g.3. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. 6. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. 4. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Local bodies and private enterprise. etc. So as to encourage education on right lines. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. 7. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government.. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Production of suitable for children and adults f. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. to achieve the desired ends. 8. All India Council of Medical Science. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. the state governments. The following pilot projects. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. private agencies etc. 5. By starting these projects. So that they may work well.
reports etc. 1. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. 10.3. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. The 45 . etc. 4.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. 11. Material concerning nation-wide interests. 12. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. handicapped. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. research. 3. 9. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. training and statistics. is the state responsibility. are published by it. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. 1. education for women. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. books. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside.
recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Article 45 b. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . articles in the Directive principles. 46 . Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3.3. Write short notes on a. 1. Article 46 4. Article 21A c. Explain Directive principles 2. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. 1. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles.
Article-21A Right to Education. a. Article 29 and 30 7. b. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. 3. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Describe the educational role of State Government. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. The Directive Principles of State Policy. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. a. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. b. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Development of Hindi Language 6. 2002. may be law determine”. 4. Dr. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 47 . Article 46 5. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. a. 1. 2002. Clearing House function 9.3. Article 45 . Ambedkar 2.5.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.
48 . S. Education in Emerging Indian Society. L.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. (2004).1. Bhatia. (2007). Education in Emerging Indian Society. K and Narang C. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. (2008). N. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Dash. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Ghosh. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2009). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. S. K.3. B.
religious education should be broad based.184.108.40.206.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4. Jainism.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.7 1.5 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Christianity.4.4. Islam.8 1.1 Why Moral Education 220.127.116.11 1.1 1.4.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.3.4. Students should be 49 .4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India. Buddhism etc.2 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 18.104.22.168 Moral education 1.4.3.
In the complicated and complex society of today..4. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. religious education and the concept of secularism.” Education broadens human outlook. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. According to E.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. Thus. beauty and goodness so that 50 . India' can produce men of character. state meaning and need for moral education 1. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).4. know the position of religious education in our country 3.and dedication. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals.D. duty-consciousness. As result of which. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. "In A multireligious society like ours.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. you will be able to: 1. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. integrity.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. 1. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life.
As a matter of fact. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. Viewing the defects of religious education. 1. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. rancour. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. castes and creeds. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. They thought that any kind of narrow. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. Thus. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. 1. No religious tax can be imposed on them.3. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education.4. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate.4.3. 1947 we achieved our freedom. if not regularly. it is clear that the State has no religion. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. religion and democracy are same. In short. As our country is a country of diverse religions. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. at least occasionally. all citizens are free to follow any creed.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. realizes God in himself. According to Article 19.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. According to Article 22. through religious practices and 51 . Hence.” From the above.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. Children attend these organizations.
Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. temperament etc. for the development of the individual and the society. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment.teachings. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. intellectual and physical faculties of children. moral and spiritual values. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. which can mould.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . It is religious education. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. aggressive. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). It helps to modify habits attitudes. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. which help him for the development of his character. If unreleased. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility.. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. one fully developed. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. what is done and what is not done etc. Good education. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. He also learns about social. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. As a result of which. when he becomes an adult. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. and what is evil.
In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. This should not be allowed to happen. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. 1.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”.4. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. 3. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. towards the society. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided.3. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. If we open the pages of history. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. 2. which is the basic need of a democratic life.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. Therefore. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. 53 . To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way.
11. List out any two aims of religious education? 3.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. therefore. For this. fellow-feeling. Life histories of great persons of the world. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 10. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. they should be discussed in the right earnest. 9.4. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. stories of moral greatness. churches and mosques 7. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Write Article 22 2. Gurudwara as. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. examples of patriotism. Since all religions have virtues.
1. 8. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). 2.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. therefore. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Satyam (truth). This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 2. let men see well of one another. is that which develops moral values. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. “Let all be happy and free from disease. Cultivation of emotions. 5. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite.acquisitiveness).4. Service to others. Self sacrifice. 6. Ahimsa (Non-violence). the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Purity. Brahmacharya (celebacy). 7. 3. The content of the curriculum. Patriotism. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 8. 1. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Aparigarha (Non. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Without moral values. 6. Asvada (Control of palate). Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Non-injury. 4. 55 . in the home. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Fearlessness. Swadeshi (Patriotism). 5. 3. 7. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. the methods of teaching. students. Moral education. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. They will play their role effectively. 4. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together.4. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position.
minutes in the morning for group singing.9. 4. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Good manners. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 3. 2. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. The School Assembly should be held for a few. 1. Good temper. loyalty and self-sacrifice. religions may be included in the syllabus. 10. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Sharivashram (Physical work). Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography.4.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Discipline. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. 56 . Simple texts and stories concerning different. In the school programme. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. discipline. 11. Efficiency. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Asatyam (Non-thieving). The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Secondary Stage 1. Integrity. National unity and Spiritual values. Unity of mankind. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. 3.
General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. 2. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. In this connection. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. In other words.4. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. 57 . love of humanity. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. patriotism and self-discipline. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. 5. University Stage 1. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . Silent meditation should be encouraged. should form a normal part of school programme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. 5.
58 . According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. a. b. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. In short. Training of Character 3. For this. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also.4. 4. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. 1. Discuss the aims of Religious education. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3.1. 2.4.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. a. 1. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. a. 1959 5. minutes in the morning for group singing. 2. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Sri Prakasa 6 . To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. the.4. b. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b.
L. 59 . (2003). B. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.H. Dash. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Bhatia. Theory and Principles of Education. (2004).P. J. New Delhi: A. (2008). Anmol Publications Pvt. N. Publishing Corporation. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Siddiqui. K. N. (2008).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.1. (2007). K and Narang C.H. Ltd.4. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Pahuja. M.C. P. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.
5.12 1.1 1.5.11 1.5.9 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.7 1.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5.8 1..6 1.2 1.e.3 126.96.36.199. Although.5. 60 . disparities between provinces/States. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.10 1. i.5.
7. 1.5. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. know the education suited to different environments. they take appropriate measures. This leads to separatist movements. etc. 1. 5.1.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics.5. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. 2. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. 8. understand the regional educational development in India 3. work hard towards this end. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. They therefore. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. energy. 61 . Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 6. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. roads. waters. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.5. 3.5. 1. 4. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. Accordingly. for example.
and. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. Secularism. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. 2. • Separate States (of course viable States). it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. 3. on the basis of regional development may be formed.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. some States became educationally far advanced. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. Tight security arrangements should be made.5. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. 62 . and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. some average. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . There are many reasons for this during the British rule. Therefore. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. 4. while others remained educationally backward.
NERIST. Rs. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments..g. etc. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. the Union Government. Itanagar. and provision of informal education to enable those. Even in each State.392. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. etc. the State Governments. Funds amounting to Rs. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. academic buildings. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools.5. Silchar. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. 63 . After the attainment of independence. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. books. 1. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. approved proposals worth Rs. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. These projects are in various stages of implementation. Out of this. Mizoram.84 crore was released in 2005-06.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. Regional Centres of IGNOU. while some States like Bihar.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Tezpur. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education.14. In the Central sector. NIT.480.After the Planning Process has originated. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Guwahati. Nagaland and NEHU. Jammu and Kashmir. remained under developed. library buildings. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. Central Universities of Assam. since its inception in 1998-99. However. scholarships. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes.
500. Out of this an amount of Rs. Tezpur University. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. too.8 per cent in 05). Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. Moreover. A provision of Rs.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.261. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.05 crore and Rs. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. Government expenditure on education.57 crore and Rs.187. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.5. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.40. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. 64 .42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.501. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). During 2003-04. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Source: National Portal Content Management Team.
is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. for instance. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. too. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. Kerala and Gujarat. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Karnataka. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. too. Listing the positives.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. health services and welfare of the citizen population. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. Moreover.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. 1. for which 16 sites. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). is very low compared to Southern and western parts. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. English. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. The Chandigarh Administration. Karnataka. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. notes the study. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. too. telecom. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Medical education. To add to the woes. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. Tamil Nadu.5. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. pharma. engineering and R&D. Andhra Pradesh.
the vocations. Then education become realistic and idealistic. the curricular subjects. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. which a non-tribal person cannot do. Hence it is called as need-based. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes.year. the working days: an academic . The working hours of educational institutions. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. In the same manner. and so on. the teaching methods. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. taking the average in the middle. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. Of course. 66 .people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. The living conditions. the needs. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. in which the learners live. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. For a learner living in a rural area. while the former does not. even actually looking at the watch. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. the interests. the socio-physical conditions. when he will not be sure of time. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. life-oriented and environment slanted.
2. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.5. 1. 67 .11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.5. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. to suit education to different environments? 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.
R. (2008). Education in Developmental Arena. A. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. a. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. some of areas which were under the native rulers.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 60% 1. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. remained undeveloped 3.5. (2001). during the British rule.N. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Educational Development in India.2. (2002). S. Salim. Dubey. New Delhi: Authors press.H.K. Education Scenario in India. C. some States have become more developed than others b. 68 . (2001). and Nair.G. Giridhar.
UNIT – II 69 .
You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. 71 . Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. school community and mass media. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. National Integration. community development. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place.
1 2.1.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 188.8.131.52 2.2 2.1.4 184.108.40.206.5.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 220.127.116.11 2.5.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.8 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.6 Education for Secularism 2.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .6.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.9 18.104.22.168.LESSON 2.6.
73 . The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. socialistic and secular state.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. for the people by the people”.1. socialism and secularism 2. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. colour or wealth.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality.1. understand the concept of democracy. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. socialism and secularism 2. 2. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. In the matter of admitting students in schools. The students may be associated with the management of the school.1. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. creed. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically.1. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. 3) Provision of Manual Work. there should be made no distinction of caste. This is the political aspect of democracy. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. Abraham Lincoln. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. 2. Democracy thus means power of the people. you will be able to: 1.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. 12) Visits to Legislatures. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 74 . Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. may be planned. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. it soon spread all over the world. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. Democracy means 2. There are different brands of socialism. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum.1. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. declamation contest etc. 11) Student Parliament. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 2. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. debates.
1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. but on the path of non-violence. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 2) Socialism aims at equality.1. 2. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. the prince and the peasant. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 75 .Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. Under it. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low.5. free from exploitation. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. service and cooperation. 2. 7) Special facilities for girls. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses.1. the wealthy and the poor. oppression and disparity.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools.5. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. none high”. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production.
12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. Everyone says. Write any two main features of socialism. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. “India is a secular-country. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. "which seeks the development of physical.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. According to Holydake. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. 11) State schools. 5.” In every political and educational corner. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. 76 . secularism is being propagated.
It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. should be independent of religion. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness.6. trifles over petty religious matters are caused.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. 2) It permits freedom of religion. education etc. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. People have different religions and they have different beliefs.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. Equality. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. That is why. In this type of prevailing situations. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. fraternity. liberty.6. 3) It permits freedom of worship. 8) It believes in co-existence. the belief that the state morals. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. people started believing in regionalism. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. During the recent past. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values.1. 5) It implies tolerance. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. Moral values have to be imbibed. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. “Webster further says. 77 . people have narrow mindedness. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values.opposed to religious education. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state.1. A large number of people is uneducated. 9) It stress free inquiry. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. There is need of making the people open minded. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights.
