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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
Lesson 2. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. 9 . Lesson 5. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. In. Lesson 4. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. discusses the regional educational development in India. The need. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Jainism and their educational implication. and Jain system of education.
3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.2 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 18.104.22.168.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 126.96.36.199 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Education during British Era 1.1 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.6.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 220.127.116.11 Charter Act of 1813 18.104.22.168.LESSON 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 22.214.171.124 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.3.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 126.96.36.199 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 188.8.131.52.1.5 Jain system of education 1.5.
India.6.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. Education in India. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1.8 1.6. in opinion. both present and future.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. 1. describe the Jain system of Education 4. 1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. British system of education presented the modern western model. you will be able to: 1.3. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. has a long past history starting in vedic education. “a class of persons.1.1. Muslim and British periods.9 1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. That 12 .1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. in morals and in the intellect”. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. The history of education passed through Buddhist.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.1. elucidate the education during British Era. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. Indian in blood and colour. 1.1.7 1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1.1.1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. but English in taste.1.
from darkness. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. Immediate Aim Vocational. Education was a private affair of the people. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Teacher as Parents. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. 12. 3. as it is generally considered to be at present. generally. Method of Study. Curriculum. 5. Religious and Spiritual. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. managed entirely by Brahmans. Role of Travel in Education. followed by explanation by the teacher. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. 13 . with grants of land or money. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. No State Control on Education. There was. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. It was also moral. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Where pupils were many. however. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Individual Teaching. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. 10. questioning by the pupil. Free and Accessible. Residential Schools. 6. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. 14. individually. religious and spiritual. Method of Instruction. It was not merely intellectual. 8. to light. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 4. Forests as Centres of Education. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15.knowledge was real. from eternal to immorality 2. if they thought fit to do so. 9. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. 16. not en masse by the class method. 11. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. 13. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Pupils were taught. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. and to agriculture and trade. the monitorial plan was followed. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. High Status of Teachers. The immediate aim of education. Education of Moral.
It was freely available to all those who wanted. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. studied Vedas. 1. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They were very cordial and intimate. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Wide-Spread Education in Women. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.3. It was suited to the needs of the society. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. lived a life of celebacy. besides preparing for worldly pursuits.17.
Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. I take Refuge to Sangh. Right thought 3. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. It was denied only to the ill. in which. dressed himself in yellow clothes. the handicapped. he was qualified to become a monk. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. the student remained in a state of Shramana. every class in society. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. 2. Right memory 8. the student had his head shaved of all hair. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. Right activity 5. except the Chandals. partaking of food at prohibited times. watching dances or listening to music.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. had the right to receive education. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. impure conduct. which included abstaining from theft. medium of Pali. Right contemplation 1.C. Right speech 4. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. I take Refuge to Dharma. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. Right endeavour 7. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. taking things without being offered.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features.4. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. Right knowledge 2. the most significant of which were the following 1. killing of any living being. After attaining the age of 20. disease and death of the human beings. Right means of livelihood 6. use of intoxicating things.1. 1. use of cosmetics. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Consequently. 15 . Education was imparted through the. etc.
bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. and. It comprehended education in writing. etc. commerce. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. wear three items. military science. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. nature. Life is in a flux. After this ritual. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. Initially. 2. meaning.4. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. has no metaphysical value for life. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. objectives of human life. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. On this occasion. etc. 3. education was impart in art. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. approach. Hence. handicrafts. eat food thrice a day. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. 7. etc. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. 1. of clothes. As reality is becoming.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. along with education in script writing. knowledge of reviving the dead. aspirations and. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. bodily gestures. geology. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. depth and range. elephant lore. 6. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. changing the goals. a continuous change creating 16 . Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. animal husbandry. medicine. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. archery. a change is not only total but also perpetual. agriculture. therefore. knowledge of animal cries and sounds.. archery. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. Even at this stage. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. cottage industries. 5.3. Whatever its nature and extent. the science of taming and training animals. assumptions. control over sensuous activities. Later on. it is regarded as true”. magic. arithmetic and religious discussion. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. so long as it successfully does so. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. be considered the aim of education It. the presence of the monks was essential. women occupied a position inferior to men. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. beg for alms. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. 4. however. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. nothing is of any permanent consequence. 8. These are called later Buddhist schools.
whatever works are true and good.1.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. such as. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Its chief feature. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. goes to Vardhaman. Validity is effective and consequences.5. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. i. However. therefore..e. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter.new and peculiar situations. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. however. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. Education must. its pessimistic outlook on life.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. In fact. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. 5. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. it is much older than the latter. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. and to give it a shape that it has today. Write Eight fold path . What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. 1. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Jainism insists 17 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. 2. 9.5. 3. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. 1. d) To lead a celibate life. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. 1. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. b) Not utter falsehood. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. 7. Hence. and believe in happiness to all. 6. 3. 18 . 4. rather than the interpretation of the universe.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. it has a foot in both the words. 10. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. but on both. thought and deed. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. They are: a) Not to injure. and is to be redeemed and liberated. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment.1. Development of personality as an individual. As such. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 5. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. 2. 8. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. c) Right conduct. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. b) Right knowledge. more stress on individual aims. e) To renounce the world. c) Not to steal. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul.
What are Triratnas ? . education should develop sense of discrimination.5. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. therefore. education must be action based and ideally oriented. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. success and love. 1. 5. 3. Hence. Teaching must develop these faculties. here and now. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 4. 3.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.4. practised and not only aspired for.5. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 19 . 8. that would be socially desirable. 2. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Belief in transmigration of soul. 2. and should bring happiness to all. Teaching should be social and tolerant. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Jiva is essentially karmic. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. Madras.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.1. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. 1.6.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. 1. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. However.6. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. To set up separate departments of. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. 1953). Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. philosophy and literature of Europe. with rally and rout. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.6.6. North West Province and Punjab.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. science. primary 20 . Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). Bombay. 1. and not for life. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. 2. 1.1. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.
they named these schools as polytechnic schools.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. Later on. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. At that time M. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. The universities dominated the secondary education. In 1882. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system.K. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 .7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. To ensure qualitative improvement. 1.6.education was neglected. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. • Universal free primary education. 1. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. • Secondary education. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). 1. self-respecting and competent. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. namely. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement.6.6. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. at the primary level.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. secondary education became a step towards university. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially.
The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. The objective of education was to provide 22 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. 10. all children are to have a common curriculum. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. After this stage.1. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12.At the primary stage (6-11 years).
questioning by the pupil. a. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 6. 4.education of European literature. followed by explanation by the teacher. b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Right means of livelihood. handicrafts. arithmetic and religious discussion. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. science and English language. 1. Right activity. Right thought. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. Right contemplation. 5. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools.1. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 4. Right knowledge.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. along with education in script writing. Right speech. 2. Right memory. education was impart in art. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. geology. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. 23 . First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. the science of taming and training animals. archery. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. 3. Right endeavour. 2. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. etc.1. 3. 1.. During the Buddhist period. establishment of universities. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. The system of education was well-organised. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. It was suited to the needs of the society. military science. The immediate aim of education. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil.
10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Y. Sargent report 12. J. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. (2009).K. 1937 1. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). c. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Right knowledge.K. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science.C. Right faith. 8. 11. Ltd. Aggarwal. Y. b. Ltd. R. (1984).C. more stress on individual aims.1. Sharma. 1882.7. Development of Educational System in India. Right conduct. (2005). Development of personality as an individual. History of Indian Education System. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Singh. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Hence. 9. a. a. b. Improvement of Literature. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 24 . J. and Nath. 10.
7 1.1 University Education Commission 184.108.40.206.2.2.2. The 25 .5 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 220.127.116.11 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.8 1.2.1 1.4 18.104.22.168.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.3. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.2 1.LESSON 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.3.6 1.
vocational education. National Council for Women’s Education 5. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. National Board of Teacher Education 10. girls and women education besides primary. analyse the progress of education in free India.2. technological engineering. secondary and higher education. Kothari (1964-66) 8.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan.conditions of the teachers. technical.2. medical and legal education. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. There had been vast institutional expansion.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. examination system. explosion of enrolment. New Educational Policy.2. Post-graduate 26 . Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. expansion of vocational. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service.3. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. 2. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. standard of teaching. curriculum. 1. S. 1986 1. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. 1. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. you will be able to: 1. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. diversification of courses of studies.
the New National Policy on Education. in January 1985.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. D. 1966. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. However. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. material and spiritual. quantity.2. accumulated over the years.3. Education for Equality. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 2. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.S. utility and financial outlay. Education is the key to our allround development. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. 1986. Problems of access. 4. quality. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. A. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. 1952. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. National System of Education. The Essence and Role of Education. 3. 1. research et. 1.3.2. 1. the chairman of University Grants commission. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. Therefore. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. Government of India. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels.3. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar.teaching. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. A meaningfully Partnership.2. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. Finally. Kothari.
2.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. attitudes. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. The UNESCO Report. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. the minorities and the handicapped. the concepts of work experience. 28 . Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. It can train practical aptitudes. Thus. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. By working with hands. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes.” Thus. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs.
Besides.” The Mudaliar Commission. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. if he wishes. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. In 1955. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. co-ordinations. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. “The aim of these colleges. As such. “It may be described. According to. the Commission. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 ." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. With adequate planning. The Radhakrishnan Commission. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. it will conduce self. The Education Commission. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position.
The Central Advisory Board of Education. the semester and credit system. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly.. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. In addition. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. Therefore. admission requirements to vocational courses. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum.ot her. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. the. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. for quality of life in the rural areas. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. raising the special facilities. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. etc. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . the rigid streaming of courses. Subsequently. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. With a view to relating education to the life. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976.
preferably spinning and weaving. felt that education should be centred around a craft. who conceived the System of Basic Education. 1. etc. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. aimed at this goal.2. The wave of Basic Education. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. which are useful to the community. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. The Father of Nation. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. In short. 31 .and the world of work. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. According to committee. technological courses including Agriculture. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. meaningful. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed.defined S UP W as “purposive. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. meaningful. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. giving importance to productivity in the national development. which swept the country for over two decades. manual work resulting in either goods or services. which offer scientific. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. Commerce. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained.
Educative and 3. 3. 32 . Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Community work and social service. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. so that it is educational in essence. Clothing 5. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Productive 2. tools and techniques and 3. Shelter 4. as far as possible. Some Hints to Teachers 1.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. locally available materials and tools. Culture and recreation 6. 4. Experimentation with materials. be that the work involved is: 1. Work practice. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. 2. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Food 3. Health and Hygiene 2. The teachers should make use of. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant.
1. Education through work The SUPW should. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. To make education more realistic. the local community should be actively associated. etc. 6. as far as possible. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3.5. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. Merits of the Programme 1. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Such activities may include projects of village uplift.2. slum clearance. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. removal of illiteracy. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. improve discipline. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Check on educated unemployed 4. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Productive Work 33 .6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Community Service In-1972. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. inculcate a faith. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. It can become an instrument to build character. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor.
” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. traffic control. Define SUPW 34 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The community. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. should involve itself in the educational effort. skills and better future for the children. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. etc. AICTE was set up in year 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. helping the adults-in productive work. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. in turn. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. offering first aid. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . if not productive. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.
6. e.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1952 3. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5.2. 35 . Radhakrishnan 2. c. d.2. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. f. 1. Write short note on SUPW. manual work resulting in either goods or services.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. which are useful to the community. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. meaningful. 1955 4.1. 3. 2.2. a. 1. b. Dr.
Y. Development of Educational System in India. (2007).H. Ltd. Singh. R. New Delhi: A. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.P. Y. : Sharma. and Rao. History of Education. History of Indian Education System. Rao.K. J. and Nath. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.1. P.(2005). New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.K. A.C. (2005).D. 36 . V.K. Publishing Corporation.. B.P.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2007).2. Amala. History and Problems of Indian Education. (2009). Anupama.
1949. Being the supreme law of the country.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.369 words in the English language version.3. establishing the structure. 1950.5 1. it came into effect on January 26. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.3. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.3.3. equality.1 1. democratic republic. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.2 1.9 1.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3. and liberty. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.7 1.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. directive principles and duties of citizens.3. for a total of 117.8 1.3. containing 395 articles. procedures.6 22.214.171.124 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. Besides the English version. assuring its citizens of justice. 37 .3.4 1. there is an official Hindi translation.3. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.1 Significance of DPSP 1.
the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. spread over a period of 2 years.3. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. 1.3. political.3. understand our Indian constitution.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. for 166 days. 1. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. the Drafting Committee was appointed. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. learn the role of central and state government on education. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. Two days later.In the August 14. 3. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. 2. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. with Dr. you will be able to: 1. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. in sessions open to public. 1947. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. legal and environmental. 38 . administrative. After many deliberations and some modifications. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. social. Through them. According to the constitution. The Assembly met. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. economic. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 1950. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. 1947. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. 1.3.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. 4. On August 29. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. Dr. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature.
to education and to public assistance in certain cases. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength.government. provide free legal aid. and in other cases of undeserved want. men and women. Minimising inequalities in status. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. 39 . Article 42. No abuse of children. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. Article 41. Liking wage etc. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. That the health and strength of workers. and shall. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. Protecting health of the workers.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Appropriate concentration of wealth. sickness and disablement. Article 39A. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Equal justice and free legal aid. The State shall endeavour to secure. Article 40. old age. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. for workers. make effective provision for securing the right to work. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Equal pay for both sex. in particular. on the basis of equal opportunity. Condition for dignity of children. Organisation of village panchayat. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. The State shall. Protecting children from exploitation. Right to work. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Article 43.
