SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I
discusses the regional educational development in India. Lesson 4. and Jain system of education. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Jainism and their educational implication. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. regional imbalances and variations in different environment.
. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Lesson 2. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Lesson 5. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. The need. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. In.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world.
6.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1.1
EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD
STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124.5 Hartog Committee (1929)
.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 126.96.36.199.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 188.8.131.52.4.1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 184.108.40.206 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 220.127.116.11 Buddhist system of Education 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 126.96.36.199 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.LESSON 1.5.2 1.1.5 Jain system of education 188.8.131.52 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.6 Education during British Era 184.108.40.206 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.
you will be able to: 1. British system of education presented the modern western model. India.3.7 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.1.1.1. 1. Education in India.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1. has a long past history starting in vedic education.6. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. “a class of persons.1.9 1.1. That
.1. but English in taste.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Indian in blood and colour.1. in opinion.1.1. in morals and in the intellect”. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.1. both present and future. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. describe the Jain system of Education 4. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. elucidate the education during British Era.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.8 1.6. 1. Muslim and British periods. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. The history of education passed through Buddhist.
Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. High Status of Teachers. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Teacher as Parents. The immediate aim of education. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. 9. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. 12. 16. It was not merely intellectual. Method of Instruction. 11. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. generally. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Pupils were taught. 13. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Curriculum. 3. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. not en masse by the class method. Immediate Aim Vocational. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. 6. as it is generally considered to be at present. if they thought fit to do so. Education of Moral. followed by explanation by the teacher. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Residential Schools. 8. Forests as Centres of Education. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher.
. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. from eternal to immorality 2. managed entirely by Brahmans. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. to light. individually. however. Education was a private affair of the people. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. from darkness. Free and Accessible. 10. Method of Study. with grants of land or money. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. religious and spiritual. Role of Travel in Education. No State Control on Education. Where pupils were many. 4. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. and to agriculture and trade. 14. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. questioning by the pupil. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service.knowledge was real. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. the monitorial plan was followed. Individual Teaching. Religious and Spiritual. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. 5. There was. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. It was also moral.
It was suited to the needs of the society. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. 2.1. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. lived a life of celebacy.3. They were very cordial and intimate.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised.17. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. Wide-Spread Education in Women. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. studied Vedas. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education?
3. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education?
. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education?
. It was freely available to all those who wanted.
Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form.4
BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. every class in society. had the right to receive education.C. killing of any living being. the student had his head shaved of all hair. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. Right knowledge 2. 1. the handicapped. use of intoxicating things.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. the most significant of which were the following 1. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. which included abstaining from theft. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. I take Refuge to Sangh. It was denied only to the ill. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. medium of Pali.4. partaking of food at prohibited times.
. watching dances or listening to music. Right thought 3.1. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. etc. Education was imparted through the. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Consequently. except the Chandals. After attaining the age of 20. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. Right memory 8. he was qualified to become a monk. dressed himself in yellow clothes. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Right speech 4. taking things without being offered. use of cosmetics. in which. Right endeavour 7. I take Refuge to Dharma. Right activity 5. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. impure conduct. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. 2. Right means of livelihood 6. Right contemplation 1. disease and death of the human beings.
meaning. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. of clothes. assumptions. a change is not only total but also perpetual. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. archery. has no metaphysical value for life. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. the presence of the monks was essential. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. therefore. commerce. eat food thrice a day. Even at this stage. education was impart in art. the science of taming and training animals. 2. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. etc. however. 8. etc. agriculture. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. changing the goals. military science. control over sensuous activities. approach. wear three items. objectives of human life. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. 6.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious.. nothing is of any permanent consequence. knowledge of reviving the dead. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. archery. After this ritual. it is regarded as true”. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. be considered the aim of education It. 3. bodily gestures. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. It comprehended education in writing. magic. On this occasion. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. Hence. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. Later on. Life is in a flux. geology. medicine. 7. a continuous change creating
.4. handicrafts. cottage industries. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. etc. 5. along with education in script writing. aspirations and. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. beg for alms. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. so long as it successfully does so. 1. arithmetic and religious discussion. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. These are called later Buddhist schools. As reality is becoming. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. women occupied a position inferior to men. Initially. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. and. 4. depth and range. elephant lore. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. animal husbandry. nature. Whatever its nature and extent. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period.3.
such as. Jainism insists
. i. 5. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. its pessimistic outlook on life. Education must. it is much older than the latter. In fact. Validity is effective and consequences. whatever works are true and good. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. and to give it a shape that it has today.5.new and peculiar situations.1. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals?
6. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable.e. therefore. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education?
1.. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. Its chief feature. however. Write Eight fold path . twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. 1. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. However. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. goes to Vardhaman.
Self-realisation as jiva is divine. c) Not to steal. e) To renounce the world. Hence. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. more stress on individual aims. d) To lead a celibate life. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. 10. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. As such.1. c) Right conduct. rather than the interpretation of the universe. but on both. b) Not utter falsehood. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. and believe in happiness to all. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. thought and deed.5. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 9. 7. They are: a) Not to injure. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism.
. 2. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. 3. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 8. Development of personality as an individual. it has a foot in both the words. b) Right knowledge. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 2. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. 5. 6. 4. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. 1. 1. 3. and is to be redeemed and liberated. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma.
2.5. Hence. 5. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world.
1.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
1. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. here and now. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. education must be action based and ideally oriented. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education?
. success and love.
‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. education should develop sense of discrimination. Teaching must develop these faculties. 1. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. the precious principles of life that bring happiness.
. Jiva is essentially karmic. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. 8. What are Triratnas ?
. Teaching should be social and tolerant. 2. Belief in transmigration of soul. that would be socially desirable. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. practised and not only aspired for. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. therefore.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Knowledge is through senses and meditation. 3. and should bring happiness to all.
2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report.1. Madras. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. philosophy and literature of Europe.1. with rally and rout. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. 1. science. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. 1. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.6. 1. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. primary
. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. 2.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.6. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. To set up separate departments of.
1. and not for life. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. North West Province and Punjab.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. 1953). a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.6. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. Bombay.6. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. However. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854).4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools.
1. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education.6. self-respecting and competent.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. The universities dominated the secondary education. namely. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. • Universal free primary education. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education.6. Instead of being a self-sufficient course.K. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. at the primary level. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. Later on. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education.6. In 1882.education was neglected. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. 1. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. At that time M. To ensure qualitative improvement.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929)
Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. secondary education became a step towards university. 1. • Secondary education.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. The broad outlines of the report are as follows:
Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11.1.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. After this stage. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians.At the primary stage (6-11 years). What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813?
. The objective of education was to provide
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year
1. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. 10. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission?
12. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. all children are to have a common curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.
archery. a.education of European literature. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. followed by explanation by the teacher. 2. science and English language. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 4. the science of taming and training animals. 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 5.
. 3. The immediate aim of education. 1. questioning by the pupil. It was suited to the needs of the society. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Right speech. along with education in script writing. Right activity.. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. Right contemplation. establishment of universities. etc. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. military science. Right means of livelihood. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. Right endeavour. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools.1. geology. Right knowledge. arithmetic and religious discussion. During the Buddhist period.1. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. handicrafts. 4. 6. The system of education was well-organised. 2. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Right thought.
1. education was impart in art. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. Right memory. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined.
New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 1882.C.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Sharma. Y. 8. Aggarwal. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. R.
. Development of Educational System in India. (2007). 1937 1. Right faith. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Sargent report 12. Improvement of Literature. Hence. 11.K. a. more stress on individual aims. (2005). (2009). b.K. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. J. Right knowledge. 10. and Nath. a. (1984).C. Development of personality as an individual. Singh. Right conduct. c. 9. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. History of Indian Education System. Ltd.7.1. Y. b. J. Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
2.2.6 1.9 1.1 1.2.5 1.2
THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA
STRUCTURE 1.3.8 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2.4 220.127.116.11.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.LESSON 1.1 University Education Commission 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.4 National Policy on Education 1.2.2 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.7 18.104.22.168 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.
The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11.2. explosion of enrolment. Post-graduate
.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. expansion of vocational. examination system. National Council for Women’s Education 5. standard of teaching. technological engineering. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. curriculum.2. 2. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education.conditions of the teachers. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. There had been vast institutional expansion. Kothari (1964-66) 8. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. diversification of courses of studies. New Educational Policy. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. you will be able to: 1. secondary and higher education. National Board of Teacher Education 10. 1986
1. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr.3. medical and legal education. vocational education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. analyse the progress of education in free India. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. technical. S. girls and women education besides primary.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES
The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. 1. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. 1.
the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. utility and financial outlay.3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. 1.2. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. accumulated over the years. the New National Policy on Education. 2. 1952. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. Problems of access. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. However.3. A. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.teaching. in January 1985. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. the chairman of University Grants commission.2. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. Therefore. 1966. Education for Equality. 1986. research et.2. material and spiritual. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. Education is the key to our allround development. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. Kothari. quantity. A meaningfully Partnership. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. The Essence and Role of Education. 3. All possible efforts will be made on the removal
. D.3. National System of Education. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. quality. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. 1. 4.S. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission.
1. Finally. Government of India.
work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work.2. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. It can train practical aptitudes. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills.
. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year
1. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Thus. The UNESCO Report. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. the minorities and the handicapped.” Thus. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. attitudes. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. By working with hands. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. the concepts of work experience. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
In 1955." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. Besides. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. With adequate planning. if he wishes. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. The Education Commission. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the
.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. As such. it will conduce self. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. “The aim of these colleges.” The Mudaliar Commission. co-ordinations. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. the Commission. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. The Radhakrishnan Commission. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. “It may be described. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. According to.
” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. for quality of life in the rural areas. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. the. the rigid streaming of courses. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. The Central Advisory Board of Education. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. the semester and credit system. Subsequently.ot her. With a view to relating education to the life. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. admission requirements to vocational courses. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. Therefore. In addition. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. etc. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. T h is Co mmit t ee
. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. raising the special facilities. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern.. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated.
2. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. giving importance to productivity in the national development. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. 1. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past..and the world of work. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. which swept the country for over two decades. aimed at this goal. In short. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. According to committee. Commerce. The Father of Nation.
. meaningful. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. which are useful to the community. felt that education should be centred around a craft. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. etc. The wave of Basic Education. which offer scientific. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. manual work resulting in either goods or services. meaningful. technological courses including Agriculture. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”.defined S UP W as “purposive. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. preferably spinning and weaving. who conceived the System of Basic Education. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.
Work practice. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. 2. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Shelter 4. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. locally available materials and tools.
Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. be that the work involved is: 1. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Educative and 3. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Culture and recreation 6. The teachers should make use of.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Community work and social service.
. Food 3. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. as far as possible. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Productive 2. Health and Hygiene 2. so that it is educational in essence. 3. tools and techniques and 3. 4. Experimentation with materials. Clothing 5. The criterion for selection of activities should thus.
slum clearance. removal of illiteracy. Community Service In-1972. Check on educated unemployed 4.2. improve discipline. 1. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. inculcate a faith. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration.5. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. etc. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. It can become an instrument to build character. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. the local community should be actively associated.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. 6. as far as possible. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. Merits of the Programme 1. Education through work The SUPW should. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Productive Work
. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. To make education more realistic. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. adoption of a a locality for its improvement.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. helping the adults-in productive work. etc. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. skills and better future for the children.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . What are the work areas in SUPW
6. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. offering first aid. should involve itself in the educational effort. in turn. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. if not productive. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. Define SUPW
. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. The community. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. AICTE was set up in year 4. traffic control. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods.
which are useful to the community. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Dr. Radhakrishnan 2. manual work resulting in either goods or services. 1952 3. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. d.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. meaningful. Write short note on SUPW.
1.2. 2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. a. 3. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. e.1.
. c. f.2.9
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1.2. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. 1955 4. b.
K.P. A.. (2007). Y. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
. New Delhi: A. Anupama. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.(2005). Rao.K. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). and Nath.2. Amala. History of Education. P. J.H. Singh. : Sharma.D. V.1. Development of Educational System in India. (2009). History of Indian Education System. Publishing Corporation. Ltd.P. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. (2005). History and Problems of Indian Education.K. R. B. Y.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.C. and Rao.
EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION
.9 1. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.3.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.8 1.3. directive principles and duties of citizens.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3.369 words in the English language version. Being the supreme law of the country. establishing the structure. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. 1950. assuring its citizens of justice.4 1. Besides the English version. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.2 1.1 1. 1949. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. procedures. there is an official Hindi translation.3. and liberty.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3. it came into effect on January 22.214.171.124. containing 395 articles.7 1.3.3. equality.1 Significance of DPSP 1. democratic republic.5 1.6 1.3. for a total of 117. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3.
1947.In the August 14. in sessions open to public. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. with Dr. the Drafting Committee was appointed. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. social.3. legal and environmental. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. On August 29. 1. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. political. you will be able to: 1. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. Through them. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. administrative. 1950. 1947. According to the constitution. embodied in Part IV of the constitution.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. 4. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. 2. economic. Two days later. Dr. 1. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. 3. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. 1. spread over a period of 2 years. for 166 days. The Assembly met.3.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. learn the role of central and state government on education. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. understand our Indian constitution. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. After many deliberations and some modifications. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights.
.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects.3. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution.3.
No abuse of children. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. provide free legal aid. and shall. on the basis of equal opportunity. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Article 41. old age. and in other cases of undeserved want. Right to work.government. Article 42. Liking wage etc. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment.
.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Article 43. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. The State shall. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Article 40. Minimising inequalities in status. sickness and disablement. Equal justice and free legal aid. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. That the health and strength of workers. for workers. Article 39A. Organisation of village panchayat. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Equal pay for both sex. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. make effective provision for securing the right to work. men and women. Condition for dignity of children. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Protecting children from exploitation. Protecting health of the workers. The State shall endeavour to secure. in particular. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. to education and to public assistance in certain cases.