Religious Education. students belonging to different religions should be associated. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show.6. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. There should be some internal checking of the material being. education. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . tours and trips may be organized. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. No doubt. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions.presented by the students in the gathering. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles.1.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. In the hands of such teachers. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. Patiala. The very sight of the building.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. 1) Moral Education. 2. While doing so. In the celebration of each such function. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. that the central string of all religions is one. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.1. The word “Seculum” means 7. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. Define Secularism 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. No doubt. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. The term secularism was first used by 8. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. 2. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved.
What are the implications of socialism on education 2. 4. there should be made no distinction of caste. In the matter of admitting students in schools. b. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. 5. Provision of Manual Work. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. The students may be associated with the management of the school.1. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Since socialism stands for equality.1. c. Equal Opportunities for Admission. George Jacob Holydake 80 .9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Socialism aims at social justice. a. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 2. Power of the people 2. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 4. 3. for the people and the people”. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. b. Abraham Lincoln. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Tuition free education b. a. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. 3. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Socialism aims at equality. d. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. colour or wealth. 5. This present age 7. a. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. creed. Respect of Individual Personality. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. 6.
It permits freedom of religion. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. L. (2004). Modern Trends in Indian Education.C. Ltd. 81 . K and Narang C. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. the belief that the state morals. B. New Delhi : Pahuja.1. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2005). Anmol Publications Pvt. b. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Bhatia. N. a. (2008).8. Dash. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. K. N. Mohanty. Theory and Principles of Education. a. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. J. (2003). (2007).” 9. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. P. education etc. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. b. 10. should be independent of religion.
9 2.6.7 22.214.171.124 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 126.96.36.199 2.2.1 2.2.10 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .1 International understanding in the school 2.2.8 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2 2.5.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.188.8.131.52 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 184.108.40.206.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.LESSON 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 220.127.116.11.5.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.4 2.
For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. as persons. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. social and moral aspects. 2. and 4. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. understandings. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction.2.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. A teacher is first and foremost. 3. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. mental. who are placed in his custody. as learners. skills. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. application. 2. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is.an instructor of school children. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. therefore. emotional. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. moral. a r e 1. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. 83 . development. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. as citizens. aims and objectives of the school.generation to another. It involves physical. The developmental roles of children. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. as it is t he aim o f modern education. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. as workers. you will be able to: 1. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. social. 2.
He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y.All education should lead to better behavioural development. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. culturally confident. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. physically fit for socially efficient.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. socially. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. morally. member of his community at the outset. 3. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. 2. mentally. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. experiences and acceptance.2. He has to look after their physical. The students live. Teacher as a Citizen Next. inquisitive. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. intellectually. 1. The following are some of such roles described in brief. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. social and emotional health. a part of their day in 84 . emotionally. mental. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. morally. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. economically effective. and aesthetically to become. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. 2. motivated. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. He is to become an active member.
Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas.2. photographic clubs. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. and most of hours. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It 85 .the school being under the custody of teachers. solve them. 2. creeds. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. science club. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. fine art associations. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. List out the role of teachers towards community development . the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Unless. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Dr. languages and religions. activities of the society into which he is born. They will be spending with their parents. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. India is a land of many castes. faiths.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school.
folklore and teaching of social studies. national anthem and other national songs. this integration of the Indian people.” Regarding the role of education. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. should be emphasised. stand up straight. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. narrow-minded provincial. At the primary stage the importance of stories. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. It should broaden the outlook. b. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. therefore. Radhakrishnan.2. Let us. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. Sampurnanand remarked. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. 1. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. Nehruji has explained this as. poems.5. social studies.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. The only process is the process of education. and make into one strong national unit. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. c.is. with straight backs and look up at the skies. the citizens of the Republic of India. ‘We should not become parochial. the study of language and literature. Re-orientation of the Curriculum.” 2. a. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice.
4. 87 . debates. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. 6. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. ACC. t he st udent s and t he community. 7. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. 10. symposia. National Days—January 26. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. 5. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. 8. Student Camps. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Singing of National Anthem. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Celebrations of National Days. 3. Scouts and Guides. dramatics and youth festivals.different social sciences. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. and picnics. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. educational excursions. sports. Reverence of National Flag. Textbooks. languages and literature. Uniform for School Children. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. 2. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. militar y training like the NCC. 9. Co-Curricular Activities. tours. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. Taking Pledge. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary.
Admissions. flora and fauna. 88 . 14. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. Recognition of Institutions. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour.11. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Open-Air Dramas. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. v.2. colour. ii. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. 2. iv. language. 16. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . region or religion. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. 13. 12. School Projects. ways of thinking and doing things. Admissions to schools. Educational and Travel Documentaries. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Students Exchange and Tours. iii. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted.5. 15. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery.
It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. irrespective of national boundaries. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. cultures and races on equal bases. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Community dinners. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. 2. Define National Integration 3.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. viii. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.vi. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . ix. vii. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. camps.2.
1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1.6..6. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. C.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. of his body and mind. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.” 2. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. 2. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. and the healthy development. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. Strong has observed. Organising of debates and.F. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. 5. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. patriotism is not enough. 6. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”.e.as important as that of a national citizenship.2. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.friendships between children of different countries. This. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. 2. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. Therefore. 3. the international level. therefore. Teachers 90 . In a very real sense. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Radhakrishnan states.2. if it happens. (b) stories of children of other lands. (c) fairly tales. Dr. that war. 4. often in connection with anniversaries. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.
They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. Russian. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed.” Well Informed About World Situations.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. an Englishman. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. They should not be propagandists. a German. Impartial in their Treatment. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Indian and American.
For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.Another major.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. If this is done. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. Devaluation of Values . the education function can be carried. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. 3. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. 2. Chronic Poverty .2.2. which results in agitation and aggression language. and help the students to over .Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. there is wide spread frustration among all people. 4.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. understand and indiscipline: 1. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. 5. leading to. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. It does not prepare students for life. Defects of the educational System . majority of people are. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. Wide Spread Frustration . As the school is but a miniature society.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions.
2. 2.2. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . 93 . 2. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. community development. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him.2. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development.democratic nature. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. fellow feeling. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. love. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. co-operation. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. etc. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. 5. sympathy and good will among the nations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 18.104.22.168 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 22.214.171.124 Functions and role of schools in the society 126.96.36.199 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 188.8.131.52 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 184.108.40.206 Radio as an agency of education 220.127.116.11 Television as an agency of education 18.104.22.168 Press as a medium of education 22.214.171.124 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
126.96.36.199 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 188.8.131.52 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
184.108.40.206 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
220.127.116.11 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. citizens and school leaders must co-operate.V.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Crow and Crow write. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Moreover. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. In fact. the invention of the printing press. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. Define community. During the course of time. Museums. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . led to the printing of books. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. To make them achieve their aim. periodicals. 2. Emphasising this thing. Then came newspapers. Now internet is being used.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. are increasingly used in education.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. “All the citizens of the community. He taught his students orally. Hence. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. art galleries. books. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided.
social studies. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”.3. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. music. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. the place of importance. dram appreciation.telecast.6. 101 . current affairs and other areas. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. It is also an important source of entertainment. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. the teacher still occupies. Thus. In collaboration with the experts. Reynolds.G. Important happening inventions. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. Students listen various talks. “Listening participation” in current history. 2. art. Various talks. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. for the teacher through school broadcasts.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Effective means of presenting music. A lot of work by way of pre. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. 2. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. politics. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. rather than on picture.classroom teachers. languages. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Thus. In the emphasis is on sound. It enlightens public opinion.
In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. development of lessons. Making learning an open system. Team-teaching demonstrations. 3. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. style. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. audibility and presentability. 4. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. mathematics. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Before presenting the programme. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. 102 . drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. at any place. Participation of local teachers and pupils. at play. fol classical music. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. 5. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. At present. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. informal and non-formal education. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. School concerts. projects or creative activities. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. at recreational centers. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. at drawing room. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. speech. travel talks. plays. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 18.104.22.168 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
22.214.171.124 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 126.96.36.199 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
4.4 Limitations of formal education 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.8 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.4.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.4.7 2.6 2.3.2 2.LESSON 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.1 2.4.2 Levels of formal education system 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 Characteristics of formal education 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.4.
Education. 8. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. In ancient time in India. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 7. 4. 3. imparted at the residence of the teacher. 4. 6. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. To realize this objective of education. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 110 . Education associated with a degree or certificate.4. 9. starting and ending at -a particular age. 2. 3. 5. the mass media et.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. his mental alertness. 2. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. 2. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. the most important agency of formal education. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. School is. the community.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. it was mostly.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. compare formal and non formal system of education. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises.4. 2.4. say the Government or the private enterprise. you will be able to: 1. open school.3.4. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. the family. the learner are acquainted. 2.2. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. Education organised by some agency.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. the temple.. open university.
depending on the jurisdiction. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal.a secondary education.3. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. also called tertiary. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Some education systems have separate middle schools. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. as well as vocational education and training. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. Higher Education: Higher education.2. Through early formal education.4.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.3. or academic degrees. or post secondary education. capacity.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. diplomas. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality.4. structured education. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. In general. Concepts of proportion. third stage. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. the elements of language are first learned. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. such as a high school or secondary school. 2.
4. 4. children with disabilities. 2. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.which will help for nation's development. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. What are levels of formal educational system? . that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . Agencies can be classified as 2.4. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. 2. and remote dwellers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. late beginners etc. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.3. is an important agency of formal education. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . 3.
” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. It is deliberate. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. it has its own valid claim to reality. systematic.e.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. Thus.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. admissions. continuing education and on the job oriented education. staffed. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.. until 1970 it had not been defined. financially supported life formal education. work and the opportunity to put learning to use.learning client take some learning objectives. etc.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. it is a more effective tool for rural development. place of instruction. one could say that non-formal education is an active. adding up to a true learning society.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. Non-formal education includes adult education. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. “Non-formal education should 113 . to help themselves. Therefore. planned. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. It unlocks the doors of development plans. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. Open university. systematic.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. Adiseshiah. It is functional. It is much more responsive to needs and change. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. curriculum.formal education. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. According to Malcolm A. open learning. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. i.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. However. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. adults as well as children.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education.
4. 5. Preparation for future needs. Covering life span of an individual. To develop in the student. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 7.S. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. socialism.S. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.4. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. modes of teaching.4. It should lay emphasis on the self. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. curriculum. 6. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.learning pattern.4. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. 3.e. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. To help industrial workers to better their skills.be marketable and vocationalised. co-curricular activities. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. i. exploring. Process of sharing. age. national integration. Flexibility in various aspects of education. self. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. 4. international understanding. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. the Ideas of citizenship. Part-time education. evaluation etc. 2. 114 . The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved.” According to H. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. place of education.” 2. 2.renewal. Lawrence. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. admissions. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.
Universalisation of primary education. Meeting the omissions of formal education. 5. working adults. Eradication of adult literacy. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 3. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners.4. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 2. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 115 . Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. • 2. school dropouts. 3. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. 10.4. in villages and those who live in towns.4. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 2. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2.4. publication and information dissemination. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Senior Secondary. 5. Technical. 4. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 8. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 6. 9. 4. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. To offer Secondary. 7.
training centres in factories. To make if.4. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . self-employment iii. centres of correspondence education.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. To better qualifications..full time to learners – can be home. if organised in isolation. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. Therefore.2. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. 4. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. Radio and television. etc. farm. effective in modern societal context. public libraries. etc. 2. To increase knowledge and 2. others are formal and informal. factory. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.4. 2. 3. open space. Institutions for formal education.4. Again. library. All-round development i. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1.
