BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

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UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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Lesson 2. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. discusses the regional educational development in India. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Lesson 4. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Lesson 5.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. The need. In. 9 . During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. and Jain system of education. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. Jainism and their educational implication.

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1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.1.6.1.1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1.1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.1.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.LESSON 1.6.2 1.4.1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1.1.6 Education during British Era 1.5.1.5 Jain system of education 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.6.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.6.1.5.1 1.4.3.1.5.5.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.6.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.3.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.

1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.8 1.1.1.1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. 1.7 1.1.6. India.3. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. in morals and in the intellect”. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. British system of education presented the modern western model.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. Education in India.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.9 1. but English in taste.1. describe the Jain system of Education 4. “a class of persons. 1. Indian in blood and colour. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. in opinion.1. The history of education passed through Buddhist. both present and future.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. you will be able to: 1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. elucidate the education during British Era. That 12 .6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. 1. Muslim and British periods. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. has a long past history starting in vedic education.1.6.1.

They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. and to agriculture and trade. 10. as it is generally considered to be at present. Education of Moral. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 3. Where pupils were many.knowledge was real. 14. 11. religious and spiritual. Pupils were taught. No State Control on Education. if they thought fit to do so. Immediate Aim Vocational. Teacher as Parents. Method of Study. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. 13 . 13. It was not merely intellectual. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. 6. It was also moral. not en masse by the class method. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. 16. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. 9. to light. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Individual Teaching. Residential Schools. Curriculum. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 12. There was. Method of Instruction. 8. Free and Accessible. The immediate aim of education. 5. the monitorial plan was followed. however. 4. individually. followed by explanation by the teacher. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. managed entirely by Brahmans. High Status of Teachers. Religious and Spiritual. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Forests as Centres of Education. with grants of land or money. Education was a private affair of the people. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. from eternal to immorality 2. Role of Travel in Education. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. questioning by the pupil. generally. from darkness.

It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Wide-Spread Education in Women. besides preparing for worldly pursuits.3.17. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values.1. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. They were very cordial and intimate. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. 2. It was suited to the needs of the society. It was freely available to all those who wanted. lived a life of celebacy. studied Vedas.

every class in society. disease and death of the human beings. Right speech 4. 15 . etc. Consequently. had the right to receive education. the student had his head shaved of all hair. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. impure conduct. taking things without being offered. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. watching dances or listening to music. Education was imparted through the. use of cosmetics. the most significant of which were the following 1. Right means of livelihood 6. except the Chandals. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Right knowledge 2. After attaining the age of 20. Right activity 5. It was denied only to the ill. Right memory 8. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. which included abstaining from theft.1. in which. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. I take Refuge to Dharma. Right endeavour 7. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Right thought 3. Right contemplation 1. 2. partaking of food at prohibited times.C. medium of Pali. use of intoxicating things. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. I take Refuge to Sangh. the student remained in a state of Shramana. he was qualified to become a monk.4. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. the handicapped. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. 1. killing of any living being. He was then ordained to obey ten rules.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B.

Life is in a flux. As reality is becoming. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. geology. arithmetic and religious discussion. commerce. medicine. bodily gestures. therefore. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. Later on. Whatever its nature and extent. education was impart in art. approach. 3. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. assumptions. 2. elephant lore. depth and range. so long as it successfully does so. On this occasion. knowledge of reviving the dead.. etc. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. meaning. control over sensuous activities. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. a continuous change creating 16 . handicrafts. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. etc. archery. cottage industries. 8. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. however. etc. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. Initially.3. the presence of the monks was essential. It comprehended education in writing. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. After this ritual. aspirations and. it is regarded as true”. 4. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. objectives of human life. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. 6. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life.4. archery. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. magic. along with education in script writing. agriculture. 1. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. women occupied a position inferior to men. has no metaphysical value for life. changing the goals. eat food thrice a day. Even at this stage. wear three items. and. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. 5. be considered the aim of education It. military science. nature. a change is not only total but also perpetual. the science of taming and training animals. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. nothing is of any permanent consequence. 7. of clothes. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. Hence. These are called later Buddhist schools. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. animal husbandry. beg for alms.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. its pessimistic outlook on life. Jainism insists 17 . therefore. such as. Validity is effective and consequences. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him.e.5. however. However. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Education must. 5.new and peculiar situations.1. i. In fact. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. Its chief feature.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. and to give it a shape that it has today.. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. Write Eight fold path . it is much older than the latter. goes to Vardhaman. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. whatever works are true and good.

They are: a) Not to injure. 6. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. 5. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 3. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 9. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. As such. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. d) To lead a celibate life. e) To renounce the world. 8. c) Not to steal. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. 18 . it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. 2. Development of personality as an individual. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. 3. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. it has a foot in both the words. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. 4. more stress on individual aims. 2. b) Right knowledge. and believe in happiness to all. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. thought and deed.1. b) Not utter falsehood. 1.5. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. c) Right conduct.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. 7. but on both. 10.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. Hence. 1. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. and is to be redeemed and liberated. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects.

5. here and now. practised and not only aspired for. Belief in transmigration of soul. 1. education must be action based and ideally oriented. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and should bring happiness to all. 3.4. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Teaching should be social and tolerant. 2. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . 8. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. education should develop sense of discrimination. 1. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. 5. therefore. Hence.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 19 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are Triratnas ? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 3. Knowledge is through senses and meditation.5. Teaching must develop these faculties. Jiva is essentially karmic. 4. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. that would be socially desirable. success and love. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma.

To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. To set up separate departments of. with rally and rout. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. 1953). they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. philosophy and literature of Europe.1.6.6. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. Bombay.6.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). Madras.1. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. North West Province and Punjab. 1.6. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. primary 20 . 1. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. and not for life. 2. 1. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. 1. However. science. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute.

Then the prevalent education was anti-national.6. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . In 1882. Later on. • Universal free primary education. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. secondary education became a step towards university. at the primary level. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. 1. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. To ensure qualitative improvement. self-respecting and competent. • Secondary education. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. At that time M. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education.6. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. 1.K. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature.6. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. The universities dominated the secondary education. namely. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially.education was neglected. 1. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system.

children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. 10. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry.1. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. After this stage. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. all children are to have a common curriculum. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities.

During the Buddhist period. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 23 . 4.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5. 1. b. etc. 2. the science of taming and training animals. 6. handicrafts. Right means of livelihood. Right memory. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. Right speech. a.. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. arithmetic and religious discussion. The system of education was well-organised. Right endeavour. The immediate aim of education. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. military science. followed by explanation by the teacher.education of European literature. establishment of universities. 3. Right thought. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents.1. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. along with education in script writing. science and English language. Right activity. Right knowledge. geology. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. 4. 1. It was suited to the needs of the society. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. questioning by the pupil. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. education was impart in art.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. 3. Right contemplation. archery. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 2.

a. 11. 9. (2009). Ltd. Singh. (2007). Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. b. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.7. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. R.C. Y. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Aggarwal. b. 1882. Development of Educational System in India. c. Sargent report 12. 10.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2005). a. and Nath.1. more stress on individual aims. J. 24 . 8. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Improvement of Literature. J. Hence. Right conduct. Y.K. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 1937 1. Right knowledge. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Development of personality as an individual. Right faith. Sharma.C. History of Indian Education System. Ltd. (1984).K.

There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.6 1.LESSON 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.1 1.2.2.2.2.4 1.9 1.3.2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt. The 25 .3 Kothari Commission 1.5 1.2.7 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2.8 1.2.1 University Education Commission 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.3.2.3.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2 1.2.3.2.

Post-graduate 26 . explosion of enrolment.2. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. examination system.conditions of the teachers. girls and women education besides primary. 1. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. technological engineering. National Council for Women’s Education 5. medical and legal education. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided.3. vocational education. standard of teaching. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. New Educational Policy. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1. Kothari (1964-66) 8. diversification of courses of studies. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. secondary and higher education. There had been vast institutional expansion. 1986 1. 2. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. technical.2. S. analyse the progress of education in free India. you will be able to: 1. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. curriculum. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. National Board of Teacher Education 10.2. expansion of vocational.

quality.2. accumulated over the years. However. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. research et. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. Education for Equality. 1. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. 1. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. Education is the key to our allround development. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. quantity.2. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.3.S. National System of Education. Kothari. 1966.2. Finally. 1986. material and spiritual. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 2. in January 1985. Government of India. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. 4. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency.3.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels.3. A. The Essence and Role of Education. Therefore. 1952. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. D. 1. the New National Policy on Education. utility and financial outlay. the chairman of University Grants commission. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. Problems of access.teaching. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. A meaningfully Partnership.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. 3.

2. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. It can train practical aptitudes. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. The UNESCO Report. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes.” Thus. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. attitudes. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. the minorities and the handicapped. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. the concepts of work experience. 28 . Thus. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. By working with hands.

“It may be described. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. The Radhakrishnan Commission.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. if he wishes." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. As such.employment and promote economic independence of the youth.” The Mudaliar Commission. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . In 1955. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. “The aim of these colleges. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. Besides. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. it will conduce self. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. The Education Commission. According to. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. the Commission. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. With adequate planning. co-ordinations. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more.

did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. the semester and credit system. raising the special facilities. With a view to relating education to the life. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976.. The Central Advisory Board of Education. In addition. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. the rigid streaming of courses. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. Subsequently. Therefore. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). admission requirements to vocational courses. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. for quality of life in the rural areas. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . etc. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work.ot her. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. the. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future.

In short. 31 . The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education.2. which offer scientific. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. felt that education should be centred around a craft. Commerce. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. giving importance to productivity in the national development. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995.and the world of work. which are useful to the community. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. which swept the country for over two decades. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. meaningful. preferably spinning and weaving. 1. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”.defined S UP W as “purposive.. who conceived the System of Basic Education. technological courses including Agriculture. The wave of Basic Education. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. manual work resulting in either goods or services. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. aimed at this goal. etc. According to committee. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. meaningful. under the diversified curricula of seven streams.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. The Father of Nation. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.

Productive 2. 4. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Shelter 4. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. locally available materials and tools. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Clothing 5. as far as possible. Work practice.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Health and Hygiene 2. tools and techniques and 3. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Some Hints to Teachers 1. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Food 3. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. The teachers should make use of. 3. 2. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Culture and recreation 6. so that it is educational in essence. 32 . Educative and 3. be that the work involved is: 1. Community work and social service. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Experimentation with materials.

1. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. 6. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another.2. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Merits of the Programme 1. etc. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Productive Work 33 . as far as possible. Check on educated unemployed 4.5. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. removal of illiteracy.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Community Service In-1972. It can become an instrument to build character. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. inculcate a faith. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. the local community should be actively associated. To make education more realistic. improve discipline. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. slum clearance. Education through work The SUPW should.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. etc. in turn.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. AICTE was set up in year 4. if not productive. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. Define SUPW 34 . offering first aid. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . helping the adults-in productive work. skills and better future for the children. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. should involve itself in the educational effort. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. The community. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. traffic control.

35 . 1955 4. 6. Dr. 3. b. 1. f. a.2. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5.2. Write short note on SUPW.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. c. meaningful.1. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. manual work resulting in either goods or services. 2. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. which are useful to the community. d. Radhakrishnan 2. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 1. e.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. 1952 3.2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. (2005). History of Indian Education System. Y.2. Publishing Corporation. History and Problems of Indian Education. Y.(2005).P. V. and Nath. (2007). A. B.P. and Rao.. J.K. New Delhi: A. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Anupama. 36 . P. : Sharma. Rao. Amala. Singh. R.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.K.H.D. (2007).K. History of Education. Ltd. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. (2009).C. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Development of Educational System in India.1.

for a total of 117.3. and liberty.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.8 1.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. containing 395 articles.3. democratic republic.3.1 Significance of DPSP 1. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.1 1. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3. Being the supreme law of the country. 1949.2 1.3. assuring its citizens of justice.3.9 1.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.3. establishing the structure.5 1.3.7 1.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.3. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.4 1. procedures. directive principles and duties of citizens. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.3.3. 1950. 37 . the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. it came into effect on January 26.6 1.3.369 words in the English language version. equality. there is an official Hindi translation. Besides the English version.

2. learn the role of central and state government on education. economic.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. legal and environmental. understand our Indian constitution. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 1. 1947. for 166 days. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 1950. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. After many deliberations and some modifications. the Drafting Committee was appointed. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24.3.3. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. 4. Dr.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. Through them. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. in sessions open to public. On August 29. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. The Assembly met.In the August 14. administrative. 1. 1. 3. 38 . spread over a period of 2 years. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. political. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands.3.3. According to the constitution. with Dr. 1947. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. Two days later. you will be able to: 1. social.

Liking wage etc. Condition for dignity of children. for workers. Article 39A. and in other cases of undeserved want. The State shall. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. and shall. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. men and women.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Article 40. Equal pay for both sex. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self.government. Minimising inequalities in status. Article 43. old age. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. in particular. provide free legal aid. Protecting children from exploitation. on the basis of equal opportunity. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. The State shall endeavour to secure. That the health and strength of workers. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. No abuse of children. Equal justice and free legal aid. sickness and disablement. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Organisation of village panchayat. Article 42. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. 39 . by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. make effective provision for securing the right to work. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Right to work. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Article 41. Protecting health of the workers.

