BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

1

2

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
3

4

BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
5

127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

6

UNIT – I 7 .

8 .

of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Jainism and their educational implication. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. Lesson 2. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. discusses the regional educational development in India. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. In. Lesson 4. The need. 9 . aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. and Jain system of education. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Lesson 5. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west.

10 .

5.1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1 1.5.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1.6.1.5 Jain system of education 1.4.1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .6.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.3.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.5.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1.6 Education during British Era 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1.1.6.5.2 1.4.LESSON 1.1.6.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1.6.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.3.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.

India.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1.6.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. in morals and in the intellect”.1.3.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.1.1. 1. “a class of persons.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. elucidate the education during British Era. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. The history of education passed through Buddhist.1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.1.7 1. Indian in blood and colour. British system of education presented the modern western model.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. has a long past history starting in vedic education. That 12 . while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. 1.1.1.6.1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. in opinion. describe the Jain system of Education 4. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. Education in India.8 1.9 1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. Muslim and British periods. 1. both present and future. but English in taste. you will be able to: 1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.1.1.

Education of Moral. 5. Teacher as Parents. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. from darkness. individually. 12. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. There was. No State Control on Education. It was also moral. not en masse by the class method. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Individual Teaching. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. Where pupils were many. Curriculum. 14. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 6. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Education was a private affair of the people. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. managed entirely by Brahmans. Residential Schools. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. 10. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 13 . the monitorial plan was followed. The immediate aim of education. with grants of land or money. 16. Religious and Spiritual. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Pupils were taught. 9. from eternal to immorality 2. religious and spiritual. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. if they thought fit to do so. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Method of Study. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family.knowledge was real. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Method of Instruction. as it is generally considered to be at present. 13. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. generally. however. 11. Role of Travel in Education. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. 8. Forests as Centres of Education. and to agriculture and trade. followed by explanation by the teacher. questioning by the pupil. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. High Status of Teachers. 3. Free and Accessible. It was not merely intellectual. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Immediate Aim Vocational. to light. 4.

studied Vedas. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. lived a life of celebacy. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. It was suited to the needs of the society. It was freely available to all those who wanted. They were very cordial and intimate.3. Wide-Spread Education in Women. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. 2.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony.1. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . 1. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection.17. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India.

I take Refuge to Dharma. the handicapped.4. Right memory 8. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. After attaining the age of 20. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. in which. every class in society. Right contemplation 1. Right endeavour 7. disease and death of the human beings. except the Chandals. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. the student had his head shaved of all hair. which included abstaining from theft. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. I take Refuge to Sangh. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. 2. Education was imparted through the. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. had the right to receive education. the most significant of which were the following 1. impure conduct. partaking of food at prohibited times. etc. medium of Pali. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Right activity 5. 15 . 1.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. It was denied only to the ill. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Right knowledge 2.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. he was qualified to become a monk. Right means of livelihood 6. dressed himself in yellow clothes. use of cosmetics. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. killing of any living being. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves.C. taking things without being offered. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. Right thought 3. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. use of intoxicating things.1. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Right speech 4. Consequently. watching dances or listening to music.

etc. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. handicrafts. military science. and. has no metaphysical value for life. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. meaning. Later on. so long as it successfully does so. 6. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. These are called later Buddhist schools. beg for alms. be considered the aim of education It. Even at this stage. nature. however. On this occasion. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. 2. magic. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. medicine. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine.4. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. animal husbandry. changing the goals. it is regarded as true”. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. therefore. etc. women occupied a position inferior to men. objectives of human life. assumptions. a change is not only total but also perpetual.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. 3.. commerce. archery. etc. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. Hence. bodily gestures. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. As reality is becoming.3. arithmetic and religious discussion. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. approach. of clothes. a continuous change creating 16 . nothing is of any permanent consequence. control over sensuous activities. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. geology. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. education was impart in art. 1. It comprehended education in writing. cottage industries. 5. Initially. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. knowledge of reviving the dead. the presence of the monks was essential. aspirations and. eat food thrice a day. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. wear three items. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. agriculture. Whatever its nature and extent. 8. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. archery. 7. the science of taming and training animals. depth and range. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. elephant lore. After this ritual. along with education in script writing. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. Life is in a flux. 4.

in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas.5. Jainism insists 17 . prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. goes to Vardhaman. therefore. In fact. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. Education must. 5. and to give it a shape that it has today. 1. it is much older than the latter. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. however. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. its pessimistic outlook on life.e. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed.new and peculiar situations. Its chief feature. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. whatever works are true and good. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. such as. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. However.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. i. Write Eight fold path .1. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Validity is effective and consequences. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism.

As such. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. b) Right knowledge. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. 7. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. 18 . Hence. 1. d) To lead a celibate life. 2. but on both. 3. and is to be redeemed and liberated. 6. They are: a) Not to injure. it has a foot in both the words. Development of personality as an individual.5. more stress on individual aims. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. 8.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. 4. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 2. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. c) Right conduct. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. c) Not to steal. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. thought and deed. b) Not utter falsehood. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. 10. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 9. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. 5. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. and believe in happiness to all. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. 3. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. e) To renounce the world. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul.1. 1. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim.

19 . List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Hence. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. 3. 2. 2. 3.5. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. here and now. education should develop sense of discrimination. 1. therefore. that would be socially desirable. practised and not only aspired for. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. 8. Jiva is essentially karmic. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. Teaching should be social and tolerant. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.5. success and love. 4. 5. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are Triratnas ? . Teaching must develop these faculties. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Belief in transmigration of soul. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. and should bring happiness to all.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.4.

3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.6.1. Bombay. philosophy and literature of Europe.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. with rally and rout. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. 1. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. North West Province and Punjab. Madras.6. science. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. and not for life. 1953). We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. However. 2. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. 1. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own.6. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. To set up separate departments of. primary 20 .1. 1. 1.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute.6. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.

Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. self-respecting and competent. 1. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. At that time M. In 1882. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . Then the prevalent education was anti-national. Instead of being a self-sufficient course.6. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. 1. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. The universities dominated the secondary education. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. at the primary level.6. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. namely. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. To ensure qualitative improvement.6.K. • Secondary education. Later on. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. secondary education became a step towards university. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. • Universal free primary education. 1.education was neglected.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. all children are to have a common curriculum. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. 10. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. After this stage.1.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities.

the science of taming and training animals. b.1. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. science and English language. 4.1. 4. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Right memory. arithmetic and religious discussion. 3. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. etc. followed by explanation by the teacher. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. Right activity. a. along with education in script writing. 2. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. 1. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. During the Buddhist period. Right thought. Right means of livelihood. Right endeavour. archery. Right contemplation. military science. The immediate aim of education. Right speech. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. 23 ..8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. It was suited to the needs of the society. geology. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 3. 5. 6. Right knowledge. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools.education of European literature. The system of education was well-organised. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. handicrafts. 2. questioning by the pupil. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. establishment of universities. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. education was impart in art.

1882. R.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Sharma. (2005). and Nath. 8. 10. b. J. b. (1984). Improvement of Literature.K.7. more stress on individual aims. Ltd. a. (2007). Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. (2009). 9. Right faith. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.C. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. J. Ltd.K. 1937 1.1. Hence. a. History of Indian Education System. Singh. Right conduct.C. Sargent report 12. 11. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 24 . Right knowledge. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Y. Aggarwal. Development of personality as an individual. Y. Development of Educational System in India. c. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva.

2.2.LESSON 1.2.2.3 Kothari Commission 1.4 1.2.2.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.9 1.7 1.2 1.3. The 25 .1 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.2.3.2.8 1.2.1 University Education Commission 1.2.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.5 1.6 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.3.2.3.2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.

National Council for Women’s Education 5. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Kothari (1964-66) 8. standard of teaching. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. you will be able to: 1. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. medical and legal education. National Board of Teacher Education 10. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. examination system.3. vocational education. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. 1. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. technical. explosion of enrolment.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. diversification of courses of studies.2. 1. S.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. analyse the progress of education in free India.conditions of the teachers. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. There had been vast institutional expansion. 2. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. girls and women education besides primary. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. technological engineering. New Educational Policy. secondary and higher education. expansion of vocational. 1986 1. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. curriculum. Post-graduate 26 .2. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service.