Face Contact programmes. List out any two aims of non formal education. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Teaching to face teaching. . Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define non formal education. institution.V. Lecturing T. 117 .6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. radio. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Written tests. Give examples of non formal education? . . Correspondence lesson. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 7. 6.
3.” 6. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. 4. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. 118 . Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.2. Primary level. Secondary level.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2.4. 5. 4. Open School.4. School 3. The school. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. adults as well as children. 2. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. 7. b. Higher Secondary level and University level. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. the college and the university come under this category.4.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Open University. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. 2. systematic. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Formal and Non Formal 2. Pre-school level. b. a. a.
(2007). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. P. Gupta.C. (2003). Education in Emerging India. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. N. Bhatia. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ltd. (2004). Dash. B. Mohanty. L. K. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : 119 . (2005). New Delhi : Shipra Publications.2. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J. Pahuja.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.4. S. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K and Narang C. (2008). J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008). Ltd. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. N.
5.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5.7 2.5 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5.2 2.6 188.8.131.52.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.4 Need for Open University 184.108.40.206 Agencies of continuing education 220.127.116.11.3.3 Objectives of Open University 18.104.22.168.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 22.214.171.124.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .3.5.1 2.4 Open University 126.96.36.199 Philosophy of Open University 2.LESSON 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 188.8.131.52.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.
economic field or such other fields.5.5. farmers. characteristics of open university 4. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. Any person.5. continuing education is a boon. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. This knowledge may be in political field. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. know the need and objectives of open university. Education is for refinement and enlightenment.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person.3. you will be able to: 1. labourers and half educated individuals. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. Under these circumstances.2. For them.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. give the meaning. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. Thus. It is a lifelong process. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. 2. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. However. 2. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 .5. It is a continuous process. industries. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.
if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education.3. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. Thus.V. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Doctors. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education.5.V. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. cultured and progressive. On the other hand. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. After the achievement of independence. if he gets opportunity to develop them. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Cinema. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Throughout the country. 2. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. For them too continuing education is essential. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. deteriorating to his character and personality. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. On the other hand. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Radio and T. Block Development Officers. Radio.directly related to his job. T. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Persons engaged in health services.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education.literate person. are also contributing their might for the purpose. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas.
(2) basic religious matters. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation.5. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (16) liking. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (7) folk songs.V. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. 5. (17) modern international and national events. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 3. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. (1) ancient history. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. These books are not very useful. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (10) first aid. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. Inspite of the great efforts. 6. 4. 7. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. and Radio. 123 . (13) psychology of child behaviour. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. especially women. (8) psychology of adults.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1.. (14) information about bringing up young children. 2. (15) music. Of course.3. habits of people of other lands. we have not been able to achieve our targets. 2. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons.3. (6) folk stories.5. 2. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements.
lack of time etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. of educational opportunities. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . NLM was launched in the year 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2.5. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. attendance restrict ion.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. It also attempts to pr ovide equality.5. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns.4.
d. c. e. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. it makes use of educational techno logy. its education is not class room based but home based. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. 4. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. b. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a.unobserved.4. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. IGNOU was established in the year 6. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. and in teaching. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . 2. 3. the higher the degree of openness. 5. but 125 . Which was the first open university in India? . The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. No one is too old or too late to learn. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements.5. Education is not a once for-all process. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning.
5. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 4. who were deprived of t he same earlier. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.4. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 3. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. Mo re o ver. 3. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 2. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 126 . 6. 4. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. supplementing the existing provision. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 2. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies.5.5. 2. cho ice o f co ur ses. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 2. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. it a ims at wider and hig her. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l.who did not get it.4. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. or who realised too late that they need it.
4. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. In the present day world. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Every day. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. 5. a state or nation. semi – literates. a society. Self instructional materials.2.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 8. Therefore. Laboratory works. 127 . B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Tutor Comments. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. 2.5. 1. 6. 7. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 3. 8. school drop outs. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated.4. Correspondence tuition. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y.5. you have learnt the concept. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . List out any four methods of Open University? .
a. which may include house wives.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. (1) ancient history. aspirants for continuing education. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. 6. Explain the objectives. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 8. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes.5. Broad casting lectures c. 7. 4. 8. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 2. 2. 9. a. 3. 7. d. b.5.ambitious learners. b. cho ic e o f co u r ses. need and characteristics of Open University. 1985. a. agricultural and industrial workers. unskilled workers and other professionals. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. (2) basic religious matters. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. (4) the fundamentals of economics. its education is not class room based but home based. 1988. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. P r int med ia b. Television Lessons. 128 . (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. youth. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.
2.. Modern Problems of Education. Udaiveer.K. 129 . Reddy. Ltd. K and Narang C.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. K. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. L. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. R. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. (2001). (2004). (2004).5. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.S. (2007). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.
UNIT – III 131 .
New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. All which is the need of the hour. which may claim the attention of those concerned. Examination reform. and teacher education. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. examination. wastage and stagnation. the education of women. Training teachers for all levels of education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. In Lesson 2. 133 . the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. its causes and remedial measures. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation.
1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.1.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3 New initiatives.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 184.108.40.206.6 3.7 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.3. 135 .8 3.4 3.2 220.127.116.11.1 EFA – For whom? 3.1 18.104.22.168 EFA – How? 22.214.171.124 3.LESSON 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1.
All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country.3. 2. understands the country. may be political. therefore. economic or cultural. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. education received added importance and significance.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. On the other hand. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. 3. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. directed that. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. Therefore. (EOI) 2. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. “The State shall 136 . There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. social. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986.1. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. Eradication of Illiteracy. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL).1. you will be able to: 1. Continuing Education (CE) 1.
it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . After the attainment of independence. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Continuing Education (CE). 137 . After the enrolment of the students in school is over. It enables the parents to send their children to School. 3. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education.endeavour to provide. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. the national Government under. Therefore. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Due to the adoption of democratic system. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Three Stages for Universalization. Universalization of Enrolment. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Universalization of Retention. rights and responsibilities.
So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India.1. 3. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. educational enterprise. then to 1976. This target had to be revised to 1970.3. 1990. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. 138 . that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. Write Article 45. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. UNESCO Bulletin states. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. It is safe to assure. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. later to 1988.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. Therefore. 1995 (for upper primary stage). present and future.
10. 9. nutrition education and sports and games. Disabled. Jams and Jellies.1. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. creed. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. By undertaking survey. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Emphasis must be given on health education. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. NAEP. FELF. Education of Girls. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. their social economic status and occupations. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Apart from primary education. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. 3. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. 139 . girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. problem of literacy. we have to develop the programme of Adult education.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. 12. sex. 6. their enrolment and retention. 3. 8. Early childhood education should be streamlined. 5. and Women’s education programme should be improved. etc. Education of the Impaired. adolescent and adult. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. rural areas.3. In order to make the programme of education for all community. the art of preparing fruit-juice. slum areas. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. The Social Education. 11.
e. Wastage and Stagnation. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. 4.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3.3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Expand MLL and SSA . Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.3. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.
first stage of education. School Factors .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. Social Factors . it is considered as wastage. Personal Factors . Familial Factors .
Enumerate the causes of Wastage. 142 . Define Wastage. 7. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. .
Societal Factors .3.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. school or society. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. relating to home. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.The following factors. Family Factors . rural or urban 3.1. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. in his home. They are described hereunder :1.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . Personal Factors . School Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.
144 .discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. uniforms. Define Stagnation? 9. etc. mid-day meals. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. stationary. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? .
Universalization of Retention 2. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. 4. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.1. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. a. Universalization of Enrolment c. 4. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. 3. b. therefore. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment.3.1. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. 3. 3. a. Hartog Committee.” 3. 6. improvement of curriculum..6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. “The State shall endeavour to provide. directed that.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. 145 .1. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. Universalization of Provision b.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. 2.
T. S. S. improve examination system. b. Sharma. introduce graded curriculum. School Factors d. (2008). a.K.K. (2001).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Crescent Publishing Corporation. Familial Factors c.7. 9.N. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. (2007). a. Problems of Elementary Education. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations.1. Hemchand. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Social Factors 8. 3. New Delhi: 146 . Personal Factor b. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers.
126.96.36.199.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination 188.8.131.52.2.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.LESSON 3.5.2 Grade System 184.108.40.206 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 220.127.116.11 Problems of examination 3.3.7 Let us sum up 147 .5 New evaluation procedures 18.104.22.168.2 3.4 Question banks 22.214.171.124.5.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 126.96.36.199 Merits and demerits of examination 3.4.1 Advantages of Co-education 188.8.131.52.1 3.7 Open book examination 184.108.40.206 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.
2. Besides. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. 3. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.9 3. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.2. 3. 3. 3. 4.2. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. but on the other. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. suggest the new evaluation procedures.2.2.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .3. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.3. you will be able to: 1. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2.8 3.2.
2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. hostel facilities. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. They develop secondary sex characteristics. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. etc. 149 . which the educational authorities have to face. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner.2. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. waiting rooms for girl students. 3. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. schools for them wherever necessary. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. etc. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. If the students are in sufficient number. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. The following steps should be taken up. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. roadside Romeoism.3. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age.. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. They may cause problems relating to discipline. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. etc. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened.
2. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.2. public interested in education. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. With the mass growth of educational enterprise.4. the examination system has an important role to play. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. 3. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. Instruction. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. assessment and Finance. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. appointment of paper-setters. public administrators and statesmen. teachers. It is considered as a major sub-system. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 150 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. conduct of internal examinations. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.
Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance.4. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. scrutinizers. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. examiners. etc. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. etc. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . payment of remuneration to paper-setters. etc. tabulators.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom.printing and distribution of question papers.2. training of examiners. invigilators. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. establishing reliability. etc. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. etc. introducing objective-based testing. validity and practicability. announcement of results. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. 3. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. values.
it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. 152 . takes the place of comprehensive learning. 3) With respect to method of teaching. may also discredit them.. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. do not appeal to the students and parents. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. which they are expected to study.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education.. it s a common experience that subjectivity. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. 3. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. halo-effect.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested.. 2) From the angle of content of education. stereotyped questions.4. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. Vagaries in making. not meant to be assessed in the examinations.2. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. Subjects. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. lack of objectivity etc. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. 7) In connection with the question papers. Rote memorisation.
Question Books may be developed in all schools. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. 4. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Spot valuation. may be introduced. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. . Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.a part of internal assessment. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . 153 . Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. revaluation. re-numbering of answer scripts. List any two merits of examination.. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.develop true love for education. etc. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
Advantages More autonomy is given to students.3. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. The new scheme of assessment. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. In actual practice. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . Every paper is treated equal. When a person chooses to work extra. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.2. The students can take any course offered in any department. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. skills are given importance. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures.5.5.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. he is given extra credit points. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. In this system. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. 3. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. attitudes. Their interests. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. It is complicated. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.2.2.
v. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. The human error of evaluation is ± 10.poor. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development.discipline. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. This system reduces comparison of marks. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. 3. poor. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 .5. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. only the total credits to be earned is specified. In the new system. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. An example is a seminar. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. or as a 4 credit course.2. Groupism is encouraged. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. These weightages are called credits. courses can have weightages defined. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. While designing syllabus.good.
The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. 3. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.2. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. However. 3.5. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.5. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.2. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. 156 . This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. 3. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.2.