(Original Article 45. Article 48A. in particular. Article 43A. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Article 46. Article 49. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Note: Subs. Article 47. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. The State shall endeavour to provide. Article 44. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. by suitable legislation or in any other way. agricultural. The State shall take steps. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Article 45. industrial or otherwise. [declared by or under law made by
. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. a living wage. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. in particular. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. work.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. to all workers. in particular. Participation of workers in management of industries. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. and. 2002 for “45. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Article 48. See also Article 21A). to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings.
Separation of judiciary from executive. destruction. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Promotion of international peace and security.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. 1.3. may be law determine”. removal. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. disposal or export. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. Article-21A Right to Education. Article 51. Article 50. disfigurement. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. 2002. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. 2. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood
. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. as the case may be. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy?
1.Parliament] to be of national importance. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. from spoliation. Article 45 .
Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. 5. ii. iii. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. caste. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. 3. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. 4. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. language or any of them”. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. his guardian has given his consent thereto. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 7.”
. if such person is a minor. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. and. in particular. from justice and all forms of exploitations. 2002. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. and shall protect them. race. 6. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and by drawing. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Article 351 gives importance to 6.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION
1. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country.3.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Educational Reforms From time to time. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . the forms. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5.
. The central government determines targets and promotes education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. wherever necessary or desirable. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. &
1.9. for its vocabulary. Write Article 21 A and Article 45?
4. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies.
So as to encourage education on right lines. the state governments. to achieve the desired ends. etc. The following pilot projects. So that they may work well. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. 8. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. 4. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas
. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Local bodies and private enterprise..3. By starting these projects. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Production of suitable for children and adults f. 6. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. 7. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. All India Council of Medical Science. private agencies etc. 5.
Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. 10. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. The
. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. 9. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. 4. education for women. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. 3. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. handicapped.3. 1. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. Material concerning nation-wide interests. 12. training and statistics. 1. is the state responsibility. books. etc. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. research. reports etc. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. 11. are published by it.
recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Write short notes on a. 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.
1.3. Explain Directive principles 2. Article 46 4.3. Article 21A c. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government?
9. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India?
8. articles in the Directive principles.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. 1. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Article 45 b. Write any two functions of State Government of Education?
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.
. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
Development of Hindi Language 6. may be law determine”. Article 45 . (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Article 29 and 30 7. 3. Ambedkar 2. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 2002. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. a. Describe the educational role of State Government. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act.5. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Dr.3. b. Article-21A Right to Education.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.
4.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Clearing House function 9. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Article 46 5. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers.
. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. b. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. a. a. 2002. 1. The Directive Principles of State Policy.
. B. Ghosh. (2009). N. Education in Emerging Indian Society. K. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. S. (2007).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. L. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in Emerging Indian Society.
Bhatia. (2004).1. (2008). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. S.3. K and Narang C.
4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4. Buddhism etc.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4 Moral education 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1. religious education should be broad based.6 1.8 1.4. Islam.3. Students should be
.7 1. Jainism.4.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 1.4.2 1.4.1 Why Moral Education 1.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.126.96.36.199.4. Christianity.1 1. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.4.5 1.4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
Thus.. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. According to E.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. integrity. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. India' can produce men of character.4. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. know the position of religious education in our country 3. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment.4.” Education broadens human outlook. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. "In A multireligious society like ours. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. In the complicated and complex society of today.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions.and dedication. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. you will be able to: 1. duty-consciousness. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong.
1.D. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. religious education and the concept of secularism. beauty and goodness so that
. As result of which. state meaning and need for moral education 1. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion.
it is clear that the State has no religion. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism.4. rancour. According to Article 19. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. castes and creeds. Viewing the defects of religious education. According to Article 22. religion and democracy are same. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. In short. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. realizes God in himself. if not regularly.3.4.3. They thought that any kind of narrow. No religious tax can be imposed on them. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. 1947 we achieved our freedom. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. at least occasionally. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. Hence.” From the above. Thus. Children attend these organizations. 1. all citizens are free to follow any creed. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. As our country is a country of diverse religions. As a matter of fact. through religious practices and
. 1. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes.
Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. moral and spiritual values. which can mould. and what is evil. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. for the development of the individual and the society. He also learns about social. As a result of which. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people
. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. one fully developed. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action.. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. intellectual and physical faculties of children.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Good education. It helps to modify habits attitudes. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. aggressive. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion.teachings. when he becomes an adult. temperament etc. which help him for the development of his character. It is religious education. what is done and what is not done etc. If unreleased.
If we open the pages of history.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. Therefore. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. 1.
. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. This should not be allowed to happen.4. 2. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. which is the basic need of a democratic life. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. 3. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. towards the society. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum.3. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”.
The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write Article 22
2. 11.4.5. fellow-feeling. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. therefore. List out any two aims of religious education?
3. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Gurudwara as. Life histories of great persons of the world. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians
8. examples of patriotism. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. churches and mosques 7. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools?
1. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. 9. 10. stories of moral greatness. For this. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Since all religions have virtues.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry
Swadeshi (Patriotism). Self sacrifice. 3. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 5. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1.4. Asvada (Control of palate). 7. 6. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Cultivation of emotions. Moral education. students. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption.4. is that which develops moral values. in the home. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Service to others. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Aparigarha (Non.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. the methods of teaching. 4. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 8. 8. Patriotism. therefore. Non-injury. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. They will play their role effectively. Purity. 3. 1. 1.
. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 2. 4. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Fearlessness. Satyam (truth).of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. The content of the curriculum. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Without moral values. 6.acquisitiveness). 2. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. 7. let men see well of one another. 5. “Let all be happy and free from disease.
Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Discipline. loyalty and self-sacrifice. discipline.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Simple texts and stories concerning different. Efficiency. National unity and Spiritual values. 3. Good manners.4. In the school programme. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Good temper. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. 1.9. Secondary Stage 1. 2. Integrity. Unity of mankind. religions may be included in the syllabus. Asatyam (Non-thieving).
. 3. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. minutes in the morning for group singing. Sharivashram (Physical work). The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. 11. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . 10. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. 4.
Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction?
6. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education.4. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. 5.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. love of humanity. should form a normal part of school programme. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. 2. 4. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. patriotism and self-discipline. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. In this connection. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. University Stage 1. 5.
. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Silent meditation should be encouraged. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. In other words. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school.
Discuss the aims of Religious education. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. b. 1. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid
blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. For this. Training of Character 3. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. 1959 5. minutes in the morning for group singing.4.4. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. a.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. Sri Prakasa 6 .
. The School Assembly should be held for a few. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. 2.1. In short. a. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. 2.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. the. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b.
4.4. 1. a.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.
Pahuja. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2008). L. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.
. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2007). Anmol Publications Pvt. J. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.1.C. Ltd. B. P. K and Narang C. Publishing Corporation. (2003).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.H. N. N.4.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). K.
Bhatia. Theory and Principles of Education. (2004). New Delhi :
Siddiqui. New Delhi: A.P.H.
REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
STRUCTURE 1.5.9 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5.10 1.5.5.e.
. Although.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.5.12 1. disparities between provinces/States. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.3 1.1 1.5.4 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.2 1. i..5.7 1.6 1.5.11 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.5 1.8 1.5.5.
3. 5. energy. They therefore. roads. etc.5. 8.5. you will be able to: 1.1. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. Accordingly. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. 6. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. work hard towards this end. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF
Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. waters. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. 7. understand the regional educational development in India 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. 1. 2. This leads to separatist movements.5. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 4. know the education suited to different environments. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. for example.
. they take appropriate measures. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 1. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies.
The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. Tight security arrangements should be made. Therefore. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still.5. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. There are many reasons for this during the British rule.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. 3. while others remained educationally backward. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. • Separate States (of course viable States).
. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . Secularism. and. some average. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. some States became educationally far advanced. on the basis of regional development may be formed. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds.
and provision of informal education to enable those. Itanagar. scholarships. In the Central sector. etc.g. Silchar. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. However. Regional Centres of IGNOU. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. Nagaland and NEHU.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. etc. Tezpur. 1. books. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. academic buildings.14. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. These projects are in various stages of implementation.84 crore was released in 2005-06. library buildings. approved proposals worth Rs.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. Even in each State. while some States like Bihar. NIT. Out of this. NERIST. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. Jammu and Kashmir. the State Governments. Funds amounting to Rs. Guwahati.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner..81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005.480. remained under developed.After the Planning Process has originated. Central Universities of Assam. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. the Union Government.
. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. Rs. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy.392. since its inception in 1998-99. After the attainment of independence. Mizoram. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters.5. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted.
60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.500.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. Tezpur University. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010
1.501. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). A provision of Rs.8 per cent in 05).187. Government expenditure on education. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. During 2003-04.05 crore and Rs. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. Moreover. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.261. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION
The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.57 crore and Rs. too. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.5. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. Out of this an amount of Rs.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.
. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.40.
North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself.
1. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. health services and welfare of the citizen population. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab.
The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. English. Tamil Nadu. telecom. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). for which 16 sites. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). To add to the woes. too. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Andhra Pradesh.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions.
Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. Kerala and Gujarat.
Listing the positives. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level.
Moreover. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all
. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. engineering and R&D. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. for instance. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Karnataka. notes the study. pharma. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. too. too. Medical education.5. Karnataka. The Chandigarh Administration. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT.
in which the learners live. In the same manner. the working days: an academic . Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. the socio-physical conditions. Hence it is called as need-based. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. The living conditions. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Of course.year. Then education become realistic and idealistic. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. the teaching methods. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding.
. while the former does not. even actually looking at the watch. For a learner living in a rural area. the needs. and so on. when he will not be sure of time. the vocations. life-oriented and environment slanted. the curricular subjects. which a non-tribal person cannot do. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. The working hours of educational institutions. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. taking the average in the middle. the interests.
to suit education to different environments? 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. What do you meant by regional imbalance?
.5. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. 2. 1.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region?
1. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education?
3.5.5. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.
H. remained undeveloped 3. (2008). New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Education in Developmental Arena.K.
. R. S.5. during the British rule. C. a. some States have become more developed than others b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Giridhar.N. Educational Development in India. 60% 1.2.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2001). S. (2002). New Delhi: Authors press. Salim. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. and Nair. A. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. (2001).G. Education Scenario in India. some of areas which were under the native rulers. Dubey.
UNIT – II
the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. National Integration. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Of all the human factors in the school system. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts.
. community development. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. secularism and democracy through Indian education. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. school community and mass media.
1 2.3 2.1.6. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION
IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.188.8.131.52.1 Main features of Socialism 184.108.40.206.1.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.9 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.LESSON 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.6.6 Education for Secularism 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.2 2.4 22.214.171.124 2.
Democracy thus means power of the people. This is the political aspect of democracy. socialistic and secular state.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. understand the concept of democracy. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’.
. there should be made no distinction of caste. Abraham Lincoln. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.1.1.2. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. socialism and secularism 2. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. creed.1. 2. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. you will be able to: 1.
2. for the people by the people”. colour or wealth. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. In the matter of admitting students in schools.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. 3) Provision of Manual Work. socialism and secularism 2. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. The students may be associated with the management of the school. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically.1. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.
10) Hostel Life Wherever possible.1. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia..6) Democratic Methods of Teaching.
2.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. 12) Visits to Legislatures. Democracy means 2. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. it soon spread all over the world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. There are different brands of socialism. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. declamation contest etc. debates.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln?
3. 11) Student Parliament. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. may be planned.
. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions.
5. the prince and the peasant. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low.
.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.
2. Under it. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. the wealthy and the poor.1. 2. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. oppression and disparity. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. service and cooperation.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. none high”. but on the path of non-violence. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work.5. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 2) Socialism aims at equality.1. free from exploitation. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 7) Special facilities for girls.
11) State schools. Everyone says. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students.” In every political and educational corner. According to Holydake. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Write any two main features of socialism. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. secularism is being propagated. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “India is a secular-country.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.
. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. "which seeks the development of physical. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools.
Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. “Webster further says. Moral values have to be imbibed. In this type of prevailing situations. people have narrow mindedness. There is need of making the people open minded.1. 9) It stress free inquiry. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended.6. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. liberty. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. people started believing in regionalism.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. Equality. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. A large number of people is uneducated. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 2. the belief that the state morals. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. During the recent past. 3) It permits freedom of worship. fraternity.
. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading.1.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life.opposed to religious education. 8) It believes in co-existence.6. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. 5) It implies tolerance. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. That is why. education etc. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. should be independent of religion.
Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. Patiala. While doing so. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. 1) Moral Education.presented by the students in the gathering. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. In the hands of such teachers. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. There should be some internal checking of the material being. tours and trips may be organized.1. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. In the celebration of each such function. No doubt. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. The very sight of the building.6. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. that the central string of all religions is one. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Religious Education. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. students belonging to different religions should be associated. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. it has then everlasting impact on their
.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING
In the schools. education. 2. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved.
The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook
10. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For.1.
2.7 LET US SUM UP
. The word “Seculum” means 7.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. No doubt. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Define Secularism
9. The term secularism was first used by 8.
Equal Opportunities for Admission. a. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. Since socialism stands for equality. 4. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. creed. c.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. 5. 3. Provision of Manual Work. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. there should be made no distinction of caste. Socialism aims at equality. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. 4. a. The students may be associated with the management of the school. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Power of the people 2. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.