4. National System of Education.3. However. the chairman of University Grants commission. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. Education for Equality. The Essence and Role of Education.2.teaching. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. Education is the key to our allround development. Government of India. accumulated over the years.S. 2. quantity. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. research et.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. 1966.2. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. Problems of access. Finally. Therefore. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. Kothari. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. D.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. utility and financial outlay. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. quality. A meaningfully Partnership. 1952. A. 1. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. material and spiritual. 1986. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. in January 1985. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23.2. 1.3. the New National Policy on Education. 3. 1.3. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation.

the concepts of work experience. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. 28 . the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Thus.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. attitudes.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child.” Thus. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools.2. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. It can train practical aptitudes. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the minorities and the handicapped. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. By working with hands. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. The UNESCO Report. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation.

the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. if he wishes. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling.” The Mudaliar Commission. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. co-ordinations. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. With adequate planning. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. The Education Commission.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. “It may be described. Besides. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. the Commission. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. it will conduce self. According to." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. “The aim of these colleges. The Radhakrishnan Commission. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. As such. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. In 1955.employment and promote economic independence of the youth.

. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. Subsequently. The Central Advisory Board of Education. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. Therefore. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. raising the special facilities. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. the rigid streaming of courses. etc. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. for quality of life in the rural areas. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. the. the semester and credit system. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. In addition. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. With a view to relating education to the life. admission requirements to vocational courses.ot her. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour.

who conceived the System of Basic Education. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions.and the world of work. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. 31 . Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. meaningful.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. felt that education should be centred around a craft. aimed at this goal. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education.. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. According to committee. which offer scientific. technological courses including Agriculture. manual work resulting in either goods or services. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. which are useful to the community. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. giving importance to productivity in the national development. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject.defined S UP W as “purposive. In short. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. Commerce. 1. preferably spinning and weaving. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. meaningful. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. The wave of Basic Education. The Father of Nation. which swept the country for over two decades.2. etc.

2. tools and techniques and 3. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Community work and social service. Shelter 4. so that it is educational in essence. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Productive 2. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. Work practice. Experimentation with materials. as far as possible. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. The teachers should make use of. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Clothing 5. Health and Hygiene 2. 3. Culture and recreation 6. Educative and 3.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. 32 . 4. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Food 3. locally available materials and tools. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. be that the work involved is: 1.

improve discipline. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. as far as possible.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Check on educated unemployed 4. removal of illiteracy. the concept of Community Service has been visualised.5. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration.2. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. Productive Work 33 . 1. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. etc. Community Service In-1972. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Education through work The SUPW should. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. 6. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. slum clearance. inculcate a faith. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. the local community should be actively associated. Merits of the Programme 1. It can become an instrument to build character. To make education more realistic. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Such activities may include projects of village uplift.

helping the adults-in productive work. should involve itself in the educational effort.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. skills and better future for the children. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. etc. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. AICTE was set up in year 4. if not productive. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. in turn. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Define SUPW 34 . offering first aid. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other .the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. traffic control. The community. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour.

f. b. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. which are useful to the community. Dr. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. manual work resulting in either goods or services. 1955 4. Radhakrishnan 2. d. 1952 3. c. 6.2. 3. meaningful. 35 .2. 2. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Write short note on SUPW.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. 1.2. e. 1. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.1.

New Delhi : Shipra Publications.. (2005).D. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.H.K. and Rao. Amala.K. A.P. (2007). Anupama. 36 . New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. R. and Nath.P. J.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Ltd.2.(2005).1. B. History of Education. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. History and Problems of Indian Education. Y. Development of Educational System in India. New Delhi: A. V.C. Y. Rao.K. P. (2009). Singh. Publishing Corporation. (2007). History of Indian Education System. : Sharma.

it came into effect on January 26.3. and liberty.1 1. for a total of 117.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. democratic republic.3. containing 395 articles. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.6 1. 1950. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.7 1. 1949.3.3. there is an official Hindi translation.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3.3.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. directive principles and duties of citizens.3.9 1.1 Significance of DPSP 1. Besides the English version. 37 . 12 schedules and 83 amendments.3.4 1.5 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.2 1. equality.369 words in the English language version. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3.8 1. assuring its citizens of justice. establishing the structure.3.3. Being the supreme law of the country.3. procedures.3.

a proposal for forming various committees-was presented.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. embodied in Part IV of the constitution.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. According to the constitution.3. economic. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 1947 meeting of the Assembly.In the August 14. 1947. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. The Assembly met. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. administrative. understand our Indian constitution. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. you will be able to: 1. learn the role of central and state government on education. with Dr. social. 2. 1950. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. 3. 4. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. political. Through them.3. 1. spread over a period of 2 years. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. legal and environmental. Dr. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. Two days later. 1947.3. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. 1. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. On August 29. After many deliberations and some modifications.3. for 166 days. 38 . 1. in sessions open to public. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. the Drafting Committee was appointed.

That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. provide free legal aid. Right to work. Organisation of village panchayat. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Article 42. on the basis of equal opportunity. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Article 39A. and shall. Minimising inequalities in status. Article 40. Appropriate concentration of wealth. old age. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. 39 . The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. Equal pay for both sex. sickness and disablement. Equal justice and free legal aid. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Protecting children from exploitation. Condition for dignity of children.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Liking wage etc. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. for workers. That the health and strength of workers. in particular. Article 41. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. Article 43.government. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. make effective provision for securing the right to work. and in other cases of undeserved want. No abuse of children. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. The State shall endeavour to secure. men and women. The State shall. Protecting health of the workers.

the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. by suitable legislation or in any other way. (Original Article 45. Article 48A. work. industrial or otherwise. and. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Participation of workers in management of industries. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Article 46. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. in particular. Article 44. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 47. See also Article 21A). Article 48. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Article 45. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Note: Subs. in particular. agricultural. The State shall take steps. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. a living wage. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 43A. Article 49. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. in particular. 2002 for “45. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. to all workers. The State shall endeavour to provide. [declared by or under law made by 40 .

Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Separation of judiciary from executive. disfigurement. Article-21A Right to Education. Article 45 . The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Parliament] to be of national importance. removal. may be law determine”. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. from spoliation. disposal or export. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. 2002.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. maintain just and honourable relations between nations.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. as the case may be. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. Article 51. 2. Promotion of international peace and security. destruction. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. Article 50. 1. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security.

Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. 8. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. 7. 2002. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. in particular. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. 3.” 42 . No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. 5. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. 4. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. and shall protect them. from justice and all forms of exploitations. race. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. ii. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. his guardian has given his consent thereto. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. and. caste. if such person is a minor. iii. 6. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. language or any of them”.

The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. The central government determines targets and promotes education. 2. wherever necessary or desirable. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. & 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. and by drawing. Educational Reforms From time to time. for its vocabulary.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. the forms. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Article 351 gives importance to 6. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. 43 . Provision for Education for minorities is given in .9. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5.

Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. By starting these projects. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. 8. 7. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. All India Council of Medical Science. to achieve the desired ends. 5. the state governments. private agencies etc. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. 4. So as to encourage education on right lines. The following pilot projects. So that they may work well. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. 6. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Production of suitable for children and adults f..3. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Local bodies and private enterprise. etc. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc.

are published by it. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. etc. research.3. 3. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. training and statistics. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. The 45 . Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. 10. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. reports etc. 9. books. education for women. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. Material concerning nation-wide interests. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. handicapped. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. 1. 12. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. 11.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. 1. 4. is the state responsibility. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside.

3. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Article 45 b.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 46 . Article 21A c. 1. 1. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Write short notes on a. Explain Directive principles 2. Article 46 4. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. 5. articles in the Directive principles. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education.

3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. 47 . The Directive Principles of State Policy. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 2002. Clearing House function 9. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. a. Article 29 and 30 7. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”.3. Dr. Article-21A Right to Education. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Describe the educational role of State Government. a. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. b. Article 46 5. may be law determine”. Ambedkar 2. Development of Hindi Language 6. Article 45 . b. 1. 2002. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.5. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. a.