In the hierarchy. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . There are no proper procedures for selection. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.2. However. Therefore. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately.2. 6. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization.3. List any four new evaluation procedures.5. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . . and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. recruitment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.
When they are fully realised. 3. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. books are followed. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. wherever necessary. disciplinary problems. complaints and compliments. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is.. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number.. etc.2. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. being realised as two different functions. taking up the follow-up programmes. Academic inspection. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. submitting of the inspection reports. in contrast. interpersonal relationships and so on. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. inspecting the class-room teaching. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. finding out the adequacy of. 158 .6.qualified personnel. staff. in a sense. They are. school buildings. etc. requirements.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. qualifications. laboratory equipment. whether the syllabus has been covered. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. of late. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. playgrounds. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. 1. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. library books. finding out whether the prescribed text. assisting the schools in their qualitative development.
to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties.2. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose.Ed. or.. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. M. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. Similarly. In the light of these conceptualisation. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. In the case of departmental candidates. 159 .a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. courses. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. modern. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. Insistence on specialisation in the B. once in five years. aptitude. 3. course in either educational..Ed. their professional knowledge. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. at least. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments.
9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. b. 3. assessment and Finance. c. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. 3. 160 . Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Instruction.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System.2. 3. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. d.2. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. 3. 5. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Grade System. b. b. a.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Administration. 4.2. a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 3. a.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
Multiple sets of question paper. (2005). and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. S. New 161 . K. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. R and Sharma. Open book examinations. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. History and Problems of Education in India. a. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.4. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. c. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Vaidya. (2002). a. 5. 3. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.2. b. (2004). Oral and practical tests may be taken as .10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. K. Problems of Education in India. b. 7.a part of internal assessment. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Educational Reforms. a. b. Question banks.
Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.4 3.1 220.127.116.11 3.8 3.3. 162 . 3.10 3.3.9 3.3.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3.7 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.LESSON 3. identify the needs of rural India and social.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4.3. you will be able to: 1.2 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3. 3. 2. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.3 3. 5.5 3.3.3.
The Calcutta Madras.3. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. University Education. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . Consequent on the recommendations.3. 8 years of general education.g. 2. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Commission emphasised to continue. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Similar is the case with some other States. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States.e... e. etc. in Andhra Pradesh.. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. and 3 years of First Degree Course. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. i. 10 years of general Secondary Education. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.e. the Banaras Sanskrit College.specialisation programmes 3. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1.. The. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education.
2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.3. to prepare. 3. educational channels. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. historical. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. 5) to help for the social. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . However. economical and political. 5. 8.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. to imbibe. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. cultural and economic development of the country. 7. is also a plus point . it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. b. 6. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation.a sense of dignity of labour. social.confidence in students. and. 10. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. habits of hard work and develop . Provision for transfer of credits to students. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. who desire to change from one stream to another.
to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. 3. social justice. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. The General Educational Spectrum.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. Sociologically it is undesirable.3. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. and that required to enter the tertiary level.. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. 1.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. and. democratic living. cooperativeness. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. on one hand. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. cultural and' religious tolerance. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Psychologically. international understanding. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. etc. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . at the other. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only.national integration. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. Philosophically it is not the conception. to develop national character. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies.
chemistry. technological. rural health. educational and cultural services. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. medical plants. In the matter of language. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative.— tube-wells. the rural areas have suffered very much. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. Commerce and other disciplines. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. industrial agricultural production is growing. In our country. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. professional. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. 3. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. All these need for an. 166 . it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. fish culture. India is a land of villages. In the vocational spectrum. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. horticulture. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. such as Agriculture. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. and vocations based on dairy-farming. physics or mathematics.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. Biology. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. Agriculture is the main occupation. technical. vegetable growing.3. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. 2. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Science. commerce. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. commerce. or other machinery. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character.
Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. interests and aptitudes of the students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. etc.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this it may be concluded. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. There had been favourable reaction from the students. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all.. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. can be ensured.etc. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. In this way. In time. social justice. 4. and the needs. and 5. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . the local resources available. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? .
Calcutta University Commission 2. habits of hard work and develop . B. to imbibe.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : 168 .C. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. we studied the history. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. b. 3. (2007). S. 3.a sense of dignity of labour.3. Ltd. General Educational Spectrum and b. a. 3.3. (2001). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. objectives. a.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. 2.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.3. (2008). to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. J.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3. N. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2005). Dash. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3.K. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Mohanty. a. Anmol Publications Pvt. b. J. Vocational Sepctrum.3.
4.4.7 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.8 3.2 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4. Education contributes to human development.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.12 3.4. social and 169 . but the lighting of a fire”.4.4.LESSON 18.104.22.168 3.4.13 3.11 3.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 3.10 188.8.131.52.5 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.6 3.
a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. Teaching and Fine Arts. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. community and nation is universally acknowledged. Home Economics. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. although we have miles to go. Education . Dr. These courses were. In the post —independence period.higher education in particular.4. For the first time in the history of India.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. There is a close connection between education and development. you will be able to: 1. The relevance of women’s education to social. During the year 1937. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. 3. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5.4. 3. cultural and political development of the individual. While women constituted only 9. economic. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. family. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. analyze the women and distance education. higher education of girls developed immensely.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. particularly 170 . It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. Nursing.
0 Today.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.9 14.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.0 16.D. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. out of 9200 and odd colleges. Yet.2 29. we have more than 1200 institutions.0 43.0 32. Mumbai. levels and professions. 3. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. Even today. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.T Women University.1 24. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.4. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. Mother Teresa Women University. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.women.4. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.2 22. In 1950-51. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . Coimbatore. in our country. In the rest of the country.65 lakhs in 1994-95.9 27. 3. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.N. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.1 31. Kodaikanal. The idea of women’s education for equality.4.
D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.56 64.36 3.54 12.1 and 14. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.66 66. 3.4%) prefer Arts subjects.46 82.44 35. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1 respectively. 2.4.83 47.47 65. 3.73 10.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.53 34. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.that of boys. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.27 89. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .17 52.63 Female % 34.4.34 33. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .4.
Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. curriculum not suited to their requirements. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. and coeducation may spoil her character. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. distance of the college or university from home. Also. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. she will only learn fashion. In college. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. According to a survey. financial difficulty of the parents. They gave up their studies to enter home life. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. 173 . Thus. The major hurdles. particularly. what is the need for higher education for her. 3.4. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. marriage is a very common I factor. irrelevance of the content of education. promoted and increased. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. In every third family. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Book banks should be established. etc. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family.hinders the girls from getting higher education. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. They argue that when their daughter need not earn.
which is the most dynamic factor of development. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. It enables to study. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. is the only tool for realising empowerment.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. There are constraints of time. and the limitations of the conventional education system. It is a productive investment. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. space.economic disabilities faced by women. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. It also brings about 174 .4. 3.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face.4. resources and socio . Empowerment in a nutshell. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. Education. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. Full-time employment. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Distance education is a boon to women. 3. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. Geographic distance of educational institutions.
The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. for full development of our human resources. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. higher learning. 3. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. on their own. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. Empowerment is an active.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. education of women must be given priority in national plans. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. legal awareness and economic independence. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . empowerment means being assertive. Women are partners in development.4. This can be achieved through reflection. education of women is of paramount importance. The major objectives of women's higher education. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future.
The local administration.4.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. will encourage them to venture new grounds. which is pending for a long time. Reservation for women. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. 176 . Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. who are eager to take up courses. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. 3. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. has to be implemented at the earliest. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Scholarships and concessions for women. The educational institutions. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. especially so in the developing countries. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Better opportunities.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. But their number is small. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. which had been the sole domain of men.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1%) and architecture and building (38. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.000 women in the country. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. talents. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . capacities etc.. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. especially in developing countries like African countries.3 percent. IDP Education. Also. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Chief Executive. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. According to Lindy Hyam. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management.9%). they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.4. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. But.8%). although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). engineering and related technologies (16. Australia.
14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Women Education. Coimbatore. and Suryalatha. Women and Education. 3. 2. create the right attitude towards life. SNDT Women’s University. Kodaikanal.4.4. SNDT Women’s University.4. A. (2005).13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. 178 . impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. Centre for Women’s Studies. 4. individuals and society b. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. 3. Annakodi. Rajasthan 5. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. (2000). S. (2008). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. R. R. Coimbatore. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. R. A. Mother Teresa Women University. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication.C. (2007). Women Education.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.to the family. 43% 6. and Swain.R. Mumbai. Rao. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. 4. S. a. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Mishra.K. Mumbai. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. 3. Pattanaikj. community and the nation.
5. whole.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.9 3.8 3.5.10 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.11 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.6 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 3.LESSON 3.5.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5.personality of children in and out of school.1 3.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.4 3.7 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.3 3.5 184.108.40.206 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. They should be trained.5.5.5.
The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. you will be able to: 1. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. social and emotional integration. know the pre service and in service training facilities. 180 . enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. 4. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. 5. Lack of physical facilities. Shorter working hours. international. Dearth of new technology of teaching.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. equality and justice. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. 3. understand the training teachers for Primary. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. 3. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has.5.5. national consciousness. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. understanding and strong desire for international peace. and national character.
Inadequate training in practical skills. the state Government. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years .Less qualified teacher educators.. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . the centre. who have not been trained earlier. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service.Ed. a Diploma course and a Degree course. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. it is called the Extension teacher Education. inservice and extension education programmes. students. and the collegiate teacher education. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. it is called the In-service teacher education. the secondary teacher education. If the student teachers are working teachers. Lop-sided curriculum. Depending on the levels. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. 3.5. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. 3.5.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. At the diploma level. and M. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. levels. (NCERT) New Delhi.. the primary teacher education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors.Ed. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. higher secondary teacher education. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. etc. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers.
etc. non-formal.. 3. extensio n service. Education cells.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. depart ments etc. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Science Education units. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Evaluation unit. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. state Institutes of Educat ion.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Expand NCERT 2. collegiate cells. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Educational teehnology cells. are established.5. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Also Guidance Bureaux.
the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training .Ed. to prescribe conditions for recognition. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. which help breaking isolation from one another . despite its vast expansion.. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. to offer consultative services. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. audio visual aids. and 183 . primary and secondary school teachers. and so on. should be improved on a top priority basis. material conditions relating to libraries. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. to ensure teacher competence.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre.. degree.. to improve curricular programmes. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. schools and sister institutions.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department.Ed. which should include experience in the primary schools too. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. laboratories. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life.
With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. methodology and evaluation. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. whether they should have professional education or. Induction Courses. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. Organisation of Content Courses. and XII. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. not came up once again. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . etc. though no pre-service training. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. 184 . which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Hence. Agriculture. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Modern Methods of Evaluation. The problem. Workshops. Psychology of Students. etc. To meet this exigency.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively.secondary education. Meanwhile. Modern Techniques of Teaching.
Ed. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.. Degree and M. Pre-service training is for those.Ed.Ed. State Institutes of Education... These facilities are available for regular students. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. Post-Graduates also undergo B. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. training.’s for Ph. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.Ed. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.. (Education) are organized by 185 . courses and M.Ed. M.Ed.5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (Education) and M. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.’s are elig ible for M. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Degree.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. 3. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. For re-orienting the teachers. Ajmer. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented..S..A. All B Ed. Courses leading to B.D. in Education. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .A. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.
5. 6. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession.).8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.A. they should be conscientious . 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . established by tradition and teachers of the past. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. 186 . .. (Ed. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence the employability of M. However. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.List any two code of conduct for teachers? .. (Ed). 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . What is the role of ERIC? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. and B. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession.A. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. 3. of conduct—written or unwritten.