2. This present age 7. d. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Socialism aims at social justice.1. 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 6.1. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Abraham Lincoln. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. a. Tuition free education b. 5. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. George Jacob Holydake
. for the people and the people”.9
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. b. Respect of Individual Personality. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. colour or wealth. b. What are the implications of socialism on education
(2008). (2004). b.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. L. Anmol Publications Pvt. a. (2003). K and Narang C. Ltd. J.C. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.” 9.1. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Ltd. New Delhi :
Pahuja. the belief that the state morals. J.
Bhatia. (2007). 10. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. b. It permits freedom of religion. P. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. It treats all religions on an equal footing. K.
. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools
2. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. B. a. education etc. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.8. N. should be independent of religion. N. Dash. Mohanty. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. (2005).
126.96.36.199.10 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.6.7 2.1 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 188.8.131.52.2 2. knowledge and experience of one
ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY
STRUCTURE 2.1 International understanding in the school 184.108.40.206.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.3 2.2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.6.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.4 2.9 2.LESSON 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.
therefore. The developmental roles of children.2. application. It involves physical. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. as workers. social and moral aspects.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. mental. and 4. as persons. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. 2. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. as citizens. 2. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. development. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils.
. a r e 1. who are placed in his custody. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. social. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. as learners. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. emotional. moral. 3. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. as it is t he aim o f modern education. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. understandings.
2.generation to another. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. A teacher is first and foremost. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. aims and objectives of the school. skills.an instructor of school children. you will be able to: 1.2.
1. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. Teacher as a Parent
Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. experiences and acceptance. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. 3. morally. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. member of his community at the outset. mental. inquisitive. 2. He is to become an active member. emotionally. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education.All education should lead to better behavioural development. motivated. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. physically fit for socially efficient. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. economically effective. 2. The following are some of such roles described in brief. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative.2. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association
Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. and aesthetically to become. a part of their day in
. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. The students live. morally. He has to look after their physical. socially. Teacher as a Citizen
Next. intellectually. mentally. culturally confident. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. social and emotional health.
2.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
2. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. They will be spending with their parents. List out the role of teachers towards community development
. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs
In addition to the above cited roles in the community.the school being under the custody of teachers. India is a land of many castes. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. fine art associations. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. It
. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. faiths. science club. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. photographic clubs. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. 4. languages and religions. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. creeds. and most of hours. activities of the society into which he is born. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Unless.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. Dr. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. solve them.
communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. ‘We should not become parochial. social studies. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. the citizens of the Republic of India. At the primary stage the importance of stories. poems. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. 1. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that .1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. narrow-minded provincial.5. the study of language and literature. Sampurnanand remarked. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. therefore. a. and make into one strong national unit. folklore and teaching of social studies. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of
. The only process is the process of education. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. national anthem and other national songs. Let us. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. It should broaden the outlook. c. Radhakrishnan.2. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. with straight backs and look up at the skies. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man.” 2.” Regarding the role of education. should be emphasised. Nehruji has explained this as. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. b.is. this integration of the Indian people. stand up straight. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration.
Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. 4. 6. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. 10. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. 5. 7. National Days—January 26. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Scouts and Guides. Uniform for School Children. Student Camps. Singing of National Anthem. 9. Textbooks.
. Celebrations of National Days. 8. languages and literature. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. militar y training like the NCC. educational excursions. Co-Curricular Activities. Taking Pledge. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. dramatics and youth festivals. sports. symposia. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. ACC. debates. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. and picnics. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. t he st udent s and t he community. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Reverence of National Flag.different social sciences. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. tours. 3. 2.
Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 15. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Educational and Travel Documentaries. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Admissions. 2. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Students Exchange and Tours.11. region or religion. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour.5. iii. ii. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. 13. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING
Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. 12.
. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. flora and fauna. iv. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . 16. ways of thinking and doing things. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. v. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. 14. Open-Air Dramas. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. Recognition of Institutions. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner.2. language. colour. School Projects. Admissions to schools.
irrespective of national boundaries. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. vii.
viii. camps. Community dinners.vi. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee?
5. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained.
All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students?
. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL
International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. ix.2. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. cultures and races on equal bases. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define National Integration
often in connection with anniversaries. Therefore.2. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .” 2. the international level.6. patriotism is not enough. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged.6. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.friendships between children of different countries. 5. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. 2. therefore.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.as important as that of a national citizenship. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. that war. Organising of debates and. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. This. 6. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. Radhakrishnan states.2. if it happens.e. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. In a very real sense. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. (c) fairly tales.. (b) stories of children of other lands.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. 3. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. and the healthy development. 2. of his body and mind. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. 4. Strong has observed. Teachers
. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. Dr. C.F.
” Well Informed About World Situations. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. Indian and American. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. a German. Impartial in their Treatment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding
7. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students
. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. They should not be propagandists. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Russian. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. an Englishman.
If this is done. 2. leading to. 3. and help the students to over .7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. Wide Spread Frustration . they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. It does not prepare students for life. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.2.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. Defects of the educational System . students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. 4. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully.Another major. Chronic Poverty . factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. there is wide spread frustration among all people. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. 5. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. Devaluation of Values .2.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. understand and indiscipline: 1. majority of people are. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than
. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. As the school is but a miniature society. the education function can be carried.
Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. which results in agitation and aggression language.
Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
8. 5. List out the factors causing social tension in schools
. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students.2. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. 3. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. co-operation.2.
2. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. fellow feeling. sympathy and good will among the nations. community development.
.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. 2. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. love. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.democratic nature.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 220.127.116.11 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 18.104.22.168 Functions and role of schools in the society 22.214.171.124 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 126.96.36.199 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 188.8.131.52 Radio as an agency of education 184.108.40.206 Television as an agency of education 220.127.116.11 Press as a medium of education 18.104.22.168 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
22.214.171.124 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 126.96.36.199 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
188.8.131.52 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
184.108.40.206 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. led to the printing of books. Then came newspapers. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Hence. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Moreover. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. Now internet is being used. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
3. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. citizens and school leaders must co-operate.3. In fact. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the
. books. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “All the citizens of the community. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them.V. the invention of the printing press. Museums. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. To make them achieve their aim. He taught his students orally. are increasingly used in education. periodicals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Crow and Crow write. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Define community. Emphasising this thing. art galleries.
2. During the course of time. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities.
Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. “Listening participation” in current history. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Effective means of presenting music. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. art. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1.3. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. It stimulates curiosity and interests. music.G. 2. social studies. languages. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Students listen various talks. Various talks. Thus. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Important happening inventions. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well.
. It is also an important source of entertainment. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. In the emphasis is on sound. In collaboration with the experts. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. current affairs and other areas.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Reynolds. rather than on picture. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. It enlightens public opinion. the teacher still occupies. A lot of work by way of pre. for the teacher through school broadcasts. politics. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. 2. dram appreciation. the place of importance. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded.6.telecast. Thus.classroom teachers.
fol classical music.
. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. at drawing room. Team-teaching demonstrations. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. speech. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. projects or creative activities. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. 4. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. style. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. School concerts. at recreational centers. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. travel talks. mathematics. informal and non-formal education. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. audibility and presentability. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Making learning an open system. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. At present.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. at play. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. plays. Before presenting the programme. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. 5. at any place. 3. Participation of local teachers and pupils. development of lessons. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 220.127.116.11 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
18.104.22.168 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 22.214.171.124 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
4.1 Characteristics of formal education 126.96.36.199 Agencies of Non formal education 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.8 188.8.131.52 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.1 2.LESSON 2.4
FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.6 2.4.5 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.2 Levels of formal education system 18.104.22.168.3.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4.7 2.4.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.2 22.214.171.124.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 126.96.36.199.2 Aims of Non formal education 188.8.131.52 Advantages of Non formal education 2.
you will be able to: 1. it was mostly. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught.4. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. 2. Education organised by some agency. the community. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 2. say the Government or the private enterprise. 2. To realize this objective of education. starting and ending at -a particular age. 4. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. 3. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. the most important agency of formal education. 2. 7.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. 5.2. Education associated with a degree or certificate.4. the family. 9.4. 6. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.
. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. Education. compare formal and non formal system of education.3. 3. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. his mental alertness. 4. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. 8. open university. School is. 2. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. open school. the learner are acquainted. In ancient time in India.4.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. imparted at the residence of the teacher. the mass media et. the temple.
But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. diplomas. structured education. also called tertiary. Higher Education: Higher education.4. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. Through early formal education. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate
. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. such as a high school or secondary school.4.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . capacity.a secondary education. depending on the jurisdiction. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. third stage. or post secondary education. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. Some education systems have separate middle schools. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. or academic degrees. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education.
2.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. the elements of language are first learned. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start.2. In general.3.3. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. as well as vocational education and training. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Concepts of proportion.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. children with disabilities. Agencies can be classified as 2.
is an important agency of formal education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit &
1. Write any two characteristics of formal education?
. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.which will help for nation's development. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.4.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.3.
2. and remote dwellers.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. What are levels of formal educational system?
. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. late beginners etc. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. that is intended to serve identifiable
3. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs.
This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. systematic.e. staffed. admissions.. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. It is functional. etc. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. According to Malcolm A.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. curriculum. continuing education and on the job oriented education. “Non-formal education should
. Thus. Non-formal education includes adult education. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. place of instruction. Adiseshiah. to help themselves.formal education. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. it is a more effective tool for rural development. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. one could say that non-formal education is an active. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. systematic.learning client take some learning objectives. It is deliberate. It is much more responsive to needs and change. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. However. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. i.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. adults as well as children. Open university. Therefore. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. until 1970 it had not been defined.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. It unlocks the doors of development plans. it has its own valid claim to reality. adding up to a true learning society. planned. financially supported life formal education. open learning.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population.
secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. curriculum. Preparation for future needs.be marketable and vocationalised. 6. It should lay emphasis on the self. place of education. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. modes of teaching. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. exploring.” According to H.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 5.4. Process of sharing.renewal.
. admissions. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things.
• • •
To help the student to acquire languages skills. 4.S.
The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. Covering life span of an individual. evaluation etc. Flexibility in various aspects of education. co-curricular activities.
• • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. self. international understanding. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. national integration. 7. age.4.e. To help industrial workers to better their skills.4. 3. the Ideas of citizenship.” 2.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. 2. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.
To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. To develop in the student.S.learning pattern. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. i. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. socialism. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. Lawrence. 2. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. Part-time education.4.
6. 2. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 3. publication and information dissemination. Universalisation of primary education. Technical. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. 2. 3. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. To offer Secondary. in villages and those who live in towns. 4. 4. Meeting the omissions of formal education. 7. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. working adults.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. •
2. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 5. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn.4.4. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 10. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. Senior Secondary. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 5. 8. Eradication of adult literacy. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives.4. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. 9.
.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. school dropouts.4.
It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. To better qualifications. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home.4. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. 2. etc. self-employment iii. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.2. To increase knowledge and 2.4. effective in modern societal context. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. others are formal and informal. Institutions for formal education. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. etc.full time to learners – can be home. public libraries.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1.4. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes
. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . if organised in isolation. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. farm. 2. All-round development i. open space.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. Radio and television. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. 3.. Again. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. To make if. Therefore. training centres in factories. 4. centres of correspondence education. library. factory.
Written tests. Face Contact programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 7
Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Correspondence lesson. radio. 7.
Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Define non formal education. List out any two aims of non formal education. 6.
. Teaching to face teaching. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. institution. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning.
. Lecturing T. Essay Assignments and short answer questions.V. Give examples of non formal education?
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.
b. the college and the university come under this category. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. The school.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Higher Secondary level and University level.
2. 4. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. 3. b. Secondary level. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. 5.
7. Open University.
.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. systematic. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.” 6. a.4. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. 4.2.
2. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. 2. a. Formal and Non Formal 2. adults as well as children.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. School 3. Pre-school level.4. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. Primary level.4. Open School.
N.4. Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.C. Education in Emerging India. Pahuja. Dash. J. S. Ltd. B. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Gupta. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2003). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2005). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. P. J. L. (2008). New Delhi :
.2. (2004). Bhatia. (2007). (2008). Mohanty. Theory and Principles of Education. K and Narang C. N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. K. Anmol Publications Pvt.
1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.3.5
CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
STRUCTURE 184.108.40.206.2 2.4 Need for Open University 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.3.3 Objectives of Open University 220.127.116.11.4.5 18.104.22.168.3.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.5.7 2.5.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.4.1 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.LESSON 2.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.6 22.214.171.124.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 126.96.36.199.4 Open University 188.8.131.52.
give the meaning.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. However. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies.3
In India.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. you will be able to: 1. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not
. labourers and half educated individuals. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. continuing education is a boon. economic field or such other fields. It is a lifelong process.
2. know the need and objectives of open university. 2. characteristics of open university 4. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education.3. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. For them. Any person. Thus.5. industries. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. Under these circumstances.5. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. 2. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. This knowledge may be in political field. It is a continuous process.2. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy.5. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. farmers.
Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas.5. if he gets opportunity to develop them. deteriorating to his character and personality. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. Radio. The objectives of National Literacy Mission
. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. After the achievement of independence. Doctors.3. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Persons engaged in health services. T. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Throughout the country. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. On the other hand.V. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. On the other hand. Thus.V. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. cultured and progressive. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge.literate person. Radio and T. 2. For them too continuing education is essential. Block Development Officers.directly related to his job. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI
As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Cinema. are also contributing their might for the purpose.
3. Inspite of the great efforts. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as.5. especially women. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. 7. 5. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. 2. habits of people of other lands. These books are not very useful. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (8) psychology of adults. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy.
. (7) folk songs. 3. (6) folk stories.5. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. (1) ancient history.3.. (10) first aid.V. (2) basic religious matters. 4. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. we have not been able to achieve our targets.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. and Radio. 6. Of course. (17) modern international and national events. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. (15) music. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (13) psychology of child behaviour. (14) information about bringing up young children. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (16) liking. 2. 2. (4) the fundamentals of economics.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.
2. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left
. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc.5. lack of time etc.4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. of educational opportunities. attendance restrict ion. What is the objectives of NLM?
3. It also attempts to pr ovide equality.4
O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M
Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. NLM was launched in the year 2. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.5. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate?
It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs.4. c. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. 2. but
. e. Mention any two characteristics of Open University?
. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. 4. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which was the first open university in India? .” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. d. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements.unobserved. 2. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. Education is not a once for-all process.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. No one is too old or too late to learn. b. the higher the degree of openness. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. IGNOU was established in the year 6. 3. 5. and in teaching. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. its education is not class room based but home based.5. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. it makes use of educational techno logy.
met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. 2.5. cho ice o f co ur ses.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals.
. Mo re o ver. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 6. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 4.5. supplementing the existing provision. 2. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n.4. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 2. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 3. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities.4. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 3. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. 2. 4. it a ims at wider and hig her.who did not get it. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 5. or who realised too late that they need it. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment.
2. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 8. Correspondence tuition. 3. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following.
1. Self instructional materials. school drop outs. 7. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University.
B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. a state or nation. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
7.5. 4. 5. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. 2. 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. you have learnt the concept. Therefore. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates.4. Tutor Comments. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. List out any four methods of Open University? . Enlist any two objectives of Open University?
. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. Laboratory works. In the present day world.
2. Every day. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated.5. a society. 6.
. semi – literates.
unskilled workers and other professionals. (2) basic religious matters. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. aspirants for continuing education. Broad casting lectures c. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. Explain the objectives. Television Lessons. a. 6. 2. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (1) ancient history. 8. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. 1985. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. a. P r int med ia b. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes.
. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 9. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. 3.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. its education is not class room based but home based. need and characteristics of Open University. a. cho ic e o f co u r ses. b. youth. d. 7. 7. 1988.5.
8.ambitious learners. agricultural and industrial workers. which may include house wives. 4. Write about the philosophy of Open University
2.5.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004). (2007). Modern Problems of Education.K.S. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Udaiveer.5. Reddy. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. L. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. R. K and Narang C. Ltd..
. S. (2004). K.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2001).2.
UNIT – III
In Lesson 2. All which is the need of the hour. and teacher education. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. which may claim the attention of those concerned. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. its causes and remedial measures. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. The problems pertaining to the aim of education.
. wastage and stagnation. the education of women. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. examination. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. Training teachers for all levels of education. Examination reform.
6 184.108.40.206.LESSON 3.1.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.7 3.1
STRUCTURE 3.1.4 3.1.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1 3.5 220.127.116.11.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.2 EFA – How? 3.8 3.
. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.3 New initiatives.2 3.3.3.
directed that. Continuing Education (CE) 1. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). On the other hand.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1.3. social. economic or cultural. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3.
3. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. therefore. Therefore. 2.1. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country.1. you will be able to: 1. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understands the country. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. (EOI) 2. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). may be political. Eradication of Illiteracy. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. education received added importance and significance. “The State shall
Universalization of Enrolment. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Continuing Education (CE). the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. After the enrolment of the students in school is over.endeavour to provide. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Due to the adoption of democratic system. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Therefore.
. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. It enables the parents to send their children to School. Three Stages for Universalization. 3. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. After the attainment of independence. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. the national Government under. Universalization of Retention. rights and responsibilities. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision.
3. Therefore. present and future.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. This target had to be revised to 1970.1. It is safe to assure. then to 1976. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development.3. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education?
2. Write Article 45.
. 1990. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. later to 1988. educational enterprise. UNESCO Bulletin states. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. 1995 (for upper primary stage). Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us.
etc. Emphasis must be given on health education. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. Apart from primary education. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. nutrition education and sports and games. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. Education of Girls. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. and Women’s education programme should be improved. Jams and Jellies. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. sex. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. In order to make the programme of education for all community. 3. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. 3. FELF. slum areas. creed. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. the art of preparing fruit-juice.3. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. 10. problem of literacy. Education of the Impaired. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. adolescent and adult. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. rural areas. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). The Social Education. 11.
. Early childhood education should be streamlined. 5.1. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 8. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. their enrolment and retention. their social economic status and occupations. NAEP. 9. By undertaking survey. 12. 6. Disabled.
Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Wastage and Stagnation. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES
W AS TAG E
The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.e.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Expand MLL and SSA
. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA?
4. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. 4. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.
3. If any child drops out from the school before completing the
Familial Factors .
Personal Factors .
(a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas
1.first stage of education.The personal factors responsible for wastage are
Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties
Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments
lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education
2. School Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness
. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school
poor standard of institutions
higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . it is considered as wastage.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage :
unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools
parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home
over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and
excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. Social Factors .
. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation?
6. Define Wastage.
. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education.
3. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. Personal Factors .5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES
Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Family Factors .1.The following factors. They are described hereunder :1. relating to home. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. rural or urban 3.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation
. School Factors . Societal Factors . in his home. school or society.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation?
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. etc. stationary. uniforms. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Stagnation?
. mid-day meals. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books.
“The State shall endeavour to provide. a.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. improvement of curriculum. therefore.3.
3. Minimum Levels of Learning b. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 4. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. 2. Universalization of Retention 2. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.1. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Universalization of Enrolment c. Universalization of Provision b. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. 3.. a.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA.1. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. 4. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.1. 6.” 3. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. Hartog Committee. directed that. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. 3.
7. New Delhi:
. 3. Crescent Publishing Corporation. Personal Factor b. Familial Factors c. Sharma. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. b. Social Factors
8.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. T.K. a.N. (2007). (2008). Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. S. a. improve examination system. Problems of Elementary Education. School Factors d.K. Hemchand. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. (2001). 9. S. introduce graded curriculum. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.1.
18.104.22.168 Advantages of Co-education 22.214.171.124 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.LESSON 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2
STRUCTURE 126.96.36.199 Let us sum up
.4 The problem of reform of Examination 188.8.131.52.2.5.4 Question banks 184.108.40.206.2.2.2 3.1 Problems of examination 3.1 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2 Grade System 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.5 New evaluation procedures 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.4.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 22.214.171.124.7 Open book examination 3.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.4.5.
It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.3. 3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION
One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.8 3. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.2.2.9 3.10
Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.2.2. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.2. you will be able to: 1. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. Besides. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. suggest the new evaluation procedures. but on the other.3. managing of co-educational schools is 148
. 3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. 3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION
There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. 4. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.
3. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. waiting rooms for girl students. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened.3. etc. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. The following steps should be taken up. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances.
4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated
5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing.. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. They develop secondary sex characteristics. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. etc.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. If the students are in sufficient number. which the educational authorities have to face. hostel facilities. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. etc. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. They may cause problems relating to discipline. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage.
3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. roadside Romeoism. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers.2.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. schools for them wherever necessary.
4.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. 3. appointment of paper-setters. Write any two advantages of Co-education?
3. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.2. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. Instruction. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. conduct of internal examinations. the examination system has an important role to play.2. teachers.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.
. public administrators and statesmen. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. assessment and Finance. public interested in education. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is considered as a major sub-system.
Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. etc.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members.2. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. 3. etc. etc.printing and distribution of question papers. training of examiners. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. establishing reliability. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. validity and practicability. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively.4. etc. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different
. examiners. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. introducing objective-based testing. announcement of results. tabulators. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. invigilators. scrutinizers. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. etc. values. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees.
which they are expected to study. it s a common experience that subjectivity.4. lack of objectivity etc. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. do not appeal to the students and parents..
3. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. 2) From the angle of content of education.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. stereotyped questions. 3) With respect to method of teaching.. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. not meant to be assessed in the examinations.. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. takes the place of comprehensive learning. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested.2.
. Rote memorisation. 7) In connection with the question papers. Vagaries in making. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. halo-effect. Subjects. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. may also discredit them. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education.
Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students.develop true love for education. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Spot valuation. may be introduced. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. re-numbering of answer scripts. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. 4.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. revaluation. etc. What are the major areas of problems of examination?
3. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. List any two merits of examination..
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
.a part of internal assessment.
• To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the
. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features:
3. skills are given importance.2. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper.5. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. In this system.2. he is given extra credit points. Every paper is treated equal. attitudes.
Practical limitations are there.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. In actual practice.
More autonomy is given to students.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.2. Their interests. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. It is complicated. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. The new scheme of assessment. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. When a person chooses to work extra. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. 3. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970.5. The students can take any course offered in any department.3. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .
The one shot written examination is not an effective
.2. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. An example is a seminar. 3. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester.5. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. courses can have weightages defined. These weightages are called credits. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. Groupism is encouraged. While designing syllabus. only the total credits to be earned is specified.
Less understanding by the parents. In the new system. v.poor. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits.discipline. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D
Avoids or less comparison. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper.good. or as a 4 credit course. This system reduces comparison of marks. poor.
3. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.
3. 3. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.2.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. However.2.2. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.5. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.5.
. the need for re-evaluation should not arise.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.5.
Therefore. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.
. List any four new evaluation procedures. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. recruitment.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
5. 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There are no proper procedures for selection.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. However. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and
• • • • • •
3. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. In the hierarchy. What is the reason for introducing grade system?
. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships.2.2. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard.
Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties.qualified personnel. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools.. being realised as two different functions. in contrast. qualifications. complaints and compliments. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. 1. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. playgrounds. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. They are. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. library books. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. interpersonal relationships and so on. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making.
3. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. disciplinary problems.2. requirements. submitting of the inspection reports. of late. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. etc. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. staff. finding out whether the prescribed text. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools..6. whether the syllabus has been covered. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. books are followed. When they are fully realised. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. inspecting the class-room teaching. etc. Academic inspection. in a sense. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. laboratory equipment. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. wherever necessary.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. school buildings.
. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work.• • •
• • •
administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. finding out the adequacy of. taking up the follow-up programmes.
to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field.Ed.Ed. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments.
. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. courses. aptitude. Insistence on specialisation in the B.. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. 3.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. or. at least. modern. course in either educational. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. once in five years.2. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. In the case of departmental candidates. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. In the light of these conceptualisation. their professional knowledge. Similarly. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. M. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher..
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
3. a. Instruction. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 2. d. 5. Administration. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 4.2. a. examination reforms and supervision and inspection.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. a. c. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
3. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. 3. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. assessment and Finance. b. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Grade System.
It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance.
.2. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. 3.2. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3.
5.4. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma.
Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6.
3. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. b. Vaidya. b. (2004). a. a. Open book examinations. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. (2002). Oral and practical tests may be taken as .10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. 7. History and Problems of Education in India. (2005). Educational Reforms. Question banks. K. R and Sharma. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. b.2. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. a. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. c. Problems of Education in India. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Multiple sets of question paper.a part of internal assessment. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. New
3.LESSON 3.8 3. 5.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3 3.
.3.9 126.96.36.199 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.188.8.131.52 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. 2. you will be able to: 1.3.2 3.3
HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 3.5 3.3. identify the needs of rural India and social. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.1 3.10 3.4 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3. 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.7 3. 4. 3.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.
A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. 2. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre.g. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. in Andhra Pradesh. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education.3.. the Banaras Sanskrit College. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively
.. Commission emphasised to continue. Consequent on the recommendations. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses .specialisation programmes 3.3. The.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. The Calcutta Madras. e. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. etc. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. Similar is the case with some other States.. 10 years of general Secondary Education. and 3 years of First Degree Course. i.e. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education.. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country.e. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. University Education. 8 years of general education.
so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. b. 3. general rise
in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 7. 5) to help for the social. educational channels. Provision for transfer of credits to students. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation.confidence in students. 6. 5. cultural and economic development of the country.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes
. and. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. to imbibe. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. habits of hard work and develop .a sense of dignity of labour. who desire to change from one stream to another. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. However. 10. social. Genera l Objectives are
1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage.3. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to
Higher Education. historical. economical and political.
3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. 8. to prepare. is also a plus point .
social justice. at the other. Sociologically it is undesirable. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. to develop national character.3. Philosophically it is not the conception. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education.national integration. and. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world.. democratic living. cooperativeness.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. on one hand.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. international understanding. 3. The General Educational Spectrum. and that required to enter the tertiary level. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. cultural and' religious tolerance. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. etc. 1. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of
. Psychologically. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission.
Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. Science. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Agriculture is the main occupation. industrial agricultural production is growing.3. the rural areas have suffered very much. physics or mathematics. technological. educational and cultural services. professional. 3. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. In the matter of language. vegetable growing. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. India is a land of villages. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. In our country.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. commerce. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. trade and public services are expanding rapidly.
. 2. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. horticulture. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. Commerce and other disciplines.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. commerce. chemistry. All these need for an. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. technical. or other machinery. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage.— tube-wells. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. In the vocational spectrum. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. Biology. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. medical plants. and vocations based on dairy-farming. such as Agriculture. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. fish culture. rural health. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character.
Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education?
3. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely .. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. In this way.etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. interests and aptitudes of the students. There had been favourable reaction from the students. 4. the local resources available. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . and
5. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage?
. and the needs. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. can be ensured. social justice.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. In this it may be concluded.3. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. In time. 3. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. etc. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging.
General Educational Spectrum and b. J. New Delhi :
. a. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. a. (2001).3. B. (2005).8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. objectives. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. we studied the history. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. Calcutta University Commission 2. Ltd. 2. 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Modern Trends in Indian Education.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.3. Mohanty. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage?
3. 3. b.C. N. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. Vocational Sepctrum.a sense of dignity of labour.3. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. Dash.3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. 3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3.3. (2008). habits of hard work and develop . a. (2007). to imbibe.K. b. Anmol Publications Pvt.