48 . Bhatia. N. (2009). K and Narang C. Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2004). Dash. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Education in Emerging Indian Society.3. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. S. L. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. B. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd.1. K. (2008). New Delhi: Shipra Publications. (2007). Ghosh. S.

4. Jainism.4.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4.4.4.4.8 1. religious education should be broad based.4. Christianity.4.4 Moral education 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4.4. Islam.4. Students should be 49 .4.3.1 Why Moral Education 1.2 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.7 1.3. Buddhism etc. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.1 1.5 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.6 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.4.3.

2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. you will be able to: 1. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. duty-consciousness. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). understand the relationship between religion and education 2. 1. know the position of religious education in our country 3. "In A multireligious society like ours.. integrity. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. In the complicated and complex society of today. religious education and the concept of secularism.4. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. beauty and goodness so that 50 .encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher.” Education broadens human outlook. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. India' can produce men of character. According to E. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. state meaning and need for moral education 1. As result of which.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life.and dedication.4. Thus. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion.D. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals.

2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. In short. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. all citizens are free to follow any creed. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. at least occasionally. Hence. religion and democracy are same. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. Thus. 1. No religious tax can be imposed on them. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. castes and creeds. it is clear that the State has no religion. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. As a matter of fact. Viewing the defects of religious education. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. 1947 we achieved our freedom.3. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes.” From the above. realizes God in himself. 1. Children attend these organizations. rancour.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. According to Article 22. According to Article 19.3.4. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately.4. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. As our country is a country of diverse religions. through religious practices and 51 . they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. if not regularly. They thought that any kind of narrow.

he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). which can mould. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. He also learns about social. one fully developed.teachings. what is done and what is not done etc. when he becomes an adult. which help him for the development of his character. intellectual and physical faculties of children. As a result of which. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. temperament etc. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. Good education. and what is evil. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. moral and spiritual values. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 .” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. for the development of the individual and the society. It helps to modify habits attitudes. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good.. It is religious education. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. If unreleased. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. aggressive. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility.

towards the society. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand.4. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. 1. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Therefore. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. This should not be allowed to happen. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. 2.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. which is the basic need of a democratic life. If we open the pages of history. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. 53 . Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible.3. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. 3.

The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. For this. Gurudwara as. Write Article 22 2.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Since all religions have virtues. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. churches and mosques 7. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. 9. examples of patriotism. stories of moral greatness. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. therefore. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples.5. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school.4. 10. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. fellow-feeling. 11. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Life histories of great persons of the world.

1. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. They will play their role effectively. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Purity. 1. Service to others. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Ahimsa (Non-violence). Swadeshi (Patriotism). 4. It they learn what morality is in their early years. therefore. 2. Fearlessness. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. The content of the curriculum. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. Satyam (truth). 6. 6. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). let men see well of one another. Aparigarha (Non. 2. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. is that which develops moral values. in the home. 55 . Asvada (Control of palate). Cultivation of emotions. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 5. 8. 5.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. students. Moral education. Brahmacharya (celebacy). 7. 3. “Let all be happy and free from disease. 7. 8.4. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. Non-injury. Without moral values. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers.acquisitiveness). the methods of teaching. 3. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Self sacrifice. 4. Patriotism.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate.4.

4. The School Assembly should be held for a few. 11. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. discipline. minutes in the morning for group singing. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. 10. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. 3. loyalty and self-sacrifice. In the school programme. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Efficiency. Sharivashram (Physical work). Integrity. Secondary Stage 1. 1. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. National unity and Spiritual values. Discipline. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. 2. Good temper. religions may be included in the syllabus. Asatyam (Non-thieving). 56 . Good manners. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Unity of mankind. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited.4.9. 3. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction.

This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. 5. Silent meditation should be encouraged. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. should form a normal part of school programme. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school.4. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. love of humanity. 5. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. 3. In other words. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this connection. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. patriotism and self-discipline. 4. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . 2. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. University Stage 1. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. 57 .

According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. 1. Training of Character 3. 4. the.4. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. minutes in the morning for group singing. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. Sri Prakasa 6 . a. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. The School Assembly should be held for a few. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. Discuss the aims of Religious education. In short. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times.4. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1959 5. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. For this. b. a. 1. 2.1. 58 . b. a.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion.4. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development.

N. Dash.H. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Publishing Corporation. Ltd. M. (2008).4. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi: A. (2007).P. Theory and Principles of Education. (2004). Anmol Publications Pvt. J. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. L. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2003). 59 . (2008).C. B. Bhatia. N. K and Narang C. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. P. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Pahuja. New Delhi : Siddiqui. K.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.H. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.1.

5.3 1.5. i.5.1 1.5.6 1.5.7 1.8 1.5 1.4 1.5.5.5.12 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.2 1.5.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5. disparities between provinces/States.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.e.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.. 60 .5.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.10 1.11 1. Although.9 1.

5. roads. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. waters. 61 . 2. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 6. etc.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. Accordingly.5. work hard towards this end. 1. you will be able to: 1. 1. They therefore.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 8. for example.5. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. 1. 7.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. This leads to separatist movements. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.1. 3. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.5. understand the regional educational development in India 3. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. energy. 5. know the education suited to different environments.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. they take appropriate measures. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. 4.

• Separate States (of course viable States). Therefore. some average. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. some States became educationally far advanced.5. on the basis of regional development may be formed. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. while others remained educationally backward. 3. and. Secularism. 62 . which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only .6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. 4. Tight security arrangements should be made. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. 2.

certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. Tezpur. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. Out of this. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. After the attainment of independence. Funds amounting to Rs. etc. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools.392. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. NIT. NERIST. Mizoram.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. 63 .came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. academic buildings. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. Silchar. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. Jammu and Kashmir. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes.After the Planning Process has originated.5. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. books. etc. scholarships. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. Guwahati.g. Nagaland and NEHU. Even in each State. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities.84 crore was released in 2005-06.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. 1. These projects are in various stages of implementation. remained under developed. since its inception in 1998-99.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy.480. Rs. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. In the Central sector. while some States like Bihar.14. Central Universities of Assam. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters.. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. approved proposals worth Rs. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Regional Centres of IGNOU.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. the State Governments. the Union Government. and provision of informal education to enable those. library buildings. Itanagar. However.

it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. Moreover. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.05 crore and Rs. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.501. During 2003-04. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. too.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.5. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. Tezpur University.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.57 crore and Rs.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.8 per cent in 05). With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. 64 . there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).40. Government expenditure on education.261. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Out of this an amount of Rs.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. A provision of Rs.500. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west).187. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.

is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Karnataka. Moreover. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). To add to the woes. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. too. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. for which 16 sites. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. for instance.5. The Chandigarh Administration. Tamil Nadu. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Kerala and Gujarat. pharma. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. too. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Medical education. notes the study. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. Karnataka. English. engineering and R&D. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. Andhra Pradesh. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Listing the positives. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. too. 1. telecom.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India.

the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. the vocations. when he will not be sure of time. the working days: an academic . Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. in which the learners live. the socio-physical conditions. the needs. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. taking the average in the middle. Of course. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. The working hours of educational institutions. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only.year. the curricular subjects. while the former does not. even actually looking at the watch. and so on. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. the interests. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. In the same manner. Then education become realistic and idealistic. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. life-oriented and environment slanted. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. which a non-tribal person cannot do. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. the teaching methods.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. 66 . For a learner living in a rural area. Hence it is called as need-based. The living conditions.

12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. 2. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . 67 .5. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. 1. to suit education to different environments? 1.5.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. 2.5. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.

13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Education Scenario in India. Giridhar.K.5. (2008). a. New Delhi: Authors press. some of areas which were under the native rulers. 68 .H. S. during the British rule. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. 60% 1.2. Salim. C. R.G. and Nair. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Education in Developmental Arena. (2001). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. some States have become more developed than others b. Educational Development in India. A. (2001). Dubey. remained undeveloped 3. S. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.N. (2002).