Shorter working hours. 4. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Bhopal. 5.5. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. Ajmer. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. b. b. 4. 187 .3.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful.5. Dearth of new technology of teaching.5. 2.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. However. 3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the problems of teacher education. 3. a. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. The necessity is however this. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. 3. a. 6. they should be conscientious. National Council of Educational Research and Training. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 3. Explain code of conduct for teachers. 2.
New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. P. (2010). (2009). Corporation. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . Teacher Education. Ltd Aggarwal. Mohanty.D. and Teacher Education. Teacher Education.3. Tewari. J.N. (2003). A.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. Publication Pvt.5. B.
UNIT – IV 189 .
The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. common ailments of children. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. Since food is the source of nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. In lesson 1.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. The person’s environment is equally important. communicable diseases and their prevention. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. the focus is on the school health programmes. objectives and role of the physical education. In lesson 4. preservation of nutrients. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. nutritional deficiency diseases. 191 . objectives. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. objectives. If the diet is poor. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. economic and educational developments.
7 4.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.1.4 4. mental. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. emotional and social. physical. It is a miniature society. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.e.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.10 4.1 4.9 220.127.116.11.1.6 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community. 193 .2 4.5 4.1.LESSON 4.11 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1.8 4.3 4.1.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody.
describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 6. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. 3. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 194 .School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. you will be able to: 1. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 10. e. To develop certain skills concerning health. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases..3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1.1. To develop healthy health habits among children. 11. know the need for sex education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 9. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner.g. To give information regarding health rules. training of teachers and evaluation. 5. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. training in first aid and etc. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. content of health education. 4. 4. list the common ailments of children 3. 2. to his family and to the community at large. explain the importance of First aid 5. 7. Instruction. cleanliness and healthful living. understand school health programmes 2. 8. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. 4.
The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. Arranging better transportation facilities. proper doors and windows. (viii) first aid. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. There should be good drainage facilities. ( iii) sanit at io n. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. is imperative. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. Vaccination for small pox. B. Triple Antigen Vaccination. minimizing the travelling distance. The surroundings of schools should be clean. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. 2.. cleanliness weeks. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body.4. inoculation against cholera. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 .. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. etc. organisation of school health days. “Play-for-all” programmes. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. excusing late. as described below 1. 5. 2.coming or absence. The flooring should not be damp. (ii) communit y healt h. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. vaccination. (v) safety education. The school buildings should be spacious. direct lighting. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. B. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. 3. typhoid. (xii) smoking education etc.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A.1. (vi) nutrition education. suitable furniture. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. play festivals. First aid facilities should be made readily available. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. There should be regular water supply. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. (xl) mental health. 4.G. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided.C. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs.
They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. bleeding. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Find out the cases. poisons. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. 196 . if epidemic is wide-spread. burns. D. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. dislocations. fainting (epileptic fit).. • Have adequate rest and sleep. isolate and notify.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. scalds. cuts. insect stings. • Keep all rooms clean. etc. drowning. • Take nutritious food. wounds. fractures. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. and other accidents. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. sports and games in the interest of their health. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. C. • When sleeping in groups. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Close the schools.
6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. tuberculosis. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. There are three stages in any communicable disease. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Once these germs get into the body. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. measles etc. asthma. polio. headache.1. water or bodily contact. fever. which are – cold. 2. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. cough. They have less resistence to diseases than adults.1. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the Health curriculum 3. These diseases are called communicable diseases. So they easily get illnesses. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. They are: i) The incubation stage. 4. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. backache.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. chicken pox. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. Mention the school health programmes. 4. pain in the joints. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • .. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years.
Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. cough and fever. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Common Cold . Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. unhygienic living conditions. eating food which is not clean. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Mumps . This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. 198 . There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. The child may have fever. head-ache and cough. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. The symptoms include cold.When a child suffers from scabies. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Others make the children very weak. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. etc. The virus is present in the secretions of throat.It is caused by measles virus. Hence it is called a killer disease. Measles . The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. This is caused by cold virus. Diarrhoea . Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children.This disease is caused by bacteria. Scabies . In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. unhygienic bottle feeding. The following are the common communicable diseases. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Throat is affected. Some suffer cold due to allergy. sugar and water. Tonsilitis . One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Ear Infections . Hence liquid diet is recommended. After three or four days of fever.
Expand DPT . The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. If proper treatment is not given. the child may die.• • • • Chicken Pox .This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. The child may also have diarrhoea. Diphtheria . the child is not able to breathe. What are communicable diseases? 6.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. separate. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. As the disease progresses. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. 199 . It begins with fever. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. By scratching he causes secondary infections. Shortly. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Typhoid . face and waist. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. raised pink spots appear on head. Enlist the common ailments of children.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism.
It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Drowning .Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts.g. In such cases.1.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. fainting. fiction. head injury.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. 200 . first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. 4. it is a subject of art. It has its rightful place in education too. wounds. bleeding. Sprains . It is both biological and psychological. swelling. sprains. bruises. eye injury. snakebites. Sex is popular. 5.1. scorpion stings. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work.4. etc. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. 2. drowning. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. dislocation. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. Cuts and Bruises . Wounds . Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. and Community Work and Social Service.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. cuts. man-woman behaviours. so-called sex books and periodicals. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. exciting and body-oriented. sprains. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. 4. 3. and films. films and jokes. simple fractures.
Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. And here is where some protests would be inevitable.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. In today's liberal and interactive society. In secondary schools. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. B. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. The values of life. in their ignorance. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. they would be treading the path of sure doom. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. sex education is being recommended in schools. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. 3. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. try experimenting with their bodies.. Hence.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. the religious organisations. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. the school. celibacy are age. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. but preserve them from disaster and disease. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. Should the boys and girls. 2. The home.old values. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . health.
If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme.1. 4. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. first aid and sex education. What are the major components of Sex Education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. common ailments of children. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. communicable diseases and their prevention. when the courses are already overloaded. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 202 . Teacher education institutions are.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. there will no crisis in its implementation. hence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. C. the school health programmes. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 18.104.22.168 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Rickets is the deficiency of 5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention the food nutrients 2. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. 209 . Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4.
But how do we select these foods? The major aim.2. 210 . E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients.2. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. If you look at the definition carefully. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Let us talk about each of these aspects. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .4. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. minerals. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods.
a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. for example. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. sex. the social and religious practices of that region. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. There is no point.g. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). 4. it is also specific to a given activity level . This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. People in the east of our country prefer rice. Preferences/customs are also important.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier.one in the morning and the other at night. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age.g. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. construction labourer). to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. dosa are typical of the south. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. paratha and poori. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. In the case of adults. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. In other words.2. These are: region where the person resides and income. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. moderate or heavy work.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . Even within given States there is considerable variation. activity level and physiological stress.sedentary.6. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. A balanced diet is specific firstly. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal.
Judicious selection of food is. nuts and dry fruits. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. However. These determine the acceptability of foods.planning the diet. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. while another may hate them. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. Including these 212 . These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. As income increases. taboos related to food may play an important role. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. One person may be fond of milk products. fat and sugar tend to increase. If you think of your own religious group. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. Among the social factors. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. however. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Having more money. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. In addition to these. One must. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. for example. income plays a vital role. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. as important for the rich as for the poor. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Even among flesh foods. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. vegetables and fruits. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. however. however. As you read this discussion. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. customs. Balanced diets should also be income-specific.
Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. meat. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. 17. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. For this. mouth. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. if the teachers have good food habits. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Define balanced diet. 8) Walk a while after eating. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too.eating is hazardous. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. eggs . Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. green leaves. 213 . 8. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. over-eating or under. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. etc. fruits. List out any two healthy food habits. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. but they should be thrown away.
Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Discuss good food habits. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Beri Beri 4. a. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. 4. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2.2. Vitamin D 5. 4. Bitot’s spots. good nutrition is essential for good health.2. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. e. Explain food nutrients 4. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Corneal xerosis.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Conjuctival xerosis. c. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. In fact. b. preservation of nutrients. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Keratomalacia 3.2. d. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Night blindness. When the diet is inadequate. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits.4.
vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.M. (2005). Health and Nutrition Education.6. 8. minerals. Chopra. Food should be consumed after eating well. Nutrition Science. S. mouth. b. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. (2008). Sri Lakshmi B. (2004). 7. Hands.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. a. Food and Nutrition Education.N. b. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . Food and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. a . A Text Book of Foods. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. (2009). Nutrition and Dietetics. P. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s .2. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. R.C. (2008). R. 4. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s.
3.7 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.12 4.3.3. 216 .3 4.9 4.3 Impact on Education 22.214.171.124.13 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.11 4.1 4.LESSON 4.3.1 Impact on social development 4.3.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3.5 126.96.36.199.4 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.6.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.2 4.8 4.10 4.
correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. aims at providing the younger generation. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood.3. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation.4. community.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. state the meaning. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. characteristics and changes for himself. understand the importance of small family norm 5. population characteristics. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. his family. therefore. economic and educational development 3.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. and the consequences of these processes. It is not sex education. It is a much wider co ncept.3. the causes of population change. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. Population Education. describe the impact of population growth on social. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. 217 . the stress is. There is some difference.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. 4. his societ y and the world. family planning and sex education etc. Whenever we talk of sex education. 4. objectives and need for population education 2.3.
3. the society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. List out any two objectives of Population Education.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. the nation and the world. 4.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . the family. Define Population Education 2.4.
Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.3. Every second two thousand children are being born.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. the family programmes are also handicapped. Family is considered as a social unit. 4. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. With the larger families. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. 4. When the family is small. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom.3. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion.6. 219 . economic and educational development of the country. health and happiness of its citizens. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. which will not be possible without population control. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems.
in cinema halls and theatres. teacher index. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. 4. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. heavy intern I migration etc. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. toilets. in parks and other places of public gatherings. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. organization index and material index. in buses and trains.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.3. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. 220 . pollution of the environment.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. unemployment. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’.. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. In developing countries. 4. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. Swollen cities. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. The gulf between them is widening further.6. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.6. i. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.3.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. Many students herded in a small room. lack of proper health care.e.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. and so on. facility for drinking water.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. blank verses etc. 221 .7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners.. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. even text books would be in short supply. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Social Studies Statistics on population education. There would be poor library facilities. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. family planning etc. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. less budget for education. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. There would be very few audiovisual aids. thus. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. Regional Language. Hindi and English. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. reproduction. can be taken up. can be studied in science and health education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. less space facilities. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. essays. and laboratory equipments. bar graphs etc.
2. deaths. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Bihar. 10. West Bengal. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. causes of deaths etc. 8. 3. Brazil. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 14. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Canada. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. area and average density of population. 9. 7. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times.4. Uttar Pradesh. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. 4. 15.3. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Children may compare two families. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 12. 13. 11. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Children with the help of parents. United States of America. China. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. 5.
Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. The question. we have no right to stop 223 . 18. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish.3. age at marriage. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. 17.be opened in their schools.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Comparing life in various respects in two families. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. values and role children etc. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. preferences for sex. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. 16. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife.
Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. which education can only do. More than 45 years ago. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. however. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. on an overall basis. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. at varying places in different regions.. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.their entry into the world”. Since the program's inception.to emphasize family planning services. and the child survival components of the news: program. should be overcome at the intellectual levels.4-6.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. especially the expansion of child immunization services .10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.3. The Family Welfare Program.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. “He who is responsible for population growth. continued . 4.were implemented 224 . In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.