Article 46. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. industrial or otherwise. in particular. Article 45. See also Article 21A). Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Uniform civil code for the citizens. agricultural. Note: Subs. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 49. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. 2002 for “45. Article 47. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. Article 44. Article 48A. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. in particular. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Participation of workers in management of industries. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. The State shall endeavour to provide. [declared by or under law made by 40 . Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. work. Article 48. and. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. in particular. by suitable legislation or in any other way. a living wage. to all workers. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. (Original Article 45. The State shall take steps. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Article 43A.

disfigurement. Article 45 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Separation of judiciary from executive. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. may be law determine”. as the case may be. 1. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. disposal or export. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus.Parliament] to be of national importance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. destruction. from spoliation. removal.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . maintain just and honourable relations between nations. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Promotion of international peace and security. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.3. Article-21A Right to Education. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. 2002. Article 50. Article 51.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.

Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. iii. and. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not.” 42 . (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. if such person is a minor. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. his guardian has given his consent thereto. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. race. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. ii. 8. 6. 3. 5. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. from justice and all forms of exploitations. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. 2002. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. in particular. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. and shall protect them. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. 7. 4. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. caste. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. language or any of them”.

2. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. and by drawing. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. The central government determines targets and promotes education. for its vocabulary.3.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language.9. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. & 1. wherever necessary or desirable. 43 . It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Educational Reforms From time to time. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. the forms. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule.

and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. So that they may work well. etc. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education.3. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. private agencies etc. the state governments.. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Local bodies and private enterprise. All India Council of Medical Science. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . 5. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Production of suitable for children and adults f. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. to achieve the desired ends. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. 4. By starting these projects. 8. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. 6. 7. So as to encourage education on right lines. The following pilot projects. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Promoting Inter-state understanding g.

Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. 1. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. education for women. etc. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. 9. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. 3. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. handicapped. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. research. Material concerning nation-wide interests. 4. 12. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. 1. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. books.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. is the state responsibility. The 45 . Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. are published by it. 11. reports etc. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers.3. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. 10. training and statistics.

8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. 46 . Write short notes on a. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 46 4. 1. articles in the Directive principles. 5. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45.3. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Article 21A c. Article 45 b.3. Explain Directive principles 2.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. 1.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 2002. b. Describe the educational role of State Government.5. The Directive Principles of State Policy. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Dr. 3. may be law determine”. a. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 47 . a. 4. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Ambedkar 2. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 2002. Development of Hindi Language 6. Article-21A Right to Education. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Clearing House function 9. Article 29 and 30 7. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Article 45 .3. 1. Article 46 5. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. b. a.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.

Dash. Bhatia. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. S. (2004). New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. K and Narang C. B. (2007). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. K. (2009). (2008). S. 48 . Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: Shipra Publications.1. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. L. Education in Emerging Indian Society.3. Ghosh.

4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4 Moral education 1.4. Students should be 49 .4.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1. Buddhism etc.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4.4.7 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4. Islam. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.5 1.3.3. Christianity.4.4.4.6 1.4. religious education should be broad based.8 1.1 1.4.3.4.2 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.1 Why Moral Education 1. Jainism.4.4.4.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.

. In the complicated and complex society of today. know the position of religious education in our country 3. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. religious education and the concept of secularism. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.4. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. According to E. "In A multireligious society like ours. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. integrity. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. you will be able to: 1. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance.” Education broadens human outlook. state meaning and need for moral education 1. enumerate the aims of religious education 4.and dedication. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion.D.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. India' can produce men of character. As result of which. Thus.4. 1. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. duty-consciousness. beauty and goodness so that 50 . The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher.

through religious practices and 51 .3. According to Article 19. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values.4. Thus. all citizens are free to follow any creed. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. 1. They thought that any kind of narrow. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. As a matter of fact.4. As our country is a country of diverse religions. No religious tax can be imposed on them.” From the above. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. Hence. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. at least occasionally. it is clear that the State has no religion. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. 1947 we achieved our freedom. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. rancour. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. 1. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. Children attend these organizations. if not regularly. castes and creeds.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. religion and democracy are same. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. According to Article 22.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. In short. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs.3. realizes God in himself. Viewing the defects of religious education.

Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. It helps to modify habits attitudes. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. and what is evil. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). which help him for the development of his character. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. intellectual and physical faculties of children. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. for the development of the individual and the society. aggressive. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. It is religious education. As a result of which. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. when he becomes an adult. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. Good education. what is done and what is not done etc.. If unreleased. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good.teachings. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. one fully developed. which can mould. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. He also learns about social. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. temperament etc. moral and spiritual values.

But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. If we open the pages of history. Therefore. This should not be allowed to happen. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. 2. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. 3.4. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. towards the society. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. which is the basic need of a democratic life. 1. 53 .3. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument.

the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. they should be discussed in the right earnest. 9. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1.4. Gurudwara as. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. 11.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Since all religions have virtues. examples of patriotism.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. fellow-feeling. therefore. stories of moral greatness. For this. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. churches and mosques 7. 10. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Write Article 22 2. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Life histories of great persons of the world.

6.4. is that which develops moral values. Self sacrifice. 6. therefore. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). It they learn what morality is in their early years. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. 7. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Satyam (truth). “Let all be happy and free from disease. 2. the methods of teaching.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. The content of the curriculum. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Fearlessness. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Non-injury. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. 1. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 3. Without moral values. 5. Aparigarha (Non. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 5. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness).5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Cultivation of emotions. Service to others. 3.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 7. 55 . Patriotism. Asvada (Control of palate). 1. let men see well of one another. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. in the home. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”.4. 8. Purity. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’.acquisitiveness). 2. 4. They will play their role effectively. Moral education. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. students. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. 8. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 4.

10. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. minutes in the morning for group singing.4. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Efficiency. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Secondary Stage 1. discipline. 4. 3. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. 1. Simple texts and stories concerning different.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Discipline. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Sharivashram (Physical work). 11. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. religions may be included in the syllabus. Asatyam (Non-thieving). Good manners. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. National unity and Spiritual values. Good temper. 3. Integrity. In the school programme. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. 2. 56 . One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction.9. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Unity of mankind. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. loyalty and self-sacrifice.

Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated.4. love of humanity. should form a normal part of school programme. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 57 . University Stage 1. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 5. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. In this connection. Silent meditation should be encouraged. In other words. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. 2. 4. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. patriotism and self-discipline. 3.

Discuss the aims of Religious education.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. In short. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. Training of Character 3. 1. The School Assembly should be held for a few. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. Sri Prakasa 6 . it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. 4.4. a. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. 58 . Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. 1959 5. 1. 2. For this. a. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3.4.4. 2. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. a. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. the. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. b. b. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education.1. minutes in the morning for group singing.

(2008). M.4. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. N. P. L. Pahuja. K and Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education. (2004). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Dash. (2003). Bhatia. N. B.H.1.H. 59 .11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.P. New Delhi: A. (2007). New Delhi : Siddiqui. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.C. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. K.

LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.6 1.11 1.5.9 1.10 1.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.7 1.e. Although.5.5.8 1.5.2 1.5 1. 60 . disparities between provinces/States.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5..12 1.5.5.5. i.4 1.5.3 1.5.5.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.

energy.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. understand the regional educational development in India 3.5. 61 . 5. waters. know the education suited to different environments. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. they take appropriate measures. 6. They therefore.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Accordingly. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.1. you will be able to: 1.5. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. 4. etc. for example. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. roads. 2. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 1. work hard towards this end. 8. 1.5. 3. 1. 7. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. This leads to separatist movements.

The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. on the basis of regional development may be formed. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. education as a fundamental human right was recognized.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence.5. some average. while others remained educationally backward. 62 . Secularism. Tight security arrangements should be made. 3. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. Therefore. • Separate States (of course viable States). • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. 4. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. 2. some States became educationally far advanced.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . and.

81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. These projects are in various stages of implementation. academic buildings. In the Central sector. NERIST. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. However.480. books. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. NIT. Funds amounting to Rs. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. and provision of informal education to enable those.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.. the Union Government. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. Central Universities of Assam. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters.5. the State Governments. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. while some States like Bihar. approved proposals worth Rs. Nagaland and NEHU. Mizoram. scholarships. Even in each State.392. Regional Centres of IGNOU. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. remained under developed.After the Planning Process has originated. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Jammu and Kashmir. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. since its inception in 1998-99.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. 63 .g. library buildings.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. Itanagar.14. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Guwahati. Out of this. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. 1. etc. After the attainment of independence. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. etc. Rs. Tezpur. Silchar.84 crore was released in 2005-06. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development.

Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.05 crore and Rs.501.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. too. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. During 2003-04. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.5. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west).40. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.187. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Moreover. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. A provision of Rs.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Out of this an amount of Rs. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. 64 . Tezpur University.500.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Government expenditure on education. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.261.8 per cent in 05). The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.57 crore and Rs. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.

telecom. too. Karnataka. Karnataka. engineering and R&D.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Moreover. too. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. The Chandigarh Administration. Tamil Nadu. Kerala and Gujarat. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21).5. Listing the positives. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. notes the study. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Andhra Pradesh. for instance. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. too. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Medical education. 1. English. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. pharma. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . To add to the woes. for which 16 sites. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur.

the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. taking the average in the middle. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. Of course. and so on. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail.year. the needs. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. In the same manner. when he will not be sure of time. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. in which the learners live. Hence it is called as need-based. while the former does not. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. The living conditions. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. the working days: an academic .people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. life-oriented and environment slanted. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. the vocations. 66 . the interests. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. Then education become realistic and idealistic. The working hours of educational institutions. even actually looking at the watch. the socio-physical conditions. For a learner living in a rural area. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. which a non-tribal person cannot do. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. the curricular subjects. the teaching methods.

12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 67 .10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.5. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. to suit education to different environments? 1.5. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. 2.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. 2.

Giridhar. S. (2008). Education Scenario in India. (2001). New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. R. a. Dubey. (2002). during the British rule. Educational Development in India. remained undeveloped 3. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. and Nair. Salim. 68 .N.5. A.G.H. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. New Delhi: Authors press. (2001). Education in Developmental Arena. some States have become more developed than others b.K.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. some of areas which were under the native rulers. 60% 1. C.2. S.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

semi literate and illiterates.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. 71 . Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. National Integration. community development. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. school community and mass media. secularism and democracy through Indian education. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived.

2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.1.1.6 Education for Secularism 2.9 2.6.1.1.1.1.1.8 2.5.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.6.1.LESSON 2.1.4 2.1.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .6.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.3 2.1 2.7 2.2 2.1.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.5.

colour or wealth. there should be made no distinction of caste. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. Democracy thus means power of the people. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. socialism and secularism 2. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. you will be able to: 1. 2.1.2. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy.1.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. creed. socialistic and secular state.1. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. This is the political aspect of democracy. socialism and secularism 2. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. 73 . In the matter of admitting students in schools. understand the concept of democracy. The students may be associated with the management of the school. for the people by the people”. 3) Provision of Manual Work.1. 2. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. Abraham Lincoln. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.

74 . There are different brands of socialism. debates. 11) Student Parliament. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. it soon spread all over the world. Democracy means 2. 2. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. may be planned. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3.1. 12) Visits to Legislatures.. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. declamation contest etc.

3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 2. 75 . 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.1. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. free from exploitation. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 2. the wealthy and the poor.5.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 7) Special facilities for girls. Under it. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system.1. none high”. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. service and cooperation.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. oppression and disparity. 2) Socialism aims at equality.5. the prince and the peasant. but on the path of non-violence.

Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Everyone says. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “India is a secular-country. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’.” In every political and educational corner. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. 11) State schools. According to Holydake. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. 76 . "which seeks the development of physical. secularism is being propagated. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. 5. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. Write any two main features of socialism.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools.

people started believing in regionalism. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. the belief that the state morals.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. In this type of prevailing situations. liberty. “Webster further says. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. should be independent of religion. 77 .2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. education etc. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. 3) It permits freedom of worship. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Equality. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. people have narrow mindedness. 2. fraternity. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. During the recent past. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 9) It stress free inquiry. There is need of making the people open minded.opposed to religious education. 5) It implies tolerance. Moral values have to be imbibed.1. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values.6. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state.6. A large number of people is uneducated.1. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. 8) It believes in co-existence. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 2) It permits freedom of religion. That is why.

The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. No doubt. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.1. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. In the celebration of each such function. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Patiala. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show.6. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. There should be some internal checking of the material being. The very sight of the building. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. While doing so. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. 1) Moral Education. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. In the hands of such teachers. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. Religious Education. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. 2.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. education.presented by the students in the gathering. that the central string of all religions is one. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. students belonging to different religions should be associated. tours and trips may be organized.