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. 71 . National Integration. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. secularism and democracy through Indian education. semi literate and illiterates. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. school community and mass media. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. community development. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development.

1.6 Education for Secularism 2.6.1 Main features of Socialism 2.8 2.1.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.5.2 2.1.1.1.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.3 2.1.1.5.9 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.6.1.1 2.1.6.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.LESSON 2.1.7 2.1.1.1.1.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4 2.

5) Encouragement to Group Work.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. This is the political aspect of democracy.2. socialistic and secular state.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. The students may be associated with the management of the school. socialism and secularism 2. socialism and secularism 2. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic.1.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. 3) Provision of Manual Work. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. 73 .4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. In the matter of admitting students in schools. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. Abraham Lincoln. you will be able to: 1. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. for the people by the people”. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. colour or wealth. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. understand the concept of democracy. 2. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. Democracy thus means power of the people. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 2. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. creed. there should be made no distinction of caste.1. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy.1. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group.1.

7) Promotion of Self-Expression.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 74 . hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. may be planned.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. 2. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. 11) Student Parliament. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work.1. Democracy means 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. debates. There are different brands of socialism. it soon spread all over the world. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. declamation contest etc. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions.

4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. the prince and the peasant. Under it. 2. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 75 . 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. but on the path of non-violence. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 2. the wealthy and the poor.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.1.5. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. service and cooperation. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. oppression and disparity. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 7) Special facilities for girls. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. none high”. free from exploitation.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.1.5.

The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. 11) State schools. “India is a secular-country. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. "which seeks the development of physical. According to Holydake. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States.” In every political and educational corner. 76 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. Everyone says. 2.1. Write any two main features of socialism. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. secularism is being propagated. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. 5.

2. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.6. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. education etc. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. Equality. There is need of making the people open minded. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. liberty. people have narrow mindedness. 77 .opposed to religious education. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. should be independent of religion.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas.1. That is why. 9) It stress free inquiry.1. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. the belief that the state morals. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. Moral values have to be imbibed. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. fraternity.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. “Webster further says. In this type of prevailing situations. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values.6. A large number of people is uneducated. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. 8) It believes in co-existence. 3) It permits freedom of worship. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. 5) It implies tolerance. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. people started believing in regionalism. During the recent past.

The students may be taken to different centers of religions. In the hands of such teachers. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. tours and trips may be organized. No doubt. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. 1) Moral Education. 2. The very sight of the building. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. students belonging to different religions should be associated. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. In the celebration of each such function. Patiala. While doing so. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. education. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.1. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. Religious Education.presented by the students in the gathering. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other.6. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. that the central string of all religions is one. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. There should be some internal checking of the material being.

The term secularism was first used by 8.1. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. No doubt. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Secularism 9. The word “Seculum” means 7. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering.

5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. c. Equal Opportunities for Admission. The students may be associated with the management of the school. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. for the people and the people”. Power of the people 2. a.1. Since socialism stands for equality. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. In the matter of admitting students in schools. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. Tuition free education b. 2. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. George Jacob Holydake 80 . In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. 3. Provision of Manual Work. b. Abraham Lincoln. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. b. colour or wealth. 4. Explain the concept of Democracy in education.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. 3. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Socialism aims at social justice. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Socialism aims at equality. 6.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. there should be made no distinction of caste. a. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Respect of Individual Personality. 4. a. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. This present age 7. creed. d.1. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.

It permits freedom of religion. J. P. Bhatia. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. N. K and Narang C. b. b. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. a. education etc.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. the belief that the state morals. L. (2007). 10. New Delhi : Pahuja. Dash. Anmol Publications Pvt.1. Mohanty. Theory and Principles of Education. J.C. Modern Trends in Indian Education. It treats all religions on an equal footing. K. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.” 9. 81 . Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. N. Ltd. a. (2004). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2003). School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.8. (2005). (2008). should be independent of religion. B.

6.6.4 2.1 2.2.2.2.2.LESSON 2.2.10 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.7 2.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.3 2.2.5.2 2.2.2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.8 2.2.9 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2.2.2.5.

2. It involves physical. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. emotional. aims and objectives of the school. application. understandings. skills. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. 2. development. social. as it is t he aim o f modern education. who are placed in his custody. The developmental roles of children. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. 2. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values.2. therefore. a r e 1. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. moral. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. mental. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils.generation to another. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. social and moral aspects. as persons. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. as citizens. 3. 2. 83 . 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. you will be able to: 1. A teacher is first and foremost.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. and 4. as learners.an instructor of school children. as workers.

inquisitive. experiences and acceptance. morally. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. morally. motivated. The following are some of such roles described in brief.2. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. mentally. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. mental. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. intellectually.All education should lead to better behavioural development. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. emotionally. 2. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. The students live. socially. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. 1. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. Teacher as a Citizen Next. physically fit for socially efficient. 2. 3. member of his community at the outset. culturally confident. social and emotional health. a part of their day in 84 . As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. He is to become an active member. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. economically effective. and aesthetically to become. He has to look after their physical.

and most of hours. It 85 . Unless. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. science club. List out the role of teachers towards community development . photographic clubs.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas.the school being under the custody of teachers. creeds. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. They will be spending with their parents. fine art associations. faiths. 2. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to.2. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. languages and religions. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. solve them. 4. Dr. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. India is a land of many castes. activities of the society into which he is born.

It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality.5. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. social studies. b. The only process is the process of education.is. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. It should broaden the outlook. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. At the primary stage the importance of stories. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. Sampurnanand remarked.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation.2. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. should be emphasised. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . Political integration has already taken place to some extent. stand up straight. folklore and teaching of social studies. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. poems. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. Nehruji has explained this as.” 2. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. ‘We should not become parochial. 1.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. and make into one strong national unit. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . this integration of the Indian people. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. with straight backs and look up at the skies. c. Let us. therefore.” Regarding the role of education. a. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. narrow-minded provincial.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. the study of language and literature. national anthem and other national songs. Radhakrishnan. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. the citizens of the Republic of India.

8. Celebrations of National Days. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. 10. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. languages and literature. 87 . t he st udent s and t he community. Co-Curricular Activities. 9. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. debates. Student Camps. Uniform for School Children. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. tours. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. 2. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Scouts and Guides. dramatics and youth festivals. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. 5. militar y training like the NCC. 7. 6. 3. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. and picnics. Reverence of National Flag. 4. Singing of National Anthem. National Days—January 26. Textbooks.different social sciences. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Taking Pledge. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. sports. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. ACC. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. educational excursions. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. symposia.

Students Exchange and Tours. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. iv. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Educational and Travel Documentaries. colour. Open-Air Dramas. flora and fauna.2. region or religion. language. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Recognition of Institutions. ii. 12. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. iii. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. School Projects. 88 . Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school.11. 16. 13. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. ways of thinking and doing things. Admissions. v. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . 15. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Admissions to schools.5. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. 2. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. 14. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner.

camps. Community dinners.vi. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. 2. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . cultures and races on equal bases. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. vii. Define National Integration 3. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. irrespective of national boundaries.2. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. viii. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? .6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. ix.

Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. In a very real sense.e. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. 6.. 3. Teachers 90 . patriotism is not enough. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. therefore. Radhakrishnan states. the international level. (c) fairly tales. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.2.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. 5. Organising of debates and. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen.” 2. of his body and mind. if it happens. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. often in connection with anniversaries. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. Therefore. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. This.6.2. and the healthy development. Dr. 2. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. 4. Strong has observed. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child.6. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. that war.F.friendships between children of different countries.as important as that of a national citizenship. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . 2. (b) stories of children of other lands. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. C. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.

They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Indian and American. an Englishman. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. They should not be propagandists. a German. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 .should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students.” Well Informed About World Situations. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. Impartial in their Treatment. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Russian. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries.

Another major.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students.2. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. Chronic Poverty . As the school is but a miniature society. there is wide spread frustration among all people. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. If this is done. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. 2.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. understand and indiscipline: 1. Devaluation of Values .Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. It does not prepare students for life. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. which results in agitation and aggression language. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves.2. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . Defects of the educational System . leading to. majority of people are. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. 5. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. and help the students to over . 3. 4. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. Wide Spread Frustration .come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. the education function can be carried. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.