These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. In October 1997. Local programs vary in their approaches. reliance on local women as community health workers. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. a focus on health promotion. and nominal fees for services. Moreover. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. and the World Conference on Women. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. expansion of services to unmarried women.earlier than the safe motherhood components. the community appears willing to pay for services. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. In April 1996. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. Therefore. At these meetings. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . men.
12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. community. 226 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Describe the impact of population growth on social. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. nation and the world.emphasizing the needs of the client.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. economic and educational development 4. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. 1997). 4. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum.3.3. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. 3. Its main purposes are to create awareness. What are the goals of RCH? 4. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. family. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. involving the community.
his family.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the causes of population change. b. 5. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Brazil. 7. a. 3. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. a. less space facilities.4. United States of America. less budget for education. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. his society and the world. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. and the consequences of these processes. China.3. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. bar graphs. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. 227 . area and average density of population. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union.” 2. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. 6. population characteristics. a. b. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Canada. characteristics and changes for himself. 4. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff.
K.4. 228 . Kantikar. Reddy. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. V. T. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Ltd. Modern Problems of Education. (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (1992). (2002). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Changing attitudes to Education in India. A. (2005). Jayapoorni. N.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Ltd.3. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Centre for Women’s Studies. J. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Principles of Population Studies. (2004). Bhende. Udaiveer. Coimbatore. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women.
220.127.116.11.4.4 Lead up games 4.10 4.11 18.104.22.168.4.9 4.5 22.214.171.124.4 4.7 4.3 Indigenous games 4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .6 4.1 Minor games 126.96.36.199 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.2 4.4.1 4.3 4.4.4.LESSON 4.2 Major games 4.4.
A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities.4. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. leadership and balance in defect. 4.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. full records of physical activities should be maintained. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education.4. the youth of the country. which forms its most valuable assets. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. perseverance. understand the importance of Physical Education 4.4. as it should 230 . The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education.4. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. classify the different types of games. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. you will be able to: 1. The concept of physical education has been made broader. mental alertness. 4. social fitness. team spirit. moral fitness and emotional fitness.
The educational efforts at home. They are inseparably united together. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. To be more precise. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . They go hand in hand. Therefore. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. leadership. Every individual is a part of society. obedience to rules. team spirit. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency.
4. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. H. game and sports.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. Regarding the significance of physical education. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. mo ral. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field.” The Secondary Education Commission. a sound health. ment al. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. Physical exercises.4. Just like Education. C. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. pleasing manners. nor body but the whole man.” Montaigue writes.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. Buck has observed that 232 . Rousseau states. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side.
233 . etc.” In brief. elegance. resourcefulness and smartness. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. happiness.a properly directed physical education should result in health. we must exercise the whole human being.4. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. initiative. speed. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. coordinative abilities.” 4. endurance. “If we wish to develop the whole being. Froebel says. flexibility and power.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. efficiency and character. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. strength.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent.
Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Every age has its artists. in greater or lesser degree. 234 (i) (ii) . including all racial groups and historical ages. should help in the spiritual development of the student. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. they may form gangs.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. plagues and famines. these fundamental things have always been present. While wars. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. poetry and painting. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. systems of government. If no opportunity is provided to the students. its adherents and its enemies.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. to develop tolerance. etc. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. bravery and interest in games and sports. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. respect for rules.\ to develop perseverance. Write any two importance of Physical Education. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . 3. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit.sacrifice. self. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. 2. 235 . obedience. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. B.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements.
Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Be well-prepared.H. 11. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 10. 8. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 6. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. defects. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Inform health principles. 236 1.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases.4. 5. Be sportive. and readmission after they have recovered. 7. Always keep the whistle ready. Act as a leader. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Be self-confident.4. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 13. 14. and. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. 4.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 15. Usually parents. . Posture screening should be done. 9. 12. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Be punctual. 3. Be in the uniform. 2. 16. 4. Haag.4. is essential. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Keep the field ready for the activities. injuries among pupils should be made. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. students.
Such inst incts as imitation. less equipment and less expense. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. As such they are well enjoyed by children. 3. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. frolic and jo y.4. Lead up games. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. chasing. 2. 1. 4. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.4. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. 237 . 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Indigenous games. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. the play.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls.8. their development is handicapped. Moreover. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. 4.
leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. The dimension of the posts and nets. women take part most of the games. Except a few games. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. For each game the rules are many. over ball pass Relay. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. under ball pass Relay. on mountain tops and on river beds. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Cricket. These games require varied skills such as running. Tennikoit. the games can be modified according to convenience. finding the partner. on hard courts. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children.4. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Shuttle Badminton. They are rules approved by the International Associations. the number of players and substitutes. spiking. While many of them are played in the open playfields. 238 . Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. with implements or without implements. They are played for a shorter duration. couple tag. trapping. hitting. Ball Badminton. Volley Ball. zig zag relay. skipping. Jump the stick clay and so on. some of them are played indoors. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. dribbling. muffling. on sea-shore. driving. Soft Ball. benefit in playing minor games. snatching the kerchief. On lawns. Jumping. wherever the kids assemble. Hockey. 4. Basket Ball. Khokho.With a very few rules. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Tennis. boosting.8. Dodging. pitching. heading. Throwing.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. the play equipment. catching.. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. stopping. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. bowling etc. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. Hopping. Kabaddy etc.
Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. death. these games being popular. They have an abundant social value. On occasions like marriage. and . These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil.4.8. All the fundamental tactics. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. List out some major games. An example for indigenous game is 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.4. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. festivals connected with religion and public functions. For example. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. Games may be classified as 6. While observing the players in action. 4. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. birth. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.4. they are in existence. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game.8. Kho-kho. 7. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball.
It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. to secure physical health b. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.4. b. a. 2. b. 4. to develop physical stamina.4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual.4. 4. 4. b. 4. a. 5. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. Minor and Major 240 . 2. 3. aims and objectives and need of physical education. a.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. 3. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. d. a. Posture screening should be done. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. c.
Basket Ball. (2008). Aggarwal. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K. Tennikoit. Shuttle Badminton. Soft Ball.C. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Hockey. Kabaddy 7. Foot-ball. (2005). Khokho 8. Khokho. 4. Ball Badminton. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.6. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Cricket. G.4. J. (2009). Tennis. J. Ltd. Handbook of Physical Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Mohanty.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Volley Ball. 241 . (2008). Krishna murthy. Physical Education and Sports. Health.
11 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.5.7 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.3 4.5.2 Manmade Environment 188.8.131.52. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.1 4.5.LESSON 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11.6 4.4 4.8 18.104.22.168 4.1 Natural Environment 4.5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.10 4.
5.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Awareness.5. Details are given below: I. Knowledge. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. education about the environment and education through the environment. Evaluation Ability.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. population explosion and resource depletion could be. 4. social. political. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. The best place to start such learning is school. role of teacher in environmental conservation. list out the types of environment 3. 4. Attitude. Participation. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. it covers the following elements: 1. economic. Broadly. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. aesthetic and educational factors.educat ion for the environment. 6. 5. Skills. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. 4. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. you will able to: 1. 3. 2. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Essential knowledge about the Environment.5. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 243 .
a. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. F. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. 244 . Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. 2.B. D. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. • Biological magnification E. Oxidants Other pollutants. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation.
Abortion iv. Persuasion: i. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. The pill ii. Intrauterine device iii. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. 2. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1.3. Family planning ii. 3. Socio-economic measures. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. 4. Sterilisation. The human ecosystem II. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Birth control through education b. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Control of population growth a. Use of medical science i. 2. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. c. B. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. economic. III.
246 .b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 3. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Water pollution abatement. 1983). 2. Air pollution abatement ii. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (UNESCO. Define Environmental Education. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. e) Recycling.
(3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .5. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. b.5. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. Biological environment The biological environment. to his needs. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. Any constituent or condition of the environment. includes the plants. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. A change in one brings about a change in the other. -other.5. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.other components of the environment. telex. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.5. way is called environmental or ecological factor. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. a.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. They interact with each.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. fax agricultural apparatus. animals and other organisms (biotic). 4.5. These are biotic components.4.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.5. He modifies according”.
preserving the watersheds. are the topics which may be taught in History. food chain and food-web. etc. population. etc. nuclear energy. balance of nature. evolution.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. effects. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. relation between population and pollution. supplying timber for various uses.. explosion deforestation. nuclear warfare. ozone depletion. noise pollution. sources of pollut ion. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. desertification 248 . alternate sources of energy. water scarcity. sources. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. use of medicinal plants. effects o f CFC. over exploitation of ground water. role of trees in building economy. excellent recreation sites. of civilizations. change in climate may be added. natural way of controlling pests. t heir role in preventing pollution. greenhouse effect. maintaining the ecological diversity. noise control. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. industrial survey. biogas plants. reasons. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. preventing siltation of dams. extinction of species. use of pesticides. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . solar cookers. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. social studies. need for conservation. (ii) Air pollution. river systems. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. mineral survey. industrial pollut io n. ozone layer deplet ion. air pollutants from industries. windmills. acid rain. need for bio-diversity. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. History The rise and fall. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. wars and hazards of war. importance of nitrogen cycle. trees reducing noise pollution.
group discussions and seminars. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. 13. Developing awareness about environmental issues.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Organising conferences. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. 10. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 2. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Providing. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. aims and scope. 11. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 6. 7. 4. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 3. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. animal and plants. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 249 .5. 9. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 14. 12. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs.may be inc ded in Geography. 5. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Peepal and Tulsi. 4. 8.
Send their waste oil. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. especially plastics. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Use public transport wherever it is possible. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. 5. World Environmental falls on 250 . and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. 6. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Reuse carrier bags. Don’t burn any waste. it will cause pollution. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Never put any left over chemicals. all these can cause serious pollution. If it is done. used oils down the drain.
Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. To provide materials needed for practical work. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. potable water.. and 251 .8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. diversity and stability. etc. nuclear wars. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. values and habits. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. Concern for species. depletion of ozone. loss of bio-diversity. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. rather than conquest and mastery. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. CFCs.mat erials. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. Att itudes of balance towards nature. To arrange visits or expeditions. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. Harmony with the nature . To arrange for visiting speakers. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Social responsibilit y (common good. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. dest roying nat ural habitats. (cleanliness. Conservation of natural resources. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . viz.5. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. deforestation. orderliness and beauty). developing desirable attitudes. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions.). To discuss the approach to problems or topics.4. etc. concern for others). The groups may exchange.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5.5. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. 4. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. preserving natural cycles.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. 252 . 8.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.