The word “Seculum” means 7. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . No doubt. Define Secularism 9.1. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The term secularism was first used by 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Respect of Individual Personality. Since socialism stands for equality. Tuition free education b. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Abraham Lincoln. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary.1. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. d. 3.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. 3. 5. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. there should be made no distinction of caste. a. colour or wealth. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. 2. George Jacob Holydake 80 . This present age 7. Socialism aims at equality. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 4.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. c. b. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. a. 6. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. a. In the matter of admitting students in schools. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. Provision of Manual Work. The students may be associated with the management of the school. b. 5. creed.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Power of the people 2. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Equal Opportunities for Admission. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 4. for the people and the people”. Socialism aims at social justice.

P. (2003). (2008). 81 . It permits freedom of religion. J. Dash. (2004). K. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. b. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Theory and Principles of Education. It treats all religions on an equal footing. the belief that the state morals. B. 10. education etc. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. a.8. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.C.1. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : Pahuja. Modern Trends in Indian Education. b.” 9. (2005). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Bhatia. (2007). J. Ltd. N. should be independent of religion. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. K and Narang C. a. L. Anmol Publications Pvt. Mohanty.

5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.3 2.2.1 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.2.2.2.LESSON 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.10 2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2 2.8 2.2.4 2.7 2.6.5.2.2.2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.6.2.5.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.9 2.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.

you will be able to: 1.2. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. It involves physical. social and moral aspects. aims and objectives of the school. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. 2. as persons. as it is t he aim o f modern education. emotional. development. mental. and 4.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. 2. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. as learners.an instructor of school children.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understandings. 2. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. A teacher is first and foremost. The developmental roles of children. application. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction.generation to another. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. as citizens. skills. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge.2. moral. social. 83 . esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. a r e 1. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. therefore. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. who are placed in his custody. as workers. 3. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school.

Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. morally. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. intellectually. 3. He is to become an active member. 2. physically fit for socially efficient. social and emotional health. Teacher as a Citizen Next.2.All education should lead to better behavioural development. socially. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. economically effective. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. The following are some of such roles described in brief. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. inquisitive. a part of their day in 84 . experiences and acceptance. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. 1.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. mentally. and aesthetically to become. emotionally. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. member of his community at the outset. morally. 2. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. mental. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. motivated. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. He has to look after their physical. The students live. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. culturally confident.

Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance.2. Unless. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. List out the role of teachers towards community development . fine art associations. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. science club. It 85 . the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. creeds. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. solve them. and most of hours.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. They will be spending with their parents. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. Dr. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. 4. India is a land of many castes.the school being under the custody of teachers. faiths. languages and religions. activities of the society into which he is born. photographic clubs.

b. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. this integration of the Indian people. should be emphasised. The only process is the process of education. Nehruji has explained this as. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation.5. ‘We should not become parochial. Let us. It should broaden the outlook. and make into one strong national unit. a.is. Radhakrishnan. with straight backs and look up at the skies.2. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. the study of language and literature. Sampurnanand remarked. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. poems. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . c. folklore and teaching of social studies.” Regarding the role of education. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country.” 2. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. national anthem and other national songs. social studies. stand up straight. narrow-minded provincial. 1.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. At the primary stage the importance of stories. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. the citizens of the Republic of India. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. therefore.

culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. 7. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. sports. 2. Student Camps. debates. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. educational excursions. Singing of National Anthem. National Days—January 26. 10. t he st udent s and t he community. militar y training like the NCC. Reverence of National Flag. Scouts and Guides. 3. languages and literature. 87 . August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. 9. symposia. dramatics and youth festivals. 5. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. 8. Uniform for School Children. 4. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Taking Pledge. Textbooks. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. ACC. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. tours. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. 6. Celebrations of National Days. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Co-Curricular Activities. and picnics. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag.different social sciences. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses.

colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . 15. Open-Air Dramas. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. 14. iv. 16. 88 . The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. flora and fauna. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Recognition of Institutions. language.2. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school.11. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. ways of thinking and doing things. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Students Exchange and Tours. 2. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. ii. v. Admissions. 12. Admissions to schools. School Projects. 13. iii.5. region or religion. colour. Educational and Travel Documentaries. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country.

Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? .2.vi. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Community dinners. 2. viii. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. cultures and races on equal bases. vii. ix. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Define National Integration 3. irrespective of national boundaries. camps. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

2. Dr. that war.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. Teachers 90 . either plunged in or overshadowed by war. 6. 4. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . therefore. Organising of debates and.e. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries.2. (b) stories of children of other lands. Therefore. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. This. 3. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live.F. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. patriotism is not enough.6.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. 2.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. the international level. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. often in connection with anniversaries. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. (c) fairly tales. C. if it happens. Strong has observed. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. In a very real sense. of his body and mind.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.friendships between children of different countries. 2.6. 5.” 2.as important as that of a national citizenship.. and the healthy development. Radhakrishnan states. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war.

a German. an Englishman. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should not be propagandists. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries.” Well Informed About World Situations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Russian. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 .should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Indian and American. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Impartial in their Treatment. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7.

Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .2. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. 5. and help the students to over . there is wide spread frustration among all people. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . Devaluation of Values . The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. understand and indiscipline: 1. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. Soon after they leave their educational institutions.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. 2. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. It does not prepare students for life. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. which results in agitation and aggression language. If this is done. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students.Another major. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. leading to.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. Chronic Poverty . It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. 3. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. Wide Spread Frustration .For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. the education function can be carried. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society.2. 4. As the school is but a miniature society. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. Defects of the educational System . majority of people are.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly.

etc. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . community development. 93 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. sympathy and good will among the nations. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. co-operation.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. 4. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. 3.2.2. 2. 2. 2. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner.democratic nature. love. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. fellow feeling.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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Museums. the invention of the printing press. Emphasising this thing. He taught his students orally. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Then came newspapers. Now internet is being used. books.V. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Crow and Crow write. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. During the course of time. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. To make them achieve their aim. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. periodicals. 2. led to the printing of books.3. art galleries. Moreover. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Hence. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. “All the citizens of the community. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Define community. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. are increasingly used in education. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. In fact. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders.

Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. dram appreciation. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication.classroom teachers. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Various talks. languages. music. the place of importance. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. 101 . the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media.6. Reynolds. current affairs and other areas.G. for the teacher through school broadcasts. It is also an important source of entertainment. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Thus. Effective means of presenting music. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. the teacher still occupies. It enlightens public opinion. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. A lot of work by way of pre. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students.telecast. social studies.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. It stimulates curiosity and interests. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Thus. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. Students listen various talks. In collaboration with the experts. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. In the emphasis is on sound. politics. “Listening participation” in current history. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them.3. 2. Important happening inventions. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. rather than on picture. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. art. 2.

Before presenting the programme. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. informal and non-formal education. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. plays. Participation of local teachers and pupils. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. at any place. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. fol classical music. projects or creative activities. School concerts. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. Making learning an open system. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. 102 . style.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. travel talks. at drawing room. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. mathematics. Team-teaching demonstrations. at recreational centers. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. speech. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. At present. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. development of lessons. audibility and presentability. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. 5. at play. 4. 3.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4 Non formal educational system 2.8 2.4.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.3 Advantages of formal education 2.6 2.4.3.3.4.4.4.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.4.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.7 2.4.4.4.5 2.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.2 2.4.4.4.3.3.4.4.1 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.LESSON 2.4.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.

the community.4.2. In ancient time in India. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. his mental alertness. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. starting and ending at -a particular age.4. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. the family. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 7. 8. 110 . As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. 5. 6.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. School is. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. imparted at the residence of the teacher. 4. the most important agency of formal education. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. 2. it was mostly. Education. you will be able to: 1. compare formal and non formal system of education. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. Education organised by some agency. the learner are acquainted. 3. 9. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. the temple. 4.4.3. 2. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. 2.4. 2. open university. 3. 2. open school. To realize this objective of education. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. say the Government or the private enterprise.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.. the mass media et. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and.

with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. 2. or academic degrees. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. Some education systems have separate middle schools. such as a high school or secondary school. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. as well as vocational education and training. Through early formal education. structured education.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Higher Education: Higher education.3. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. depending on the jurisdiction.a secondary education. third stage. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Concepts of proportion. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . diplomas.4.2. capacity. also called tertiary. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates.3.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. In general. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. the elements of language are first learned. or post secondary education.4. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . late beginners etc. children with disabilities. 3. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. What are levels of formal educational system? .which will help for nation's development. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. is an important agency of formal education. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. 2. Agencies can be classified as 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. 4. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3.4. 2. and remote dwellers. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 .4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.4. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.

it has its own valid claim to reality. adding up to a true learning society.e. admissions. systematic. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. etc. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Thus. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. it is a more effective tool for rural development. continuing education and on the job oriented education.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. systematic. planned. It unlocks the doors of development plans. Open university.learning client take some learning objectives. Non-formal education includes adult education.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. However. According to Malcolm A. financially supported life formal education. place of instruction. adults as well as children.formal education.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. to help themselves. curriculum. It is functional. Adiseshiah. work and the opportunity to put learning to use.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. staffed. Therefore. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. until 1970 it had not been defined. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. It is deliberate.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. It is much more responsive to needs and change. one could say that non-formal education is an active. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. “Non-formal education should 113 . To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. i. open learning.. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns.

socialism. Covering life span of an individual.be marketable and vocationalised. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs.S. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Preparation for future needs. age.4. To develop in the student. 3. admissions. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. exploring. Lawrence. 5.” According to H. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. evaluation etc. national integration.e. 2. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. 4. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. co-curricular activities. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.” 2.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. curriculum. 7. It should lay emphasis on the self. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Flexibility in various aspects of education.4. 6. self. Part-time education. the Ideas of citizenship. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.S. place of education.renewal. To help industrial workers to better their skills. Process of sharing.4. i. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. modes of teaching.learning pattern.4. international understanding. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. 114 . To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.

4.4. school dropouts. working adults. 2.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 4. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. 7. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live.4.4. • 2.4. Technical. Senior Secondary. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. 6. in villages and those who live in towns. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 3. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Universalisation of primary education. publication and information dissemination. 2. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 10. 115 . Eradication of adult literacy. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. 3. 5. 5. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. To offer Secondary. 9. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 8.

5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1.2. To increase knowledge and 2. public libraries. 3. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. 4. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. effective in modern societal context.4. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. Again. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . self-employment iii. Therefore. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. library. factory. 2. 2.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. Institutions for formal education. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.full time to learners – can be home. etc. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. farm. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. others are formal and informal. To better qualifications. Radio and television. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. All-round development i. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. etc. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. To make if. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment.. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college .4. if organised in isolation.4. open space. training centres in factories. centres of correspondence education. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies.

List out any two aims of non formal education. . period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Give examples of non formal education? . 117 . Written tests. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Define non formal education. radio. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. institution. Teaching to face teaching. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Lecturing T. .6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals.V. Face Contact programmes. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. 7. 6. Correspondence lesson. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. the college and the university come under this category. 3. b. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Higher Secondary level and University level.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. adults as well as children. Primary level. a. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. 2.4. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. b. The school. 4. Secondary level. 2.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. 2. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.2. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. 4. 5. 118 .” 6. Pre-school level. School 3. a. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. systematic. Open School. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Formal and Non Formal 2. 7.4. Open University. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.4.

Ltd. Gupta.2.4. J. New Delhi : 119 . Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. P.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2003). Pahuja. S. N. Theory and Principles of Education. J. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2005). Ltd. Mohanty. Education in Emerging India. (2004). N. L. (2008). Dash. B. Anmol Publications Pvt. K. (2007). (2008). Bhatia. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. K and Narang C. Modern Trends in Indian Education.

5.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.4.5.5.3.1 2.4.7 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.4.5.5.5.5.LESSON 2.5.3 Objectives of Open University 2.5.5.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.3.4 Open University 2.6 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.4 Need for Open University 2.5.5 2.4.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.2 2.5.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.4.3.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.3.

Any person. For them. It is a lifelong process. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. continuing education is a boon. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. economic field or such other fields. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. 2. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. Thus.5. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. It is a continuous process.5.5. know the need and objectives of open university. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.2. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . industries. you will be able to: 1. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. give the meaning. Under these circumstances.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. However.3.5. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. labourers and half educated individuals.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. characteristics of open university 4. 2. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. farmers. This knowledge may be in political field.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person.

Throughout the country. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. Doctors. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. On the other hand. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures.literate person. 2. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. For them too continuing education is essential.5.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation.V. Cinema. T. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education.directly related to his job. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. are also contributing their might for the purpose. if he gets opportunity to develop them. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. On the other hand.V. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Block Development Officers. Radio. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans.3. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. deteriorating to his character and personality. Radio and T. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. cultured and progressive. Thus. After the achievement of independence. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. Persons engaged in health services.

This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (15) music. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities.V. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. (7) folk songs. 2. Inspite of the great efforts. (14) information about bringing up young children. 3. and Radio. 4. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (6) folk stories. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. 7. (1) ancient history. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. These books are not very useful.3.3. (13) psychology of child behaviour. (17) modern international and national events. 123 . (2) basic religious matters.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. especially women. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. 2. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (8) psychology of adults. Of course. (16) liking. 6.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely.. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. we have not been able to achieve our targets. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. habits of people of other lands.5. 2. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. 5. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (10) first aid.5.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as.

Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. lack of time etc. of educational opportunities.5. attendance restrict ion.5. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. NLM was launched in the year 2.4. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 .

” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. No one is too old or too late to learn. b. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. c. Which was the first open university in India? . Education is not a once for-all process. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. 3. e. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. it makes use of educational techno logy. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. d.5. IGNOU was established in the year 6.unobserved. and in teaching. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. 5. its education is not class room based but home based.4. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . 4. 2. but 125 . the higher the degree of openness. 2. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

who did not get it. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 3. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. or who realised too late that they need it.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. Mo re o ver.4. it a ims at wider and hig her. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. 2. 2. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n.5. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people.5. 2. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. 4. 3. who were deprived of t he same earlier. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 4. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. cho ice o f co ur ses. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes.4. 2. 126 . 5. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 6. supplementing the existing provision. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n .

beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. 2. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. 8.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Correspondence tuition. 3.5. a state or nation. List out any four methods of Open University? . They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. you have learnt the concept. Therefore. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. Laboratory works. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Self instructional materials. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. semi – literates. 6. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. a society. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 4. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Tutor Comments. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. Every day. In the present day world. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking.5.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.2.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. 2. 7. 5.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 127 . Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . 1. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 8. school drop outs.

need and characteristics of Open University.ambitious learners. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. b. 3. its education is not class room based but home based. Broad casting lectures c. 128 .6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. 1985. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. youth. aspirants for continuing education. 7. which may include house wives. P r int med ia b. 1988. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. a. Television Lessons. 7.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. 2.5. (4) the fundamentals of economics. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. (1) ancient history. b. a. 4. 9. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. cho ic e o f co u r ses. (2) basic religious matters. 2. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 8. 8. agricultural and industrial workers. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. d. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. a. 6.5. unskilled workers and other professionals. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. Explain the objectives.

2. Udaiveer.K. (2004). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2001).5. (2004). S.S. K and Narang C. K. L.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. R. Ltd. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. 129 .. Modern Problems of Education. Reddy.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

examination. Training teachers for all levels of education. wastage and stagnation. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. its causes and remedial measures. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. and teacher education. the education of women. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. In Lesson 2. Examination reform. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. which may claim the attention of those concerned. All which is the need of the hour. 133 . pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher.

134 .

1.7 3.8 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.5 3.1. 135 .6 3.1.1.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.3.4 3.1.1.LESSON 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.2 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.2 EFA – How? 3.3 New initiatives. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.

directed that. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy.1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. social. may be political. Eradication of Illiteracy. Therefore. therefore. education received added importance and significance. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. you will be able to: 1. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.3.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. (EOI) 2. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. On the other hand. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. 3. Continuing Education (CE) 1. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). economic or cultural. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. understands the country. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. 2. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education.1. “The State shall 136 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education.

This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. Due to the adoption of democratic system. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world.endeavour to provide. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. Therefore. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. After the attainment of independence. Continuing Education (CE). It enables the parents to send their children to School. Universalization of Retention. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . the national Government under. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Universalization of Enrolment. Three Stages for Universalization. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. rights and responsibilities.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. 137 . The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. 3.

We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. 1995 (for upper primary stage). “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. Write Article 45. 138 . “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. 3. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. educational enterprise.1. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. present and future. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. then to 1976.3.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1990. Therefore. UNESCO Bulletin states. This target had to be revised to 1970. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. It is safe to assure. later to 1988.

3. 11. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. their social economic status and occupations.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. sex. Education of Girls. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. and Women’s education programme should be improved. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 8. Apart from primary education. Education of the Impaired. nutrition education and sports and games. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. The Social Education. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. 5. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. creed. 139 . A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. 9. etc. 3. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. Emphasis must be given on health education. 12. rural areas. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. By undertaking survey. their enrolment and retention. slum areas. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. NAEP. 10. Jams and Jellies. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. the art of preparing fruit-juice.1. 6. Early childhood education should be streamlined. 3. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. problem of literacy. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. adolescent and adult. Disabled. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. FELF. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education.

If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Wastage and Stagnation. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. 3.3. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.3. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.e. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.3 NEW INITIATIVES.1.1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. 4. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Expand MLL and SSA .

The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. it is considered as wastage. Social Factors .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. School Factors .first stage of education.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. Familial Factors .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Personal Factors .

. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. . Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. 7. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Define Wastage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 142 .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education.

The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. rural or urban 3. school or society. Family Factors .3. Personal Factors . are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. in his home. relating to home. They are described hereunder :1. Societal Factors .1. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.The following factors. School Factors .

casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. stationary. mid-day meals. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . 144 . etc. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. uniforms. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. Define Stagnation? 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

1. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation.3.1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. a. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Hartog Committee.1. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. 2. 4.” 3.. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. 6. 3. improvement of curriculum. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. 3. b. “The State shall endeavour to provide. 4. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 145 . 3.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Universalization of Enrolment c. a. therefore. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. a. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. Universalization of Retention 2. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. directed that.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Universalization of Provision b. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community.

9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S.K. Sharma. (2001).1. introduce graded curriculum. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. (2007). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. S. 3. New Delhi: 146 . 9.7. a.K. School Factors d. Familial Factors c. (2008).N. b. T. Problems of Elementary Education. Social Factors 8. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Crescent Publishing Corporation. improve examination system. Personal Factor b. a. Hemchand.

2 Grade System 3.2.2 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2.6.5.LESSON 3.2.2.2.5.1 3.2.1 Problems of examination 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.5 New evaluation procedures 3.4.7 Let us sum up 147 .2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.4 Question banks 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2.2.2.5.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.3.5.2.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.2.4.5.5.2.7 Open book examination 3.2.2.3.5.2.4.

It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. Besides.2.2. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. 3.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. suggest the new evaluation procedures. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. 3.3.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. 4.2.8 3.2.2. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. you will be able to: 1.9 3. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .2. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. 3. 3. but on the other.3.

Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. schools for them wherever necessary. roadside Romeoism. They develop secondary sex characteristics. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. which the educational authorities have to face. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. The following steps should be taken up. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. waiting rooms for girl students. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. They may cause problems relating to discipline. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. etc.2. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. etc.. 149 . The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. hostel facilities. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education.3. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. 3.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. etc. If the students are in sufficient number. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened.

so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. 150 . Instruction. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents.2.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. With the mass growth of educational enterprise.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. appointment of paper-setters.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. It is considered as a major sub-system. teachers. the examination system has an important role to play. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. public administrators and statesmen. conduct of internal examinations. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. public interested in education. 3.4. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. assessment and Finance.

etc. etc. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. etc. establishing reliability. invigilators.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. 3. validity and practicability. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. values. tabulators. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. etc.printing and distribution of question papers. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. introducing objective-based testing.2. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. announcement of results. examiners.4. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. etc. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. scrutinizers. training of examiners.

The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. Rote memorisation..3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education..ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education..4. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. do not appeal to the students and parents. 152 . The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. which they are expected to study. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. Subjects. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. 2) From the angle of content of education. 7) In connection with the question papers. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. it s a common experience that subjectivity. halo-effect. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. stereotyped questions. takes the place of comprehensive learning. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. 3. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. Vagaries in making. may also discredit them. lack of objectivity etc. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording.2. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. 3) With respect to method of teaching.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two merits of examination. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. may be introduced. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. 4. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. 153 . . etc. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations..a part of internal assessment. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Spot valuation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. revaluation.develop true love for education.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. re-numbering of answer scripts.

2. It is complicated.2. he is given extra credit points. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. 3. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. In this system. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . skills are given importance. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. The new scheme of assessment. attitudes.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. When a person chooses to work extra. In actual practice. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .5. Every paper is treated equal. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure.2. The students can take any course offered in any department. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.5.3. Their interests. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination.

• Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. poor. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. These weightages are called credits. An example is a seminar. 3. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . courses can have weightages defined. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. This system reduces comparison of marks. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. v. Groupism is encouraged.good. In the new system. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. While designing syllabus.2. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. only the total credits to be earned is specified. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v.poor. or as a 4 credit course. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. instead of specifying number of paper/courses.discipline.5. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester.

This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.2.2. 3. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.5.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. However. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.2. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. 156 .5. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. 3. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.5. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. 3.

6.2. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.3.5. 3. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. recruitment. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • .7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. However. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . Therefore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. In the hierarchy. List any four new evaluation procedures.2. . Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. There are no proper procedures for selection. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. in contrast. qualifications. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. 158 . staff. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. library books. They are. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. being realised as two different functions. laboratory equipment. school buildings. complaints and compliments. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning.. interpersonal relationships and so on. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. wherever necessary. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties.6. 3. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. finding out whether the prescribed text. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. requirements. Academic inspection. When they are fully realised. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. etc. of late. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. whether the syllabus has been covered. inspecting the class-room teaching. taking up the follow-up programmes.. books are followed. 1. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. finding out the adequacy of. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. playgrounds. etc.qualified personnel. submitting of the inspection reports.2. disciplinary problems. in a sense.

courses. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Insistence on specialisation in the B. once in five years.Ed. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. at least. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. aptitude. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. In the case of departmental candidates. or. Similarly. modern.2. course in either educational.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection.Ed. their professional knowledge. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. 3. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo.. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives.. M. 159 . In the light of these conceptualisation.

our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. assessment and Finance. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. b. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. b. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. 3. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 5. a.2. b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. d. Grade System.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. 160 . 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. 3. 3. c. a. 3.2. Instruction. 4. Administration. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. a.

5. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.2. a.4. Problems of Education in India. Vaidya.a part of internal assessment. Multiple sets of question paper. b.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. (2005). Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. c. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. a. History and Problems of Education in India. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. Educational Reforms. K. R and Sharma. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Question banks. K. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. (2004). b. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. 3. a. Open book examinations. S. b. 7. New 161 . (2002).

3. 162 .1 3. 5. analyze the general and vocational spectra. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3.2 3.8 3.3.3. 2.4 3. 4.10 3.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. identify the needs of rural India and social.5 3. 3.3.3.3.3.LESSON 3. 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.7 3. you will be able to: 1.3.3 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3.6 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3.9 3.

Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. 8 years of general education. The Calcutta Madras. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education.. 10 years of general Secondary Education. etc. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination..e. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. the Banaras Sanskrit College. i.3. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses .. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 .e. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. e. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course.. and 3 years of First Degree Course.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. 2. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Consequent on the recommendations. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. University Education. in Andhra Pradesh. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. Similar is the case with some other States. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education.specialisation programmes 3. The. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges.g. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta.3. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. Commission emphasised to continue.

5. 5) to help for the social. b. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . historical. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. to imbibe. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. is also a plus point . who desire to change from one stream to another. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. and. to prepare. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. educational channels. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 3. 6. 7. cultural and economic development of the country.confidence in students. 8. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. habits of hard work and develop . It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students.3. 10. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation.a sense of dignity of labour. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . Provision for transfer of credits to students. economical and political.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. However. social.

not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. 1. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. etc. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. at the other.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. 3. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X.national integration. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education.. to develop national character. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. social justice. and that required to enter the tertiary level. Sociologically it is undesirable.3. cultural and' religious tolerance. Psychologically. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. international understanding. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. Philosophically it is not the conception. cooperativeness. The General Educational Spectrum. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . and. on one hand. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. democratic living.

It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. 166 .3. such as Agriculture. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. professional. Biology. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. technical. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. industrial agricultural production is growing. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. educational and cultural services. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. Agriculture is the main occupation. All these need for an. In the vocational spectrum. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. physics or mathematics. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. In the matter of language. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. Science. vegetable growing. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. medical plants. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. commerce. Commerce and other disciplines. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. In our country. the rural areas have suffered very much. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. 2. 3. horticulture. India is a land of villages.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. rural health. technological. or other machinery.— tube-wells. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. commerce. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. fish culture. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. chemistry. and vocations based on dairy-farming.

In this way. interests and aptitudes of the students. social justice. There had been favourable reaction from the students. and 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. In this it may be concluded. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. and the needs. 4. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India.3. the local resources available.etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. etc. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. In time.. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. can be ensured. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all.

General Educational Spectrum and b. we studied the history. J.a sense of dignity of labour. a. J. b. 3. b. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.C. 3. New Delhi : 168 . Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2001). 2.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. S. 3.3. Calcutta University Commission 2. a. B.K. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2007).3. Vocational Sepctrum. a. Dash. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Ltd. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. habits of hard work and develop .3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Anmol Publications Pvt. N. Mohanty.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2008). to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.3. to imbibe. 3. objectives.3. (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

Education contributes to human development.4.13 3.1 3.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.11 3. social and 169 .10 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.6 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.9 3.3 3.8 3.12 3.5 3.4.7 3.4.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.4.4.2 3.4.LESSON 3. but the lighting of a fire”.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.

analyze the women and distance education. Education . understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. There is a close connection between education and development. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . you will be able to: 1. In the post —independence period. particularly 170 . the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. higher education of girls developed immensely. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5.higher education in particular. During the year 1937.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. community and nation is universally acknowledged. The relevance of women’s education to social. These courses were.4. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. 3. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. cultural and political development of the individual. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. economic. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. For the first time in the history of India.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877.4. Home Economics. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. family. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. 3. although we have miles to go. Nursing. Dr. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. While women constituted only 9. Teaching and Fine Arts. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states.