4. social and
.LESSON 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”.5 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.6 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.4.8 3.10 3.4.11 184.108.40.206.4.4.1
“Education is not the filling of a trail.4. Education contributes to human development.3 3.1 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.7 220.127.116.11
STRUCTURE 3.2 18.104.22.168.4.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.12 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.9 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.13 3.4.
A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. For the first time in the history of India.4.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. There is a close connection between education and development. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far.higher education in particular. Education . the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. 3. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. cultural and political development of the individual.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. These courses were. While women constituted only 9. Nursing. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. economic. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. family. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women.4. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. In the post —independence period. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. Home Economics.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. The relevance of women’s education to social. During the year 1937. Teaching and Fine Arts. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. analyze the women and distance education. particularly
. Dr. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. community and nation is universally acknowledged. higher education of girls developed immensely.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. 3. you will be able to: 1. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. although we have miles to go.
participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.T Women University. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.1 24.4. Even today. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than
. we have more than 1200 institutions.women.
3.N. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. In the rest of the country. out of 9200 and odd colleges. levels and professions.65 lakhs in 1994-95. in our country.D. In 1950-51.4.0 43.9 14. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.0 16. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Kodaikanal. The idea of women’s education for equality. 3. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.2 22. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.4
ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS
In the post Independence period.9 27. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Mother Teresa Women University. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.2 29.0 32. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Coimbatore.1 31.4. Yet. Mumbai. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.0
The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India?
. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4.36
3.44 35.1 and 14. 2.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that
. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.34 33.17 52. 3.63 Female % 34.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.4.1 respectively.47 65.66 66.that of boys. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.
3.27 89.56 64.54 12. Which was the first Women’s University in our country?
.73 10. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education?
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1.46 82.53 34.83 47.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.4%) prefer Arts subjects.4.
and coeducation may spoil her character. They gave up their studies to enter home life. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters.4. etc. Also. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. In college. she will only learn fashion. The major hurdles. distance of the college or university from home. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. According to a survey. what is the need for higher education for her.hinders the girls from getting higher education. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. curriculum not suited to their requirements. particularly. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. promoted and increased. Thus. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. irrelevance of the content of education.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. Book banks should be established. In every third family.
. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. financial difficulty of the parents. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. 3. marriage is a very common I factor. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations.
economic disabilities faced by women. space.4.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.
3. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. is the only tool for realising empowerment. It is a productive investment. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. It also brings about
.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. It enables to study. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. Empowerment in a nutshell. and the limitations of the conventional education system. resources and socio . Geographic distance of educational institutions.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Full-time employment. 3. There are constraints of time.
Distance education is a boon to women. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. Education. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment.4.
The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media
.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. 3. This can be achieved through reflection. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. Women are partners in development. legal awareness and economic independence. higher learning. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education
system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies:
Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. The major objectives of women's higher education. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. education of women must be given priority in national plans. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. on their own. education of women is of paramount importance. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society.4. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. empowerment means being assertive. Empowerment is an active. for full development of our human resources. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities.
UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Better opportunities. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. will encourage them to venture new grounds. But their number is small.4. which had been the sole domain of men. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. which is pending for a long time.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. The local administration. who are eager to take up courses. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. especially so in the developing countries. 3. Scholarships and concessions for women. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO.
3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. The educational institutions. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures.
. has to be implemented at the earliest. Reservation for women. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. especially in developing countries like African countries. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.8%). According to Lindy Hyam. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. engineering and related technologies (16. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.4. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. IDP Education. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace
. Also. But. 3.. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Australia. capacities etc. talents. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.3 percent.1%) and architecture and building (38.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education?
. Chief Executive.000 women in the country. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent.9%).
3. 43% 6. R. a. 3.to the family.C. (2000). impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life
3. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Women Education. (2007). Centre for Women’s Studies. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. (2005). S. Mishra.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. and Swain.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Women Education. Mother Teresa Women University. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. SNDT Women’s University. R. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Rajasthan 5. Pattanaikj. 2. individuals and society b. 4. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Rao. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. A. Coimbatore.K.4. (2008).12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. Kodaikanal. R. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.4. Mumbai.
. Mumbai. S. Annakodi.
3. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Coimbatore. community and the nation. SNDT Women’s University. create the right attitude towards life. Women and Education.4.R. A. and Suryalatha.
5.personality of children in and out of school.5 3.5
STRUCTURE 3.5.7 3.3 3.5. They should be trained.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.4 3.LESSON 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.6 3.5. so as to enable them to acquire
.5. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5.5.11 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.5.5.10 3.1 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.5.9 3.5.8 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. whole.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.2 3.
It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. 5. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. 3.5. know the pre service and in service training facilities. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. equality and justice. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. and national character. understanding and strong desire for international peace. international. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. 4. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. Shorter working hours. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Lack of physical facilities. social and emotional integration. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has.5. 3.
. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. you will be able to: 1. understand the training teachers for Primary.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. national consciousness.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.
At the diploma level. it is called the Extension teacher Education. levels. it is called the In-service teacher education. the primary teacher education. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools.5.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. the centre. etc. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and
.5. inservice and extension education programmes. a Diploma course and a Degree course. 3. the state Government. higher secondary teacher education. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. and M. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. Lop-sided curriculum.Ed.
3. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work.Less qualified teacher educators. Inadequate training in practical skills. who have not been trained earlier.Ed.. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. the secondary teacher education. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. (NCERT) New Delhi. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. If the student teachers are working teachers. and the collegiate teacher education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. Depending on the levels. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. students. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching.
are established. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . depart ments etc.
3.5. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate
. extensio n service. state Institutes of Educat ion. non-formal. Education cells. Write any two problems of Teacher Education?
. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Also Guidance Bureaux. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers
The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory .6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Educational teehnology cells. Evaluation unit. collegiate cells. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. Expand NCERT 2..
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Science Education units. etc.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education.
The following defects are note-worthy
• • •
it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . which should include experience in the primary schools too. audio visual aids.•
• • • • (B)
manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . Training of Secondary School Teachers
The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. primary and secondary school teachers.
The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. and so on. to prescribe conditions for recognition. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. to improve curricular programmes.
Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and ..Ed. to ensure teacher competence. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. material conditions relating to libraries. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. which help breaking isolation from one another . to offer consultative services. schools and sister institutions. should be improved on a top priority basis.. and
. despite its vast expansion.. laboratories. degree. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards.Ed. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers.
ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. and XII. Modern Methods of Evaluation. etc. To meet this exigency. though no pre-service training. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. not came up once again.
. Psychology of Students. Hence. methodology and evaluation. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Workshops.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. Meanwhile. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers
As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. The problem.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Modern Techniques of Teaching. Organisation of Content Courses. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. etc. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education.secondary education. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Agriculture. whether they should have professional education or. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. Induction Courses.
Point out two defects in primary teacher training
. Pre-service training is for those. Post-Graduates also undergo B. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.’s for Ph.Ed. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. (Education) and M.. Courses leading to B.5.A. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B..CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.A..’s are elig ible for M. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.D. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.. (Education) are organized by
..Ed. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. These facilities are available for regular students.Ed. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.Ed. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.Ed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
3. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.S. Ajmer.
3.. in Education. courses and M. Degree. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. For re-orienting the teachers. training. State Institutes of Education.. All B Ed. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. M. Degree and M.Ed.
3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. However. established by tradition and teachers of the past.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. of conduct—written or unwritten. 5.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.5. (Ed. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. they should be conscientious . and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned... So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics.). Hence the employability of M.A. 6. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and B. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .A. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.
4. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. (Ed). Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. What is the role of ERIC?
. . as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.
.List any two code of conduct for teachers?
these problems are not as such cannot be solved. Bhopal. a. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 3.9 LET US SUM UP
The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. they should be conscientious. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Shorter working hours. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time.
3. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. National Council of Educational Research and Training. The necessity is however this. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. b. However. Dearth of new technology of teaching. b.5. Ajmer.
3. Discuss the problems of teacher education. 5.
6. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Explain code of conduct for teachers.5. a.3.5. a. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education.
Tewari. Teacher Education. B.N. Mohanty. and Teacher Education. Teacher Education.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. (2003). Publication Pvt. P. Ltd Aggarwal.3. (2010). J.5. Corporation. (2009). New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.D. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing
UNIT – IV
Lesson 5 explains the meaning. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. common ailments of children. In lesson 4. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. The person’s environment is equally important.
. nutritional deficiency diseases. economic and educational developments. the focus is on the school health programmes.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. communicable diseases and their prevention. If the diet is poor. objectives. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. objectives. objectives and role of the physical education. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. Since food is the source of nutrients. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. preservation of nutrients. In lesson 1. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important.
1.1.8 4.9 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
4.2 4.e.11 4.6 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. The programmes of school health education are quite important.10 4.1
SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES
STRUCTURE 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.LESSON 4. physical. mental. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1 4.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody.1.1.1. It is a miniature society.1.3 4.1.
.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1.4 4.1.7 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1. emotional and social.5 4.
7. To develop healthy health habits among children. to his family and to the community at large. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. training in first aid and etc. 9. e. 4. content of health education. Instruction. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself.. 2. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. understand school health programmes 2. 5. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 4. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. know the need for sex education. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. training of teachers and evaluation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4. To give information regarding health rules. 8. 3. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. list the common ailments of children 3. explain the importance of First aid 5. 10.1.1. 6. To develop certain skills concerning health.
. 11. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. cleanliness and healthful living. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. you will be able to: 1.g.
It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. is imperative. “Play-for-all” programmes. The surroundings of schools should be clean. minimizing the travelling distance. vaccination. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings.4.C. 3. 2. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. 2. 4.coming or absence. Toilet rooms should be amply provided.G. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. Triple Antigen Vaccination. The flooring should not be damp. (ii) communit y healt h. as described below 1. (xl) mental health. Arranging better transportation facilities.. etc. (v) safety education. organisation of school health days. play festivals. cleanliness weeks. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. B. Vaccination for small pox. (vi) nutrition education. ( iii) sanit at io n. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. inoculation against cholera.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. There should be regular water supply. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. 5. suitable furniture. typhoid. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. excusing late. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises.1. B. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. (xii) smoking education etc. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. There should be good drainage facilities. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. proper doors and windows. First aid facilities should be made readily available. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. The school buildings should be spacious.. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to
. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. (viii) first aid. direct lighting.
The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. dislocations. • Take nutritious food. • Find out the cases. insect stings. D. burns. • Close the schools. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. fractures. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms.
. sports and games in the interest of their health.
C. wounds.. fainting (epileptic fit). cuts. isolate and notify. if epidemic is wide-spread. bleeding. drowning. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. and other accidents. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row.•
afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. poisons. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. • When sleeping in groups. • Have adequate rest and sleep. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. scalds. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. etc. • Keep all rooms clean.
backache. cough. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. which are – cold. chicken pox. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. pain in the joints.
4. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. measles etc. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. They are: i) The incubation stage. fever. water or bodily contact. headache. Mention the school health programmes.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the Health curriculum
3. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and
. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. asthma. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. So they easily get illnesses.1.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. tuberculosis.
2. There are three stages in any communicable disease. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. Once these germs get into the body. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. These diseases are called communicable diseases. polio.
4. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Mumps .When a child suffers from scabies. etc. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Scabies . Diarrhoea . Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. eating food which is not clean. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Ear Infections . Important salts and water are lost in this process. Hence liquid diet is recommended. cough and fever. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands.•
start affecting the body systems. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Measles . Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Hence it is called a killer disease. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Others make the children very weak.
. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Some suffer cold due to allergy. The child may have fever. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Tonsilitis . The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. unhygienic living conditions. This is caused by cold virus.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. The following are the common communicable diseases. Throat is affected. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure.It is caused by measles virus. Common Cold . Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. sugar and water. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. head-ache and cough.This disease is caused by bacteria. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Children catch cold from persons having cold. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. unhygienic bottle feeding. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. After three or four days of fever. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. The symptoms include cold. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting.
This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. What are communicable diseases?
6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist the common ailments of children. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. It begins with fever.
. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. Typhoid . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Diphtheria . The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. If proper treatment is not given. raised pink spots appear on head.
5. As the disease progresses. The child may also have diarrhoea. face and waist. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. By scratching he causes secondary infections.•
Chicken Pox . the child may die. Shortly. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. separate. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. Expand DPT . the child is not able to breathe.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
In such cases. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. It is both biological and psychological.
. exciting and body-oriented. scorpion stings.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. fiction. etc. man-woman behaviours. Cuts and Bruises . bruises. 4. sprains. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. sprains.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. and Community Work and Social Service.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. and films. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. dislocation. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. Sprains . Drowning . Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. cuts. it is a subject of art. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. fainting. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. bleeding. drowning.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. head injury. 2.1. It has its rightful place in education too. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. so-called sex books and periodicals. eye injury.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Wounds . The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work.1. wounds. Sex is popular. 5.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. simple fractures.g. swelling. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. 3. snakebites. films and jokes.4.
B. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge..co-operatively to give sex education to the young. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. they would be treading the path of sure doom. sex education is being recommended in schools. Sex education has the major components as follows:
1. 3. In secondary schools. but preserve them from disaster and disease. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. try experimenting with their bodies. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers.
Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex
A.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world.old values. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives
. In today's liberal and interactive society. Should the boys and girls. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. the religious organisations. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. The values of life. celibacy are age. in their ignorance. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. the school. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. health. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. Hence. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. 2. The home. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught.
but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. the school health programmes. offering sex education as a part of their curricula.1.
It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. there will no crisis in its implementation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. What are the major components of Sex Education. Teacher education institutions are.