The State shall take steps. Article 49. Article 46. in particular. See also Article 21A). in particular. The State shall endeavour to provide. Note: Subs. Article 44. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Uniform civil code for the citizens. industrial or otherwise. agricultural. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. a living wage. Participation of workers in management of industries. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. by suitable legislation or in any other way. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. to all workers. Article 43A. Article 45. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. 2002 for “45. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. [declared by or under law made by 40 . (Original Article 45. Article 48. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. Article 48A. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. in particular. work. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. and. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Article 47. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes.
Article 45 . Separation of judiciary from executive. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. destruction.Parliament] to be of national importance. 2. from spoliation. removal. disposal or export. Article 51. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. 2002.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 50. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. disfigurement.3. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. as the case may be. may be law determine”.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. Article-21A Right to Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. Promotion of international peace and security. 1.
ii. in particular. language or any of them”.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 8. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. and. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. if such person is a minor. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. race. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. caste. his guardian has given his consent thereto. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. iii. from justice and all forms of exploitations. 3. 7. 2002.” 42 . 6. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. 5. and shall protect them. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. 4. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds.
to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. and by drawing. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. for its vocabulary. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 351 gives importance to 6.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the forms. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. & 1. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. wherever necessary or desirable.9. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Educational Reforms From time to time. 43 . It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. The central government determines targets and promotes education. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. 2.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1.
The Central Government directs and guides the State Government.. the state governments. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. Local bodies and private enterprise.3. Production of suitable for children and adults f. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. etc. 6. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. So as to encourage education on right lines. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. So that they may work well. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. All India Council of Medical Science. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . private agencies etc. 7. By starting these projects. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. 5. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. The following pilot projects. 4. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. to achieve the desired ends. 8. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d.
education for women. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. reports etc. 12. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education.3. etc. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. 4. is the state responsibility. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. The 45 . training and statistics. are published by it. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. 1. 10. 9.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. books. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. 3. handicapped. 11. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. 1. research. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers.
List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? .3.3. Article 45 b. 46 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 21A c. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Article 46 4. 5. articles in the Directive principles. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Write short notes on a.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Explain Directive principles 2.
embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Article 45 . 2002. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article-21A Right to Education. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. b. Development of Hindi Language 6. 4. Article 46 5. a. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. 47 . a. The Directive Principles of State Policy. Dr. Article 29 and 30 7.5. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. may be law determine”. Describe the educational role of State Government.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 3. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8.3. Ambedkar 2. 2002. Clearing House function 9. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 1.
(2009). Education in Emerging Indian Society.3. Bhatia. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. K and Narang C. Ghosh. (2008). 48 . New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.1.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. B. (2004). L. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. S. Education in Emerging Indian Society. N. Dash. K. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. (2007). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. S.
4. Christianity. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.4.5 1. religious education should be broad based.4.6 126.96.36.199.1 188.8.131.52 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4.3. Buddhism etc.2 1. Students should be 49 .4.7 184.108.40.206 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Jainism.3. Islam.4 Moral education 220.127.116.11 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168.3 Precautions while introducing 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.4.
It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. religious education and the concept of secularism.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Thus. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. know the position of religious education in our country 3. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. India' can produce men of character. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion.4. you will be able to: 1.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. state meaning and need for moral education 1. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life.4. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. In the complicated and complex society of today. As result of which. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. beauty and goodness so that 50 . it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions.D. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon.and dedication. "In A multireligious society like ours. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. 1. integrity.” Education broadens human outlook. According to E. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. duty-consciousness.
religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. According to Article 19. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. if not regularly. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. Thus. 1947 we achieved our freedom.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. at least occasionally. No religious tax can be imposed on them. In short. it is clear that the State has no religion. through religious practices and 51 .4. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. As our country is a country of diverse religions. As a matter of fact.3. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. religion and democracy are same. Hence. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. Children attend these organizations. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. They thought that any kind of narrow.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. 1.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. all citizens are free to follow any creed. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. castes and creeds. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. rancour.3. realizes God in himself. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs.4.” From the above. According to Article 22. Viewing the defects of religious education. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. 1.
according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.teachings. which can mould. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. what is done and what is not done etc. It helps to modify habits attitudes. As a result of which. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. one fully developed. If unreleased. It is religious education. intellectual and physical faculties of children. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). and other impulses are often denied direct expression. when he becomes an adult. He also learns about social. which help him for the development of his character. temperament etc. and what is evil. for the development of the individual and the society.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. aggressive. Good education. moral and spiritual values. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual..
3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. If we open the pages of history. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. which is the basic need of a democratic life. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way.3. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. 53 . towards the society. This should not be allowed to happen.4. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. 2. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. 1. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. 3. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. Therefore. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society.
examples of patriotism. therefore. fellow-feeling. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Since all religions have virtues. Life histories of great persons of the world.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. 11. stories of moral greatness. they should be discussed in the right earnest. churches and mosques 7. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. For this. 9. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Gurudwara as.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values.5. Write Article 22 2. 10.
It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. students. Purity. 5. 2. let men see well of one another. 3. is that which develops moral values. the methods of teaching. The content of the curriculum. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Fearlessness. They will play their role effectively. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. 7. Service to others. 8. therefore.4. 2. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Ahimsa (Non-violence).of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. 4. Aparigarha (Non. Asvada (Control of palate). Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. 6.4. 5. Without moral values. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 3. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Patriotism. It they learn what morality is in their early years. 1. 55 . Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. in the home. Non-injury. Self sacrifice. 1. 4. 7. Satyam (truth).5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 8. Brahmacharya (celebacy). 6. Moral education. Swadeshi (Patriotism). “Let all be happy and free from disease.acquisitiveness). personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Cultivation of emotions.
4. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. 3. In the school programme. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . 10. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. religions may be included in the syllabus. Integrity. loyalty and self-sacrifice. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. 2. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Asatyam (Non-thieving). Sharivashram (Physical work). 4. minutes in the morning for group singing. discipline. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Secondary Stage 1. 1. Unity of mankind. 3.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour.9. Discipline. Good temper. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. 11. National unity and Spiritual values. Efficiency. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Good manners. 56 . Simple texts and stories concerning different. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship.
In other words. Silent meditation should be encouraged. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. love of humanity. 2. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . patriotism and self-discipline. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. University Stage 1. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. In this connection. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. should form a normal part of school programme. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. 5. 57 . Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. 3. 5. 4.4. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion.
Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. a. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.1. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. minutes in the morning for group singing. For this. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. 2.4. 1959 5. a. 4. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. a. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. 58 . the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Training of Character 3.4. b. the.4. Sri Prakasa 6 . 2. Discuss the aims of Religious education. 1. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1. b. In short.
11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2008). Dash. N.P. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi: A. Pahuja. N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. K and Narang C. P. Bhatia.H. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. M. New Delhi : Siddiqui. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2008). K.1. Theory and Principles of Education. Ltd. J. Publishing Corporation. L. (2003). 59 . Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. B.H. (2004).C.4.
60 .2 1.11 1.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.3 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.e. Although.5.8 1.1 22.214.171.124.5. i. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.9 1.5.10 1. disparities between provinces/States.5.4 1.12 1.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.6 1.5.7 1.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5 1.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1..
you will be able to: 1. understand the regional educational development in India 3. energy. 1. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. 7. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. 1. they take appropriate measures.5. 8. 4. 1. etc. 61 . for example. Accordingly. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. waters.5.1. 2. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. roads. know the education suited to different environments. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. 3. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.5.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 6.5. This leads to separatist movements. work hard towards this end. They therefore.
6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. and. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. on the basis of regional development may be formed. Therefore. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. while others remained educationally backward. Secularism. • Separate States (of course viable States). • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. some States became educationally far advanced. 3. 4. 2. some average.5. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. Tight security arrangements should be made. 62 . • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. education as a fundamental human right was recognized.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only .
1. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. approved proposals worth Rs. Rs. Itanagar.. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. the State Governments. In the Central sector. NERIST. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Out of this. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. while some States like Bihar. After the attainment of independence.After the Planning Process has originated. and provision of informal education to enable those.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. books. However. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. scholarships. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. Funds amounting to Rs. Central Universities of Assam. Regional Centres of IGNOU. since its inception in 1998-99.480. academic buildings. 63 .392. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. the Union Government. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. NIT. Even in each State.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. These projects are in various stages of implementation.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. library buildings. etc. Mizoram. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. Guwahati.14. Nagaland and NEHU.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. etc.84 crore was released in 2005-06.g. remained under developed. Jammu and Kashmir.5. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. Tezpur. Silchar. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects.
A provision of Rs. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. 64 .05 crore and Rs. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. Out of this an amount of Rs.8 per cent in 05). Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.5. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. Tezpur University.500.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Moreover. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.261. Government expenditure on education. During 2003-04. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.40. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.57 crore and Rs.187. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. too.501.
the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. too. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. The Chandigarh Administration. too. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. Kerala and Gujarat. for instance. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). To add to the woes. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Tamil Nadu. telecom.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states.5. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. Medical education. too.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. engineering and R&D. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Listing the positives. Andhra Pradesh. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. English. 1. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Karnataka. Karnataka. notes the study. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. for which 16 sites. Moreover. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. pharma. health services and welfare of the citizen population. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself.
Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. while the former does not. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Then education become realistic and idealistic. in which the learners live. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. The working hours of educational institutions. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. the teaching methods. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. In the same manner. The living conditions. 66 . and so on. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. taking the average in the middle. the interests. Of course. life-oriented and environment slanted. the needs.year. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. even actually looking at the watch. the vocations. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. the socio-physical conditions. which a non-tribal person cannot do. For a learner living in a rural area. the working days: an academic . Hence it is called as need-based. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. the curricular subjects. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. when he will not be sure of time. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible.
What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. to suit education to different environments? 1. 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . 67 . There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.5.
N. 60% 1. Education in Developmental Arena.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Salim. some of areas which were under the native rulers. Giridhar. (2002).G. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. R. (2001). Education Scenario in India. New Delhi: Authors press. S. (2001). (2008). Dubey.H. 68 . some States have become more developed than others b.K.5.2. remained undeveloped 3. A. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. and Nair. during the British rule. Educational Development in India. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. a. C. S.
UNIT – II 69 .
Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. semi literate and illiterates. 71 .ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. community development. secularism and democracy through Indian education. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. school community and mass media. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. National Integration.
126.96.36.199 Education for Secularism 2.2 2.1.3 2.6. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.9 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1.1 2.1 Main features of Socialism 2.LESSON 220.127.116.11.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.4 2.1.8 2.1.7 2.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.
3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. The students may be associated with the management of the school. colour or wealth.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow.1. Abraham Lincoln. understand the concept of democracy. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. socialism and secularism 2.1. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. This is the political aspect of democracy. socialistic and secular state. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. socialism and secularism 2. you will be able to: 1. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it.2. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. 2.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality.1. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. In the matter of admitting students in schools.1. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. 73 . 2.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. creed. there should be made no distinction of caste. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. Democracy thus means power of the people. 3) Provision of Manual Work. for the people by the people”.
These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. 12) Visits to Legislatures. debates. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it soon spread all over the world. may be planned. 74 . Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. declamation contest etc. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. 11) Student Parliament.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. There are different brands of socialism. 2. Democracy means 2.1. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching.
the wealthy and the poor. Under it. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. oppression and disparity.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. free from exploitation. 7) Special facilities for girls. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low.1. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. service and cooperation. but on the path of non-violence. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 75 . 2. 2.5.5. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. the prince and the peasant. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.1. none high”. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.
76 . 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. Everyone says. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. 2. secularism is being propagated.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. According to Holydake. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.” In every political and educational corner. “India is a secular-country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. "which seeks the development of physical.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. 11) State schools. Write any two main features of socialism. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values.
trifles over petty religious matters are caused. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. 77 .6.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. 9) It stress free inquiry. the belief that the state morals. There is need of making the people open minded. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. 2) It permits freedom of religion. education etc. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. people started believing in regionalism. liberty. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. fraternity.6. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. Moral values have to be imbibed. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. should be independent of religion. 5) It implies tolerance. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. 8) It believes in co-existence. That is why. During the recent past. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated.opposed to religious education. In this type of prevailing situations. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. Equality. 2. A large number of people is uneducated. 3) It permits freedom of worship. “Webster further says. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. people have narrow mindedness.1. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. People have different religions and they have different beliefs.1. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights.
the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles.1.presented by the students in the gathering. In the celebration of each such function. 1) Moral Education. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. There should be some internal checking of the material being. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. No doubt. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. education. Patiala. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 .3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. students belonging to different religions should be associated. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions.6. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. 2. While doing so. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. that the central string of all religions is one. In the hands of such teachers. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. The very sight of the building. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. Religious Education. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. tours and trips may be organized. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education.
Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. The term secularism was first used by 8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . No doubt.1. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The word “Seculum” means 7. Define Secularism 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. 2.