List out six characteristics of a good teacher.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. co-operation. 93 . How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development.2. fellow feeling. 2.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. love.democratic nature. 3.2. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. etc. community development. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. 4. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. sympathy and good will among the nations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. 5. 2.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

94

LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
95

2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
96

9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
97

16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

98

2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

99

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. 2. Define community. led to the printing of books. Emphasising this thing. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them.V. periodicals. the invention of the printing press. art galleries. Hence. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. To make them achieve their aim. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Now internet is being used. Then came newspapers. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. Moreover. During the course of time. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. He taught his students orally. In fact. books. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.3. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. “All the citizens of the community.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Crow and Crow write. are increasingly used in education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Museums.

during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. A lot of work by way of pre. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts.6. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. art. In collaboration with the experts. 2. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. rather than on picture. Thus. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Various talks.telecast. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. It stimulates curiosity and interests. dram appreciation. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Effective means of presenting music. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. social studies. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. It is also an important source of entertainment. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. 2.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Important happening inventions. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Thus. languages. Reynolds. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. politics.classroom teachers. music. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. the place of importance. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. 101 . An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. “Listening participation” in current history. Students listen various talks. current affairs and other areas. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. In the emphasis is on sound. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. the teacher still occupies. It enlightens public opinion.3. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries.G.

development of lessons. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Participation of local teachers and pupils. projects or creative activities. at recreational centers. 102 . It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. mathematics. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. at play. at drawing room. travel talks.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. School concerts. Team-teaching demonstrations. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. audibility and presentability. style. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Making learning an open system. informal and non-formal education. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. 4. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. fol classical music. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. at any place. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. At present. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. speech. plays. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. 5. Before presenting the programme. 3.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

103

Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

105

For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

106

Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
107

2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
108

Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.2 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.8 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.3.7 2.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.4.4.4.4.6 2.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.LESSON 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.4.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4.4.3 Advantages of formal education 2.5 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.3.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.3.3.1 2.4.4.4.4.

4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To realize this objective of education. 3. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. you will be able to: 1. 6. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. School is. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. 2. 110 . compare formal and non formal system of education. the mass media et. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’.. say the Government or the private enterprise. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 4. the temple. 9. 2.2. open school. the family. 2. 4. 3. it was mostly.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. 7. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. 8. Education. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. starting and ending at -a particular age. Education organised by some agency. 2. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. his mental alertness. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 2.4. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. the community. the most important agency of formal education. Education associated with a degree or certificate. the learner are acquainted.4.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan.3. open university. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. 5. In ancient time in India.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.4. imparted at the residence of the teacher.

structured education. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. as well as vocational education and training. the elements of language are first learned. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. or academic degrees.a secondary education. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them.4.3. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Some education systems have separate middle schools.3. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. In general. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Concepts of proportion. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. third stage. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . also called tertiary.4. capacity. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. or post secondary education. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Through early formal education. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. 2. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Higher Education: Higher education. such as a high school or secondary school. depending on the jurisdiction. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools.2. diplomas.

children with disabilities.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. and remote dwellers. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are levels of formal educational system? . late beginners etc. 4. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.3. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. 2. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.which will help for nation's development. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs.4. Agencies can be classified as 2. 2. is an important agency of formal education. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 .4.

mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. Adiseshiah. curriculum. it is a more effective tool for rural development. it has its own valid claim to reality. admissions.learning client take some learning objectives. “Non-formal education should 113 . critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. financially supported life formal education. i. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. It is much more responsive to needs and change.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. It is functional. However. to help themselves. Thus. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. staffed. According to Malcolm A. continuing education and on the job oriented education. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Open university. etc. until 1970 it had not been defined.formal education. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. Therefore. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.. open learning. systematic. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. adding up to a true learning society. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. It unlocks the doors of development plans. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. planned. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Non-formal education includes adult education. place of instruction. one could say that non-formal education is an active. systematic. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. adults as well as children. It is deliberate.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured.e.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population.

• • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Covering life span of an individual.be marketable and vocationalised. 2. To help industrial workers to better their skills. i. place of education. co-curricular activities. To develop in the student.S.” According to H. 7. 5.4. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs.e. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. exploring. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.renewal. Flexibility in various aspects of education. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. international understanding. self. Part-time education. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. modes of teaching.S. 6. 4. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs.4. Preparation for future needs. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.4.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. curriculum. It should lay emphasis on the self. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. admissions.4.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. socialism.” 2. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. 3. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. 114 .learning pattern. national integration. 2. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. Process of sharing. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. evaluation etc. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. the Ideas of citizenship. Lawrence. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. age. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them.

4. 5.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 3. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 10.4. in villages and those who live in towns. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 115 . 4. 3. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. Technical. 4. Meeting the omissions of formal education. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. To offer Secondary. 9. 8. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. Eradication of adult literacy. 7. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Universalisation of primary education. Senior Secondary. school dropouts. 6.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 2. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 5. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. 2.4. publication and information dissemination. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. working adults.4. • 2.

2. All-round development i. etc.4. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. others are formal and informal. effective in modern societal context. self-employment iii. open space. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. To increase knowledge and 2. 4. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.full time to learners – can be home. training centres in factories. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. if organised in isolation. Again. public libraries. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. etc. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. Institutions for formal education. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. 2.4. To better qualifications. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. Therefore. factory.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. 3. farm.4. 2.. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. Radio and television. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. centres of correspondence education. To make if. library. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 .

radio. 117 .V. Lecturing T. Written tests. Correspondence lesson. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Define non formal education. . Teaching to face teaching. 7. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Give examples of non formal education? . Face Contact programmes. 6. . institution.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. List out any two aims of non formal education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. 2.4. Formal and Non Formal 2. b. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. a. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Higher Secondary level and University level. Primary level.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. Open learning and Correspondence Courses.4. systematic. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Pre-school level. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.2.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. adults as well as children. 2. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 2. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. Open School.” 6.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Open University. the college and the university come under this category. The school. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. School 3. a. 4.4. Secondary level. 118 . 5. 3. 7. b.

P. (2003). Bhatia. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Theory and Principles of Education.2. New Delhi : 119 . L. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. K and Narang C. Ltd. Mohanty.4. Dash. Anmol Publications Pvt. Gupta. K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C. N. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. J. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Pahuja. Education in Emerging India. Ltd. S. N. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. J. B. (2008). (2005). (2007). (2004). (2008). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.

3.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.5.5.4.7 2.1 2.4.5.3.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .4 Agencies of continuing education 2.3 Objectives of Open University 2.5.4.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.4.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.4.4 Need for Open University 2.5.2 2.5.3.4 Open University 2.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.LESSON 2.5.3.5 2.6 2.5.5.

However.5. farmers. 2. Thus. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. Under these circumstances.5. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture.3. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. 2. know the need and objectives of open university. continuing education is a boon. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. For them. give the meaning. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. Any person.5. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. characteristics of open university 4. This knowledge may be in political field. economic field or such other fields.2. 2. you will be able to: 1. It is a continuous process. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. labourers and half educated individuals.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. industries. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. It is a lifelong process. Education is for refinement and enlightenment.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies.

Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. T. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi.V. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . On the other hand. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. After the achievement of independence. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. For them too continuing education is essential. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Doctors. On the other hand. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Persons engaged in health services. Radio.5.directly related to his job.V. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks.literate person.3. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Thus. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. cultured and progressive. Throughout the country. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. are also contributing their might for the purpose. 2. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Block Development Officers. Radio and T. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Cinema. deteriorating to his character and personality.

The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. we have not been able to achieve our targets. (15) music.3. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. 7.V. (10) first aid. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (14) information about bringing up young children. (6) folk stories. especially women. 2. (13) psychology of child behaviour. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. 3. 4. Of course. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (16) liking. 5. habits of people of other lands. 2. 6. (4) the fundamentals of economics.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. (1) ancient history.3. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (8) psychology of adults. Inspite of the great efforts. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. 123 . A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. 2. (17) modern international and national events. (7) folk songs. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. and Radio.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities.. (2) basic religious matters. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme.5. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.5. These books are not very useful. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge.