.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future.1) 2) 3)
as a separate course. communicable diseases and their prevention.
4. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. when the courses are already overloaded. C. first aid and sex education. hence. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. common ailments of children.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 22.214.171.124 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia
6. Mention the food nutrients
.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
a. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to
4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency?
3. Rickets is the deficiency of
5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
minerals. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned.4. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods.2. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s .
. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.2. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected.
Let us talk about each of these aspects. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. If you look at the definition carefully. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.
it is also specific to a given activity level . A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress).g. paratha and poori. 4. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e.sedentary.6. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati.one in the morning and the other at night. activity level and physiological stress. Even within given States there is considerable variation. A balanced diet is specific firstly.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. construction labourer). in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. Preferences/customs are also important. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). sex.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier.g. In the case of adults. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). These are: region where the person resides and income. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. moderate or heavy work. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. the social and religious practices of that region. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. In other words. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. There is no point. dosa are typical of the south. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are
. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. People in the east of our country prefer rice. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns.2. for example. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex.
consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods.planning the diet. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. Even among flesh foods. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. If you think of your own religious group. However. taboos related to food may play an important role. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. Among the social factors. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. however. customs. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. Having more money. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. however. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. In addition to these. One must. as important for the rich as for the poor. These determine the acceptability of foods. income plays a vital role. Judicious selection of food is. fat and sugar tend to increase. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. One person may be fond of milk products. As you read this discussion. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. vegetables and fruits. however. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. nuts and dry fruits. As income increases. for example. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Including these
. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. while another may hate them. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem.
fruits. 8) Walk a while after eating. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. eggs . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. mouth. if the teachers have good food habits. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only.
8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . Define balanced diet. List out any two healthy food habits. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect.
. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. green leaves. For this. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. but they should be thrown away. 17. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. etc. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. meat. over-eating or under.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students.eating is hazardous.
A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. c.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Corneal xerosis. Night blindness. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. b. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Keratomalacia 3. Bitot’s spots.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Beri Beri 4. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer.2. 4. In fact.2. Discuss good food habits. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins
2. When the diet is inadequate. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. d. good nutrition is essential for good health.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Vitamin D 5. 4.2. Explain food nutrients 4. e. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. preservation of nutrients. Conjuctival xerosis. Fatigue and Giddiness
7. a . Health and Nutrition Education.M. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation
. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s .6. (2008). a. (2008). Nutrition Science. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. (2004). Sri Lakshmi B. 8. (2009).
4. Food should be consumed after eating well. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. R. mouth. minerals. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Food and Nutrition Education.C. Food and Nutrition Education.N. b. (2005). Chopra. Hands. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. b. R. Nutrition and Dietetics.2. P. S. A Text Book of Foods. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s.
3.12 126.96.36.199.3 Impact on Education 188.8.131.52 Impact on economic development 184.108.40.206.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.9 4.11 4.3.7 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.4 4.3.3 4.
.3.3.10 4.3.1 Impact on social development 4.3.1 4.13 4.5 4.3
STRUCTURE 4.3.2 4.8 4.LESSON 220.127.116.11.
3. describe the impact of population growth on social. Population Education.4. community.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. understand the importance of small family norm 5. you will be able to: 1. family planning and sex education etc.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation.
. the causes of population change. economic and educational development 3. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. 4.
4.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. Whenever we talk of sex education. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. his societ y and the world. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. There is some difference. population characteristics. the stress is. objectives and need for population education 2. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. therefore.3. aims at providing the younger generation. and the consequences of these processes. It is not sex education. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.3.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. his family. It is a much wider co ncept. state the meaning. characteristics and changes for himself. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4.3. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points:
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
4. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. the nation and the world. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.3. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. the society. Define Population Education
2. the family.
the family programmes are also handicapped. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. When the family is small. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age.
. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. 4. 4. which will not be possible without population control. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. economic and educational development of the country. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future.6. Family is considered as a social unit. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. Every second two thousand children are being born. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. With the larger families. health and happiness of its citizens. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion.3. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress.3.
are the results of demographic pressures on social life. heavy intern I migration etc.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious.6. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. In developing countries. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. and so on.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. i. in buses and trains. toilets. The gulf between them is widening further. lack of proper health care. in parks and other places of public gatherings. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. unemployment. Swollen cities.e. 4.6. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. Many students herded in a small room. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. facility for drinking water.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. pollution of the environment. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. teacher index. organization index and material index. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too.
. in cinema halls and theatres. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective.3..3. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. 4.
There would be very few audiovisual aids. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. and laboratory equipments. reproduction. can be studied in science and health education. There would be poor library facilities. blank verses etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Regional Language. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. less space facilities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. Social Studies Statistics on population education. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject.3. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. family planning etc.
. bar graphs etc. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. thus. can be taken up. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. essays. less budget for education.. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education
4. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Hindi and English. even text books would be in short supply.
8. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents.3. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Canada. causes of deaths etc. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. West Bengal. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Children with the help of parents. Brazil. 11. China. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to
. 2. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 5. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Children may compare two families. area and average density of population. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. United States of America. Uttar Pradesh. 4.4. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 9. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. deaths. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Bihar. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. 15. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 10.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION
1. 14. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. 12. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 7. 13. 3.
9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. age at marriage. How will you correlate Population Education?
5. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. preferences for sex. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. 17. we have no right to stop
. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education?
4. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education.be opened in their schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 18. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. 16. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size.3. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. The question. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Comparing life in various respects in two families. values and role children etc.
continued . India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . and the child survival components of the news: program. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.their entry into the world”. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.to emphasize family planning services.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. More than 45 years ago.4-6. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. which education can only do.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. on an overall basis. at varying places in different regions. however. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. 4.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.were implemented
. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.3. the total fertility rate decreased from 6.. especially the expansion of child immunization services . Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. Since the program's inception. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. “He who is responsible for population growth. The Family Welfare Program.
and nominal fees for services. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. expansion of services to unmarried women. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. In April 1996. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. Local programs vary in their approaches. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. a focus on health promotion. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. men. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. Therefore. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. Moreover. In October 1997. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. reliance on local women as community health workers. and the World Conference on Women. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by
. At these meetings. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better.earlier than the safe motherhood components. the community appears willing to pay for services.
involving the community. 4.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
. Its main purposes are to create awareness. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. Describe the impact of population growth on social.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.emphasizing the needs of the client. What are the goals of RCH?
4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. 3. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme?
7. family.3. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. nation and the world. 1997). community. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual.3. economic and educational development 4.
3. area and average density of population. a. less space facilities. 7. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. his society and the world.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff.4. b. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. 5. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 3. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. 4. a. characteristics and changes for himself. his family. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. a. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Canada. United States of America. Brazil. and the consequences of these processes. the causes of population change. less budget for education. China. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. b. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 6. bar graphs. population characteristics.
Modern Trends in Indian Education.14 SUGGESTED READING
Mohanty.4. Centre for Women’s Studies. (2002). Kantikar.K. (2005). J.
Jayapoorni. Principles of Population Studies. T. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. (1992).
Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. A.
Modern Problems of Education. Reddy.
. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. (2005). Changing attitudes to Education in India.
“Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Coimbatore.3.
Udaiveer. Ltd. (2004). N. V.
7 4.4.4 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168 Indigenous games 22.214.171.124 19.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.4 Lead up games 126.96.36.199.4.6 4.3 4.2 Major games 4.10 4.4.LESSON 4.2 4.1 188.8.131.52.9 4.1 Minor games 184.108.40.206.4.5 4.
perseverance.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country.4.4. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. 4. which forms its most valuable assets.4. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5.4. you will be able to: 1. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. as it should
. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. team spirit. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. classify the different types of games. moral fitness and emotional fitness. social fitness. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. leadership and balance in defect. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. mental alertness. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. 4. the youth of the country. full records of physical activities should be maintained. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. The concept of physical education has been made broader.
To be more precise. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Every individual is a part of society. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Therefore. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. They are inseparably united together. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. The educational efforts at home. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. leadership. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. They go hand in hand. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. obedience to rules. team spirit. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s
. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education.
” Montaigue writes. a sound health. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. C. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. Regarding the significance of physical education. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. ment al. nor body but the whole man. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. Rousseau states. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. H. Just like Education. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it.4. Buck has observed that
. pleasing manners. Physical exercises. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. mo ral. 4.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers.” The Secondary Education Commission.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. game and sports.
coordinative abilities.” 4.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. speed. resourcefulness and smartness. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. we must exercise the whole human being. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. elegance.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society.
. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. initiative. efficiency and character.” In brief. etc. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively.4. Froebel says. “If we wish to develop the whole being. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength.a properly directed physical education should result in health. happiness. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. strength. endurance. flexibility and power.
Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. they may form gangs. plagues and famines. poetry and painting. its adherents and its enemies. Tournaments foster this sentiment. If no opportunity is provided to the students. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. systems of government. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. these fundamental things have always been present.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups.
. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Every age has its artists.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. While wars. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. in greater or lesser degree. including all racial groups and historical ages.
etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. bravery and interest in games and sports.sacrifice.\ to develop perseverance. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems.(iii) (iv) (v)
to develop rhythmic bodily movements. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education.
. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x)
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . respect for rules. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. Write any two importance of Physical Education. obedience. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit.
2. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly.
B. to develop tolerance. self.
teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. injuries among pupils should be made. Be sportive. Always keep the whistle ready. 7. 10. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 9.
. Haag.H. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 11. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Inform health principles. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases.
1. Be in the uniform. Act as a leader.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Posture screening should be done. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.4. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. and. 4. students. 13. 5.4.4. 2. Be self-confident. 8. is essential. Usually parents. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 6. and readmission after they have recovered.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Be punctual. 12. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Be well-prepared. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 3. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Keep the field ready for the activities. 4. 16. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 15. defects. 14.
Moreover. Such inst incts as imitation. frolic and jo y. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. 4.4. their development is handicapped. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Indigenous games. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. chasing. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy.
4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8. less equipment and less expense. As such they are well enjoyed by children.
4. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten.4. the play. 2. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. Lead up games.
. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.
finding the partner. Jumping. Hopping.With a very few rules. on mountain tops and on river beds. Throwing. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Tennikoit. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. on sea-shore. Shuttle Badminton. Soft Ball. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. 4. Dodging. snatching the kerchief. For each game the rules are many. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. couple tag. dribbling. women take part most of the games. stopping. bowling etc. muffling. with implements or without implements. hitting. Jump the stick clay and so on. They are played for a shorter duration. On lawns. boosting. These games require varied skills such as running.
. Kabaddy etc. under ball pass Relay. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. spiking.4. driving. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Hockey. the games can be modified according to convenience.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. heading. catching. Except a few games. While many of them are played in the open playfields. wherever the kids assemble. trapping. Ball Badminton. The dimension of the posts and nets. on hard courts. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Cricket. over ball pass Relay. the number of players and substitutes. Basket Ball. benefit in playing minor games. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Khokho. pitching. Volley Ball. the play equipment. some of them are played indoors.8. zig zag relay. Tennis. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. skipping. They are rules approved by the International Associations. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally.. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children.
death. An example for indigenous game is 8. All the fundamental tactics. What do you mean by lead up games?
. 4. Games may be classified as 6. For example.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. List out some major games. these games being popular. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. Kho-kho.8. birth. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8.4. they are in existence.
7. On occasions like marriage. and . They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. While observing the players in action. They have an abundant social value. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil.4. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. festivals connected with religion and public functions.4.
11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. a. 4. a. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Posture screening should be done. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. 3. 2. 5. b. d.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. a. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.4. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.4. 4. Briefly discuss the different types of games. 4. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. to secure physical health b. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.
4. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. b. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. c. 3.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept.4. 2. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. b. Minor and Major
. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. physically and emotionally fit and alert. aims and objectives and need of physical education. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. to develop physical stamina. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.
4. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Hockey. Basket Ball. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. J. J. Ball Badminton. Kabaddy 7. Health. J. Cricket. Volley Ball. Handbook of Physical Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2009). (2005). Tennikoit. Aggarwal. Mohanty. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2008). Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.K. Krishna murthy. (2008).6. Ltd. Soft Ball. Tennis. G. Khokho 8. Foot-ball.
. Shuttle Badminton. Khokho.C. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Physical Education and Sports.
5.5.LESSON 4.5.4 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
4.7 4.3 4.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as
.1 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .8 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 4.5.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.1 Natural Environment 4.5.2 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.9 4.10 22.214.171.124 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.5.11 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.
Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. 4. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. Details are given below: I.educat ion for the environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. population explosion and resource depletion could be. 2. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Attitude. Knowledge. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems.
4. 6. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Participation.5. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. education about the environment and education through the environment. economic. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. it covers the following elements: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. aesthetic and educational factors. 3. Awareness. list out the types of environment 3. Evaluation Ability. 2. 5.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems.5. role of teacher in environmental conservation.
4. political. Skills. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Broadly. 3. social.5. Essential knowledge about the Environment. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. you will able to: 1. The best place to start such learning is school.
heat sink and wind flow in cities. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system.B. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. • Biological magnification E. a. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C.
. Oxidants Other pollutants. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. D. 2. F. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog.
B. 2. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Socio-economic measures. Use of medical science i. The human ecosystem II. 2. Abortion iv. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. c. III. The pill ii. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. economic. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Control of population growth a. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Persuasion: i. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A.3. Birth control through education b. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Family planning ii. Sterilisation. Intrauterine device iii. 4. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources
Define Environmental Education. 3.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection.
. (UNESCO. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Air pollution abatement ii. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Water pollution abatement. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
2. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. 1983). Write any two objectives of Environmental Education.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i.
3. e) Recycling. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment.