Equal Opportunities for Admission. b. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. 5. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. d. 4. Provision of Manual Work. a. Socialism aims at social justice. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Respect of Individual Personality. Since socialism stands for equality. 3. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Socialism aims at equality.1. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.1. 6. Power of the people 2. c. This present age 7. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. b. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. George Jacob Holydake 80 . The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Tuition free education b. a. creed. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. In the matter of admitting students in schools. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. 2. for the people and the people”. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. 4. Abraham Lincoln.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. colour or wealth. 5. there should be made no distinction of caste. 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. secularist and socialistic attitude among students.
K. J. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Anmol Publications Pvt.1.” 9. Bhatia. Ltd. should be independent of religion. a. a. (2003). b. (2004). Theory and Principles of Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.8. Dash. b. (2005).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Ltd. N. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.C. education etc. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. It treats all religions on an equal footing. 10. L. N. 81 . New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. P. Mohanty. It permits freedom of religion. New Delhi : Pahuja. (2008). School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. (2007). J. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. B. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K and Narang C. the belief that the state morals. Modern Trends in Indian Education.
2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.6. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.1 International understanding in the school 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.9 2.2.10 18.104.22.168.8 2.2 22.214.171.124.3 2.2.1 2.LESSON 2.2.7 2.4 126.96.36.199 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 188.8.131.52 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.
as workers. understandings. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. 3. you will be able to: 1. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. 2. development. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. application. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. emotional. as it is t he aim o f modern education. It involves physical. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. and 4.2. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach.an instructor of school children. social and moral aspects. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. a r e 1. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. skills. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. as learners.generation to another. who are placed in his custody. A teacher is first and foremost.2. aims and objectives of the school.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. moral. therefore. mental. as citizens. 83 . as persons. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. 2. social. 2. The developmental roles of children.
morally. He has to look after their physical. morally. 2.All education should lead to better behavioural development. economically effective. emotionally. motivated. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. and aesthetically to become. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. inquisitive. 3. The following are some of such roles described in brief. He is to become an active member.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. physically fit for socially efficient. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. a part of their day in 84 . Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. member of his community at the outset. 1. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. social and emotional health. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. mentally. socially. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. The students live. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. mental. 2. experiences and acceptance. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. intellectually. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education.2. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. Teacher as a Citizen Next. culturally confident.
Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. science club. activities of the society into which he is born. languages and religions. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. photographic clubs. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. and most of hours. Dr. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. They will be spending with their parents. Unless. solve them. 2. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. India is a land of many castes. 4. creeds. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It 85 .the school being under the custody of teachers. fine art associations. List out the role of teachers towards community development .” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. faiths.2. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly.
communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. Let us. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr.is. a. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country.5.” 2. folklore and teaching of social studies. ‘We should not become parochial. this integration of the Indian people. Political integration has already taken place to some extent.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . with straight backs and look up at the skies. b.2. therefore. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. 1. c. poems. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. narrow-minded provincial. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. should be emphasised. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. social studies. national anthem and other national songs. the study of language and literature. At the primary stage the importance of stories. Radhakrishnan. It should broaden the outlook. stand up straight. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. Nehruji has explained this as.” Regarding the role of education. Sampurnanand remarked. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. The only process is the process of education. and make into one strong national unit.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. the citizens of the Republic of India.
symposia. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. 87 . Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. tours. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Reverence of National Flag. 2. 9. dramatics and youth festivals. educational excursions. ACC. 6. 3. Uniform for School Children. 7. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. 10. debates. Student Camps. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Scouts and Guides. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. National Days—January 26. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. Textbooks. Co-Curricular Activities. languages and literature. 4. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. and picnics. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. militar y training like the NCC. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Celebrations of National Days. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. t he st udent s and t he community. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. 5. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. 8. Taking Pledge. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Singing of National Anthem.different social sciences. sports. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses.
16. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. School Projects.2. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. iii. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. language. flora and fauna. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . ways of thinking and doing things. 14. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. Open-Air Dramas. ii. Admissions. 15. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. Recognition of Institutions. Educational and Travel Documentaries. Students Exchange and Tours. region or religion.11. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. colour.5. 88 . 12. v. Admissions to schools. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 2. 13. iv. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa.
"There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. 2. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. vii. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5.2. Community dinners. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. camps. Define National Integration 3. ix. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. irrespective of national boundaries.vi. cultures and races on equal bases. viii.
Strong has observed. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.” 2. therefore. In a very real sense. patriotism is not enough.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. of his body and mind. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. Dr. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . 4. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.2. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.2. that war. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. if it happens. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. 2.as important as that of a national citizenship. 3. Teachers 90 . C. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. 6.F. 5. and the healthy development. (c) fairly tales.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. This. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. Radhakrishnan states.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1.friendships between children of different countries. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. often in connection with anniversaries. (b) stories of children of other lands. 2. the international level. Therefore.6. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.e. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs.6. Organising of debates and.
They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Impartial in their Treatment. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. They should not be propagandists. Russian. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. an Englishman. a German. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Indian and American.” Well Informed About World Situations. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries.
Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them.2.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. majority of people are.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. Defects of the educational System . which results in agitation and aggression language.Another major. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves.2. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . leading to.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. As the school is but a miniature society. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. there is wide spread frustration among all people. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. 5. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . Wide Spread Frustration . If this is done. 4. the education function can be carried. 3. It does not prepare students for life.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. and help the students to over . living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. understand and indiscipline: 1.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. Chronic Poverty . Devaluation of Values . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. 2.
etc. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. 3. sympathy and good will among the nations.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. love. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. 2.2. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. co-operation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. 2. community development. 93 . Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. fellow feeling. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. 4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. List out six characteristics of a good teacher.2. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding.democratic nature.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 184.108.40.206 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 220.127.116.11 Functions and role of schools in the society 18.104.22.168 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 22.214.171.124 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 126.96.36.199 Radio as an agency of education 188.8.131.52 Television as an agency of education 184.108.40.206 Press as a medium of education 220.127.116.11 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
18.104.22.168 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 22.214.171.124 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
126.96.36.199 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
188.8.131.52 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. the invention of the printing press.V. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Hence. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher.3. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. Now internet is being used. Moreover. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Then came newspapers. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. books. During the course of time. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. Emphasising this thing. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. periodicals. To make them achieve their aim. led to the printing of books. 2. are increasingly used in education. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. In fact. Crow and Crow write.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. “All the citizens of the community. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. Define community. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Museums. art galleries.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. He taught his students orally.
3. A lot of work by way of pre. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. 2. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion.classroom teachers. Thus. the teacher still occupies. It stimulates curiosity and interests. 101 . 2. Thus. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. the place of importance. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Important happening inventions. In collaboration with the experts. politics. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. It enlightens public opinion. Various talks.6. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. In the emphasis is on sound. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. It is also an important source of entertainment. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. rather than on picture. languages. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. art. Effective means of presenting music. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well.telecast. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Students listen various talks. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. current affairs and other areas. “Listening participation” in current history. social studies. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”.G. dram appreciation. music. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Reynolds. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense.
Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. speech.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. mathematics. Participation of local teachers and pupils. 102 . 3. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. at play. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. 4. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. fol classical music. plays. at recreational centers. School concerts. at drawing room. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Before presenting the programme. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. 5. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. at any place. development of lessons. Making learning an open system. travel talks. style. projects or creative activities. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Team-teaching demonstrations. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. audibility and presentability. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. informal and non-formal education. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. At present. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 184.108.40.206 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
220.127.116.11 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 18.104.22.168 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
LESSON 22.214.171.124.3.4.4 Limitations of formal education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 126.96.36.199 2.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.3 Advantages of formal education 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206.2 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .220.127.116.11.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 18.104.22.168 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.5 22.214.171.124 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.7 126.96.36.199.8 2.
Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. the learner are acquainted. School is. 2. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 110 . 4. 2. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. 9.4. 4. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught..2. starting and ending at -a particular age. In ancient time in India. the family. 3.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. 7.4. 2. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. you will be able to: 1. To realize this objective of education. it was mostly. 3. his mental alertness. 6. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college.3. the mass media et. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 8. Education. 5. imparted at the residence of the teacher. the most important agency of formal education.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. 2. the community. open university. say the Government or the private enterprise. compare formal and non formal system of education. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period.4. Education organised by some agency. the temple. 2. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. open school. Education associated with a degree or certificate.
A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Concepts of proportion. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. Through early formal education. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Higher Education: Higher education. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. usually between the ages of zero or three and five.3. or post secondary education. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. also called tertiary. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. depending on the jurisdiction. as well as vocational education and training. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 .2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. diplomas. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Some education systems have separate middle schools. such as a high school or secondary school. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. the elements of language are first learned.a secondary education. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. or academic degrees. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. In general. structured education.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. capacity.3. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling.4.4.2. 2. third stage.
4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.3. and remote dwellers. children with disabilities. is an important agency of formal education. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. 4.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. What are levels of formal educational system? . Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.which will help for nation's development. Agencies can be classified as 2. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. 2. late beginners etc. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.
i. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. Adiseshiah. It unlocks the doors of development plans.. systematic. staffed. one could say that non-formal education is an active. However.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. Non-formal education includes adult education. systematic.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. It is much more responsive to needs and change. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. financially supported life formal education. Thus. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. etc. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. until 1970 it had not been defined. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. It is deliberate. adults as well as children. to help themselves. open learning. adding up to a true learning society.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. it has its own valid claim to reality. place of instruction. planned. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. continuing education and on the job oriented education.e. admissions.learning client take some learning objectives. it is a more effective tool for rural development. curriculum. It is functional. Therefore.formal education. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. According to Malcolm A. “Non-formal education should 113 . Open university.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action.
To help industrial workers to better their skills. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. evaluation etc. national integration. 114 . It should lay emphasis on the self. Lawrence.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. Process of sharing. 7. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.S. age.4. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. Covering life span of an individual. international understanding. To develop in the student. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. Flexibility in various aspects of education. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge.” 2.4. socialism. 2. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter.4. Preparation for future needs. co-curricular activities.renewal. the Ideas of citizenship. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. modes of teaching. admissions.learning pattern. 6.” According to H.e. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. Part-time education. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status.be marketable and vocationalised. 5. place of education.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 3.4. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. 2. exploring.S. 4. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. self. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. curriculum. i. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.
Eradication of adult literacy. 7. publication and information dissemination.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 5. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. working adults. in villages and those who live in towns. Meeting the omissions of formal education. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 6. 115 . 3. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 9. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up.4. 2. • 2. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. Technical.4.4. school dropouts. 8. 10. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. 4. 3. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 2. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. Senior Secondary.4. 5. To offer Secondary. 4. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. Universalisation of primary education.
It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. All-round development i. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. Institutions for formal education. effective in modern societal context. 2. To make if. if organised in isolation. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. To increase knowledge and 2. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. self-employment iii. centres of correspondence education.2. training centres in factories. 3. To better qualifications. farm. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . Radio and television. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education.full time to learners – can be home. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. Again. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras.4. public libraries. etc. others are formal and informal. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college ..4. library.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. open space. factory.4. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. etc. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. 4. 2. Therefore. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.
Give examples of non formal education? . Face Contact programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. 7. 117 . . Lecturing T.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals.V. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. radio. Teaching to face teaching. . Correspondence lesson. Written tests. List out any two aims of non formal education. 6. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Define non formal education. institution.
Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education.4. Secondary level. 7. 2.4.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain the different levels of formal system of education.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. Open University. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Formal and Non Formal 2.2. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 4.4. 2. Open School. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. 4. School 3. 3. adults as well as children. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Pre-school level. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. The school. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. b. a.” 6. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. 2. 118 . Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Higher Secondary level and University level. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. 5. a. the college and the university come under this category.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. systematic. Primary level.
New Delhi : 119 . (2004). K and Narang C. (2008). Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2003). (2005). Education in Emerging India. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.2.4. (2007). N. Dash. Ltd. (2008). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Gupta. S. N.C. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Bhatia. Mohanty. J. Pahuja. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. B. P. K. L. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J.
5 188.8.131.52.5.1 2.4.LESSON 2.4 Need for Open University 184.108.40.206.5.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.2 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.4.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Objectives of Open University 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .22.214.171.124.7 126.96.36.199 Open University 2.5.6 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.5.
5.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person.5. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. Under these circumstances. It is a lifelong process. For them. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. give the meaning. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. continuing education is a boon. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. farmers. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. 2. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education.2. know the need and objectives of open university. Education is for refinement and enlightenment.5. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. Thus.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. labourers and half educated individuals. It is a continuous process. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. you will be able to: 1. 2. Any person. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. economic field or such other fields. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. industries. However. characteristics of open university 4. This knowledge may be in political field.5. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened.
Doctors. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. On the other hand.5. Cinema. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education.3. On the other hand. After the achievement of independence. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education.directly related to his job. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. T. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Radio. cultured and progressive. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. are also contributing their might for the purpose. For them too continuing education is essential.V. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Persons engaged in health services.V. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Throughout the country. Block Development Officers.literate person. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Radio and T. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. deteriorating to his character and personality. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. 2. Thus.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress.
5. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (1) ancient history. (6) folk stories. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (7) folk songs. we have not been able to achieve our targets. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. 2. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. 7. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. 2. (4) the fundamentals of economics.3. 6. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. Inspite of the great efforts. habits of people of other lands. especially women.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 123 . These books are not very useful.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (16) liking. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons.5. (17) modern international and national events. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy.V. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. (2) basic religious matters.3. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. and Radio. (10) first aid. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (14) information about bringing up young children. 4.. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. 3. Of course. 2. (8) psychology of adults. (15) music. (13) psychology of child behaviour. 5. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it.
Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. NLM was launched in the year 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.5. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . lack of time etc.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background.5.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. attendance restrict ion. of educational opportunities. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. 2.
there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. it makes use of educational techno logy. but 125 . Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . No one is too old or too late to learn. d. IGNOU was established in the year 6.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. 2. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. the higher the degree of openness. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. 2. and in teaching. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements.unobserved. 4. Which was the first open university in India? .2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning.4. 5. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing.5. Education is not a once for-all process. b. 3. its education is not class room based but home based. c. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. e.
2. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 126 .5. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 2. 2. 3. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 4. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n.who did not get it.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. cho ice o f co ur ses. 4. 6. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 3. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n.4.5. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. supplementing the existing provision. or who realised too late that they need it. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. Mo re o ver. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 5. 2.4. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. it a ims at wider and hig her. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. annu al wr it t en examinat io n.
Correspondence tuition. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. 8. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. List out any four methods of Open University? . 4. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. Every day. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 6. you have learnt the concept.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. 3.5. 5. 2. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. semi – literates.5. school drop outs. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 8. 2. 127 . a state or nation. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. Laboratory works. a society. In the present day world. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Self instructional materials. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve .2. Tutor Comments. 7.4. Therefore. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons.
a. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. 1985. Broad casting lectures c. its education is not class room based but home based. 6. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. (1) ancient history.ambitious learners. a. which may include house wives.5. P r int med ia b. 4. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 7. 2. b. 8. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. 3. Explain the objectives. b. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. Television Lessons.5.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 7. aspirants for continuing education. 2. unskilled workers and other professionals.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. 1988. (2) basic religious matters. d. youth. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. cho ic e o f co u r ses. a. agricultural and industrial workers. 128 . 9. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 8. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. need and characteristics of Open University. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes.
Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Modern Problems of Education. S. Reddy. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 129 . K and Narang C. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia.. R. L. K. (2004). Udaiveer. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. (2007). (2004).5.2. (2001).K. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Recent trends in Non Formal Education.S.
UNIT – III 131 .
Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. the education of women. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. examination. All which is the need of the hour. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. 133 . its causes and remedial measures. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. wastage and stagnation. In Lesson 2. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. which may claim the attention of those concerned.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. and teacher education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Examination reform. Training teachers for all levels of education. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself.
1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1 188.8.131.52.3.1.6 3.1 EFA – For whom? 3.1.5 184.108.40.206 3.LESSON 3. 135 .1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.4 3.2 EFA – How? 3.1.3 New initiatives. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.
the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. Therefore. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development.1.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). 2. Continuing Education (CE) 1. (EOI) 2. may be political.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. education received added importance and significance. you will be able to: 1.3. Eradication of Illiteracy. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL).1. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. 3. therefore. understands the country. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. economic or cultural. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. On the other hand. directed that. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. “The State shall 136 . There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. social. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures.
Therefore. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. After the attainment of independence. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. It enables the parents to send their children to School. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . Universalization of Enrolment. Continuing Education (CE). Even then we have not yet achieved the target. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Universalization of Retention. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education.endeavour to provide. Due to the adoption of democratic system. 137 . the national Government under. 3. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. rights and responsibilities. Three Stages for Universalization. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child.
1. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. UNESCO Bulletin states. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. educational enterprise. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. 3. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. then to 1976. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. 1995 (for upper primary stage). for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. 1990. It is safe to assure. Write Article 45. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. present and future. Therefore. later to 1988. This target had to be revised to 1970. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 138 . We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
Education of Girls. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. their social economic status and occupations. 8. rural areas. the art of preparing fruit-juice. problem of literacy. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Disabled.3. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. FELF. creed. 5. The Social Education. NAEP. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). Emphasis must be given on health education. nutrition education and sports and games. Apart from primary education. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. 10. etc. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. and Women’s education programme should be improved. 11. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. Jams and Jellies. 3.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. sex. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. 3. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. slum areas. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Education of the Impaired. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. 9. Early childhood education should be streamlined.1. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. 139 . Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. By undertaking survey. adolescent and adult. their enrolment and retention. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). 12.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. 6. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres.
Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4.1. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.3. Expand MLL and SSA . Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.1.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Wastage and Stagnation.3. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. 3.e. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.3 NEW INITIATIVES.
School Factors .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. Personal Factors . Familial Factors .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. it is considered as wastage. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.first stage of education.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. Social Factors .
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Wastage. 142 . . Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. 7.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage.
rural or urban 3. They are described hereunder :1. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.The following factors. Family Factors . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.1. Societal Factors .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. School Factors .3. school or society.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . relating to home. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. Personal Factors . in his home.
mid-day meals. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . 144 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. uniforms. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Stagnation? 9. stationary.
Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. Universalization of Provision b. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. 3.” 3..7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. a. therefore. 3. b.1. a. 4. “The State shall endeavour to provide.1.3. 3. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Minimum Levels of Learning b.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Universalization of Enrolment c. 6. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. 145 .6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. a. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Hartog Committee. 2. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. directed that. Universalization of Retention 2. improvement of curriculum.1. 4. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.
a. T.1. Familial Factors c.N. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Problems of Elementary Education.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. introduce graded curriculum. (2008).K. Hemchand. 3. S. a. (2007). School Factors d. b. improve examination system. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers.7. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. (2001). S. 9. Personal Factor b. Sharma. New Delhi: 146 . Crescent Publishing Corporation. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.K. Social Factors 8.
4.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.2 22.214.171.124 3.7 Open book examination 126.96.36.199.2.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.5.4 Question banks 188.8.131.52.5.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.4.7 Let us sum up 147 .3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 184.108.40.206 Merits and demerits of examination 3.5.1 Problems of examination 220.127.116.11.5 New evaluation procedures 18.104.22.168.2.LESSON 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2 Grade System 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.5.
2. 3.9 3. 3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. 3. but on the other.3.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2. Besides. suggest the new evaluation procedures. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .2. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. 3. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . 4. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.8 3.2.2. you will be able to: 1. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.2.2. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.
hostel facilities. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. etc. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. waiting rooms for girl students.2. If the students are in sufficient number. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. schools for them wherever necessary. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. 3. They may cause problems relating to discipline. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. roadside Romeoism. 149 . 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. The following steps should be taken up. etc. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.. They develop secondary sex characteristics. etc. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes.3. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. which the educational authorities have to face.
The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.2. assessment and Finance. the examination system has an important role to play. teachers. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. 150 . It is considered as a major sub-system. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. public administrators and statesmen. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country.2. public interested in education. Instruction. 3. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3.4. conduct of internal examinations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. appointment of paper-setters. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
printing and distribution of question papers.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. etc. etc. training of examiners. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. announcement of results. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 .4. 3. tabulators. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. introducing objective-based testing. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. examiners. etc. scrutinizers. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. establishing reliability. validity and practicability. etc. values. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. payment of remuneration to paper-setters.2. etc. invigilators.
3. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. Subjects. it s a common experience that subjectivity. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made.. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public.. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. 2) From the angle of content of education. halo-effect.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. lack of objectivity etc. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education.. 3) With respect to method of teaching. Vagaries in making. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. which they are expected to study. Rote memorisation. may also discredit them. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. stereotyped questions. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. 7) In connection with the question papers. 152 . lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording.4. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview.2. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. do not appeal to the students and parents. takes the place of comprehensive learning. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education.
(b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. revaluation. etc. re-numbering of answer scripts. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. 153 . Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. may be introduced. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Question Books may be developed in all schools.a part of internal assessment. . Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. 4. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests.. List any two merits of examination. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Spot valuation.develop true love for education.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately.
especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure.5. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. The new scheme of assessment. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. Advantages More autonomy is given to students.2. Every paper is treated equal. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. attitudes. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. In this system. The students can take any course offered in any department.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. 3. When a person chooses to work extra. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .2. It is complicated. In actual practice.3. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. Their interests. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times.2. he is given extra credit points. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. skills are given importance. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth.5.
poor. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. v. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. 3. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. or as a 4 credit course.5. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . These weightages are called credits. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.good. poor. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. only the total credits to be earned is specified. This system reduces comparison of marks. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. While designing syllabus.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development.2. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. An example is a seminar. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. courses can have weightages defined.discipline. In the new system. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. Groupism is encouraged.
6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. 3. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.2. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5. 3. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. 156 .4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. 3. However.2. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.5. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. the need for re-evaluation should not arise.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.5. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.2.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.
recruitment.2. .5. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . In the hierarchy. Therefore. However.3. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. There are no proper procedures for selection. 3. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. List any four new evaluation procedures.2. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.
whether proper teaching methods have been followed. in contrast.6. finding out whether the prescribed text. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. etc. 158 . Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. library books.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. books are followed. school buildings. playgrounds. in a sense. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. complaints and compliments.2. 1. etc. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. 3. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. whether the syllabus has been covered. taking up the follow-up programmes.qualified personnel. finding out the adequacy of. interpersonal relationships and so on. of late. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. requirements. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. They are.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. disciplinary problems. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. staff. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number.. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner.. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. qualifications. Academic inspection. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. being realised as two different functions. When they are fully realised. inspecting the class-room teaching. wherever necessary. submitting of the inspection reports. laboratory equipment.
recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. In the light of these conceptualisation. Insistence on specialisation in the B. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. In the case of departmental candidates. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. 159 . attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. once in five years. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. 3. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. at least. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. course in either educational. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection.. Similarly. or. their professional knowledge.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. aptitude.Ed. M. courses. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well.2. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. modern.. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors.Ed.
4.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. 3. a. 3. d. b.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. b. a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5.2. 3. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. Administration.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. assessment and Finance. a. b. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. c. 3. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Grade System. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Instruction. 2. 160 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.2.2.
b. Question banks. Open book examinations.4. 3. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.2. a. c.a part of internal assessment. Multiple sets of question paper. Educational Reforms. S. a. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. a.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Problems of Education in India. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . New 161 . R and Sharma. 5. (2005). and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. History and Problems of Education in India. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. 7. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. (2004). K. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Vaidya. b. (2002). K. b. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline.
3.6 3.5 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3 188.8.131.52.LESSON 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.7 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 3.10 3.3. 2.9 3.4 3. 3.3.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. identify the needs of rural India and social. 4. 162 . you will be able to: 1. 5. analyze the general and vocational spectra.8 3.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.2 184.108.40.206. 3.3.
the Banaras Sanskrit College. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. etc. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. 10 years of general Secondary Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. Similar is the case with some other States.e. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. and 3 years of First Degree Course. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges.. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education.. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. in Andhra Pradesh.. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. 8 years of general education. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. The Calcutta Madras.. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages.3. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919.g. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. Commission emphasised to continue. i. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission.3.specialisation programmes 3. e. The. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. 2.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.e. Consequent on the recommendations. University Education.
to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 6. Provision for transfer of credits to students. However. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. 10. who desire to change from one stream to another. b. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. and. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . cultural and economic development of the country.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 3. 5) to help for the social. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self.a sense of dignity of labour. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. to prepare.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. 8. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. social. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . 5. is also a plus point . reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. historical. habits of hard work and develop . to imbibe. economical and political. educational channels.confidence in students. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students.3. 7.
at the other. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. cooperativeness. etc. to develop national character. international understanding. The General Educational Spectrum. and that required to enter the tertiary level. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. democratic living. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. Psychologically. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world.3.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. Sociologically it is undesirable. 3. social justice. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Philosophically it is not the conception. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. on one hand. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. and. 1. cultural and' religious tolerance.. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students.national integration. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level.
fish culture. Biology. the rural areas have suffered very much. 3. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. India is a land of villages. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. educational and cultural services. industrial agricultural production is growing. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. Commerce and other disciplines. Agriculture is the main occupation. In the vocational spectrum. technical. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. In the matter of language. In our country. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. professional. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. and vocations based on dairy-farming. commerce. horticulture. physics or mathematics. technological. such as Agriculture.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. medical plants. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. commerce. chemistry. vegetable growing. or other machinery. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. 166 . potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. rural health.3. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward.— tube-wells. Science. 2. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. All these need for an.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education.
etc. In time. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses.3.. interests and aptitudes of the students. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. 4. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. There had been favourable reaction from the students. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. and the needs. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. can be ensured. 3. In this way.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2.. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. social justice. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. the local resources available. and 5. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . In this it may be concluded. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States.
(2001). 3. New Delhi : 168 . b. we studied the history. J.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. (2007). curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. B. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Calcutta University Commission 2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. to imbibe. Vocational Sepctrum. Dash. b. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. General Educational Spectrum and b. 3. 3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4.3.3. 3. a. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.a sense of dignity of labour. Mohanty. objectives.3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3. Anmol Publications Pvt. 2. S. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. (2005). a.C. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. a.K. N. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J. (2008). habits of hard work and develop . to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.