5. of educational opportunities. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. lack of time etc.4.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University.5. attendance restrict ion. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. NLM was launched in the year 2. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

3. 4. IGNOU was established in the year 6.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. c. but 125 .” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. d.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. b. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. 2. the higher the degree of openness. Education is not a once for-all process. 2. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. 5. its education is not class room based but home based. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it makes use of educational techno logy. No one is too old or too late to learn. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. and in teaching. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . Which was the first open university in India? . T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. e. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs.unobserved. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience.

Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n.4. Mo re o ver. 4.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. supplementing the existing provision. 3. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 2. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people.who did not get it. it a ims at wider and hig her. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 3. cho ice o f co ur ses. 126 .5. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. 2. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country.5. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 6. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. who were deprived of t he same earlier. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n .4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.4. 5. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 2. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 4. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 2. or who realised too late that they need it.

5. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. a state or nation. Every day. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Therefore. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. List out any four methods of Open University? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve .5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Laboratory works. In the present day world. 6. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . 5.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. 7.4. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 2. 1. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. 8. semi – literates.2. a society. Tutor Comments. school drop outs. 2. Self instructional materials. Correspondence tuition. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. you have learnt the concept. 127 .5. 4. 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 3.

a. cho ic e o f co u r ses.5.5. (1) ancient history. agricultural and industrial workers. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. a. need and characteristics of Open University. 2.ambitious learners. unskilled workers and other professionals. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. 8.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 128 . b. (4) the fundamentals of economics. Broad casting lectures c. P r int med ia b. 4. 1988. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. Explain the objectives. Television Lessons. 6.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. 7. a. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. its education is not class room based but home based. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 1985. 8. b. (2) basic religious matters. d. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. youth. which may include house wives. 9. 3. 2. aspirants for continuing education. 7.

New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.K. (2004).2.5. (2004).8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ltd. Reddy. (2001). 129 .S. Modern Problems of Education. K and Narang C. K. (2007). L. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. S. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Udaiveer.. R.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. Examination reform. its causes and remedial measures. examination. 133 . We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. the education of women. wastage and stagnation. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. All which is the need of the hour. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. which may claim the attention of those concerned. and teacher education. Training teachers for all levels of education. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. In Lesson 2.

134 .

1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.LESSON 3.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.2 EFA – How? 3.3 New initiatives.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1.1.8 3.1.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1.1. 135 .3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.6 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1.5 3.4 3.1.3.1.1.7 3.3.1.1 3.2 3.

social. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Continuing Education (CE) 1. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI).1. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. education received added importance and significance. you will be able to: 1.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. therefore. (EOI) 2. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. economic or cultural. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. may be political.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country.1. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. 2. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). Therefore. “The State shall 136 . 3. directed that. Eradication of Illiteracy. understands the country. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. On the other hand. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education.3.

Due to the adoption of democratic system. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. the national Government under. It enables the parents to send their children to School. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. After the attainment of independence. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Universalization of Retention. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. 137 . the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Therefore. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls .endeavour to provide. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Continuing Education (CE). Universalization of Enrolment. Three Stages for Universalization. rights and responsibilities. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. 3. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage.

So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 138 . 1995 (for upper primary stage). educational enterprise. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. UNESCO Bulletin states. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. then to 1976. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. It is safe to assure. 3.1.3. Write Article 45. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. present and future. This target had to be revised to 1970.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. Therefore. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. 1990. later to 1988.

3.1. sex.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. problem of literacy. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. nutrition education and sports and games. 3.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. their enrolment and retention. NAEP. the art of preparing fruit-juice. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. adolescent and adult. 8. Education of Girls. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. 5. By undertaking survey. rural areas. etc. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Disabled. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). Jams and Jellies. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. 3. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. slum areas. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. their social economic status and occupations. and Women’s education programme should be improved. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. 10. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Education of the Impaired. Emphasis must be given on health education. FELF. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. 12. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. 9. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. 139 . The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. In order to make the programme of education for all community. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. creed. Apart from primary education. The Social Education. 11. 6. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Early childhood education should be streamlined.

e.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 .1. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.3. 3. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Expand MLL and SSA .3 NEW INITIATIVES. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Wastage and Stagnation. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. 4.3. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.1.

first stage of education. it is considered as wastage. Social Factors . School Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Familial Factors . Personal Factors .

Define Wastage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. 142 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. 7. .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. . Enumerate the causes of Wastage.

a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. school or society. in his home.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.3. rural or urban 3.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.1.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. School Factors . Personal Factors . They are described hereunder :1. Societal Factors . relating to home.The following factors. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. Family Factors .

appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . mid-day meals. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. stationary. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. Define Stagnation? 9. 144 . uniforms.

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. b. a.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. improvement of curriculum. 2.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. “The State shall endeavour to provide. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. 3..7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a.3. Universalization of Enrolment c. 6. directed that. Minimum Levels of Learning b. 4. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.” 3. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. 4. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Universalization of Retention 2. 3. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education.1. 145 . Universalization of Provision b. 3. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Hartog Committee. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA.1. a. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. therefore.

b. a.K.K. New Delhi: 146 . (2007). S. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. (2008). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Familial Factors c. Social Factors 8. introduce graded curriculum. 9. (2001). Hemchand. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Sharma. School Factors d.N.7.1. Crescent Publishing Corporation. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. S. improve examination system. T. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Personal Factor b.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Problems of Elementary Education. 3. a.

2.3.5.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5 New evaluation procedures 3.2.2.4.2.2.4.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2 Grade System 3.4 Question banks 3.2.5.3.6.2.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.5.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.5.5.2.2.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.7 Open book examination 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .1 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.5.2 3.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.4.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2.2.LESSON 3.5.2.2.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.1 Problems of examination 3.

Besides.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.8 3. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2. 3. 3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.2.2. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. you will be able to: 1. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. suggest the new evaluation procedures.2. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . 3.3.2. 4.9 3. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. but on the other.2. 3.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.3.

3) The existing social taboos against sex education. etc. etc. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. roadside Romeoism.2. They develop secondary sex characteristics. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations.. They may cause problems relating to discipline. waiting rooms for girl students. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened.3. etc. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. hostel facilities. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. 149 . schools for them wherever necessary. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. which the educational authorities have to face.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. The following steps should be taken up. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. If the students are in sufficient number. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. 3. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty.

conduct of internal examinations. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. It is considered as a major sub-system. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the examination system has an important role to play.2. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. public interested in education. assessment and Finance. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. 150 . public administrators and statesmen. appointment of paper-setters.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.4.2. Instruction. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. teachers.

The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. announcement of results.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. etc. values.4. scrutinizers. etc. introducing objective-based testing. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. etc. examiners. etc. etc. training of examiners. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. tabulators. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. validity and practicability.2. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. reducing the domination of knowledge objective.printing and distribution of question papers. invigilators. 3. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. establishing reliability.

3. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education.2.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. Vagaries in making. do not appeal to the students and parents. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. lack of objectivity etc. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made.. 3) With respect to method of teaching. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. stereotyped questions. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc.4. 7) In connection with the question papers. Rote memorisation. may also discredit them. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. halo-effect. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. takes the place of comprehensive learning. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. Subjects. 152 ..ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. 2) From the angle of content of education. it s a common experience that subjectivity.. which they are expected to study. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. not meant to be assessed in the examinations.

4. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. List any two merits of examination. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.develop true love for education. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t..a part of internal assessment. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. may be introduced. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. 153 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. re-numbering of answer scripts. revaluation. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Spot valuation.

To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. 3.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. It is complicated. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. he is given extra credit points.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.5. The students can take any course offered in any department. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.3. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. attitudes. Every paper is treated equal. In actual practice. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. When a person chooses to work extra.2.2. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .2. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures.5. In this system. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. Their interests. The new scheme of assessment. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. skills are given importance. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination.