New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. explosion deforestation. air pollutants from industries. relat ion between population and pollution. (1997). 5. Knowledge. New Delhi : Sharma. S. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. over exploitation of ground water. T. (ii) Air pollution. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 4. June 5 7. Environmental Education. Ltd. (2007). Awareness.K.2. Ltd. reasons.. Anmol Publications Pvt. Providing. Environment and Human Rights. a. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . 6. Kuldeep. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. a. Y. ozone layer deplet ion. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. 3. population. To provide materials needed for practical work. (2007). effects. Publications Pvt. sources of pollution. a. Education for values.K. concern for others). water scarcity. New Delhi : Authors Press. Udaiveer. 8.\ 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Nanda. Organising conferences.K. b. Modern Problems of Education. importance of nitrogen cycle. S. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Social responsibilit y (common good. (2004). greenhouse effect. acid rain. Rapid population growth. b. sources. new problems from science and technology. To provide reference materials for children’s use.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu.5. group discussions and seminars. b. a.K. b. Environmental Education.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 22.214.171.124 Idealism and aims of Education 126.96.36.199 Idealism and Curriculum 188.8.131.52 Idealism and methods of teaching 184.108.40.206 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and aims of Education 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and Curriculum 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and methods of teaching 126.96.36.199 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 188.8.131.52 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
184.108.40.206 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 220.127.116.11 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
enrichment and transmission of culture. should be universal in nature. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. According to Rusk'. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. the emancipation of spirit. inviolable and hence holy life” In short.3. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality.our life. Universal Education. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. It is self-realisation. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. Education according to idealism. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. Spiritual Development.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. moral.1. Education must contribute to development of culture. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. in fact. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. The universe is regarded as a thought process. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Therefore. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. man is essentially a moral being.” 5.
affecting (feeling). He sets the environment in which education takes place. subjects like Languages. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. Learning through lecturing. and collation (striving) should find due place. According to idealism. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Herbert advocated instruction method. so subjects like Religion. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. It considers teacher as. Learning through discussion. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Mathematics etc.3. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. According to Frobel. For this no particular method has been suggested. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. So cognition (knowing). no doubt. Ethics. 4. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.the spiritual qualities of mankind.1. the school is a garden. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . The plant can grow. hygiene. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. 2. Philosophy. friend and guide.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching.” He is thus. should be there. So he should embody.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. So health. 5. Learning through reading. a spiritual guide for the child. However.3. Learning through imitation.1. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. Science. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. 5. He carries the child from darkness to light. Learning through questioning. History. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. an indispensable necessity.” 5. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. 3. For intellectual development.
Perfection of Human Machine.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.1. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. Ross explains. formal lessons or examinations. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.perfection and beauty.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.preservation. In the words of Ross. 2. text books.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5.4. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. time tables. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. 5. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. "Education should make 263 • . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1. curricula.
2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Education should. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. “Education finds its purpose.4. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Botany etc Language. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. It is based on the psychology of the child. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Naturalistic curriculum. Arithmetic. 4.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. useful and mature child. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. is based on the nature of the child. • 5. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Chemistry. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Biology.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. rational harmoniously balanced. 264 . It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. It stresses basic sciences. education should develop the child into Joyous. There is no place for religious and moral education. subjects like history. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. In all. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Zoology. Literature. therefore.1. Therefore. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development.1.1.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Learning by doing. a supplier of materials and opportunities. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Heuristic method.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. It discards all rigid. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. 5. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Learning through experience. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. 2. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.1.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. Rousseau says. a provider of an ideal environment.4. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. 5. 3.4. Dalton Plan. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. In the . and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the stage. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching.5. Learning through observation. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. he should be taught by experience alone.
of human personality is in terms of his physical. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously.1. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Geography. social and moral aspects. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. History.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. 5. Social Science. Vocational and 266 .absolutism of idealism. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Physical training. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. All Round Development of an Individual. Agriculture.1. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Sciences. is true. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements.5. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience.5. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. The aim of educational development. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. intellectual. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. 5. Personal Social Adjustment. Continuous Growth. diversified and flexible. Subjects. Social Efficiency. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. The individual has not only to adjust himself.
a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy.1. alert and resourceful. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.1. Learning by Doing. He must be trained. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom.” 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. a teacher occupies an important position. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.5. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.Technical Education.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. In different situations he remains a friend and helper.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. a senior partner and a sincere guide. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism.5. The subjects. 5. He has to be active. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. activities and experience should be integrated properly. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. should find proper place.
6. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. rich and happy. 2.6. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 4. 2. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. History. Music and Dance. Education is preparation for a complete living. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. specific. intellectual. Biology. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Biography Philosophy. practical. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. 5. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Crafts. Satisfaction of individual and social needs.1. 3. scientific and psychological education. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. 5. Population Education.1. 3. Psychology. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. 4.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1.1. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Literature. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Chemistry. Art. Astrology.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. 5. Study of Subjects like Language. liberal. literary or humanistic education. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Mathematics. Sex Education. It favours child-centered.5.
6. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .1.1. certainly and clearly. easily and pleasantly.5.
5. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2.1. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Learning through experience b. a. naturalism. pragmatism and realism. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4.1. Learning through reading. d. Social Science.1. Learning through lecturing. Languages. Geography. in this lesson. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Sciences. 3. Vocational and Technical Education. e. has no end other than growth. 5. Agriculture. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. a. c. Self Realisation b. 5. Tours / Excursion e. Learning through imitation. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.7 LET US SUM UP We have. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 6. Learning through questioning. b. Learning through discussion. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Physical training. Child centered c. & curriculum. Experimentation d. Universal Education 2. 5. Education according to pragmatism. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Rousseau 5. History. a. Self preservation & Self expression 4.
N. (2003). Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. (2007). L.P. Pahuja.1. (2004). Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. of Pathak.H.P. New Delhi : Bhatia.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 271 . Theory and Principles of Education. O. Publishing corporation. P. Ltd. New Delhi : A. K. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). R. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Foundations of Education.5. P.
18.104.22.168 Methods of teaching 272 .2.1 5.4.3 Methods of Teaching 5.3.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.22.214.171.124 Views about teacher 5.4.1 Aims of Education 5.2.2 126.96.36.199 Curriculum 5.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2 Curriculum 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 188.8.131.52 Views about teacher 5.3.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.3.3 Methods of teaching 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.1 Aims of Education 184.108.40.206.2.2.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2.3.LESSON 220.127.116.11.3.2.
Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. 273 . an artist.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.7 5. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.2. content and methods. 2. 5.4 Role of the teacher 5. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. Gandhiji was primarily a social.6 5. Tagore was a poet. 5. mind and spirit.2.2.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. 3.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.8 5.2.2. you will able to: 1.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.2. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.2. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.5. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. economic and political reconstruction in our country.
intellectual and physical faculties of the children. mind and soul of children He further observed. self-restraint and service of humanity. It really provides opportunity for character building. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. through life and for life. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour.supporting. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. 5. it is education of life. strength of mind. 274 .3. righteousness. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. "I attach more. nor the gross animals body.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education." Dignity of Labour. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.2. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. In the words of Gandhiji. 'Man is neither mere intellect. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. His scheme of education is life centred.
According to Gandhi.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. gardening.3. Drawing and Hindustani. "Development of the moral character. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving.Training for Leadership. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. Mother-tongue. General Sciences. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Music. Only good individual forms a better society. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Individual and Social Aims. wood work. Art.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. leather work have been suggested. development of the whole all were directed: towards. metal work. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. 5.2. the realization of the ultimate reality.
3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Basic education is other wise known as 4. proficient. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. men of 276 . What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.trained. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.18.104.22.168. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.
Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST.3. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . That is why. Education must be child centered. He also advocates freedom for the child. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. 3. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. 5.knowledge. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says.
Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.” Like all other ideals.4.2.2. He was a true patriot. • Education should involve manual work. He believed in the oneness of humanity.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. • Ideal of citizenship. 5. He was deadly against untouchability.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.3. 5. he was a true Vedantist 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. • Cult of non-violence. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.K. Gandhi in 1937. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.2.
" The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. International understanding. 279 . Botany. Music. complete manhood could be attained. Therefore. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. It should help the learner have good physique. the more dedicated and devoted. (vi) Philosophy. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. wider in range. he said. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Civics. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. could help in forging unity among all. Zoology. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. them solve problems of day to day life. Religion and Psychology. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. International Understanding. Purposeful and Meaningful Education.4.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. deeper in.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Geography. "Mankind must realise a unity. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. That way only. Tagore said. Dance. sentiment.2. etc.Language and Literature . It should help. stronger in power than ever before. Chemistry. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge.
Only a good learner can be a good teacher. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.2. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.4.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. 280 . 5. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. Tagore rightly says. 5.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. Activity Method Heuristic Method. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.” He further says. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.2. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.4. In 1921.2. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal." 5.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.4.
atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. It is open to all irrespective of country. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. 9. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. 281 . What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. race. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10.g. 10.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2.
Education should make a person self-reliant. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.5. Purity of thought. Book learning.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Freedom. 3. work and deeds come out of it. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. He believed in to learning or selflearning. According to him.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Concept of Education." He was against the theoretical type of education. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Education for strong Moral Character. character forming and assimilation of ideas. 4. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Education for Self-realization. man making.” 5. Education for Self-reliance.2. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building.2. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. 2. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 .5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace.5.
2. Of course. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one.5. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. That will serve the purpose of education fully. Secondly he wanted Science. Education for Physical Development. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion.5. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. Religion.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Discussion Method.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. Every individual should be trained for concentration. And above all. A physically strong person is the need of the society.5. engineering and technical subjects. 283 . 5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. 6. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.the learners on different students in the discussion.5.2. Swami.2. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. philosopher and guide to the students He. Thirdly he wished that games. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. The teacher should be the facilitator. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Philosophy and Theology. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. 5. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. 5.
curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. ears and eyes.Substantiate your answer.2. 12. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man.2. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. Their educational ideas.6 LET US SUM UP We have. 3.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. 5. Write short notes on Basic education. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. Gandhiji as a Idealist. 284 . legs. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. of course. in this lesson. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. We have seen that Tagore. and pragmatist . naturalist. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. 5.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda.
a.2. Basic education. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 5. Nai Talim 4. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Ideal of citizenship. Activity Method d. a. Learning by Doing c. Education should involve manual work. c. 1937 7. Technique of Correlation 6. 5. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Self-Study b. 5. 10. wood work. Debate and Discussion Method.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. gardening. b. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Discussion Method 285 . a. d. 11. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. f. Cult of non-violence.4. 9. e. Self realization. c. Heuristic Method. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. 2. Explain Vishwabharathi. Teaching while Walking b. leather work have been suggested. 3. a. Activity Method b. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. 8. metal work. Meditation and concentration c.
O. Foundations of Education.5. Ltd. L. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. C.2. (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. P. Dhiman. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. K and Narang C. N. Pahuja.H. (2003).P. New Delhi : Aggarwal. New Delhi : A. on Bhatia. Publishing Corporation. N. Theory and Principles of Education. P. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. J. B. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2004). (2007). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2002).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. 286 . K.
3 22.214.171.124 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .LESSON 5.3.5 5.4 5.6 5.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3.7 5.3.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.126.96.36.199 5.3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.2 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.1 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.10 5.11 5. In this lesson. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.
it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. is a means to the process. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used.under the direction of the school.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. curriculum. new behaviour may be acquired. In it.3. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . present behaviour may be modified. maintained or eliminated. Since the demands. in fact . enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. in the form of new experience. Then in a big country like India. the plain area.. curriculum also offers a wide contrast.3. it is identical wit h socializat ion. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. Curriculum is intimately related to education. Both the processes are integrated. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan.S. A g o o d curricu lu m. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. While education is learning. living in the hilly area. 5.3. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. the plateau area and 288 . in the U. you will be able to: 1. the desert area.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. curriculum signifies situations for learning. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. in Russia or in Japan.A. In the former sense. From the latter point of view.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. While education is a process. state the meaning of curriculum 2. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. In the words of Kerney and Cook. 5. there is a large number of communities. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society.
customs and needs. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. it is. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. From a slave-country we became secular. In fact . therefore. Besides craft. It must differ from locality and from society to society. studying therein. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. irrespective of their needs and environment. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. Again. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. democratic and socialistic country. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. according to modern trends in the educational process. environment. and 289 . the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. differs from individual to individual. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. the learning capacity of children. 5. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. However.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery.3. too.