4.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. Biological environment The biological environment. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. includes the plants.5.5. to his needs. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. A change in one brings about a change in the other. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.other components of the environment. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. fax agricultural apparatus. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. These are biotic components. He modifies according”. They interact with each. -other. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. animals and other organisms (biotic).1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. way is called environmental or ecological factor. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.5. Any constituent or condition of the environment. a. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. telex.5.5. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.4. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. b.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION
The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following
effects o f CFC. maintaining the ecological diversity. noise control. of civilizations. biogas plants. ozone depletion. change in climate may be added. trees reducing noise pollution. need for conservation. (ii) Air pollution. air pollutants from industries. importance of trees in the production of oxygen.. solar cookers.
Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. reasons. use of pesticides. role of trees in building economy. nuclear energy. History The rise and fall. natural way of controlling pests. use of medicinal plants. alternate sources of energy. preventing siltation of dams. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. supplying timber for various uses. water scarcity. evolution. windmills. greenhouse effect. need for bio-diversity. etc. sources of pollut ion. are the topics which may be taught in History. acid rain. food chain and food-web. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. industrial pollut io n. noise pollution.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. sources. industrial survey. population. over exploitation of ground water. balance of nature. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. etc. t heir role in preventing pollution. wars and hazards of war. mineral survey. effects. ozone layer deplet ion. social studies. nuclear warfare. preserving the watersheds. desertification
. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. extinction of species. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . river systems. importance of nitrogen cycle. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. relation between population and pollution. excellent recreation sites. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. explosion deforestation.
Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene.
Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 5.may be inc ded in Geography. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 12. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 3. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 13. 4. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 4. 2. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. animal and plants. aims and scope. 8. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 6. 11. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Peepal and Tulsi. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. 7. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 9. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs.5. Providing. Organising conferences. group discussions and seminars. 14. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant.
Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND
P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development:
1. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’.
it will cause pollution.Send their waste oil. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Reuse carrier bags. Never put any left over chemicals. Use public transport wherever it is possible. especially plastics. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. If it is done. World Environmental falls on
. all these can cause serious pollution.
5. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden.
6. Don’t burn any waste. used oils down the drain. or form a car pool for everyday travel.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
potable water. To arrange visits or expeditions. nuclear wars. values and habits.5. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Att itudes of balance towards nature. The groups may exchange. depletion of ozone. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. concern for others). CFCs. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. To arrange for visiting speakers. etc. To provide materials needed for practical work.).4.. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. developing desirable attitudes. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. loss of bio-diversity. etc. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. Harmony with the nature . dest roying nat ural habitats. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. rather than conquest and mastery. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. and
. diversity and stability. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Conservation of natural resources. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Social responsibilit y (common good. To provide reference materials for children’s use. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. orderliness and beauty). Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information.mat erials. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . deforestation. viz. (cleanliness. Concern for species. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5.
8.5. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.5.
4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.
4. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. preserving natural cycles.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
Social responsibilit y (common good. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Anmol Publications Pvt. b.K. acid rain. group discussions and seminars. (2004).K. b. population. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. June 5 7. Organising conferences. New Delhi :
Sharma. Awareness. reasons. (ii) Air pollution. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. greenhouse effect. Udaiveer. T. Publications Pvt.. New Delhi : Anmol
. To provide materials needed for practical work. Education for values. 4.2. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Rapid population growth. a. explosion deforestation. Modern Problems of Education. S.K. sources. Nanda. Ltd.K. 8.5.\ 4. Ltd. Environmental Education. b. Providing. Kuldeep. effects. over exploitation of ground water. a. Knowledge. new problems from science and technology. Y. importance of nitrogen cycle. S. air pollutants from industries. 6. relat ion between population and pollution. a. To provide reference materials for children’s use. concern for others). (2007). 5. 3. sources of pollution. Environment and Human Rights. Environmental Education. water scarcity. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. (2007). (1997). b. New Delhi : Authors Press. ozone layer deplet ion. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. a.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 126.96.36.199 Idealism and aims of Education 188.8.131.52 Idealism and Curriculum 184.108.40.206 Idealism and methods of teaching 220.127.116.11 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and aims of Education 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and Curriculum 126.96.36.199 Naturalism and methods of teaching 188.8.131.52 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 184.108.40.206 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
220.127.116.11 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 18.104.22.168 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
It is self-realisation.1. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality.
Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism.
Universal Education.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. The universe is regarded as a thought process.” 5. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind."
Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities
. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted.
Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. According to Rusk'. Therefore. in fact. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. moral. the emancipation of spirit. Education according to idealism. Education must contribute to development of culture. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. promote and transmit it to rising generation. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation.3. enrichment and transmission of culture. man is essentially a moral being. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. should be universal in nature.our life.
Science. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man.1. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked.3. hygiene. a spiritual guide for the child. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. Learning through reading.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types.1. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to
. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. So he should embody. So health. 5. However. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education.the spiritual qualities of mankind. affecting (feeling). He carries the child from darkness to light. an indispensable necessity. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. Learning through discussion. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Learning through lecturing. 2.3. For intellectual development.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. It considers teacher as.” 5. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. Philosophy. Mathematics etc. The plant can grow. no doubt. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. should be there. 5. History. Learning through questioning. the school is a garden. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. and collation (striving) should find due place. subjects like Languages. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality.” He is thus. friend and guide. Herbert advocated instruction method. 3. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. According to idealism. According to Frobel. So cognition (knowing). 4. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Learning through imitation. Ethics. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. He sets the environment in which education takes place. For this no particular method has been suggested. so subjects like Religion.
1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. formal lessons or examinations.4. 5. text books. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.1.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century.1. time tables. "Education should make
. Ross explains. In the words of Ross. Perfection of Human Machine.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.perfection and beauty. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. curricula.
5.preservation. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.
his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Chemistry. Zoology. 4.4. subjects like history. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Literature. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. It stresses basic sciences. useful and mature child. Education should.1. Arithmetic. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Naturalistic curriculum. There is no place for religious and moral education. rational harmoniously balanced. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. It emphasises physical and health education 5. geography should also be included in the curriculum. is based on the nature of the child.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Education also aims at helping the individual t. It is based on the psychology of the child. Biology. Therefore. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. “Education finds its purpose. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. In all.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Botany etc Language. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. therefore. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment.
Autonomous Development of Individuality. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. education should develop the child into Joyous. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones.
4. a provider of an ideal environment. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. a supplier of materials and opportunities.4. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. The main aim of Naturalism is &
4. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. he should be taught by experience alone.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. 3.1. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. 2.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. 5. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Dalton Plan. Rousseau says. Heuristic method. Learning through experience. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Learning through observation.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. It discards all rigid. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. In the .3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Learning by doing. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.5.
5. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism.1. and rebels against the academic and orthodox
.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher.1. the stage. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.
5. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. diversified and flexible. All Round Development of an Individual. The individual has not only to adjust himself. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously.1. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. The aim of educational development. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Continuous Growth.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Physical training. 5. Personal Social Adjustment. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Social Efficiency. Social Science. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education.5. History. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. of human personality is in terms of his physical.1. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment.absolutism of idealism. Vocational and
. social and moral aspects.5. Agriculture. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. intellectual. Geography. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Sciences. Subjects. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. is true. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency.
5. Methods of teaching should not be fixed.Technical Education.1.5. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. Learning by Doing. He must be trained. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. a teacher occupies an important position.5.” 5. should find proper place. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. activities and experience should be integrated properly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. The subjects. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. alert and resourceful.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. a senior partner and a sincere guide.1. He has to be active. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life.
Mathematics. Study of Subjects like Language. practical.6. 4.1.6. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Biography Philosophy. 2. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. rich and happy.
5. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. liberal. Satisfaction of individual and social needs.1. Literature. Biology. 5. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Chemistry.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Astrology. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist.5. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. 3. literary or humanistic education. intellectual. Education is preparation for a complete living. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Psychology. 3. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. History. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Sex Education. 4. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind.1. 2. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. It favours child-centered. scientific and psychological education. specific. Crafts. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Music and Dance.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Population Education. Geography are unnecessary
. Art. 5.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.1.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.6.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. certainly and clearly.1. List out the methods of teaching in realism
. easily and pleasantly.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.6. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.
Learning through experience b. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Learning through questioning. Learning through reading. a. Learning through discussion. Agriculture. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. History.1. Self Realisation b. Tours / Excursion e. & curriculum. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Child centered c.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. c. Learning through imitation. 5. Self preservation & Self expression 4. has no end other than growth. in this lesson.1.5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Social Science. a. 5. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Sciences. Rousseau 5. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. e.1. Experimentation d. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. b. 3. 6.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Learning through lecturing. 5. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Vocational and Technical Education. Geography. Demonstration and Observation
. Universal Education 2. naturalism. pragmatism and realism. d. Education according to pragmatism. Languages. a. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Physical training.
L. N.P. Ltd. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.5. K and
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.
Pahuja. K. P. (2007).H. P.1. of
New Delhi :
Bhatia. (2003).P.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman.
. R. Narang C.
Theory and Principles of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. Anmol Publications Pvt. Publishing corporation. (2007). (2004).
2.1 Aims of Education 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 22.214.171.124 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 126.96.36.199. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA
STRUCTURE 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.2.4.3 Methods of Teaching 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.5.2 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2.2 Curriculum 5.3 Methods of teaching 220.127.116.11
EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.LESSON 18.104.22.168 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2 Curriculum 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1 Aims of Education 5.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 188.8.131.52.3.4 Views about teacher 5.4 Views about teacher 5.1 Aims of Education 5.1 5.4.3 Methods of teaching
Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. 5.2.7 5. economic and political reconstruction in our country. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. content and methods.6 5.5.2. 2. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.2. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. Gandhiji was primarily a social.4 Role of the teacher 5. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. an artist.5.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. you will able to: 1.2.2. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. 3.2. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.
5. Tagore was a poet.8 5.
.2. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. mind and spirit. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.2. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.
nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. 'Man is neither mere intellect. righteousness. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. it is education of life. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect.intellectual and physical faculties of the children." Dignity of Labour. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education.supporting. "I attach more.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. through life and for life. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour.3. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. 5. nor the gross animals body. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. It really provides opportunity for character building.
. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. self-restraint and service of humanity. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. mind and soul of children He further observed. In the words of Gandhiji. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. His scheme of education is life centred.2. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. strength of mind.
5. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Only good individual forms a better society. wood work. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. "Development of the moral character. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . According to Gandhi. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Music. Drawing and Hindustani. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. gardening. Art. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. Individual and Social Aims. the realization of the ultimate reality.Training for Leadership.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. General Sciences. Mother-tongue. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy.3. development of the whole all were directed: towards. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. He suggested Home-Science for girls
. leather work have been suggested.2.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. metal work. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.
The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji
5. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. proficient.2.3. men of
. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Basic education is other wise known as 4.3. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.trained.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots.
5. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1.3. Education must be child centered. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST
On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. That is why. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3.knowledge. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. “To develop the spirit is to build character
. He also advocates freedom for the child. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST.
4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. He was deadly against untouchability. • Cult of non-violence. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. 5. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. He believed in the oneness of humanity. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.2.
5. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.” Like all other ideals. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.3. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. He was a true patriot. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under:
. he was a true Vedantist 5.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.2.K. • Education should involve manual work. • Ideal of citizenship.2. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.4. Gandhi in 1937. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.
Therefore. Tagore said. stronger in power than ever before. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History.4.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Purposeful and Meaningful Education. It should help. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. them solve problems of day to day life. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. deeper in. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. It should help the learner have good physique. etc. International Understanding.Language and Literature . (vi) Philosophy. Dance. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. he said. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. wider in range. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. International understanding.2. Religion and Psychology.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Zoology. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. That way only. sentiment. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Civics.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. complete manhood could be attained.
. the more dedicated and devoted. Music. "Mankind must realise a unity. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Botany. could help in forging unity among all. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Geography. Chemistry.
5. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.” He further says. In 1921.2. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.4. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. Tagore rightly says. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.
.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.4.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.2. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. Activity Method Heuristic Method. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame." 5. 5. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.2. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.
Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. It is open to all irrespective of country. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. race.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi.
9. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4.
. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8.g.
Freedom. work and deeds come out of it. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Education should make a person self-reliant. Concept of Education. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man.5. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. 2.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking." He was against the theoretical type of education. He believed in to learning or selflearning. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. According to him. Education for strong Moral Character. Education for Self-reliance. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Education for Self-realization.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life.5. man making.” 5. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself.2. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality
. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Book learning.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Purity of thought. 3.2. 4.
2. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. That will serve the purpose of education fully. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . 6. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Every individual should be trained for concentration. A physically strong person is the need of the society.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta.5. Education for Physical Development. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses.5. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. philosopher and guide to the students He.5. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Religion. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. And above all. Only a selfless person can be good teacher.
. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Discussion Method. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. 5. Education should help in the physical development of an individual.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. Of course. Swami.5. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.2.2. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Philosophy and Theology. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.the learners on different students in the discussion. 5. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Thirdly he wished that games. 5. Secondly he wanted Science. The teacher should be the facilitator. engineering and technical subjects.
and pragmatist . 3. Gandhiji as a Idealist. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands.
.6 LET US SUM UP We have. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. 2.
5. legs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. Their educational ideas. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life.
12. of course. We have seen that Tagore. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda.2.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. Write short notes on Basic education. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher.Substantiate your answer. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. in this lesson. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. 5.2. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. naturalist. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. ears and eyes. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Explain Vishwabharathi. 10. Nai Talim 4. f. 8. Ideal of citizenship. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. a. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man
12. 2. a. c. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. metal work. 1937 7. Activity Method
5. Discussion Method
. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. 5. Learning by Doing c. a. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. d. a. Meditation and concentration c. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Debate and Discussion Method. Education should involve manual work. Technique of Correlation 6. 3. leather work have been suggested.2. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. gardening. Cult of non-violence.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 9. Teaching while Walking b. Self-Study
b. c. Self realization. Heuristic Method. e. b.4. wood work. Activity Method d. 11. 5. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Basic education.