220.127.116.11.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.12 3.7 18.104.22.168. Education contributes to human development.LESSON 3. social and 169 .14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 22.214.171.124.4.8 3.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.10 126.96.36.199 Faculty wise enrolment 3.9 3.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal. but the lighting of a fire”.2 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.11 3.3 3.6 3.5 3.1 3.4.13 3.
economic. Dr. Nursing. higher education of girls developed immensely. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. Home Economics. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. cultural and political development of the individual. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. While women constituted only 9. There is a close connection between education and development.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. 3. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. During the year 1937. 3.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. The relevance of women’s education to social. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom.higher education in particular. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. particularly 170 . a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far.4. you will be able to: 1. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. These courses were.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. In the post —independence period. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. For the first time in the history of India. analyze the women and distance education. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. family. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . community and nation is universally acknowledged. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. Education .economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. although we have miles to go. Teaching and Fine Arts.
0 16. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. 3. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.T Women University. Yet. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.women. In 1950-51. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.1 31. Mother Teresa Women University. Coimbatore. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.1 24. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.9 14.2 29. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.9 27.D.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.0 Today. we have more than 1200 institutions. Mumbai. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. out of 9200 and odd colleges. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.4. 3. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. The idea of women’s education for equality. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.4.0 43.65 lakhs in 1994-95. In the rest of the country.N. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. levels and professions.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . Kodaikanal.2 22. Even today. in our country. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.0 32.4.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b.56 64.73 10. 3. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.1 and 14.17 52. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .4%) prefer Arts subjects.that of boys. 2.1 respectively.4.66 66.47 65. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.36 3.4.54 12. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .46 82.83 47.4.27 89. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.44 35.34 33. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.53 34.63 Female % 34.
Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. irrelevance of the content of education. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. financial difficulty of the parents. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. 173 . The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. marriage is a very common I factor. The major hurdles. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. According to a survey. she will only learn fashion. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. In every third family. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. what is the need for higher education for her. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters.hinders the girls from getting higher education. In college. They gave up their studies to enter home life. and coeducation may spoil her character. distance of the college or university from home. Thus. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage.4. particularly. curriculum not suited to their requirements. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. Also. 3. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. Book banks should be established. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. etc. promoted and increased.
because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. 3.4. Empowerment in a nutshell. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. space. Education.4.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. is the only tool for realising empowerment. resources and socio . It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Full-time employment. which is the most dynamic factor of development. 3. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. It enables to study. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Distance education is a boon to women. It is a productive investment. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. There are constraints of time. It also brings about 174 . Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. Geographic distance of educational institutions. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development.economic disabilities faced by women.
This can be achieved through reflection. for full development of our human resources. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. Women are partners in development.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level.4. 3. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. on their own. education of women must be given priority in national plans. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. legal awareness and economic independence. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. The major objectives of women's higher education. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. empowerment means being assertive. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. higher learning. Empowerment is an active. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. education of women is of paramount importance.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment.
who are eager to take up courses. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. But their number is small. Scholarships and concessions for women. which is pending for a long time. Reservation for women. will encourage them to venture new grounds. 176 . has to be implemented at the earliest. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. The local administration. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. Better opportunities. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard.4. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. especially so in the developing countries.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. which had been the sole domain of men.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. 3. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. The educational institutions.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .
there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.8%). Also. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. especially in developing countries like African countries. 3. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Chief Executive.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management.000 women in the country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. capacities etc. But. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs.3 percent.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. IDP Education. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests.4. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . According to Lindy Hyam.1%) and architecture and building (38. engineering and related technologies (16.9%). although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Australia. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. talents. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100.
Coimbatore. 178 . 3. R. a. (2007). S.4. and Swain. Mother Teresa Women University.4. 43% 6. Coimbatore. Mishra. Kodaikanal. and Suryalatha. 2. community and the nation. Women Education. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Rao. create the right attitude towards life. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. SNDT Women’s University. R. (2008). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.to the family. Mumbai. individuals and society b. Rajasthan 5. Mumbai. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication.R. 4.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Centre for Women’s Studies. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. 3. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. R. SNDT Women’s University. 3. (2000).K. S. A. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. (2005). 4.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3.C. Annakodi. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Women Education.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Pattanaikj. Women and Education. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. A. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development.4.
so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5.5 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5.LESSON 3.5.10 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.5.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5.11 3.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 . They should be trained.personality of children in and out of school.5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.3 3.2 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5.1 3. whole.9 3.7 188.8.131.52. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.8 3.4 3.6 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.
3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.5. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. 180 . Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. Dearth of new technology of teaching. understanding and strong desire for international peace.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5. know the pre service and in service training facilities. 4. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. 3. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. you will be able to: 1. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so.5. social and emotional integration. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. equality and justice. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. and national character.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. Lack of physical facilities. international. Shorter working hours. national consciousness. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. understand the training teachers for Primary. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. 3.
and M. 3. the centre. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. levels.5. and the collegiate teacher education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. higher secondary teacher education. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. it is called the Extension teacher Education.5. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. the primary teacher education. (NCERT) New Delhi. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. If the student teachers are working teachers. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Inadequate training in practical skills.. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . it is called the In-service teacher education. Lop-sided curriculum.. a Diploma course and a Degree course. students.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. 3. inservice and extension education programmes.Ed. At the diploma level. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them.Ed. Depending on the levels. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work.Less qualified teacher educators. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. the state Government. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. the secondary teacher education. etc. who have not been trained earlier. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course.
For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . state Institutes of Educat ion. etc. Education cells. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . 3.. non-formal. Evaluation unit. are established. Expand NCERT 2. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. depart ments etc. collegiate cells. Science Education units. Educational teehnology cells. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. extensio n service. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 .5. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Also Guidance Bureaux.
Ed. and 183 . material conditions relating to libraries.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . and so on. schools and sister institutions. which should include experience in the primary schools too. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. to ensure teacher competence. to prescribe conditions for recognition.. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. to offer consultative services. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. which help breaking isolation from one another . primary and secondary school teachers. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . degree. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. audio visual aids.. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . despite its vast expansion. laboratories. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission..Ed. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. should be improved on a top priority basis. to improve curricular programmes.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities .
the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. Agriculture.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. not came up once again. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Psychology of Students.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. Meanwhile. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. Workshops. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. The problem. though no pre-service training.secondary education. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. Hence. etc. whether they should have professional education or. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. methodology and evaluation. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. To meet this exigency.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. 184 . which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. Organisation of Content Courses. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. Modern Methods of Evaluation. etc. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Induction Courses. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. and XII. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. Modern Techniques of Teaching.
For re-orienting the teachers. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.’s are elig ible for M.5.Ed. (Education) are organized by 185 . State Councils of Educational Research and Training.Ed. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. 3.’s for Ph...Ed. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B...S. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.A.Ed.D. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. Courses leading to B. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . Degree. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. courses and M. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.A. Pre-service training is for those..Ed. Ajmer. These facilities are available for regular students. training. in Education. M. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. (Education) and M. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier...CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. All B Ed. State Institutes of Education.. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.Ed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Degree and M. Post-Graduates also undergo B. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.
Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and .List any two code of conduct for teachers? .. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (Ed). . of conduct—written or unwritten. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. However.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Hence the employability of M. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned.). (Ed. What is the role of ERIC? . 186 . Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 5.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. they should be conscientious . established by tradition and teachers of the past. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 4. 3.A. and B.A. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. 6. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession.5.
3. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. Dearth of new technology of teaching. However. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 4. a. 2. they should be conscientious. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. Bhopal. a. b. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 3. Ajmer. 4. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. The necessity is however this. Shorter working hours. 3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 184.108.40.206 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful.5. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. 187 . the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. 6.3. b. National Council of Educational Research and Training. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. a. 3. Explain code of conduct for teachers. 2.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the problems of teacher education. 5.
J. Publication Pvt.N.5.3.D. Tewari. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Corporation.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. P. Teacher Education. B. Mohanty. and Teacher Education. (2003). A. (2009). Teacher Education. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . Ltd Aggarwal. (2010).
UNIT – IV 189 .
ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. nutritional deficiency diseases. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. preservation of nutrients. In lesson 4. consuming the right amounts becomes important. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. the focus is on the school health programmes. communicable diseases and their prevention. The person’s environment is equally important.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. economic and educational developments. Since food is the source of nutrients. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. common ailments of children. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. In lesson 1. If the diet is poor. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. objectives. objectives. objectives and role of the physical education. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. 191 . balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits.
1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1. emotional and social. 193 .e. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1 4. mental.LESSON 4.1. It is a miniature society. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.3 4.4 4.6 4.8 4.1.2 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody.1.10 220.127.116.11 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1.11 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. physical.1.5 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1.9 4.
To develop certain skills concerning health. 4. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. content of health education. know the need for sex education. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. understand school health programmes 2.. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. To develop healthy health habits among children. Instruction. To give information regarding health rules.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. training of teachers and evaluation. 9. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. you will be able to: 1. 6. 194 . 7. 4. training in first aid and etc. 2. 8. 3.1. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. e. cleanliness and healthful living. 4. 5. 10. list the common ailments of children 3. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. to his family and to the community at large.1. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. explain the importance of First aid 5.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. 11.g. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner.
B. Arranging better transportation facilities. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. The school buildings should be spacious. vaccination. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. The surroundings of schools should be clean. There should be regular water supply.1. suitable furniture. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. (vi) nutrition education. There should be good drainage facilities.. 3. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. B. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. 5.. (viii) first aid. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. 2. etc. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . excusing late. ( iii) sanit at io n. organisation of school health days. 2. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. Triple Antigen Vaccination. cleanliness weeks. (iv) co mmunicable diseases.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A.C. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. “Play-for-all” programmes. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. (x) choice aid use of health services and products.coming or absence. as described below 1. (xl) mental health. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. play festivals. (v) safety education. inoculation against cholera. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. The flooring should not be damp. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. (ii) communit y healt h. 4. direct lighting.G. First aid facilities should be made readily available. Vaccination for small pox. is imperative. (xii) smoking education etc.4. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. minimizing the travelling distance. typhoid. proper doors and windows.
The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. • Take nutritious food. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. • Find out the cases. fainting (epileptic fit). isolate and notify. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. • Keep all rooms clean. insect stings. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. and other accidents. bleeding. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. cuts. burns.. • Close the schools. • When sleeping in groups. 196 . Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. scalds. etc. fractures. D. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. sports and games in the interest of their health. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. C. wounds. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. dislocations. drowning. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. if epidemic is wide-spread. poisons. • Have adequate rest and sleep.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles.
chicken pox. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. There are three stages in any communicable disease. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. measles etc. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. pain in the joints. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. Once these germs get into the body. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. So they easily get illnesses. water or bodily contact. 4. headache. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . asthma. fever. cough. which are – cold. These diseases are called communicable diseases. They are: i) The incubation stage. backache. List out the Health curriculum 3.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. polio.. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. tuberculosis. 4. 2. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. Mention the school health programmes. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases.
This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. The following are the common communicable diseases.It is caused by measles virus. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Measles . Common Cold . Tonsilitis . Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Hence liquid diet is recommended.This disease is caused by bacteria. head-ache and cough. unhygienic bottle feeding. Mumps . Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Throat is affected. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. After three or four days of fever. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Others make the children very weak. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Ear Infections . The virus is present in the secretions of throat. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Diarrhoea . Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Important salts and water are lost in this process. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Hence it is called a killer disease. eating food which is not clean. Some suffer cold due to allergy. cough and fever. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. This is caused by cold virus. The symptoms include cold. sugar and water. Scabies . Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. unhygienic living conditions.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. etc.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light.When a child suffers from scabies. 198 . One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. The child may have fever.
The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. separate. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. raised pink spots appear on head. Enlist the common ailments of children.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. 199 . By scratching he causes secondary infections. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Typhoid . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. Shortly.• • • • Chicken Pox . If proper treatment is not given. Expand DPT . What are communicable diseases? 6. As the disease progresses. Diphtheria . They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. face and waist. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. The child may also have diarrhoea. the child is not able to breathe.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. It begins with fever. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. the child may die. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day.
It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. Wounds . man-woman behaviours. so-called sex books and periodicals. scorpion stings. and films. dislocation. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. 4. fiction. sprains.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. exciting and body-oriented. bleeding. 3. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. simple fractures. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. swelling. etc.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Sex is but an integral part of human personality.4.g. it is a subject of art. In such cases. wounds. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. head injury.1. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. bruises. Sex is popular. Sprains . sprains.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. 5. eye injury. 4.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. Drowning . cuts. 2. drowning. fainting. It is both biological and psychological.1. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. 200 . snakebites. Cuts and Bruises . Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. It has its rightful place in education too.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. and Community Work and Social Service. films and jokes.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e.
The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. try experimenting with their bodies. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. 3. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. Hence. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. in their ignorance. The values of life. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . We can arm people with knowledge about sex. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. In secondary schools. B. sex education is being recommended in schools. the school. Should the boys and girls. 2. the religious organisations. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. celibacy are age.. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. In today's liberal and interactive society. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. The home. they would be treading the path of sure doom. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude.old values. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. but preserve them from disaster and disease. health.
the school health programmes. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. What are the major components of Sex Education. when the courses are already overloaded. 202 . hence.1. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. first aid and sex education. communicable diseases and their prevention.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. Teacher education institutions are. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. there will no crisis in its implementation. C. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. common ailments of children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. 4. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 18.104.22.168 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 209 . Mention the food nutrients 2. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4.