Yet. Even today. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.65 lakhs in 1994-95.0 43. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.9 14. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.0 Today.1 31. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. In the rest of the country. Kodaikanal.1 24. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.D. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.2 29. 3. levels and professions. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.4.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.T Women University. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). out of 9200 and odd colleges.0 16. Coimbatore.4. Mother Teresa Women University.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . In 1950-51. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.9 27. in our country. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. Mumbai.4.2 22.0 32. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. we have more than 1200 institutions.women.N. 3. The idea of women’s education for equality.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.83 47. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.73 10.27 89.47 65.66 66. 3.4.1 respectively. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . 2.46 82.53 34.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4.36 3. 3.4.that of boys. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .17 52.54 12.1 and 14. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.63 Female % 34.34 33. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .4%) prefer Arts subjects.44 35.56 64. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.

Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family.4. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. promoted and increased. In college. They gave up their studies to enter home life. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities.hinders the girls from getting higher education. According to a survey. marriage is a very common I factor. etc. Book banks should be established. she will only learn fashion. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. 3. financial difficulty of the parents. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. curriculum not suited to their requirements. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. In every third family. particularly. Also. irrelevance of the content of education. and coeducation may spoil her character. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Thus.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. what is the need for higher education for her. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. 173 . we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. distance of the college or university from home. The major hurdles.

Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. It is a productive investment. Geographic distance of educational institutions. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. which is the most dynamic factor of development. space. It enables to study. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Education. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. resources and socio . Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. Empowerment in a nutshell. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment.4.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Distance education is a boon to women. 3.4. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. 3. It also brings about 174 . learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Full-time employment. There are constraints of time. is the only tool for realising empowerment. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.economic disabilities faced by women.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development.

they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. Women are partners in development. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. on their own. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. Empowerment is an active. legal awareness and economic independence. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . The major objectives of women's higher education. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. education of women is of paramount importance. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. 3. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. higher learning. education of women must be given priority in national plans.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. empowerment means being assertive. This can be achieved through reflection. for full development of our human resources. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex.4.

Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. will encourage them to venture new grounds.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. The educational institutions. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. 176 .GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. has to be implemented at the earliest. who are eager to take up courses.4. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. especially so in the developing countries. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. The local administration. Better opportunities.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. But their number is small. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. which is pending for a long time. Scholarships and concessions for women. Reservation for women. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. 3. which had been the sole domain of men. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops.

Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.9%). According to Lindy Hyam.000 women in the country. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. engineering and related technologies (16.8%). women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Chief Executive. capacities etc. IDP Education. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). But. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Also. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century.4. especially in developing countries like African countries. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. talents.1%) and architecture and building (38. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Australia.3 percent. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? .

Women Education. 43% 6.to the family. A.C. 178 .4. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. SNDT Women’s University. Annakodi. individuals and society b. 3. and Suryalatha. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Centre for Women’s Studies. R. Rajasthan 5. SNDT Women’s University. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. 4. (2008). Mishra. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.K. R. create the right attitude towards life. a. Coimbatore. Mumbai. (2007). impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. A. Coimbatore. 2.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Mother Teresa Women University. and Swain. R. 3. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. 4.4. (2000). Women and Education. (2005). community and the nation. Mumbai. Pattanaikj. Kodaikanal.R. Women Education.4.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. S. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. 3. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Rao. S.

They should be trained. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.5.8 3.5.LESSON 3.10 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5.personality of children in and out of school.4 3.6 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.11 3.5.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 . whole. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5 3.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.7 3.5.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.2 3.1 3.5.3 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.5.5.5.9 3.

It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understanding and strong desire for international peace. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. know the pre service and in service training facilities.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. understand the training teachers for Primary. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Lack of physical facilities. 4. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. you will be able to: 1. national consciousness.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. 5. equality and justice. social and emotional integration. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 180 . The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. and national character. international. Shorter working hours.5. 3. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. 3.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction.

Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. higher secondary teacher education. it is called the Extension teacher Education. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. the centre. students. and M. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. At the diploma level. (NCERT) New Delhi. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them.. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. who have not been trained earlier. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. the primary teacher education. 3. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service.5.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers.5.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Depending on the levels. etc. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. the state Government. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. inservice and extension education programmes. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . 3. it is called the In-service teacher education. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years.Ed.Ed.. levels. and the collegiate teacher education.Less qualified teacher educators. the secondary teacher education. If the student teachers are working teachers. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. Inadequate training in practical skills. a Diploma course and a Degree course. Lop-sided curriculum.

Education cells. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. 3. Expand NCERT 2.5.. non-formal. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Educational teehnology cells. Science Education units. etc. collegiate cells. extensio n service. depart ments etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. are established. Also Guidance Bureaux. state Institutes of Educat ion.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose .6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Evaluation unit. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research.

. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. to ensure teacher competence. and 183 . The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. which should include experience in the primary schools too. primary and secondary school teachers. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . degree.. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. laboratories. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. material conditions relating to libraries.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre.Ed. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . schools and sister institutions. should be improved on a top priority basis. to improve curricular programmes. which help breaking isolation from one another .Ed. to offer consultative services.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training .. to prescribe conditions for recognition. despite its vast expansion. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. audio visual aids. and so on.

it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. The problem. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Organisation of Content Courses. whether they should have professional education or. Psychology of Students. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . To meet this exigency. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. etc. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Workshops. methodology and evaluation. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. and XII. Meanwhile. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Modern Techniques of Teaching. though no pre-service training. Induction Courses. Modern Methods of Evaluation. etc. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. Hence.secondary education. not came up once again. 184 . Agriculture.

Ed. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.Ed. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.5. (Education) are organized by 185 ...A. training. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Post-Graduates also undergo B. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Degree.Ed. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. courses and M. Ajmer.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. For re-orienting the teachers. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. These facilities are available for regular students...’s are elig ible for M. (Education) and M.S. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.. Pre-service training is for those.A... Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. All B Ed. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .D. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.’s for Ph.Ed. M. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. Degree and M. in Education.Ed. Courses leading to B..Ed. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. State Institutes of Education. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.

Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .. they should be conscientious . However.A. 6.A. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. . 5. 186 . code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.).List any two code of conduct for teachers? . established by tradition and teachers of the past. (Ed). 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. and B. (Ed. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. What is the role of ERIC? . of conduct—written or unwritten. Hence the employability of M. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics.. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.5.

Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. However. National Council of Educational Research and Training. they should be conscientious. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. 5. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. The necessity is however this. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. b. 2. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 3. Explain code of conduct for teachers. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 2. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. 6.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.5. a. 3. Discuss the problems of teacher education.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. a.5. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. 187 . Bhopal. 3. a. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. b. Ajmer. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3. 4. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.5. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. 3. Shorter working hours.

A. Publication Pvt. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.N. J. Corporation.D. Teacher Education. (2009). P. and Teacher Education. Teacher Education.3. (2003). Tewari. B. Mohanty.5. (2010). Ltd Aggarwal.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. objectives and role of the physical education. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. economic and educational developments. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. preservation of nutrients. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. In lesson 4. In lesson 1.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. objectives. the focus is on the school health programmes. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. communicable diseases and their prevention. 191 . The person’s environment is equally important. If the diet is poor. Since food is the source of nutrients. objectives. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. common ailments of children. nutritional deficiency diseases. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. consuming the right amounts becomes important.

192 .

3 4.1.1.1.1.6 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. emotional and social.1.e.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.9 4. physical.LESSON 4.1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.7 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1.1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.5 4.1.11 4. 193 .1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. It is a miniature society.1 4.4 4.2 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody. mental. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.10 4.1.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.8 4.1.

. Instruction. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. training in first aid and etc. 9.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. training of teachers and evaluation. to his family and to the community at large. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. e. 4. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools.1. 11. 8. list the common ailments of children 3.1. you will be able to: 1.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. know the need for sex education. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 3. understand school health programmes 2. content of health education. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 10. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. 194 . School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. explain the importance of First aid 5. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases.g. 5. 4. 4. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. To develop certain skills concerning health. 2. To develop healthy health habits among children. To give information regarding health rules. 7. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. cleanliness and healthful living. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 6.

(viii) first aid.G. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. suitable furniture. There should be regular water supply. play festivals. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. The school buildings should be spacious. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. as described below 1.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. 2.C. (xl) mental health. direct lighting. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. “Play-for-all” programmes. typhoid. Vaccination for small pox. arranging class rooms in the ground floors.1. The flooring should not be damp. 5. 4.4. organisation of school health days.coming or absence. (v) safety education. proper doors and windows. minimizing the travelling distance. 3. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. excusing late. etc. is imperative. cleanliness weeks. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. vaccination. (ii) communit y healt h. First aid facilities should be made readily available. B. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. There should be good drainage facilities. B. 2. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. ( iii) sanit at io n. Arranging better transportation facilities. The surroundings of schools should be clean.. inoculation against cholera. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . (xii) smoking education etc. Triple Antigen Vaccination. (vi) nutrition education.. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled.

• Close the schools. insect stings. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. 196 . if epidemic is wide-spread. • Have adequate rest and sleep. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. etc. fainting (epileptic fit). dislocations. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. • Take nutritious food. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. bleeding. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. and other accidents. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. • Keep all rooms clean. wounds. isolate and notify. C. • Find out the cases. poisons. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. sports and games in the interest of their health. cuts. D. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. burns. • When sleeping in groups. fractures. scalds. drowning. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious..

pain in the joints.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. backache. List out the Health curriculum 3. 4. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. water or bodily contact. 4. headache. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. Once these germs get into the body. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. which are – cold. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. They are: i) The incubation stage. cough. asthma. 2.1.1.. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. tuberculosis. So they easily get illnesses. fever.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. chicken pox. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • .5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. There are three stages in any communicable disease. measles etc. polio. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. These diseases are called communicable diseases. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. Mention the school health programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink.When a child suffers from scabies. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. The symptoms include cold. Throat is affected. unhygienic living conditions. Mumps . Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. sugar and water. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Measles . He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Hence it is called a killer disease. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Scabies . Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. This is caused by cold virus. Children catch cold from persons having cold. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Others make the children very weak. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. After three or four days of fever. Tonsilitis . Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. unhygienic bottle feeding.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Some suffer cold due to allergy. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Common Cold . Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. The following are the common communicable diseases. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Ear Infections . 198 . eating food which is not clean. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. head-ache and cough.This disease is caused by bacteria. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. The child may have fever. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. cough and fever.It is caused by measles virus. Diarrhoea .It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. etc. Hence liquid diet is recommended.

Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. What are communicable diseases? 6. separate. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. the child is not able to breathe. Expand DPT . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. face and waist. By scratching he causes secondary infections. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. raised pink spots appear on head. Typhoid . A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. 199 . the child may die. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The child may also have diarrhoea. If proper treatment is not given.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. As the disease progresses. Shortly. Diphtheria .• • • • Chicken Pox . So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Enlist the common ailments of children. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It begins with fever. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing.

It has its rightful place in education too. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. scorpion stings. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. 2. bruises. exciting and body-oriented. head injury. 200 . snakebites.1. Cuts and Bruises . 4. drowning. etc. man-woman behaviours. It is both biological and psychological. simple fractures. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. sprains. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. dislocation. bleeding. Wounds . wounds. swelling. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. 5. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. fainting. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in.4.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. fiction. In such cases. Sprains .” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. Drowning .Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. so-called sex books and periodicals. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. eye injury. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. 3.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. cuts.1. Sex is popular. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.g. films and jokes. it is a subject of art.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. 4. and Community Work and Social Service.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. and films.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. sprains.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e.

Hence. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. the school. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. health. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. Should the boys and girls. 3. the religious organisations. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. in their ignorance. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. celibacy are age. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease.old values. The values of life. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. In today's liberal and interactive society. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. they would be treading the path of sure doom. but preserve them from disaster and disease. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. try experimenting with their bodies.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems..co-operatively to give sex education to the young. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. In secondary schools. The home. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. sex education is being recommended in schools. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . 2. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. B. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1.

Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. Teacher education institutions are. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. C.1. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. 202 . As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. there will no crisis in its implementation. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. communicable diseases and their prevention. first aid and sex education. 4. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. common ailments of children. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the school health programmes.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the major components of Sex Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. hence. when the courses are already overloaded.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Mention the food nutrients 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 209 . List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6.

Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. Let us talk about each of these aspects. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. 210 .2.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.4. minerals. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. If you look at the definition carefully.2. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods.