The human error of evaluation is ± 10. poor.poor. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 .discipline. courses can have weightages defined. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. An example is a seminar.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. 3. Groupism is encouraged. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. only the total credits to be earned is specified. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. This system reduces comparison of marks.2. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses.good. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. While designing syllabus.5. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. These weightages are called credits. v. In the new system. or as a 4 credit course.

of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. 3. 3. 3.2.5. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. However. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students.5.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. 156 .2.2. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency.5. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.

5. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. 3. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . recruitment. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. 6. In the hierarchy. There are no proper procedures for selection. Therefore.2.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. However. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. . List any four new evaluation procedures.

It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. whether the syllabus has been covered. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. They are. in contrast. of late. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools.. submitting of the inspection reports. When they are fully realised. library books. 158 . school buildings. etc. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools.2. Academic inspection. finding out the adequacy of. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. complaints and compliments. disciplinary problems. requirements. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. etc. 1.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. inspecting the class-room teaching. taking up the follow-up programmes. playgrounds. books are followed. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. qualifications. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. in a sense. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. being realised as two different functions. interpersonal relationships and so on.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. laboratory equipment. wherever necessary. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. staff.6.qualified personnel. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. 3. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. finding out whether the prescribed text..

giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. aptitude. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. or. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. once in five years. their professional knowledge. modern. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. Insistence on specialisation in the B. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. M.. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher.Ed. Similarly. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. In the case of departmental candidates. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. 159 . courses. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection.. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. 3. In the light of these conceptualisation. at least. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. course in either educational.2.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them.Ed. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field.

Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. d. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. b. 2. b. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. 3. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. 3. a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. b. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 160 .9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Administration. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. 3. 4.2.2. c.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Instruction. Grade System. 5. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 3. assessment and Finance. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. examination reforms and supervision and inspection.2. a.

New 161 . R and Sharma. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Problems of Education in India. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Open book examinations. a. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Multiple sets of question paper. (2004). b. Vaidya. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. b. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. S.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. K. a. b.2. Educational Reforms. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . (2002). c. K. Question banks. a.a part of internal assessment. 5. (2005).4. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. History and Problems of Education in India. 7. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. 3.

5. 3.3.7 3.5 3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. you will be able to: 1.1 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3.10 3. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3 3.9 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.8 3. 2.3.3.3.3.3.2 3.3.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. 3.LESSON 3.4 3. identify the needs of rural India and social.3.3. 162 . impact of Higher Secondary Education.6 3.

Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919.. e.. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. the Banaras Sanskrit College. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education..e. Commission emphasised to continue. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. 10 years of general Secondary Education. The Calcutta Madras.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education.g. and 3 years of First Degree Course. 2. 8 years of general education. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course.specialisation programmes 3. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Consequent on the recommendations. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. The. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges.. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. University Education. in Andhra Pradesh. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. etc.3. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. Similar is the case with some other States. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country.e. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. i. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 .3.

However. 10. Provision for transfer of credits to students. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . who desire to change from one stream to another.3. to prepare. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. 8. historical. and. is also a plus point . educational channels.confidence in students. 5) to help for the social. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. 7. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. b. 3.a sense of dignity of labour. 5. cultural and economic development of the country. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 6. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. to imbibe. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. social.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. economical and political. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. habits of hard work and develop . The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved .

5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. on one hand. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. cultural and' religious tolerance. Psychologically. 1. 3. at the other. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. democratic living. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. cooperativeness.3. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. and. etc. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . Philosophically it is not the conception. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. Sociologically it is undesirable.. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. social justice. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. The General Educational Spectrum. to develop national character.national integration. international understanding. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. and that required to enter the tertiary level. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission.

Biology. 2. commerce. In the vocational spectrum. the rural areas have suffered very much. technological. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. physics or mathematics. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. educational and cultural services. 166 .— tube-wells. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. Science. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. All these need for an. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. commerce. medical plants. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. rural health.3. horticulture. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. fish culture. industrial agricultural production is growing. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. or other machinery. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. technical. In our country. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. professional. 3. and vocations based on dairy-farming. such as Agriculture. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Commerce and other disciplines. India is a land of villages. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. In the matter of language. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. vegetable growing. chemistry. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. Agriculture is the main occupation.

that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . In time. social justice. In this way. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. and 5. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all.. In this it may be concluded. There had been favourable reaction from the students. interests and aptitudes of the students. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3.etc. can be ensured. 3. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the local resources available. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education.3. etc. 4. and the needs.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

3. 3. N. b. New Delhi : 168 . Dash.3. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. S. (2001). General Educational Spectrum and b. habits of hard work and develop . Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. 3. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.K. Modern Trends in Indian Education. we studied the history.3. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Vocational Sepctrum.3. to imbibe. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. B.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Mohanty. objectives. (2007). a.a sense of dignity of labour. J.C. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. a. J. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. 2.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. (2005).3. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. 3.3. (2008). a. b.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Calcutta University Commission 2. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4.

4.4.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.9 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”.4.4.4.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.LESSON 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.11 3.7 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4.13 3.10 3.2 3.4.4. social and 169 .1 3.6 3.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.5 3.3 3.4.4.4.8 3.4.4.4.12 3. Education contributes to human development.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.

state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. These courses were. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity.higher education in particular. Home Economics. Education .INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. although we have miles to go. During the year 1937. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. Teaching and Fine Arts. 3. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women.4. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. cultural and political development of the individual. In the post —independence period. community and nation is universally acknowledged. Nursing.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. There is a close connection between education and development. family. economic. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. particularly 170 . higher education of girls developed immensely. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century.4. While women constituted only 9. 3. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. analyze the women and distance education. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. For the first time in the history of India. The relevance of women’s education to social.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Dr. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. you will be able to: 1. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3.

Even today. Mother Teresa Women University. Mumbai. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.0 16. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. we have more than 1200 institutions. 3.4. In the rest of the country.4. The idea of women’s education for equality.4. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.2 22. In 1950-51.0 43.9 27. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. 3. levels and professions.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.1 31. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .D.0 Today.65 lakhs in 1994-95. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.women.9 14. out of 9200 and odd colleges. Yet.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Kodaikanal.0 32. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.N. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.2 29. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.T Women University.1 24. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. Coimbatore. in our country. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.

Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . 2. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. 3. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.73 10.4.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .that of boys. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .47 65.44 35.17 52. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .34 33.66 66.1 and 14.83 47.27 89.46 82.4.63 Female % 34.4%) prefer Arts subjects.36 3.4.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.1 respectively.53 34.54 12.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.56 64.

higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. Book banks should be established. They gave up their studies to enter home life. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. and coeducation may spoil her character. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. In college. In every third family. she will only learn fashion. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. financial difficulty of the parents. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. 173 .4. distance of the college or university from home. Also. Thus. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. The major hurdles. irrelevance of the content of education.hinders the girls from getting higher education. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. etc. particularly. what is the need for higher education for her. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. curriculum not suited to their requirements. 3. According to a survey. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. marriage is a very common I factor. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. promoted and increased. They argue that when their daughter need not earn.

It is a productive investment. 3. It also brings about 174 . Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Full-time employment.economic disabilities faced by women.4. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. 3.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. Education. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. is the only tool for realising empowerment. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. There are constraints of time. resources and socio . Empowerment in a nutshell.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development.4. space. and the limitations of the conventional education system.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. It enables to study. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Distance education is a boon to women. Geographic distance of educational institutions.

legal awareness and economic independence. empowerment means being assertive. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. Empowerment is an active. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. 3. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . education of women is of paramount importance. education of women must be given priority in national plans. on their own. for full development of our human resources. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. Women are partners in development. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. higher learning. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. The major objectives of women's higher education. This can be achieved through reflection. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future.4. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them.

3. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. which is pending for a long time. Better opportunities. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Reservation for women. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. 176 . But their number is small. has to be implemented at the earliest. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. Scholarships and concessions for women. The educational institutions. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. who are eager to take up courses. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. which had been the sole domain of men.4. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. especially so in the developing countries. The local administration. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. will encourage them to venture new grounds.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also.