Let us talk about each of these aspects. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. minerals. If you look at the definition carefully.4. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . 210 . Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.2. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s .2. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods.
A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). paratha and poori. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. Even within given States there is considerable variation.g. dosa are typical of the south. sex. In the case of adults. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. A balanced diet is specific firstly. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. There is no point. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati.sedentary. These are: region where the person resides and income. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. 4. activity level and physiological stress. Preferences/customs are also important.one in the morning and the other at night. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). moderate or heavy work. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. it is also specific to a given activity level . construction labourer). for example. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately.2.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. People in the east of our country prefer rice. In other words. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. the social and religious practices of that region. Those in the west also tend to eat rice.6.g.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires.
you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. Having more money. however. One must. as important for the rich as for the poor. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. income plays a vital role. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. Among the social factors. In addition to these. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. taboos related to food may play an important role. for example. Even among flesh foods. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. As income increases. while another may hate them. customs. nuts and dry fruits. These determine the acceptability of foods. Judicious selection of food is. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. If you think of your own religious group. however. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. however. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. vegetables and fruits. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. One person may be fond of milk products. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. However. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. As you read this discussion. fat and sugar tend to increase. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. Including these 212 . While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked.planning the diet.
fruits. List out any two healthy food habits. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 8. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . mouth. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food.eating is hazardous. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. if the teachers have good food habits. 17. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. Define balanced diet. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 213 . eggs . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. over-eating or under. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. meat. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. green leaves. but they should be thrown away. 8) Walk a while after eating. For this. etc. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food.
Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Keratomalacia 3. 4.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Vitamin D 5. 4. Beri Beri 4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. In fact. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Explain food nutrients 4.4. preservation of nutrients. e. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2.2. Corneal xerosis. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Night blindness. Conjuctival xerosis. Bitot’s spots. Discuss good food habits. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. a. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. good nutrition is essential for good health. c. d. When the diet is inadequate.2.2.
plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.2. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . R. Sri Lakshmi B.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Nutrition Science.6. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. (2005). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. mouth. Hands. b. R. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s .M. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Health and Nutrition Education. 8. S. Food should be consumed after eating well. Food and Nutrition Education. a. 7.C. minerals. P. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.N. (2009). Food and Nutrition Education. A Text Book of Foods. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. (2008). 4. (2008). Chopra. b. Nutrition and Dietetics. a . (2004).
3 Impact on Education 22.214.171.124.3.4 4. 216 .126.96.36.199 Impact on social development 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.3.1 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 188.8.131.52.LESSON 4.10 4.9 4.13 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.7 4.12 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.8 4.3 4.5 184.108.40.206.2 4.3.11 220.127.116.11.
correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. Population Education. you will be able to: 1. community. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. state the meaning.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. therefore. characteristics and changes for himself. describe the impact of population growth on social. There is some difference. 217 . The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.4.3.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. It is a much wider co ncept. his societ y and the world. the causes of population change.3.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. It is not sex education. the stress is. family planning and sex education etc. 4. his family. Whenever we talk of sex education. and the consequences of these processes.3. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. objectives and need for population education 2. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. economic and educational development 3. aims at providing the younger generation. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. population characteristics. understand the importance of small family norm 5.
the family. Define Population Education 2. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. List out any two objectives of Population Education.3. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. the society.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .4. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.3. 4. the nation and the world.
Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. economic and educational development of the country.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country.3. health and happiness of its citizens. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. 4. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. 219 . the family programmes are also handicapped. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Every second two thousand children are being born. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. With the larger families.6. 4.3. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. which will not be possible without population control. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Family is considered as a social unit. When the family is small.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed.
will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.6. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. i. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio.e.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. 4.6. Many students herded in a small room. unemployment. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. pollution of the environment. lack of proper health care. in cinema halls and theatres. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. The gulf between them is widening further. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils.. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. heavy intern I migration etc. toilets. teacher index.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. 4. and so on. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. in parks and other places of public gatherings. 220 . This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils.3. facility for drinking water.3. Swollen cities. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. organization index and material index. in buses and trains.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. In developing countries. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher.
Regional Language. and laboratory equipments. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. essays..3. less budget for education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. bar graphs etc. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. Social Studies Statistics on population education. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. blank verses etc. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Hindi and English. even text books would be in short supply. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. can be studied in science and health education. reproduction. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. can be taken up. There would be very few audiovisual aids.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. less space facilities. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. family planning etc. thus. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. There would be poor library facilities. 221 .
grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 12. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 2. Uttar Pradesh. 13. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 5. Children with the help of parents. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. United States of America. Brazil. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Bihar. China. 10. 7.3. 11. Children may compare two families. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. 8. area and average density of population. 15. 4. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled.4. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Canada. causes of deaths etc. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. deaths. 9. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). West Bengal. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. 3. 14. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation.
Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 17. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. 18. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. age at marriage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The question. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. we have no right to stop 223 . preferences for sex. Comparing life in various respects in two families. 16. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. values and role children etc. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village.3.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. How will you correlate Population Education? 5.be opened in their schools. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”.
to emphasize family planning services. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . The Family Welfare Program..10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). however. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. on an overall basis. 4. Since the program's inception.were implemented 224 . Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. which education can only do. and the child survival components of the news: program.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.4-6. especially the expansion of child immunization services .their entry into the world”.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. More than 45 years ago. at varying places in different regions. continued .3. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. “He who is responsible for population growth.
and nominal fees for services. and the World Conference on Women. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. In April 1996. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. the community appears willing to pay for services. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . At these meetings. Local programs vary in their approaches. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. men.earlier than the safe motherhood components. reliance on local women as community health workers. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. expansion of services to unmarried women. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. a focus on health promotion. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. Moreover. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. In October 1997. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. Therefore.
11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. family. nation and the world.3. 226 .emphasizing the needs of the client. involving the community. What are the goals of RCH? 4. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Its main purposes are to create awareness. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training.3. economic and educational development 4. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. 1997). community. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. Describe the impact of population growth on social. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. 3.
13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b.3. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. 4.” 2. and the consequences of these processes. 227 . and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. 3. his society and the world. China. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. 7. Canada. a. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. United States of America. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.4. less space facilities. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. his family. 5. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. area and average density of population. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. b. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. the causes of population change. bar graphs. 6. Brazil. a. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. population characteristics. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. less budget for education. a. characteristics and changes for himself.
A. Coimbatore. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. N. (2002). Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Centre for Women’s Studies. Ltd.4.K. Udaiveer. V. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Ltd.3. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Principles of Population Studies. (1992). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. T. Jayapoorni. 228 . (2004). Reddy.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. (2005). (2005). Kantikar. Bhende. Modern Trends in Indian Education. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Modern Problems of Education. J.
4.1 Minor games 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4 Lead up games 4.4.6 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 18.104.22.168 Major games 4.LESSON 4.10 4.1 22.214.171.124 Indigenous games 4.3 4.
you will be able to: 1. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. 4. moral fitness and emotional fitness. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.4. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.4. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. understand the importance of Physical Education 4.4. the youth of the country. perseverance. full records of physical activities should be maintained. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. mental alertness.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. which forms its most valuable assets. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. social fitness. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. leadership and balance in defect. as it should 230 . The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. team spirit. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. 4. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. The concept of physical education has been made broader.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. classify the different types of games.
The educational efforts at home. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Therefore. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. They go hand in hand. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. To be more precise. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. team spirit. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Every individual is a part of society. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. They are inseparably united together. obedience to rules. leadership. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice.
Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. Physical exercises. Rousseau states. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action.4.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. C.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. mo ral.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. pleasing manners. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. a sound health. Just like Education.” Montaigue writes. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. nor body but the whole man. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. 4. Buck has observed that 232 . H. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side.” The Secondary Education Commission. Regarding the significance of physical education. ment al.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. game and sports. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.
4. “If we wish to develop the whole being. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. coordinative abilities. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. resourcefulness and smartness.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. Froebel says. speed.” 4. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.a properly directed physical education should result in health. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. initiative. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. 233 . flexibility and power. etc. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. happiness. strength. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. efficiency and character. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. endurance. we must exercise the whole human being. elegance. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively.” In brief.
Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. plagues and famines. poetry and painting. While wars. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Tournaments foster this sentiment. its adherents and its enemies. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. these fundamental things have always been present. they may form gangs. including all racial groups and historical ages. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. in greater or lesser degree. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Every age has its artists. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. 234 (i) (ii) . systems of government.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.\ to develop perseverance. etc. 2. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. obedience. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. bravery and interest in games and sports. respect for rules. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. B.sacrifice. to develop tolerance. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. 235 . 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Write any two importance of Physical Education. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. self.
9. 14. Keep the field ready for the activities. Usually parents.4. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 10. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 16. defects. 2.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Be punctual. injuries among pupils should be made. students. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Be self-confident. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Be well-prepared. . Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Act as a leader. 4. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. 8. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 5. 3. Inform health principles. 15. 11. 13. 236 1. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration.H. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of.4. 6.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. and readmission after they have recovered. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 7. is essential.4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 4. and. Be sportive. Always keep the whistle ready. Posture screening should be done. 12. Haag. Be in the uniform.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules.4. 4. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Lead up games. Such inst incts as imitation. the play. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. Moreover.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Indigenous games. their development is handicapped. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. 2. 237 . 4. 3. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy.4.8. frolic and jo y. 4. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. 1. less equipment and less expense. chasing.
on mountain tops and on river beds. Jump the stick clay and so on. Jumping. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. the play equipment. spiking.. Tennis. Kabaddy etc. under ball pass Relay. catching. Basket Ball. muffling. On lawns. trapping. on hard courts. The dimension of the posts and nets. Khokho.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. benefit in playing minor games. the games can be modified according to convenience. Ball Badminton. with implements or without implements. hitting. snatching the kerchief. For each game the rules are many. Hockey. These games require varied skills such as running.4. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. boosting. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. skipping. They are played for a shorter duration. couple tag. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. bowling etc. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. heading. finding the partner. pitching. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. 238 . While many of them are played in the open playfields. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Soft Ball.With a very few rules. on sea-shore. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. stopping. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. 4. Volley Ball. Dodging. women take part most of the games. Shuttle Badminton. driving. wherever the kids assemble.8. zig zag relay. Throwing. dribbling. Tennikoit. some of them are played indoors. the number of players and substitutes. over ball pass Relay. Hopping. Except a few games. Cricket. They are rules approved by the International Associations.
skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games.4. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. List out some major games.8. They have an abundant social value.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. 7. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. On occasions like marriage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.4. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Games may be classified as 6.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. Kho-kho. An example for indigenous game is 8.4. death. While observing the players in action. and . they are in existence. these games being popular. For example.8. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. festivals connected with religion and public functions. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. birth. All the fundamental tactics. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.4.4. b. 4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers.4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. 2. Schools should help students to keep them mentally.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 4. 5. Minor and Major 240 . Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. a. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. 3. physically and emotionally fit and alert. c. 4. to secure physical health b. a. 3. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. aims and objectives and need of physical education. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. b. d. b. 2. Posture screening should be done. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. to develop physical stamina. a.
12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Cricket. Kabaddy 7. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. J. Handbook of Physical Education. J. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. 241 . (2009). Volley Ball. Mohanty. (2008). Foot-ball. Khokho.4. Soft Ball. Shuttle Badminton. Health. Ltd. Tennikoit. Ball Badminton. (2005). 4. Khokho 8. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.K. Krishna murthy. J. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. G. Hockey. Basket Ball. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2008). Aggarwal. Physical Education and Sports. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Tennis. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.C.6.
1 Natural Environment 4.5.6 4.5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.5.11 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.2 Manmade Environment 4.1 126.96.36.199.8 4.LESSON 4.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .2 4.10 188.8.131.52.4 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11.9 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.7 4.5.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.
population explosion and resource depletion could be. 4. Details are given below: I. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.5. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Knowledge. 5. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. 243 . Participation. 4. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. 6.5. 3.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. education about the environment and education through the environment. Awareness. 2. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. aesthetic and educational factors. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. political. 3. role of teacher in environmental conservation. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4.educat ion for the environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. The best place to start such learning is school. Skills. list out the types of environment 3. Essential knowledge about the Environment. 4. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Attitude. you will able to: 1. 2. social. Broadly. Evaluation Ability.5.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. it covers the following elements: 1. economic.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.
its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. F. 2. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. heat sink and wind flow in cities. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. D.B. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. 244 . mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. a. • Biological magnification E. Oxidants Other pollutants.
c. 2. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Intrauterine device iii. Control of population growth a. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. 4. B. Use of medical science i. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. III. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. The human ecosystem II. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material.3. Family planning ii. Persuasion: i. economic. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Sterilisation. Socio-economic measures. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. The pill ii. Birth control through education b. 2. 3. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Abortion iv.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Water pollution abatement. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. 1983). Define Environmental Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2. Air pollution abatement ii. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. e) Recycling. (UNESCO.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 246 . 3.