They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. general or specific.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. Vocational Efficiency. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. They are achievable. e. 2. They speak of perfect goals. uninspiring and unscientific. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. eg. 3. 5.. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education.g. The word “Curere” means 2. social. remote or immediate. Understanding Objective. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. Goals of Secondary Education. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. National Integration. Application Objective. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. of classroom. Self Realisation. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . individual or Social and so on. social. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. unsatisfactory. Goals of Primary Education. unambiguous and functional. 290 . tangible. etc. 4. specific. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. which may or may not be attained. they depend on the political. They may be ultimate or proximate. emotional.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. 1. They are visionary goals e..g. e. etc. So it is inadequate. aims. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals... in instructional objectives. They speak of immediate purposes of education. moral.3.g. Knowledge Objective. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. aesthetic and spiritual development. etc..
“The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. in the class rooms.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit.5. capacities. Raymont rightly says. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. educationists. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. on the playing fields. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. heavy fire. abilities. finding them very interesting and captivating.” 291 .3. Crow and Crow remarks. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. The interests. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. According to Crow and Crow. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. needs. but it includes the totality of experiences. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects.
This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. Due to these variations and differences. aptitudes. capacities and abilities.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. urges. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. moral. tendencies. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. They often waste it or rather kill it. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . mental. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. time in a useful manner. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests.
293 . To ensure success of the process. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework.curricular. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. 3. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. 2. organized. phased preparation. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. development of professional capability at all levels. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. Similarly. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. administrative programme need be planned. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1.
playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. Child Centred Education b.3. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Run. workshop. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. 1937 19. principles of curriculum construction. 5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . in the class room.3. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. Relation with Life c. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 5. 10.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. 17. 18.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5.3. a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 11. library. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. laboratory. 12.
K. S. Curriculum Development.3. 295 . (2007). D. Bhalla. Innovations in Education. and Sarita Kumari. S. Curriculum and Instruction. New Delhi : Authorspress. (2007). New Delhi : Isha Books. P. (2001).12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. (2007).S. Lakshmi. N. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava.5.
3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 188.8.131.52 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.5 5.4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 184.108.40.206.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.7.2 5.9 5.4.LESSON 220.127.116.11 Developing scientific outlook 5.4.10 5.1 18.104.22.168 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 22.214.171.124.3 5.4.4 5.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 126.96.36.199.8 188.8.131.52.
3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners.4. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. in the economic reconstruction of society. tolerance for the opinions of others. We mean curiosity.5. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. 5. you will be able to: 1. 4. 5. superstition or emotion. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.during the second half of this century. newer and newer industries started growing. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. honesty. know the importance of science education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. explain the concept of scientific attitude.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. 2. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.4. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. 297 . When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. open-mindedness. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively.4. Gradually. yet real advancement in this area was achieved .1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. 3.
5. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Love for truth enhances.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. 4. Through examinations. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Devotion towards nature increases. 7. 3. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Schemes of teaching science. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life.4. 5. 5.4. 6. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. After such experience and training. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Organisation of science fairs. Principles are formulated. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. 3. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Thinking and memory develops. 4. 2. as well as of the society. Through newspapers. 2. seminars and symposiums. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Central science workshop. 6. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Promotion of science clubs. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Selection for science education.So that. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. 5.
Training of science teachers.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. should provide opportunities to. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. In the inquiry approach. 5.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. essential that teachers. 7. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. For laboratory and workshop techniques.needs and conditions. Enquiry teaching is.6. They encounter many social events as they grow. They ask many questions about the objects they see. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. After presenting the problem. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.4. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. objectivity. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. It is. therefore. sex or religion.4. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. Write any two advantages of Science Education. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. 5. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. They experience natural phenomenon. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. each child to “enquiry skill building”. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs.
5. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Giving less directions. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook.Herma Wouk. 5.6.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. commands or orders. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. if they like.4. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. 2. Evidence. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. . Social sciences. Adopting creative models of teaching. to ask questions and experience things. 3.4. 5. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. test. It requires consistent thinking. 3. Appreciating pupils ideas. stern pursuit of accurate data.books. 300 . offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. 6. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . .
The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. To achieve this we should understand what it means.4. friends. school and society at large. These include open mindedness. The students observation. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . keen observation. critical thinking and suspended judgments. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. of vast resources running waste. (Vaidya 2007). to develop among the learners. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. therefore should be unbiased and objective. and emphasized during the learning process . There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. practiced. it must be encouraged. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. For instance. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning.(Smith 2008).1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. 5.7.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. neighbourhood. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts.
He is patient and reserved in his judgement. (Das. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. think and work it”. he studies all aspects of it. 5. 302 . Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. In considering a situation or a problem. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. The intention to respect another’s point of view. or superstitions. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. intuition or wishful thinking”. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. 2007).4. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes.7. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. understanding and logic. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. rumor. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country.
4.7.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.7.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.4. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. • 5. 5. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. but to begin only after careful planning. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. 5. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. it must be encourages. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. 5. 304 . Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education.
(2008). 5. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. b. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Reflections on Scientific attitude. S.4. Vaidya. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. 16. (2000).B (2008). Yadav. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. D. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. 4. Discuss the importance of science education 14. a. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Love for truth enhances. 2. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. b. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.S.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. N. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. 5.5. 3. a. a. (2006).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Adopting creative models of teaching. M. New Delhi : Anmol Publications.4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Study of superstitions d. Wide reading b.4. objectivity. Proper example of the teacher c. a. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. b. Rao. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Planning of activities 5. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. 305 .
5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5. 184.108.40.206.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. 2.5 5.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.8 5. actively. 306 .4 5.7 5.10 5. objectives and characteristics.1 5. areas of institutional planning.5.5.2 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.6 5.5.5. you will be able to: 1.LESSON 5.5.11 5. state the concept.3 5.9 5.5.
It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. which become the bases for further planning at the district. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . 5. each teacher. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. and every student in the process of educational planning. Institution should be regarded as the unit. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning.3. 5. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. every teacher.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. State and national levels from below. • to make planning development-oriented. • to involve teachers and school administrators. executive as well as public. every parent. • To make institutional planning more successful. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. and. in the task of educational planning.5. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. and each student are regarded as separate entities. teachers and students is not lost sight of. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. and supplement planning from above.5.
etc. council and. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. and Personnel services. Syllabus. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. approved after making necessary modifications.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. Examinations. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. which will be discussed in the general. Co-curricular activities. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. (2) Co. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers.5. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. Classwork.5. 5. 308 .curricular Activities.• implemented. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. it becomes the basis for school inspection. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction.
Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Preparation of instructional material. hobby-centres. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. etc. 3. etc. Improving the subject competence of teachers. 1. Organisation of Students’ Association. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Editing the school magazine. Preparation of models. etc.No. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Improving the internal assessment.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. etc. Organising play-for-all programmes. 2. Courts. Organisation of Self-Government Days. scientific and historical excursions. Fair distribution of syllabi. Conducting of educational. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. charts and apparatus. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Organisation of class-room libraries. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Organisation of Pupils. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Equipping of laboratory and library. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Running science clubs. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 .
understanding. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. which are divided as the in. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. students’ associations. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. and solidarity.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. administrator-pupil. parent-teacher associations. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. pupil310 . ii. etc.5. science teachers’ associations. teacherinspector. parents.” The human relationships in.5. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. teacher-pupil. headmasters associations. administrator-supervisor. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. and —pupil-pupil. administrator-administrator. pupils. teacher-teacher. teacher-State. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. co-operation. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. involving mainly human materials. teacher-managing body. teachers. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. Administrator-State. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system.
teacher-parent. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Good. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. pupil-inspector. administrator. pupil-community leader. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. etc.5. to carry out. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. According to C. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. pupil-non-official functionaries. teacher-community leader. To administer means to manage." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It relates to administration of a single educational institution.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. 311 . supervision. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. V. pupil-parent. social sciences and other disciplines. It covers personnel and material management. organisation and management. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. control. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. to accomplish.State. organisation. superintendence. to attend. supervision and superintendence. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. and to serve. now-a-days. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. It is also being modernized to become a technique.
Liasion with the Public . Those.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. Leadership .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .The manager should have leadership traits. Decision Making . Rapport between the Management and Employees . 4. 11.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. 3. Economic Management . it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . 7. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. 13. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. 9. Worker Participation . low. He should be an artist in human relationships. Socio-Scientific Approach . 8. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. it is not worth-while. 12.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.Of all the approaches. This is the latest democratic trend in management. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. 6. If it is more. The relationship should change from master.Any good management will always have good public relations.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. 5. who occupy the managerial positions. Motiviation . 10. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. Better Human Relationships . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. 2.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. If the cost benefit ratio is less.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. Cost-Benefit Analysis . Democratic Management . Communication .
5. enrichment of curricula.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. objective. 18. 14. to improve the quality of education it provides. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. and cooperative performance should be ensured.too. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . improvement of teaching methods. 19. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.These two are.g. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. 313 . Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept.
Communication 5. Educational Administration. Leadership c. Tarachand and Prakash. d. Decision Making b. f. (2003). (2001). APH Publishing Corporation. NUEPA. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Motiviation d. e. R. Co-curricular activities. b. and Personnel services. In group and Out group 5. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Syllabus. c. Fundamental of Educational Management. a. a. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. 4.5.K. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. a. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. (1995). to introduce decentralization of educational planning. b. b. 2. Instruction. Classwork. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Singh. H. a.5.5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.M. 314 . Examinations.
3 Directive Principles . Education by Christian Missionaries 1. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Inspection and Supervision 3.Article 45 . nutritional requirement.4 India's Secular Policy . (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.Pre-service and In-services facilities. women education and teacher education in India.Preventive measures. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . New evaluation procedures.Religious and Modern Education 1.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Healthy Food Habit 4. population education. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. social Impact 3.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Code of conduct for teachers. First Aid. Sex-education 4.1 Gurukula system of education.1 School Health Programme. School.teachers should have : 1. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Community and Mass Media 2.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .3 Educational Influences of Home.5 Regional Educational Development in India . 4.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.1 Inculcation of Socialism.1 Primary Education : Education for all.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. Examination reforms. 2. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Balanced diet.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Preservation of nutrients.I.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. higher education.CORE PAPER . UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Realized the problems of school education. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Communicable diseases .2 Nutritional deficiencies. Economic 315 . Common ailments of Children. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. 1. wastage and Stagnation 3. physical education and environmental education 5.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .
Realism.1 Idealism. Taneja V. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Curriculum and national goals .Aim. Mishra. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. and Sharma R. and Human Development. curriculum and teacher's role 5.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.K. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. Prof. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. (1999) Culture.K. Ram S.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.C. Saraswathi T. Sharma.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. REFERENCE 1.R. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Mahatma Gandhi. R. and Mohanty R. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Socialization.S.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Delhi : University Publications 2. Pandy V. Tagore 5. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . 7. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.K.4 4. Ghanta R. and Dash B. (2004) Problems of Education in India. 316 . (2005) Foundations of Education.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Naturalism and Pragmatism . (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. T. 5.N. Kalan Paper Packs 10. B. New Delhi: NCERT 3.N.4. Hemchand. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.K.
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