A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Even within given States there is considerable variation. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age).one in the morning and the other at night. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. activity level and physiological stress.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex.sedentary. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). it is also specific to a given activity level . Those in the west also tend to eat rice.g. for example.6. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. sex. 4. moderate or heavy work.g. People in the east of our country prefer rice. In the case of adults. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. the social and religious practices of that region. construction labourer). These are: region where the person resides and income. A balanced diet is specific firstly. dosa are typical of the south.2. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . In other words. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. There is no point. paratha and poori. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. Preferences/customs are also important.

however. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. Judicious selection of food is. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. One must. Having more money. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. fat and sugar tend to increase. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. If you think of your own religious group. However. customs. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. however. however. As income increases. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. nuts and dry fruits. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. vegetables and fruits. taboos related to food may play an important role. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. income plays a vital role. Among the social factors. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. for example. In addition to these. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. These determine the acceptability of foods. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. while another may hate them. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. as important for the rich as for the poor. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. As you read this discussion. Including these 212 . It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems.planning the diet. One person may be fond of milk products. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. Even among flesh foods.

meat. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . Define balanced diet. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. if the teachers have good food habits. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . 8) Walk a while after eating. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost.eating is hazardous. fruits. 17. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. For this. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 213 . Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. but they should be thrown away. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. mouth. etc. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. 8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two healthy food habits. eggs . over-eating or under. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. green leaves.

9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Beri Beri 4. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Bitot’s spots. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. good nutrition is essential for good health. preservation of nutrients. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 .2. Keratomalacia 3. d. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2.2. c. Vitamin D 5. 4. When the diet is inadequate.2. b.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Night blindness. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. 4. e.4. Discuss good food habits.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Corneal xerosis. Explain food nutrients 4. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. In fact. Conjuctival xerosis. a. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2.

Health and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. (2008). b. Nutrition and Dietetics. Food and Nutrition Education. mouth. A Text Book of Foods. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. (2008). Chopra. Hands.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. a. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.C. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru.N. P. S. Food and Nutrition Education. (2005). 8.2. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. 7. R. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . R. minerals. b. Nutrition Science. (2004).M. (2009). plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.6. a . Food should be consumed after eating well. Sri Lakshmi B. 4.

3.3. 216 .11 4.3.3.3.13 4.6.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.3.2 4.6.4 4.8 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.3.5 4.1 4.3.12 4.9 4.6.7 4.3 4.10 4.3.3.1 Impact on social development 4.3.3 Impact on Education 4.3.3.LESSON 4.

therefore. and the consequences of these processes.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. the causes of population change. describe the impact of population growth on social. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. 4. objectives and need for population education 2. family planning and sex education etc. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. his societ y and the world. It is a much wider co ncept.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Whenever we talk of sex education. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. characteristics and changes for himself. understand the importance of small family norm 5. 4. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. economic and educational development 3. his family. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. It is not sex education. the stress is. community. you will be able to: 1. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. aims at providing the younger generation.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control.3. state the meaning. Population Education.4. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. There is some difference. population characteristics.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning.3.3. 217 . with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation.

List out any two objectives of Population Education. the family. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.4.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. the nation and the world. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 4. Define Population Education 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the society.

6. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. Family is considered as a social unit. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. With the larger families. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. the family programmes are also handicapped. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. 4. When the family is small. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous.3. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. which will not be possible without population control. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. health and happiness of its citizens. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. 219 . 4.3. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. economic and educational development of the country. Every second two thousand children are being born. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood.

3. in parks and other places of public gatherings. 4. in buses and trains.. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. heavy intern I migration etc. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher.3. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. toilets. organization index and material index. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. In developing countries. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. pollution of the environment. 220 . i. in cinema halls and theatres.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. lack of proper health care.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. Many students herded in a small room. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.6.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets.e. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. unemployment. facility for drinking water.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth.6. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. and so on. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. 4. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. The gulf between them is widening further. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. teacher index. Swollen cities.

Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. even text books would be in short supply. blank verses etc. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. 221 . there will be lacuna in many other spheres. reproduction. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. can be studied in science and health education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Social Studies Statistics on population education. Regional Language. thus. There would be very few audiovisual aids. There would be poor library facilities. less space facilities.3. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. family planning etc. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. less budget for education. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. can be taken up. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Hindi and English. and laboratory equipments. essays. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.. bar graphs etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme.

They may arrange them as per average density of population. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. 7. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 14. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. deaths. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. 8. Children with the help of parents. 13. Children may compare two families. Uttar Pradesh.3. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 4. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 10. West Bengal. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 2. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 3. Bihar. United States of America. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Canada. causes of deaths etc. 9.4. 11. 15. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. China. 12. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. 5. area and average density of population. Brazil. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes.

Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size.be opened in their schools. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. 16. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. 17. we have no right to stop 223 . These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. The question. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. 18. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. preferences for sex. values and role children etc. age at marriage. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole.3. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Comparing life in various respects in two families. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. How will you correlate Population Education? 5.

Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000..4 births per woman in mid-1990s. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. however. which education can only do. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).their entry into the world”. “He who is responsible for population growth. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. at varying places in different regions.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3.were implemented 224 . and the child survival components of the news: program. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. especially the expansion of child immunization services . Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage.3.4-6. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. on an overall basis. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. The Family Welfare Program. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. More than 45 years ago. 4. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. fertility levels have declined throughout the country.to emphasize family planning services. continued . Since the program's inception.

adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. In April 1996. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. In October 1997. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling.earlier than the safe motherhood components. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. Moreover. Therefore. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. reliance on local women as community health workers. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. the community appears willing to pay for services. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. Local programs vary in their approaches. men. and nominal fees for services. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. a focus on health promotion. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. At these meetings. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . expansion of services to unmarried women. and the World Conference on Women. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men.

improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. economic and educational development 4.3. 1997). Its main purposes are to create awareness. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. nation and the world. Describe the impact of population growth on social. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. 226 . What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. 3. involving the community.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2.emphasizing the needs of the client. 4. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. What are the goals of RCH? 4. family. community.

his society and the world. less budget for education. Canada. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. area and average density of population. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. characteristics and changes for himself. 227 . Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. China. a. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. his family. 7. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. a. Brazil. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. 3. a.4. 4. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. 5. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. and the consequences of these processes. b.3.” 2. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. the causes of population change. less space facilities. population characteristics. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. bar graphs. 6. United States of America.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b.

228 .14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Ltd. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Modern Problems of Education. (1992).3. (2005). J. (2004). Centre for Women’s Studies. (2002). Principles of Population Studies. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Kantikar. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. T. Bhende. A. Changing attitudes to Education in India.K. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. N. Udaiveer. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. V. Coimbatore. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Reddy. (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education.4. Jayapoorni.

2 4.8.LESSON 4.8.1 Minor games 4.3 Indigenous games 4.4.4.10 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.8.6 4.4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4.9 4.4.4.4.4.2 Major games 4.4 Lead up games 4.1 4.4.4.11 19.4 4.4.7 4.4.3 4.4.8.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.5 4.4.

Physical Education is education through Physical activity. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. The concept of physical education has been made broader.4. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education.4. leadership and balance in defect. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”.4.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. which forms its most valuable assets. classify the different types of games. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. as it should 230 . full records of physical activities should be maintained. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. the youth of the country. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. team spirit. 4.4.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. moral fitness and emotional fitness. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. mental alertness. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. perseverance. social fitness. 4. you will be able to: 1.

The educational efforts at home. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Therefore. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. obedience to rules. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. leadership. They are inseparably united together. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. To be more precise. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. team spirit. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Every individual is a part of society. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. They go hand in hand.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise.

Just like Education. C. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks.” Montaigue writes. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. pleasing manners.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. Physical exercises.” The Secondary Education Commission. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. Rousseau states. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. a sound health. ment al. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. Regarding the significance of physical education. mo ral. game and sports. “Physical education does neither train up the soul.4.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. 4. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. Buck has observed that 232 . “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. nor body but the whole man. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. H.

etc. Froebel says. efficiency and character. elegance. speed.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. coordinative abilities. “If we wish to develop the whole being. 233 .” In brief. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. flexibility and power. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. endurance.4. we must exercise the whole human being. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. strength. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life.a properly directed physical education should result in health.” 4. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. initiative. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. resourcefulness and smartness. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. happiness.

they may form gangs. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. in greater or lesser degree. Every age has its artists.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Tournaments foster this sentiment. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. 234 (i) (ii) . poetry and painting. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. plagues and famines. While wars. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. systems of government. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. including all racial groups and historical ages. its adherents and its enemies. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. these fundamental things have always been present.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. should help in the spiritual development of the student.

respect for rules. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. Write any two importance of Physical Education.sacrifice. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. 235 .(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. B. 3. obedience. bravery and interest in games and sports. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. to develop tolerance. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination .\ to develop perseverance. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. self. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour.

. 8. 15. 14. 16.4. 12. 4. 236 1. and readmission after they have recovered. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Keep the field ready for the activities. students. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Be sportive.4. Be well-prepared. and. defects. Be self-confident. Always keep the whistle ready. 6. 13. injuries among pupils should be made. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Act as a leader. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 5. 9. 2. 7. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Haag. is essential. 4. Be punctual. Usually parents. Emergency care procedures should be followed. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Posture screening should be done. Be in the uniform. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 3.4. 11. 10.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Inform health principles.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed.H.

Moreover. 3. 237 . Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. their development is handicapped. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. frolic and jo y.8. 4.4. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. 4. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Indigenous games. 2. the play.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. less equipment and less expense. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character.4. As such they are well enjoyed by children. chasing. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. 1.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Lead up games. Such inst incts as imitation. 4. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules.

These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Hopping. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. Shuttle Badminton. benefit in playing minor games. heading.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. the play equipment. zig zag relay. boosting. hitting. 238 . Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. wherever the kids assemble. Jumping. For each game the rules are many. stopping. On lawns. on hard courts. dribbling. Cricket. Throwing. muffling. on sea-shore. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people.4. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. the games can be modified according to convenience. Basket Ball. While many of them are played in the open playfields. 4. Kabaddy etc. They are played for a shorter duration. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. some of them are played indoors. Dodging. Hockey. with implements or without implements. finding the partner. Khokho. Jump the stick clay and so on. over ball pass Relay.8. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. trapping. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Ball Badminton. snatching the kerchief. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Tennis. driving. Except a few games. pitching. bowling etc. skipping. Volley Ball. Tennikoit. They are rules approved by the International Associations. spiking. The dimension of the posts and nets. Soft Ball. on mountain tops and on river beds. women take part most of the games.With a very few rules. under ball pass Relay. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. catching. These games require varied skills such as running. couple tag. the number of players and substitutes..

For example.4. death. they are in existence. Games may be classified as 6. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. and . Kho-kho. birth. On occasions like marriage. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. List out some major games. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. 4. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games.8.4. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.4. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . these games being popular. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. festivals connected with religion and public functions. An example for indigenous game is 8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They have an abundant social value.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. While observing the players in action. All the fundamental tactics. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8.

It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 3. Schools should help students to keep them mentally.4. 4. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. 4. to secure physical health b. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. 2.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. c. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Briefly discuss the different types of games. 2. a. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. aims and objectives and need of physical education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Posture screening should be done.4. 5. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. b. b. 4. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. a. b. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Minor and Major 240 . Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. to develop physical stamina.4. a. d. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.4. a. 4. 3.

J. Basket Ball. Cricket. Ball Badminton.C. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. 241 .K. Mohanty. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Khokho. Kabaddy 7. Hockey. Soft Ball. J. Khokho 8. Aggarwal. Ltd. Health. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2005). Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Physical Education and Sports. Volley Ball. Foot-ball. J. 4. Shuttle Badminton.4. (2009). Handbook of Physical Education. Tennikoit. G. (2008).12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Krishna murthy. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Tennis. (2008). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.6.

12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.6 4.11 4.5.5.LESSON 4.5.5.5.9 4.5.5.5.5.7 4.1 Natural Environment 4.3 4.5.5.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.4 4.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.10 4.2 4.1 4.5.2 Manmade Environment 4.8 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.

5. list out the types of environment 3. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. social. you will able to: 1. Details are given below: I.5. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. economic.5. education about the environment and education through the environment. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. it covers the following elements: 1. 5. 3.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. role of teacher in environmental conservation. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. 4. Participation. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Broadly. 6. political. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. 2. Skills. Evaluation Ability.educat ion for the environment. 243 . Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Knowledge. Attitude. 3. Awareness. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. 4. aesthetic and educational factors. The best place to start such learning is school. 2. Essential knowledge about the Environment. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. population explosion and resource depletion could be. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.

244 . D. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. 2. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. F. Oxidants Other pollutants. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. a. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle.B. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. heat sink and wind flow in cities. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. • Biological magnification E. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle.

Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. 4. Control of population growth a. c. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology.3. Birth control through education b. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Socio-economic measures. The human ecosystem II. Abortion iv. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. The pill ii. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Use of medical science i. III. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Family planning ii. B. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. economic. 3. 2. Persuasion: i. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Sterilisation. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. 2. Intrauterine device iii.