Theory and Principles of Education. Anmol Publications Pvt.
. New Delhi : A.
New Delhi :
Aggarwal.9 SUGGESTED READINGS
Dash. Foundations of Education.
Bhatia. Ltd. (2002). J. (2007). K and Narang C.
Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. P. C.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.P. P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Publishing Corporation. K. (2007). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.5. (2004). N.
Pahuja.2. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. B. L.
Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. N.H.
9 5. In this lesson.8 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.3 184.108.40.206 5.11 220.127.116.11 5.3.2 5.6 5.3.1 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students
.3.4 5.10 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.LESSON 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.18.104.22.168. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION
STRUCTURE 5.3.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.
5.. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. in the form of new experience. A g o o d curricu lu m.under the direction of the school.S. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. Then in a big country like India. Since the demands. While education is learning. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. living in the hilly area. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. In it. in the U. in Russia or in Japan.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. in fact . it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child.3. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. the desert area. present behaviour may be modified. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. curriculum signifies situations for learning. Curriculum is intimately related to education. While education is a process. there is a large number of communities. it is identical wit h socializat ion. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. you will be able to: 1. 5. In the words of Kerney and Cook. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. state the meaning of curriculum 2. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. In the former sense. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. From the latter point of view. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. curriculum.A.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static.3. maintained or eliminated. Both the processes are integrated. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. is a means to the process.3. the plateau area and
. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . the plain area. new behaviour may be acquired.
(i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. irrespective of their needs and environment. the learning capacity of children. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. studying therein.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. according to modern trends in the educational process. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. customs and needs. Again. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. it is. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. In fact . too. However. environment. From a slave-country we became secular. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all.3. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. 5. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. democratic and socialistic country. Besides craft. differs from individual to individual. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. and
. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. It must differ from locality and from society to society. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. therefore. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission.
The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made
. 2. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands.g. aesthetic and spiritual development. 4. Knowledge Objective. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery.(vii)
it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. 1. They are visionary goals e. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. moral. eg. Self Realisation.
. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and.3. they depend on the political. They are achievable.. individual or Social and so on. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. Goals of Primary Education. They speak of perfect goals. uninspiring and unscientific. tangible. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. remote or immediate. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process.. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. which may or may not be attained.
5. emotional.. Goals of Secondary Education. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. National Integration.. They may be ultimate or proximate. Vocational Efficiency. social. of classroom. They speak of immediate purposes of education. etc. What is the meaning of curriculum ?
3. Understanding Objective. unambiguous and functional. 3. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS
At this juncture. e.. specific. e. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. The word “Curere” means 2. social. unsatisfactory. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. So it is inadequate. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. Application Objective.g. in instructional objectives. general or specific. etc.g. aims.
should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. but it includes the totality of experiences. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns.”
. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.5. According to Crow and Crow. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future.3. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. in the class rooms. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. needs. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.”
Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. capacities.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. heavy fire. finding them very interesting and captivating. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. Crow and Crow remarks. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. The interests. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. on the playing fields. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. educationists. abilities.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects.
Raymont rightly says.
The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. capacities and abilities. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. Due to these variations and differences. urges. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new
. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. moral. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment
according to his needs
Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. aptitudes. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. They often waste it or rather kill it. time in a useful manner. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. mental. tendencies.
: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. organized. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. administrative programme need be planned. phased preparation.curricular. Similarly. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. To ensure success of the process. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. 2. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. development of professional capability at all levels. 3. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials.
. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic.
laboratory. in the class room. principles of curriculum construction. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 1937 19. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school.3. 11. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. library. 18. Child Centred Education b. 5. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities
. 17. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
5.3. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. 12. Run.3. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. 10. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum?
5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. a. workshop. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Relation with Life c.
Curriculum Development. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. (2007). and Sarita Kumari.3. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2007).K. Lakshmi. Bhalla. N. New Delhi : Isha Books.S.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. P.
. D. (2001). S.5. S. (2007). Innovations in Education. Curriculum and Instruction. New Delhi : Authorspress.
3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4.9 5.4.3 5.4
PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS
STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.7.8 5.7.4 5.2 5.4.5 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.7.10 5.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 126.96.36.199.4.4.LESSON 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.7 Scientific Attitude 5.
All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. open-mindedness. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. in the economic reconstruction of society. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. explain the concept of scientific attitude. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations.during the second half of this century.4. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. 2. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. honesty.4.
. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking.
5. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. tolerance for the opinions of others. 4. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . superstition or emotion.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. newer and newer industries started growing.4. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. 3. Gradually. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. you will be able to: 1.5. know the importance of science education. We mean curiosity. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth .
SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION
NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. 4. 6. Principles are formulated. Selection for science education. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work.4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching.
5. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Through examinations. as well as of the society. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. 4.4. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Love for truth enhances. stipends and appreciations in various ways. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian
. Thinking and memory develops. Central science workshop. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Schemes of teaching science. 3. seminars and symposiums.So that. 5. 2. 7. 2. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Promotion of science clubs. After such experience and training. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. 3. Through newspapers. Organisation of science fairs. 6. 5. Devotion towards nature increases.
At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. After presenting the problem. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. should provide opportunities to. objectivity.
5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.6. It is.
5.4. They ask many questions about the objects they see. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. each child to “enquiry skill building”. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. They experience natural phenomenon. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource
.4. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. Write any two advantages of Science Education.needs and conditions. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. Training of science teachers. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. Enquiry teaching is. For laboratory and workshop techniques. therefore. sex or religion. 7. In the inquiry approach. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. They encounter many social events as they grow. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. essential that teachers.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature.
to ask questions and experience things.
5. test. Evidence. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook?
. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook.Herma Wouk. stern pursuit of accurate data.
. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. 5. 3.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. 6. 4.
. Social sciences.books.6. Appreciating pupils ideas.4. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. commands or orders. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. It requires consistent thinking.4. Adopting creative models of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. 3. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. 5. if they like. Giving less directions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.
neighbourhood. to develop among the learners. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. friends. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. For instance. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. keen observation. (Vaidya 2007). In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. These include open mindedness. therefore should be unbiased and objective. it must be encouraged. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. school and society at large. These characteristics of any scientific
. and emphasized during the learning process . There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed.7.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. critical thinking and suspended judgments. practiced. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. of vast resources running waste. The students observation. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”.4. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. 5. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen.(Smith 2008). To achieve this we should understand what it means. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education.
. think and work it”. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. In considering a situation or a problem. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. 2007). The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. or superstitions. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. (Das. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. intuition or wishful thinking”. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live.7. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. rumor.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. understanding and logic.4. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. he studies all aspects of it. The intention to respect another’s point of view. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. 5.
They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading
.7. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.4. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.
5.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil.• •
The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.
5. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. but to begin only after careful planning. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.7. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.4. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.
5.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. manuals and reading materials available in school
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience.
5. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.
. practiced and emphasized during the learning process.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.• • • • • • •
Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. it must be encourages.
3. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Proper example of the teacher c. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Wide reading b. Vaidya.5. a. The intention to respect another’s point of view. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. 2. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. 5. objectivity. 16. b. (2000). Reflections on Scientific attitude. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. (2006). M. a. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. D. 5.
. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. a.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa.4. Planning of activities
5. (2008).4. Love for truth enhances. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Adopting creative models of teaching. Yadav. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.B (2008). Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. 4. S.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. N. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. b. b.4. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.S. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. Rao. a. Study of superstitions d.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13.
.5.10 220.127.116.11.LESSON 5.5.5 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2 5.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.5.5. objectives and characteristics. you will be able to: 1. 18.104.22.168 5.5. 5.5
STRUCTURE 5.7 5.9 5.3 5.11 22.214.171.124 5. areas of institutional planning.1 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.8 5. actively. state the concept.
In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. and supplement planning from above.3. executive as well as public. and every student in the process of educational planning. State and national levels from below. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. 5. • To make institutional planning more successful. • to make planning development-oriented. and. 5. each teacher. teachers and students is not lost sight of.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and
. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Institution should be regarded as the unit. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. which become the bases for further planning at the district. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. every teacher. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning.5. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators.5. in the task of educational planning. and each student are regarded as separate entities. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. every parent. • to involve teachers and school administrators.
which will be discussed in the general.
. Classwork.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as.5. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans
5.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers.
Syllabus. having the following areas of operation • •
• • • •
Instruction.curricular Activities. Co-curricular activities.
Preparation of an Institutional Plan
The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. it becomes the basis for school inspection. approved after making necessary modifications. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.
Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning.•
implemented. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. (3) TeachingLearning Aids.5. 5. council and. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. Examinations. (2) Co. etc. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. and Personnel services.
Preparation of models. etc.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S.
3. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. etc. Improving the internal assessment. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Organisation of class-room libraries. etc. scientific and historical excursions. What are the areas of Institutional Planning?
. Organisation of Students’ Association.No.
2. Editing the school magazine. Equipping of laboratory and library.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. charts and apparatus. Organising play-for-all programmes. Preparation of instructional material. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Running science clubs.
Discipline and Welfare. Fair distribution of syllabi. Undertaking remedial instruction services. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Courts. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Conducting of educational. etc. Organisation of Pupils. hobby-centres. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. 1. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Celebrating of national and international festivals.
teacher-State. co-operation. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning.5. Administrator-State. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. administrator-administrator. and —pupil-pupil. science teachers’ associations. teachers. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. ii. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. pupil310
. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. students’ associations.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. headmasters associations.5. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. understanding. pupils. etc. administrator-supervisor. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. teacher-teacher. teacherinspector. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. administrator-pupil. teacher-pupil. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. parents. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. which are divided as the in. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. involving mainly human materials. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. and solidarity. teacher-managing body. parent-teacher associations. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace.” The human relationships in. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.
Good. It is also being modernized to become a technique. It covers personnel and material management. administrator.
The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. etc. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into &
5. control.State. to attend. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. To administer means to manage. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. teacher-parent. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. organisation and management. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. social sciences and other disciplines. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. According to C.
. teacher-community leader. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. pupil-inspector. and to serve.
functionaries. pupil-community leader." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. to carry out. supervision and superintendence. supervision. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. organisation. to accomplish.5. V. superintendence. pupil-parent. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. now-a-days.
Management should be efficient and economical
. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. Cost-Benefit Analysis . He should be an artist in human relationships.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 3. 10. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. 7. 4. Worker Participation . Liasion with the Public . The relationship should change from master.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Democratic Management .Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. Those. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. Leadership . 11.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. 6.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. If the cost benefit ratio is less. 5. 9. Motiviation .Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. This is the latest democratic trend in management. 12. Economic Management . the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. Socio-Scientific Approach . should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. it is not worth-while.Any good management will always have good public relations. Communication .Of all the approaches.The manager should have leadership traits. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. If it is more. low. who occupy the managerial positions. Rapport between the Management and Employees . Decision Making . without this the efficacy will be handicapped.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. 13. 8. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. Better Human Relationships . 2. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques.
Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. 14. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. 19. objective.5.These two are.g. and cooperative performance should be ensured. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.too.
5. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. characteristics and areas of institutional planning.5. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions.
. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. improvement of teaching methods. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. enrichment of curricula. 5. 18. to improve the quality of education it provides. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.
. a. Singh. APH Publishing Corporation.M. (2003).
4. S. H. 2. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. b. and Personnel services. Syllabus. Communication
5. Motiviation d. In group and Out group 5.K. a. Decision Making b. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Instruction. a. Educational Administration.
c. NUEPA. Fundamental of Educational Management. e. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Co-curricular activities. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Examinations. Leadership c. a.5. (1995). Tarachand and Prakash.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Classwork.5. R. d. b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. f. b. (2001).5. to introduce decentralization of educational planning.
Communicable diseases . UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. New evaluation procedures. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Examination reforms.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. 1.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.3 Educational Influences of Home. 4. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. Sex-education 4.1 Gurukula system of education. Preservation of nutrients. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Healthy Food Habit 4. Balanced diet.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. nutritional requirement.1 School Health Programme.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . higher education. Community and Mass Media 2.Article 45 . Economic
.2 Nutritional deficiencies. School. Realized the problems of school education. Code of conduct for teachers. social Impact 3.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .1 Inculcation of Socialism. 2.teachers should have : 1. physical education and environmental education 5. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. women education and teacher education in India. Inspection and Supervision 3. First Aid. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .Pre-service and In-services facilities. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Common ailments of Children.Preventive measures. population education.4 India's Secular Policy .I.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.5 Regional Educational Development in India .1 Primary Education : Education for all. wastage and Stagnation 3. Buddhist and Jain system of education.CORE PAPER .Religious and Modern Education 1. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.3 Directive Principles .
4. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Curriculum and national goals .3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Taneja V. Saraswathi T. curriculum and teacher's role 5. 7. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Hemchand. Ghanta R. (2005) Foundations of Education. 5.N. Mishra. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. Pandy V. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.S. Ram S.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. B. Delhi : University Publications 2. Socialization. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Prof. Sharma. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. Tagore 5.N. and Sharma R.
. R. Mahatma Gandhi. and Human Development.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9.1
Idealism. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. (1999) Culture.C. and Mohanty R. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. Realism.K.Aim. and Dash B.K. Naturalism and Pragmatism . REFERENCE 1.4 4.K. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.R. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. T.5
and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.K. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. (2004) Problems of Education in India. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education
5.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.