5. includes the plants. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.5. a.5.5.5. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. Biological environment The biological environment. telex.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. fax agricultural apparatus.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.other components of the environment. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . These are biotic components.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . -other. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. A change in one brings about a change in the other.5. They interact with each. He modifies according”. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. b. to his needs. animals and other organisms (biotic). way is called environmental or ecological factor. Any constituent or condition of the environment. 4.4. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.
natural way of controlling pests. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. maintaining the ecological diversity. sources. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. (ii) Air pollution. solar cookers. air pollutants from industries. change in climate may be added. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. industrial pollut io n. preventing siltation of dams. etc. effects. are the topics which may be taught in History. excellent recreation sites. t heir role in preventing pollution. desertification 248 . The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. evolution. industrial survey. use of medicinal plants. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. acid rain. preserving the watersheds. trees reducing noise pollution. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. reasons. need for bio-diversity. noise control. nuclear warfare. biogas plants. alternate sources of energy. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. use of pesticides. importance of nitrogen cycle. supplying timber for various uses. mineral survey. need for conservation. relation between population and pollution. effects o f CFC. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. ozone depletion. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. wars and hazards of war.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. etc. greenhouse effect. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . food chain and food-web. sources of pollut ion. over exploitation of ground water. History The rise and fall. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. social studies.. population. balance of nature. explosion deforestation. noise pollution. of civilizations. river systems. ozone layer deplet ion. extinction of species. role of trees in building economy. nuclear energy. windmills. water scarcity.
Developing awareness about environmental issues. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 14. 4. group discussions and seminars. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 11. 13. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. 9. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. 10. 2.5.may be inc ded in Geography. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 3. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. aims and scope. 8. 4. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. 12. 6. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. animal and plants. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Providing. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Peepal and Tulsi. Organising conferences. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 5. 249 . Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 7.
Never put any left over chemicals. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. If it is done. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Don’t burn any waste. used oils down the drain. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Reuse carrier bags. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. especially plastics. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Use public transport wherever it is possible. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. 6. World Environmental falls on 250 .Send their waste oil. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. 5. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. all these can cause serious pollution. it will cause pollution. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure.
To arrange for visiting speakers. orderliness and beauty). their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. depletion of ozone. and 251 . rather than conquest and mastery. etc. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. CFCs. Concern for species. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. values and habits. diversity and stability. viz. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. Att itudes of balance towards nature.5. To arrange visits or expeditions.. deforestation. The groups may exchange. Harmony with the nature .mat erials. Conservation of natural resources. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. dest roying nat ural habitats. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. To provide materials needed for practical work. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. (cleanliness. nuclear wars. potable water.4. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. concern for others).8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature.). disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . To provide reference materials for children’s use. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. loss of bio-diversity. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. Social responsibilit y (common good. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. developing desirable attitudes. etc.
preserving natural cycles. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. 252 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. 4. 4. 8.5. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.5. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. 4. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.
8. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. effects. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Environmental Education.\ 4.. a. Providing. Nanda. New Delhi : Authors Press. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. 6. Y.5. To provide materials needed for practical work. population. Ltd. a. reasons. Modern Problems of Education. water scarcity. S. Publications Pvt. (1997). (ii) Air pollution.K.K. New Delhi : Sharma. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Awareness. group discussions and seminars. Udaiveer. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Anmol Publications Pvt. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. a. Environment and Human Rights. (2007). greenhouse effect. importance of nitrogen cycle. b. concern for others).K. June 5 7. over exploitation of ground water. b. b. a. Social responsibilit y (common good. sources. acid rain. Environmental Education. explosion deforestation. (2007). 4. new problems from science and technology. Kuldeep. T. (2004). S.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Ltd.2. b. 5. To provide reference materials for children’s use. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . sources of pollution. Organising conferences.K. relat ion between population and pollution. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 3. ozone layer deplet ion. Knowledge. air pollutants from industries. Education for values. Rapid population growth.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 18.104.22.168 Idealism and aims of Education 22.214.171.124 Idealism and Curriculum 126.96.36.199 Idealism and methods of teaching 188.8.131.52 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and aims of Education 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and Curriculum 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and methods of teaching 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 126.96.36.199 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
188.8.131.52 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 184.108.40.206 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
enrichment and transmission of culture. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. moral. the emancipation of spirit. should be universal in nature. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. The universe is regarded as a thought process. It is self-realisation.our life.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. Education according to idealism. Education must contribute to development of culture. According to Rusk'. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. Therefore.” 5. in fact." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage.3.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. Universal Education. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. man is essentially a moral being. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. Spiritual Development. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure.1. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted.
Mathematics etc. Learning through imitation. 4. He carries the child from darkness to light. subjects like Languages. He sets the environment in which education takes place. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. History. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 .1. the school is a garden. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. Science. an indispensable necessity. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. The plant can grow. so subjects like Religion. hygiene. and collation (striving) should find due place. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students.3. 2. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. So health. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. Learning through questioning. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. 5.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching.1.” 5.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. 3. Learning through discussion. However. According to Frobel. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. Learning through reading. The teacher serves as a living model for the students.the spiritual qualities of mankind.3. So he should embody.” He is thus. Learning through lecturing. a spiritual guide for the child. should be there. friend and guide. Philosophy. For intellectual development. For this no particular method has been suggested. It considers teacher as. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. So cognition (knowing). Ethics. Herbert advocated instruction method. no doubt. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. affecting (feeling). 5. According to idealism. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method.
5. text books.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. Perfection of Human Machine. In the words of Ross.4. 2. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. curricula. 5. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.1.1. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.preservation. time tables.perfection and beauty.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. formal lessons or examinations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. "Education should make 263 • . It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Ross explains.
Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. 264 .” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. useful and mature child. subjects like history. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. therefore. “Education finds its purpose. Education should. Literature.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. There is no place for religious and moral education. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Arithmetic. In all. is based on the nature of the child. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. rational harmoniously balanced. Education also aims at helping the individual t. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. 4. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Therefore. Chemistry. It stresses basic sciences. education should develop the child into Joyous. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Botany etc Language. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. • 5.1. Biology.4. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. It is based on the psychology of the child. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Zoology. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Naturalistic curriculum.
1. Rousseau says. Learning through observation. he should be taught by experience alone. a provider of an ideal environment. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. It discards all rigid.1. a supplier of materials and opportunities. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. 5. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers.4.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher.4. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Learning by doing. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. In the . Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.1. 3. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Learning through experience. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. 5. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. 2.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Heuristic method.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy.5. the stage. Dalton Plan.
is true. Subjects. Vocational and 266 . The individual has not only to adjust himself.1. History.absolutism of idealism. Geography. 5.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Social Science. Personal Social Adjustment.5. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. All Round Development of an Individual. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Sciences. intellectual. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. 5. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education.5. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Physical training.1. The aim of educational development. Social Efficiency. Agriculture.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. diversified and flexible. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Continuous Growth. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. social and moral aspects.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . a teacher occupies an important position. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. He must be trained.Technical Education.” 5. The subjects. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Learning by Doing. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. He has to be active. a senior partner and a sincere guide. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. alert and resourceful. activities and experience should be integrated properly. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. should find proper place. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. In different situations he remains a friend and helper.1.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism.5. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. 5.1.
“Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. 4. Biography Philosophy. Study of Subjects like Language. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 5.1. 2. literary or humanistic education. 5. Education is preparation for a complete living. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. rich and happy. History. Biology. The basic tenets of realism are 1. practical. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics.1. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. 2. 5. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. 4. 3.1. liberal. Sex Education. Mathematics. Chemistry.6. Music and Dance. intellectual. It favours child-centered. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Art. 3. scientific and psychological education. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. specific. Population Education.6. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing.5. Crafts. Psychology. Literature. Satisfaction of individual and social needs.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Astrology.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Geography are unnecessary 268 .
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 220.127.116.11 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. certainly and clearly.6.1. easily and pleasantly. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.
a. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. & curriculum. a. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. in this lesson. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. 3. Tours / Excursion e. naturalism. Sciences. Learning through reading. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Social Science. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Learning through experience b. Learning through discussion.1.1. Physical training. Self Realisation b. 5. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. 5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Child centered c. Languages. a. b. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. e.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. pragmatism and realism. c.1. d. Rousseau 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Experimentation d. has no end other than growth. Learning through questioning. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Geography. Learning through imitation. History. Self preservation & Self expression 4.5. Agriculture. Demonstration and Observation 270 .7 LET US SUM UP We have. Education according to pragmatism. Vocational and Technical Education. Universal Education 2. 6. Learning through lecturing. 5.
Narang C. (2007). P. P. 271 .5. Foundations of Education.P.H.1. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Pahuja. K. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. L. of Pathak. Ltd. Theory and Principles of Education.P. O. New Delhi : A. R. New Delhi : Bhatia. (2004). (2007). (2003). Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. N. Publishing corporation.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman.
4.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.2 Curriculum 5.4 Views about teacher 5.2 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 188.8.131.52.LESSON 5.1 Aims of Education 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Methods of teaching 5.1 Aims of Education 18.104.22.168.2.2 Curriculum 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 22.214.171.124.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.1 5.4 Views about teacher 5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.1 Aims of Education 5.4.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2.2.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.4.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .2.
we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. Gandhiji was primarily a social.4 Role of the teacher 5. economic and political reconstruction in our country. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. 5.2.6 5.8 5. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.7 5.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.2. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.2. an artist. 3. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.5. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. content and methods.2. 5.2. Tagore was a poet. 2. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. mind and spirit. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. you will able to: 1. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2.5. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.2. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. 273 .2.
They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.3. His scheme of education is life centred. nor the gross animals body.supporting. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality.intellectual and physical faculties of the children." Dignity of Labour. it is education of life. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. mind and soul of children He further observed.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. 274 . "I attach more. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. 'Man is neither mere intellect. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. righteousness. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. self-restraint and service of humanity. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. In the words of Gandhiji.2. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. through life and for life. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. 5. It really provides opportunity for character building. strength of mind. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor.
Drawing and Hindustani. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations.Training for Leadership.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered.2.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. "Development of the moral character. Individual and Social Aims. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . Only good individual forms a better society. the realization of the ultimate reality. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. metal work. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Mother-tongue. Music. Art. development of the whole all were directed: towards. According to Gandhi. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. gardening.3. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. wood work. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. 5. General Sciences. leather work have been suggested.
expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.3. Basic education is other wise known as 4. proficient. men of 276 . The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.trained. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.3.2.
Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. He also advocates freedom for the child.3.knowledge.2. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Education must be child centered. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. That is why. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. 5. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.4. Gandhi in 1937.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. He was a true patriot. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5.K. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.3. • Cult of non-violence. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.2. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. He believed in the oneness of humanity. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .2.” Like all other ideals. • Ideal of citizenship. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He was deadly against untouchability. 5.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. • Education should involve manual work. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. he was a true Vedantist 5.
could help in forging unity among all. sentiment. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Religion and Psychology. "Mankind must realise a unity.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . etc. That way only. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality.4. International understanding. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Zoology. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Botany.2. Civics. stronger in power than ever before. Geography. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Dance. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners.Language and Literature . It should help the learner have good physique. the more dedicated and devoted. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Music. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. he said. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. 279 . them solve problems of day to day life. Chemistry. (vi) Philosophy. Tagore said. deeper in. It should help. wider in range. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. International Understanding. Therefore. complete manhood could be attained. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education.
The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. 5. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.4. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. 5. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.2. Activity Method Heuristic Method.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.” He further says. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.4.4.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child." 5. In 1921.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. Tagore rightly says. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.2. 280 .2. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.
Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. race. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6.g. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. 9. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. 10. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. It is open to all irrespective of country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. 281 .
Education for Self-realization.2. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. According to him. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. 3. character forming and assimilation of ideas.2. Book learning." He was against the theoretical type of education.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Concept of Education. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Freedom. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Education should make a person self-reliant. 4. Education for strong Moral Character. man making. He believed in to learning or selflearning. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.” 5. Education for Self-reliance. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual.5.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. work and deeds come out of it. Purity of thought. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building.5. 2. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life.
That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners.5.5. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things.2. Every individual should be trained for concentration.the learners on different students in the discussion. philosopher and guide to the students He. Swami. 5. And above all. Secondly he wanted Science. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. 283 .2. Religion. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. The teacher should be the facilitator.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching.5. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. 6. 5. engineering and technical subjects. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. Philosophy and Theology. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. A physically strong person is the need of the society.5. 5. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.2. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . That will serve the purpose of education fully. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Thirdly he wished that games. Discussion Method. Of course. Education for Physical Development.
What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. 12. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. in this lesson. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. Gandhiji as a Idealist. 5. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. naturalist. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. and pragmatist . 5. 3. of course. Write short notes on Basic education.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people.2. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. We have seen that Tagore.6 LET US SUM UP We have. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. ears and eyes.Substantiate your answer. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. 284 . 2. Their educational ideas.2. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. legs.
Activity Method b. leather work have been suggested. b. Teaching while Walking b. Activity Method d. Learning by Doing c. Education should involve manual work. Debate and Discussion Method. a. Nai Talim 4. 2. Discussion Method 285 . Ideal of citizenship. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. 1937 7. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 11.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. c. Explain Vishwabharathi. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. gardening. 5. f. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Technique of Correlation 6. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. 8. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. 5. e. wood work. Cult of non-violence. 10.2. Basic education. d. metal work. Self-Study b. Heuristic Method. Self realization. a. 3. Meditation and concentration c. a. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 5. c. 9. a. Where the whole world forms its one single nest.
Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Foundations of Education. Ltd. N. New Delhi : Aggarwal. N. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. K and Narang C. (2007). J. 286 .5. New Delhi : A. K. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Dhiman. B. Theory and Principles of Education. (2002). Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). (2003). on Bhatia.P.2. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. O.H. P. (2004). L.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. P. C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Pahuja.
3.3.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.2 5.1 5.8 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.4 5.10 126.96.36.199.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3.11 5.5 5.6 5.LESSON 5.7 5.9 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. In this lesson.188.8.131.52 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.
in fact ..3. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. 5. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. Both the processes are integrated. A g o o d curricu lu m. it is identical wit h socializat ion. 5. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s .3. new behaviour may be acquired. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India.under the direction of the school. curriculum. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”.S. there is a large number of communities.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. Curriculum is intimately related to education. the desert area. in the U. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. While education is learning.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. in Russia or in Japan. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. In it. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. the plateau area and 288 . Then in a big country like India. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. living in the hilly area. you will be able to: 1. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. state the meaning of curriculum 2. curriculum signifies situations for learning. In the words of Kerney and Cook. in the form of new experience. maintained or eliminated. In the former sense. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. From the latter point of view.3. is a means to the process.A.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. Since the demands. present behaviour may be modified. the plain area. While education is a process. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’.
customs and needs. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. the learning capacity of children. It must differ from locality and from society to society. and 289 . the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way.3.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. therefore. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. environment. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. according to modern trends in the educational process. differs from individual to individual. Besides craft. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. studying therein. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. Again. it is. From a slave-country we became secular. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. too. However. irrespective of their needs and environment. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. democratic and socialistic country. 5. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. In fact . if it is to educate the whole of the personality. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr.
eg. social. individual or Social and so on. They are visionary goals e. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Self Realisation. Knowledge Objective. So it is inadequate. unambiguous and functional.. 4.3. tangible. e. in instructional objectives. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. social.g. aims. They speak of perfect goals. etc. Application Objective.. 5. uninspiring and unscientific. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. specific. remote or immediate. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. 3. Understanding Objective. aesthetic and spiritual development. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. 1. The word “Curere” means 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. emotional. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. etc. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . National Integration. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes... objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals.g. unsatisfactory. they depend on the political. of classroom. They are achievable. e. 2.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. general or specific. Goals of Secondary Education. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.g. etc.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. which may or may not be attained. They speak of immediate purposes of education. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. moral. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education.. Goals of Primary Education. 290 . Vocational Efficiency. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. They may be ultimate or proximate. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived.
7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. capacities. finding them very interesting and captivating. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. According to Crow and Crow. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. abilities. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. The interests. heavy fire. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. on the playing fields.” 291 . needs. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. Raymont rightly says.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects.3.5. educationists. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. but it includes the totality of experiences. Crow and Crow remarks. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. in the class rooms. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced.
mental. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . time in a useful manner. aptitudes. moral. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. capacities and abilities. urges. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. tendencies. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. They often waste it or rather kill it. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Due to these variations and differences.
: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. 293 . evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. To ensure success of the process. phased preparation. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. 2. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. Similarly. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels.curricular. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. organized. administrative programme need be planned. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. 3. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. development of professional capability at all levels. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation.
Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. 1937 19. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. workshop. in the class room. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. 12. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.3. principles of curriculum construction. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Child Centred Education b. a. Relation with Life c. 18. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. Run. 17. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. library. laboratory. 11. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9.3. 5. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. 5. 10.
(2007). Bhalla.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2007).3. S. Curriculum and Instruction. and Sarita Kumari. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava.5. S. New Delhi : Isha Books. 295 . Curriculum Development. New Delhi : Authorspress. Innovations in Education. P. N. (2001). Lakshmi. D. (2007). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited.K. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.S.
4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .8 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.1 184.108.40.206.4.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.5 5.4.2 5.7.LESSON 5.7 Scientific Attitude 220.127.116.11.4.4.4 18.104.22.168 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 Importance of developing scientific attitude 188.8.131.52 Developing scientific outlook 5.10 5.3 5.
yet real advancement in this area was achieved . They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. 5. superstition or emotion. 3. We mean curiosity. 2.4. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. in the economic reconstruction of society. honesty. open-mindedness. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations.during the second half of this century.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. explain the concept of scientific attitude.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. newer and newer industries started growing.4.4. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. know the importance of science education.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. tolerance for the opinions of others. 5. Gradually. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. you will be able to: 1. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. 4. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. 297 .5. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.
5. Through newspapers. Through examinations.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children.4.So that. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Promotion of science clubs. 4. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. 4. 6. 2. Schemes of teaching science. 5. seminars and symposiums. 6. as well as of the society. Love for truth enhances. 2. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Organisation of science fairs. Thinking and memory develops.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 3. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 5. Selection for science education.4. Principles are formulated. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 5. Devotion towards nature increases. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 3. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Central science workshop. After such experience and training. 7. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations.
objectivity. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature.4. Enquiry teaching is. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. They experience natural phenomenon. It is. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. They ask many questions about the objects they see. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. 7. They encounter many social events as they grow. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. each child to “enquiry skill building”. After presenting the problem. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. essential that teachers.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Training of science teachers.4. Write any two advantages of Science Education. sex or religion. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. For laboratory and workshop techniques. In the inquiry approach. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. therefore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations.6. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.needs and conditions. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. should provide opportunities to. 5.
5. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Evidence. Social sciences. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. if they like. 2. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. .4. 5. Appreciating pupils ideas. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Herma Wouk.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation.6. Adopting creative models of teaching. 6. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. 300 . Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. 3.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Giving less directions. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”.books. commands or orders.4. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. stern pursuit of accurate data. test. 3. . 5. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. to ask questions and experience things. It requires consistent thinking.
5. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. These characteristics of any scientific 301 .Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. practiced. of vast resources running waste. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. keen observation.(Smith 2008). The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. To achieve this we should understand what it means. see and feel the need of developing this attitude.7. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science.4. school and society at large. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. For instance. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. (Vaidya 2007). It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. to develop among the learners. therefore should be unbiased and objective. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. and emphasized during the learning process . The students observation. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. friends. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. critical thinking and suspended judgments. neighbourhood. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. it must be encouraged. These include open mindedness.
rumor. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. The intention to respect another’s point of view.7. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. In considering a situation or a problem. 2007). The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. understanding and logic. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. he studies all aspects of it.4.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. 302 . Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. think and work it”. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. (Das. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. or superstitions. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. intuition or wishful thinking”.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. 5.
Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.7. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.4. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.7.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. 5. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. • 5.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.4. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. but to begin only after careful planning.
Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. 5. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. it must be encourages.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. 5. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. 304 .4. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.
A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. a. Adopting creative models of teaching. a. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. Study of superstitions d.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. D. Love for truth enhances. Yadav. b. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Wide reading b. a.B (2008).S. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. 2.4. 5. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Planning of activities 5. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications.4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. 3. b. (2006). a. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Rao. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Vaidya. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 5. 305 . Reflections on Scientific attitude. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. N. S. Discuss the importance of science education 14. 4. M.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. b. (2008). objectivity. Proper example of the teacher c. (2000). the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.5.4. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. 16.
actively.4 5. areas of institutional planning. objectives and characteristics. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.3 5.5.5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.9 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.10 5.11 5. 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5.8 5. state the concept.7 5.5.5 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. 306 .5.5.2 5.5.6 184.108.40.206 5.LESSON 5.5. you will be able to: 1.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5. 220.127.116.11.
every teacher.5. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. 5. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. and each student are regarded as separate entities. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. State and national levels from below. and supplement planning from above. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. Institution should be regarded as the unit. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. teachers and students is not lost sight of. which become the bases for further planning at the district. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. • to make planning development-oriented.3.5.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. • To make institutional planning more successful.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. and every student in the process of educational planning. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. in the task of educational planning. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. each teacher. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. every parent. 5. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. and. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. executive as well as public. • to involve teachers and school administrators.
and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. Classwork.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. Examinations. council and. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. it becomes the basis for school inspection. which will be discussed in the general. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.5. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. approved after making necessary modifications. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion.curricular Activities. etc. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. (2) Co. 308 . and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. (3) TeachingLearning Aids.• implemented. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs.5. Syllabus. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. Co-curricular activities. 5. and Personnel services.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as.
What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Organising play-for-all programmes.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Organisation of Pupils. Organisation of class-room libraries. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Organisation of Students’ Association. 2. Courts. Undertaking remedial instruction services. etc. charts and apparatus. hobby-centres. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Organisation of Self-Government Days. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Equipping of laboratory and library. Running science clubs. Fair distribution of syllabi. etc. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. 1. Preparation of instructional material. Preparation of audio-visual aids. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Conducting of educational. etc. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. scientific and historical excursions.No. Preparation of models. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Editing the school magazine. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Improving the internal assessment.
etc. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. administrator-supervisor. science teachers’ associations. teacher-managing body. teacher-teacher. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. teacher-nonofficial functionaries.5. Administrator-State. understanding. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. co-operation. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. teachers.” The human relationships in. headmasters associations. parent-teacher associations. and —pupil-pupil. ii. teacherinspector. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. parents. teacher-pupil. which are divided as the in. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. and solidarity. pupils. administrator-pupil.5. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. administrator-administrator.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. involving mainly human materials. pupil310 . students’ associations. teacher-State.
to attend. now-a-days. to carry out. Management may be taken as a narrow concept.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. pupil-parent. supervision. superintendence. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. 311 . teacher-parent. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. organisation and management. pupil-community leader. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. pupil-inspector." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. supervision and superintendence. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. teacher-community leader. social sciences and other disciplines. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. It is also being modernized to become a technique. According to C. control. It covers personnel and material management. to accomplish. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. V.5. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. pupil-non-official functionaries. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences.State. and to serve. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. Good. etc. administrator. organisation. To administer means to manage.
The manager should have leadership traits.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. 2. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . it is not worth-while. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. Liasion with the Public . This is the latest democratic trend in management. If it is more. Economic Management . He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 13. 7. Decision Making .Of all the approaches. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. 9. Leadership .Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. 10. 11. who occupy the managerial positions.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. low. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. Better Human Relationships . 3.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . Motiviation . Socio-Scientific Approach .There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. 6. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.Any good management will always have good public relations. 5. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. Worker Participation .The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 8. Democratic Management . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. Cost-Benefit Analysis . The relationship should change from master.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. Communication . 4. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. He should be an artist in human relationships. 12. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. If the cost benefit ratio is less. Rapport between the Management and Employees . Those.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.
19. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. 18.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept.5. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. to improve the quality of education it provides. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. enrichment of curricula. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. objective. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 14.5. characteristics and areas of institutional planning.too. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. 5. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions.g. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. and cooperative performance should be ensured. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. improvement of teaching methods. 313 .These two are. 5.
Syllabus. b.5. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Decision Making b. Co-curricular activities. H.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (2001).M. S. Leadership c. Educational Administration. 2. a. R. 314 . Examinations. f. Communication 5. Singh. c. a. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. APH Publishing Corporation. e. a. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Instruction.5. d.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Fundamental of Educational Management. (1995). (2003). New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Motiviation d.5. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. NUEPA.K. In group and Out group 5. b. Tarachand and Prakash. a. b. Classwork. and Personnel services. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. 4.
Preventive measures. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.Pre-service and In-services facilities. nutritional requirement. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Examination reforms. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. women education and teacher education in India.1 School Health Programme. Common ailments of Children.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Buddhist and Jain system of education.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. Healthy Food Habit 4. wastage and Stagnation 3. Preservation of nutrients. New evaluation procedures. Realized the problems of school education. 1.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .Article 45 . Code of conduct for teachers. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.CORE PAPER .1 Primary Education : Education for all.3 Educational Influences of Home.5 Regional Educational Development in India .2 Nutritional deficiencies.Religious and Modern Education 1.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . higher education.4 India's Secular Policy .5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. Balanced diet. 2.1 Inculcation of Socialism.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Community and Mass Media 2.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. population education. 4. Economic 315 . First Aid.teachers should have : 1. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. School.I.1 Gurukula system of education. physical education and environmental education 5. Sex-education 4. Inspection and Supervision 3.3 Directive Principles . Communicable diseases . social Impact 3.
Tagore 5. and Human Development. 7.K. Realism. and Dash B. Socialization.N.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.K.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.1 Idealism.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.K. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Hemchand. Delhi : University Publications 2.N. Curriculum and national goals . Naturalism and Pragmatism . Mahatma Gandhi. B. Saraswathi T.Aim.4 4. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. (2004) Problems of Education in India. (2005) Foundations of Education. Pandy V. Sharma.C.R.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. 5. Taneja V. New Delhi: NCERT 3. 316 . Ram S. and Mohanty R. Prof. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. REFERENCE 1. Ghanta R. Mishra. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. R.4.S.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.K. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. curriculum and teacher's role 5. (1999) Culture. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. T. and Sharma R.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.
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