Define Environmental Education. (UNESCO.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 2. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. 3. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 246 . 1983). Air pollution abatement ii. 3. e) Recycling. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Water pollution abatement. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Planning human intervention on the natural processes.

He modifies according”. A change in one brings about a change in the other.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. way is called environmental or ecological factor. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. They interact with each. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.5. 4.4.5. a. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. includes the plants. Biological environment The biological environment. b.5.5.other components of the environment.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. -other.5. telex. These are biotic components.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. fax agricultural apparatus. animals and other organisms (biotic). Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. to his needs. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . Any constituent or condition of the environment.5.

greenhouse effect. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. wars and hazards of war. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. over exploitation of ground water. reasons.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. sources of pollut ion. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. need for conservation. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. t heir role in preventing pollution. (ii) Air pollution. importance of nitrogen cycle. desertification 248 . industrial pollut io n. river systems. balance of nature. trees reducing noise pollution. preserving the watersheds. noise pollution. supplying timber for various uses. maintaining the ecological diversity. natural way of controlling pests. change in climate may be added. ozone layer deplet ion. etc. use of medicinal plants. are the topics which may be taught in History. ozone depletion. use of pesticides. etc. need for bio-diversity. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . explosion deforestation. excellent recreation sites. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. air pollutants from industries.. extinction of species. acid rain. role of trees in building economy. social studies. noise control. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. mineral survey. food chain and food-web. alternate sources of energy. preventing siltation of dams. of civilizations. nuclear energy. relation between population and pollution. effects. water scarcity. biogas plants. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. nuclear warfare. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. History The rise and fall. windmills. effects o f CFC. sources. solar cookers. evolution. population. industrial survey.

Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community.5. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 7. 9. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 3. 12. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 10. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. 4. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Peepal and Tulsi. 6. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 14. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. 249 . 8. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Organising conferences.may be inc ded in Geography. 13. 4. 11. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. animal and plants. aims and scope. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. group discussions and seminars. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Providing. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. 2. 5.

Send their waste oil. World Environmental falls on 250 . it will cause pollution. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. all these can cause serious pollution. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Reuse carrier bags. 5. 6. used oils down the drain. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. especially plastics. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Use public transport wherever it is possible. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Never put any left over chemicals. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Don’t burn any waste. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. If it is done. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products.

dest roying nat ural habitats. loss of bio-diversity. Harmony with the nature . etc.4. To provide materials needed for practical work.). The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions.5. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. etc. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. CFCs. concern for others). (cleanliness. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. rather than conquest and mastery. and 251 . Concern for species. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. To arrange visits or expeditions. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. Social responsibilit y (common good. To arrange for visiting speakers. potable water. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. viz. developing desirable attitudes. The groups may exchange. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection.. values and habits. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. diversity and stability. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. Conservation of natural resources. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. To provide reference materials for children’s use.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. nuclear wars. orderliness and beauty). To initiate and develop discussion and debate. deforestation. Att itudes of balance towards nature. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. depletion of ozone. prevention of irretrievable loss of species.mat erials.

8. 4. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.5. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.5. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. 252 .5. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. preserving natural cycles.

Modern Problems of Education. (ii) Air pollution. Awareness. acid rain. Y. ozone layer deplet ion.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. explosion deforestation. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. population. effects.K.\ 4. New Delhi : Authors Press. S. group discussions and seminars. a. To provide materials needed for practical work. (2007). importance of trees in the production of oxygen. (2004). Nanda.K. 6. Organising conferences. Environmental Education. Environment and Human Rights. sources. new problems from science and technology. b. 8.5.K. water scarcity. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Ltd. b. T. importance of nitrogen cycle. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Providing. New Delhi : Sharma. (1997). (2007). a. Publications Pvt. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Education for values. greenhouse effect. over exploitation of ground water. Udaiveer. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . sources of pollution. relat ion between population and pollution. S.. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Environmental Education. 5. a. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Kuldeep. b. concern for others). To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Rapid population growth. air pollutants from industries. Social responsibilit y (common good. 4. 3. Knowledge. a. Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt. b. June 5 7.K.2. reasons.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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Universal Education. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism.our life. in fact. Therefore. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Spiritual Development." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. The universe is regarded as a thought process. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. should be universal in nature. Education must contribute to development of culture. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. promote and transmit it to rising generation. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. enrichment and transmission of culture. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 .” 5. According to Rusk'. moral.3. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. man is essentially a moral being. It is self-realisation. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments.1. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. the emancipation of spirit. Education according to idealism. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve.

Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. It considers teacher as. 5.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. 4. So he should embody. friend and guide. 5. Learning through reading. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . History. For intellectual development. a spiritual guide for the child. He sets the environment in which education takes place. However. The plant can grow. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. Herbert advocated instruction method. hygiene. Philosophy.” He is thus. affecting (feeling).3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. Learning through lecturing. 2. Science.1. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. According to Frobel.3. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1.” 5. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. Learning through imitation. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. and collation (striving) should find due place. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. He carries the child from darkness to light. According to idealism. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Ethics. 3. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. the school is a garden.1. Learning through discussion. Learning through questioning. Mathematics etc. So health. So cognition (knowing). He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. no doubt. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.the spiritual qualities of mankind.3. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. subjects like Languages. an indispensable necessity. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. so subjects like Religion. should be there. For this no particular method has been suggested. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked.

Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. formal lessons or examinations. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. 2. In the words of Ross. Ross explains.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century.1. text books. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.perfection and beauty. time tables. curricula.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.4. 5. Perfection of Human Machine. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.preservation. "Education should make 263 • . List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 5.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

It is based on the psychology of the child. Education also aims at helping the individual t. therefore. There is no place for religious and moral education. is based on the nature of the child. • 5. In all. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Arithmetic. Zoology. Chemistry. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. It stresses basic sciences. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Biology. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Botany etc Language. “Education finds its purpose. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. education should develop the child into Joyous. Education should. Therefore. rational harmoniously balanced. useful and mature child. subjects like history. geography should also be included in the curriculum.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Naturalistic curriculum. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Punishment is given by nature in its own way.4. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose.1.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. 264 . its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. 4. Literature.

Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. the stage. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation.1. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. 5.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy.5.1. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. a supplier of materials and opportunities. In the . “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Dalton Plan. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. 5. 3. Learning by doing.4. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. 2. a provider of an ideal environment.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .4. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . It discards all rigid. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Learning through experience. Learning through observation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Heuristic method. he should be taught by experience alone. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Rousseau says. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.

Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. intellectual. Subjects. Physical training. All Round Development of an Individual. social and moral aspects. The aim of educational development. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Personal Social Adjustment. Sciences. of human personality is in terms of his physical. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency.1. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Geography. Vocational and 266 .5. 5.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. 5.absolutism of idealism. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. is true.1. History. The individual has not only to adjust himself. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Continuous Growth. Social Efficiency.5. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. diversified and flexible. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Social Science. Agriculture. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning.

alert and resourceful. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom.5. He must be trained. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child.1. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.1.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. a teacher occupies an important position. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.” 5.Technical Education. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Learning by Doing. 5. should find proper place. The subjects. activities and experience should be integrated properly. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. a senior partner and a sincere guide. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. He has to be active.

It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Art. Chemistry.1.6. literary or humanistic education.1. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. 5. specific. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Psychology. 3. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. It favours child-centered. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic.1. Literature. practical. intellectual. Music and Dance. 5. Astrology. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Crafts. rich and happy. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. scientific and psychological education. History. 2.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. 4. 5. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Mathematics. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Sex Education. 4. Education is preparation for a complete living. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Biology. Geography are unnecessary 268 .1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. 3. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing.5. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. 2.6. Population Education. Biography Philosophy.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Study of Subjects like Language. liberal. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood.

4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.1.1. easily and pleasantly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .6. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.5. certainly and clearly.6.

7 LET US SUM UP We have. a. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Social Science. Physical training. in this lesson. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Tours / Excursion e. 3. 6. naturalism. Learning through imitation.5. e. Self Realisation b.1. Sciences. History. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Agriculture. Learning through reading. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Vocational and Technical Education.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Self preservation & Self expression 4.1. Education according to pragmatism. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Geography. & curriculum. Learning through lecturing. Rousseau 5. Languages. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. 5. 5. d. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. has no end other than growth.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Learning through discussion. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Universal Education 2. a. Learning through questioning. pragmatism and realism. c. Learning through experience b.1. Child centered c. Experimentation d. a. b. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. 5.

H.5. Narang C. of Pathak. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. (2007). Ltd. (2004). (2003). 271 . Theory and Principles of Education. Foundations of Education. Publishing corporation.1. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : A. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. N. O. P. Pahuja.P. L. New Delhi : Bhatia. K. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.P.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. R. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. P.

3.3 Methods of teaching 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.3.1 Aims of Education 5.2.3.2.3 Methods of teaching 272 .5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.2.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.1 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2.3. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2.3.2.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2 Curriculum 5.5.2.2.4.4.2 Curriculum 5.LESSON 5.4.2.2.4 Views about teacher 5.2.4.2.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.4.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.5.3.2.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2.2 5.2.5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.4 Views about teacher 5.

6 5. you will able to: 1. 5. 273 . According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.2. 2. Gandhiji was primarily a social.2.2.2. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.5.4 Role of the teacher 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Tagore was a poet.8 5. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.5. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2.2. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. 3.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. content and methods. 5. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. an artist. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.7 5. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.2.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. economic and political reconstruction in our country. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. mind and spirit.2. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.

strength of mind. it is education of life. "I attach more. 'Man is neither mere intellect. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education.3. mind and soul of children He further observed. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. It really provides opportunity for character building. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body.2. righteousness. 274 . His scheme of education is life centred. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. In the words of Gandhiji. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education.supporting.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. through life and for life. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. 5. nor the gross animals body. self-restraint and service of humanity. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands." Dignity of Labour. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education.

Music. wood work. Individual and Social Aims.Training for Leadership.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered.2. "Development of the moral character. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Drawing and Hindustani. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. metal work. gardening. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. leather work have been suggested. 5.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Only good individual forms a better society. Art. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. General Sciences. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . the realization of the ultimate reality.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.3. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Mother-tongue. According to Gandhi.

2.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. Basic education is other wise known as 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. proficient.trained. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.3. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. men of 276 . What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.

2.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. He also advocates freedom for the child. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations.3. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.knowledge. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. That is why. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . 3. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Education must be child centered.

He believed in the oneness of humanity. • Education should involve manual work. 5. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.” Like all other ideals. He was a true patriot. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. He was deadly against untouchability.2. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.2.3. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. • Ideal of citizenship. he was a true Vedantist 5. Gandhi in 1937.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.K.4. 5. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. • Cult of non-violence.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.2.

stronger in power than ever before. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. (vi) Philosophy. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. 279 . To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Music. Zoology. Botany. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. he said. Geography. them solve problems of day to day life. Dance. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. complete manhood could be attained. International understanding. "Mankind must realise a unity.2. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Tagore said. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. etc. Civics. deeper in.Language and Literature . Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. sentiment. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. the more dedicated and devoted. International Understanding. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. It should help the learner have good physique. Therefore. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. could help in forging unity among all. wider in range. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Religion and Psychology. Chemistry. It should help. That way only.4.

” He further says.2. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. 280 .Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.4. 5. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.2. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.4. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. Activity Method Heuristic Method.4. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame." 5. 5. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. Tagore rightly says. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. In 1921.2. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.

Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. It is open to all irrespective of country.g. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. 9. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. race. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. 10. 281 . Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi.

Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man.5. work and deeds come out of it. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Education for strong Moral Character.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. 4.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. He believed in to learning or selflearning. character forming and assimilation of ideas. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues." He was against the theoretical type of education.” 5. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Freedom. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge.2. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Concept of Education. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life.2. Purity of thought. Education for Self-realization. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. 2. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace.5. Book learning. Education for Self-reliance.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. man making. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. According to him. Education should make a person self-reliant. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. 3.

2. Education for Physical Development. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other.5. Only a selfless person can be good teacher.2. Religion. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. A physically strong person is the need of the society. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . There the teacher provided just guidance to them. Thirdly he wished that games. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. Secondly he wanted Science. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners.5. 5. philosopher and guide to the students He.5. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.5. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Of course.2. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. That will serve the purpose of education fully. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. The teacher should be the facilitator. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Swami. Discussion Method. 283 . 5. 5. 6. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. engineering and technical subjects. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Philosophy and Theology.the learners on different students in the discussion. And above all.

In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers.6 LET US SUM UP We have. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. 3.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. in this lesson. Their educational ideas. 2. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. 5. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. 284 . begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.Substantiate your answer. and pragmatist . of course. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. Gandhiji as a Idealist. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. Write short notes on Basic education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. ears and eyes. 12. legs. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. naturalist. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action.2. We have seen that Tagore.

8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. c. 5. Discussion Method 285 . Ideal of citizenship. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. leather work have been suggested. Self-Study b. 2. Heuristic Method. 8. metal work. c. Cult of non-violence. e. Teaching while Walking b. f.2. 5. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Explain Vishwabharathi. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. 11. Basic education. a. b. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Activity Method b. Meditation and concentration c. 10. d. Activity Method d. Learning by Doing c. Technique of Correlation 6. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. 9. 5. wood work. 3. a. 1937 7. Nai Talim 4. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. gardening. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Self realization. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Education should involve manual work. a. Debate and Discussion Method.4.

C. N. 286 .9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2003). L. N. (2007). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2007).5. Publishing Corporation. K and Narang C. P. on Bhatia.P. B. Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt.2.H. (2004). (2002). Pahuja. New Delhi : Aggarwal. Theory and Principles of Education. K. Dhiman. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : A. O. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. P. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

2 5.1 5.3.LESSON 5.9 5.3.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .4 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3.3.3.11 5.8 5.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3. In this lesson. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.7 5.5 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.3.10 5.3 5.6 5.

there is a large number of communities. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . Education is the product and curriculum is the plan.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. it is identical wit h socializat ion. living in the hilly area. in Russia or in Japan. curriculum. is a means to the process.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. In the former sense. Curriculum is intimately related to education. in the form of new experience.3.3. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways..under the direction of the school. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. 5. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. state the meaning of curriculum 2. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Then in a big country like India. the plateau area and 288 . Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. in fact . maintained or eliminated. Since the demands. you will be able to: 1. In it. Both the processes are integrated.3. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. While education is a process. present behaviour may be modified. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. the desert area. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences.S. curriculum signifies situations for learning. From the latter point of view. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. 5. new behaviour may be acquired. While education is learning. In the words of Kerney and Cook. the plain area. in the U. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child.A. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. A g o o d curricu lu m.

it is. too. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. 5. irrespective of their needs and environment. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. environment. studying therein. therefore. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. democratic and socialistic country. according to modern trends in the educational process. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. customs and needs. Again. differs from individual to individual. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. It must differ from locality and from society to society.3. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. In fact . (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. and 289 . The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. From a slave-country we became secular. the learning capacity of children. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. Besides craft. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. However.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality.

Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. individual or Social and so on. They speak of immediate purposes of education. of classroom.. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. They are visionary goals e. etc.3. general or specific.g. remote or immediate. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. specific. 290 . The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. moral. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. e. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. Self Realisation. tangible. 2. Knowledge Objective. e.g. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. So it is inadequate. uninspiring and unscientific. Goals of Primary Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. aims. They may be ultimate or proximate. etc.. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. Understanding Objective. They speak of perfect goals. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. Application Objective. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . 1. which may or may not be attained.. social. they depend on the political. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. eg. aesthetic and spiritual development. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The word “Curere” means 2. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. social. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. etc.. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. in instructional objectives. 5. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3..(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. unsatisfactory. National Integration. 3. Vocational Efficiency. emotional.g. Goals of Secondary Education. They are achievable. 4. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. unambiguous and functional.

” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. Raymont rightly says. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. capacities. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. on the playing fields. in the class rooms. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. but it includes the totality of experiences. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. The interests. educationists. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. abilities. Crow and Crow remarks.3. According to Crow and Crow. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. finding them very interesting and captivating. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. heavy fire. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children.” 291 . Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects.5. needs. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization.

time in a useful manner. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. urges. aptitudes. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. Due to these variations and differences. They often waste it or rather kill it. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 .Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. capacities and abilities. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. moral. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. tendencies. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. mental.

organized. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. 2. Similarly. development of professional capability at all levels. phased preparation. administrative programme need be planned. To ensure success of the process. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. 3. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels.curricular. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. 293 . In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives.

5. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . Relation with Life c.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. in the class room. 11. library. 18. principles of curriculum construction. 10. Child Centred Education b. 12. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. laboratory.3.3. Run. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 1937 19. a. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. workshop. 5. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. 17.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9.3. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation.

New Delhi : Authorspress. (2007). Innovations in Education.3. and Sarita Kumari. (2001).S. (2007). P. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Bhalla. N. Lakshmi. Curriculum and Instruction. Curriculum Development.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.5. D.K. S. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. S. New Delhi : Isha Books. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 295 . (2007).

4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.4.7.4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.8 5.7.7.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.6.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.6.4.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4 5.7.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.1 5.LESSON 5.4.4.9 5.10 5.4.3 5.4.4.5 5.2 5.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4.4.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.

3. in the economic reconstruction of society. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. Gradually. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. explain the concept of scientific attitude. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . honesty.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not.4. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.4. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. newer and newer industries started growing. 5.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. tolerance for the opinions of others. 2.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century.5. 297 . 5. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. know the importance of science education.during the second half of this century. you will be able to: 1. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. superstition or emotion. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. 4. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees.4. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . We mean curiosity. open-mindedness.

4. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children.So that. 6. 5. Through newspapers. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Devotion towards nature increases.4. Promotion of science clubs. as well as of the society. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. 4. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Organisation of science fairs. 6. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Selection for science education. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. seminars and symposiums. After such experience and training. 7. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 2. 2. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. 4. Love for truth enhances. Principles are formulated.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 5. Schemes of teaching science. Thinking and memory develops. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Central science workshop. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. 3. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Through examinations. 5. 5. 3. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations.

5.4.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . They encounter many social events as they grow. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. They ask many questions about the objects they see. essential that teachers. therefore.needs and conditions. Write any two advantages of Science Education. sex or religion.4. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. It is. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. They experience natural phenomenon. 7. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. should provide opportunities to. Training of science teachers. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. objectivity.6. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. each child to “enquiry skill building”. After presenting the problem. In the inquiry approach. Enquiry teaching is. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. For laboratory and workshop techniques. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions.

7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation.books. commands or orders. 5. if they like. 300 . 3. Evidence. stern pursuit of accurate data. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 5.Herma Wouk. It requires consistent thinking. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Adopting creative models of teaching. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. 6. Appreciating pupils ideas. 5. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? .2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. . Social sciences. to ask questions and experience things.4. 4. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. . The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. test. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. 2. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.6. Giving less directions. 3.4. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook.

open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits.(Smith 2008). critical thinking and suspended judgments. To achieve this we should understand what it means. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. 5. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. These characteristics of any scientific 301 .1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. and emphasized during the learning process . school and society at large. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. For instance. practiced. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. of vast resources running waste. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. These include open mindedness. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. it must be encouraged. friends. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. keen observation. therefore should be unbiased and objective. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen.4. to develop among the learners. The students observation. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. (Vaidya 2007). They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. neighbourhood. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.7. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation.

think and work it”. 302 . intuition or wishful thinking”. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. (Das. The intention to respect another’s point of view. understanding and logic.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them.7. 2007). The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. In considering a situation or a problem.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. 5. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. rumor. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. or superstitions. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions.4. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. he studies all aspects of it. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge.

The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.4. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. • 5.7.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. 5. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. but to begin only after careful planning.7. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.4.

5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. it must be encourages. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. 304 . 5.

New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. 305 . Planning of activities 5.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Wide reading b. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.4. (2000).S.5. objectivity. Study of superstitions d. D. a. (2008). Proper example of the teacher c. Rao.4. a. S. Adopting creative models of teaching. 5. Love for truth enhances. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Yadav.B (2008). 5. b. 16. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. b. N. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. a. 3. Vaidya. Reflections on Scientific attitude. 2. (2006). The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. M. The intention to respect another’s point of view.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4.4. b. a. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools.

5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.7 5.5.5.5.10 5. objectives and characteristics.5 5. state the concept. 306 .5.3 5.5.6 5.LESSON 5. areas of institutional planning.8 5.11 5.5.5.5.5. actively.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. 2. understand the human relationships in educational institutions. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.4 5.5. you will be able to: 1.5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2 5.9 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5.5.1 5.

State and national levels from below. teachers and students is not lost sight of. executive as well as public. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. • To make institutional planning more successful. and every student in the process of educational planning. and supplement planning from above. • to make planning development-oriented. and each student are regarded as separate entities. • to involve teachers and school administrators. every teacher. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n.5. Institution should be regarded as the unit. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. which become the bases for further planning at the district. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. each teacher. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner.5. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. 5. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 .3.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. in the task of educational planning. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. every parent. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. 5. and. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly.

and Personnel services.5. etc. council and.5. which will be discussed in the general. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. Co-curricular activities. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. it becomes the basis for school inspection. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. approved after making necessary modifications. 5. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. Examinations. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. Classwork.• implemented. 308 . (2) Co. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. Syllabus.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.curricular Activities. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. Preparation of instructional material. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. charts and apparatus. Organisation of Pupils. Fair distribution of syllabi. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning.No. etc. scientific and historical excursions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. etc. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. hobby-centres. Improving the internal assessment. Preparation of audio-visual aids. etc. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Editing the school magazine. etc. Organisation of Students’ Association. etc. Preparation of models. 2. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Organising play-for-all programmes. Organisation of class-room libraries. Equipping of laboratory and library. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Courts. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Running science clubs. 3.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Conducting of educational. Celebrating of national and international festivals.

educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. administrator-pupil. headmasters associations. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. etc. teacher-pupil. teachers. teacherinspector. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. understanding. which are divided as the in. teacher-managing body.” The human relationships in. students’ associations. ii. administrator-administrator. administrator-supervisor. science teachers’ associations. parents. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. teacher-teacher.5. and —pupil-pupil. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. involving mainly human materials. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. teacher-State. pupils. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. parent-teacher associations. pupil310 . the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. Administrator-State. co-operation. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. and solidarity. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships.5. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships.

5. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. pupil-parent. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. V. 311 . and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. and to serve. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. pupil-community leader. control. administrator. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. superintendence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. to carry out. supervision. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. organisation and management. teacher-community leader. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. It covers personnel and material management. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration.State. teacher-parent. to accomplish. pupil-non-official functionaries. pupil-inspector.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. According to C. It is also being modernized to become a technique. supervision and superintendence." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. to attend. Good. now-a-days. social sciences and other disciplines. organisation. To administer means to manage.

Worker Participation . If it is more.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. 11.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . If the cost benefit ratio is less. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. He should be an artist in human relationships. without this the efficacy will be handicapped.The manager should have leadership traits. 8.Any good management will always have good public relations.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. Communication . This is the latest democratic trend in management.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. who occupy the managerial positions.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. 9. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. 10. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. low. 12. Decision Making . 2. Leadership . Democratic Management . it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. 3. Those. The relationship should change from master.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . Better Human Relationships . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. Economic Management . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. Rapport between the Management and Employees .sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. 4. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence.Of all the approaches. Motiviation . 6.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. it is not worth-while. Liasion with the Public . 5. Cost-Benefit Analysis . 7.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 13. Socio-Scientific Approach .

19.5.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. to improve the quality of education it provides. enrichment of curricula.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. 5.too.These two are. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. objective.g. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. 18. 313 . and cooperative performance should be ensured. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. improvement of teaching methods. 14. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work.

(1995). a. f. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Leadership c. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. H. Syllabus. Classwork. Educational Administration.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. it becomes the basis for school inspection. a. b. Motiviation d. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Co-curricular activities. (2001). Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. a.M. b. c.K. and Personnel services. In group and Out group 5. 4. (2003).5. 2. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. a. APH Publishing Corporation. Tarachand and Prakash. Communication 5. b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Fundamental of Educational Management. Decision Making b. Instruction.5. 314 . e. Examinations. S. d. NUEPA. Singh. R.

Buddhist and Jain system of education.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Realized the problems of school education. New evaluation procedures. women education and teacher education in India.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Sex-education 4. nutritional requirement. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.Religious and Modern Education 1. Community and Mass Media 2.Article 45 .Imbalances and Variations in different environment.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. population education. 4. Balanced diet.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.1 School Health Programme. First Aid.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.I.4 India's Secular Policy . wastage and Stagnation 3. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Healthy Food Habit 4.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.2 Nutritional deficiencies. Code of conduct for teachers.1 Gurukula system of education. Economic 315 . Examination reforms. Inspection and Supervision 3.5 Regional Educational Development in India .Pre-service and In-services facilities.teachers should have : 1. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . 1.3 Directive Principles . 2.3 Educational Influences of Home. Preservation of nutrients.Preventive measures. physical education and environmental education 5. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Common ailments of Children. Communicable diseases .CORE PAPER . Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. higher education.1 Inculcation of Socialism.1 Primary Education : Education for all.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. social Impact 3. School.

7. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. (1999) Culture. Mahatma Gandhi. 316 .flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Realism.4. B. Taneja V.4 4. T. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. (2004) Problems of Education in India.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Ram S. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles .C. and Sharma R. Sharma. Tagore 5. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.K. Mishra.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.N. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Naturalism and Pragmatism . REFERENCE 1. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.1 Idealism. Prof. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Hemchand.K. Socialization. Delhi : University Publications 2.Aim.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. curriculum and teacher's role 5.S. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Curriculum and national goals . Saraswathi T.K.N. R. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. New Delhi: NCERT 3. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. and Dash B. Ghanta R. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. (2005) Foundations of Education.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Pandy V. and Mohanty R.R.K. 5. and Human Development.