International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.3 percent. especially in developing countries like African countries. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. talents. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. capacities etc. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. Chief Executive.4. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. Also. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.. engineering and related technologies (16. According to Lindy Hyam. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. 3.000 women in the country. But.9%). the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . Australia.8%). IDP Education. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities.1%) and architecture and building (38.

Mother Teresa Women University. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. (2000). 2. 178 . Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.R.K. SNDT Women’s University. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. R. Annakodi.4. Mishra. R. (2005). Centre for Women’s Studies. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women.to the family. Coimbatore. Mumbai. (2008). 3. 43% 6. individuals and society b. community and the nation. Rao. (2007). Rajasthan 5. Kodaikanal.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. S. 4. 4. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Pattanaikj. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. a.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. and Suryalatha. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.C. Women and Education. 3. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women.4. Coimbatore. 3. create the right attitude towards life. Women Education. A. S.4. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. and Swain. A. Women Education. Mumbai. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. SNDT Women’s University. R.

2 3.6 3.LESSON 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .9 3.7 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.8 3.personality of children in and out of school.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. They should be trained.5.5.5.5. whole. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5.10 3.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5 3.1 3.5.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.4 3.5.11 3.5.3 3.

3. equality and justice. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. you will be able to: 1.5. understanding and strong desire for international peace.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. Lack of physical facilities. understand the training teachers for Primary. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. international. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. social and emotional integration. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. and national character.5. 3. 180 . After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. 5. know the pre service and in service training facilities. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. national consciousness. Dearth of new technology of teaching. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Shorter working hours. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner.

If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. Depending on the levels. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. 3. the state Government. Inadequate training in practical skills. higher secondary teacher education. the centre. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. inservice and extension education programmes. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. students. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. and M. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. At the diploma level. the secondary teacher education. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years .. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools.Ed. (NCERT) New Delhi. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. it is called the In-service teacher education. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. levels. 3.5. a Diploma course and a Degree course. If the student teachers are working teachers.. and the collegiate teacher education. the primary teacher education. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.5. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. Lop-sided curriculum. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work.Less qualified teacher educators. etc. it is called the Extension teacher Education. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service.Ed. who have not been trained earlier. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training.

are established. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Evaluation unit. Science Education units. Educational teehnology cells. state Institutes of Educat ion. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . depart ments etc. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Education cells. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory .5.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Expand NCERT 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . etc. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Also Guidance Bureaux. non-formal. extensio n service.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. collegiate cells.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY.

every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. audio visual aids. schools and sister institutions. to ensure teacher competence. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. material conditions relating to libraries. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. and so on. should be improved on a top priority basis.Ed. primary and secondary school teachers. which should include experience in the primary schools too.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities ... • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training .• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . degree. and 183 . which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. to offer consultative services. despite its vast expansion. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. laboratories. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. to improve curricular programmes. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. to prescribe conditions for recognition. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B.. which help breaking isolation from one another .Ed.

etc. Psychology of Students. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. etc. Hence. and XII. methodology and evaluation. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. though no pre-service training. Agriculture. To meet this exigency. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. Modern Techniques of Teaching. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. 184 . Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. not came up once again. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. Workshops.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . whether they should have professional education or. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. Induction Courses. The problem. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Organisation of Content Courses.secondary education. Meanwhile. Modern Methods of Evaluation.

D. M. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. For re-orienting the teachers..S.Ed.Ed.Ed. All B Ed. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. These facilities are available for regular students. training. in Education.A.Ed. Degree and M.Ed. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.’s for Ph. Pre-service training is for those. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. Degree. (Education) are organized by 185 . In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.A. (Education) and M. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. Post-Graduates also undergo B.Ed.. courses and M. State Institutes of Education. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.. Ajmer.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore..’s are elig ible for M. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.. Courses leading to B.. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.

A. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. 6. 4. (Ed). CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.). Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and .. of conduct—written or unwritten. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. 186 . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. However. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. Hence the employability of M. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. 3. . (Ed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .some Faculties of Education of some Universities. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics.A.. and B. established by tradition and teachers of the past.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . 5. they should be conscientious . Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. What is the role of ERIC? .

5. 2. 3. Shorter working hours. 4. a. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. 5. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. a.5. Bhopal. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 3. However. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. they should be conscientious. The necessity is however this. 187 . 6. 3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. Ajmer. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. Explain code of conduct for teachers. Dearth of new technology of teaching.5. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. National Council of Educational Research and Training. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. 4. a. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. 3. b. b.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 2.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Discuss the problems of teacher education.

Publication Pvt. Teacher Education. (2009). New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . (2010). Corporation. P.5. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. and Teacher Education. Tewari.3.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. Mohanty. Teacher Education. A. J. (2003). B. Ltd Aggarwal.N.D.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

communicable diseases and their prevention. objectives. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. 191 . need for population education and impact of population growth on social. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. The person’s environment is equally important. If the diet is poor. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. objectives. objectives and role of the physical education. nutritional deficiency diseases. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. Since food is the source of nutrients. economic and educational developments. the focus is on the school health programmes. In lesson 1. common ailments of children. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. preservation of nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. In lesson 4.

192 .

emotional and social.11 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1.1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.5 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. It is a miniature society. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.2 4.1.e. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1 4.3 4.1.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important.LESSON 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1.1.7 4.1.1.1.9 4.6 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody. mental. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. 193 .8 4.1. physical.4 4.1.10 4.

training in first aid and etc. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. explain the importance of First aid 5. 5. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools.g.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. 4. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. To give information regarding health rules. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. 10. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. you will be able to: 1. 6. e. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students.1.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 2. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. understand school health programmes 2. 7. 4. 3. know the need for sex education. To develop certain skills concerning health.1. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. Instruction. content of health education. 4. cleanliness and healthful living. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. 194 . list the common ailments of children 3. training of teachers and evaluation. To develop healthy health habits among children. to his family and to the community at large.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.. 8. 9. 11.

There should be regular water supply. vaccination.. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. (xl) mental health.G. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes.4. 2. 2. excusing late. (v) safety education. The surroundings of schools should be clean. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. “Play-for-all” programmes. minimizing the travelling distance. The school buildings should be spacious. 4. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. suitable furniture. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. First aid facilities should be made readily available.C. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. inoculation against cholera. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. play festivals. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. etc. is imperative. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. 3. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 .4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. 5. organisation of school health days. proper doors and windows. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. Vaccination for small pox. cleanliness weeks. (vi) nutrition education. (ii) communit y healt h. ( iii) sanit at io n. Triple Antigen Vaccination.1. The flooring should not be damp. B. B. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp..coming or absence. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. (xii) smoking education etc. direct lighting. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. as described below 1. Arranging better transportation facilities. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. typhoid. (viii) first aid. There should be good drainage facilities. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. Toilet rooms should be amply provided.

• Have adequate rest and sleep. wounds. fractures. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. • Close the schools. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. • Find out the cases. D. etc. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. scalds. 196 . burns. if epidemic is wide-spread. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. isolate and notify. cuts. sports and games in the interest of their health. drowning. • Take nutritious food. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. dislocations.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles.. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. poisons. insect stings. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Keep all rooms clean. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. and other accidents. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. bleeding. • When sleeping in groups. C. fainting (epileptic fit).

. They are: i) The incubation stage. water or bodily contact. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. fever. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. polio. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. measles etc. tuberculosis. which are – cold. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. 4. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. backache. cough. Mention the school health programmes.1. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. Once these germs get into the body. 2. asthma. So they easily get illnesses. 4. pain in the joints. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. headache. These diseases are called communicable diseases. chicken pox. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. List out the Health curriculum 3. There are three stages in any communicable disease.

One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. eating food which is not clean.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. head-ache and cough. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. sugar and water. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water.It is caused by measles virus. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Common Cold . Throat is affected. Measles . Mumps . Children catch cold from persons having cold. unhygienic living conditions. This is caused by cold virus. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Hence it is called a killer disease.When a child suffers from scabies. The child may have fever.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. unhygienic bottle feeding. The symptoms include cold. The following are the common communicable diseases. 198 . Important salts and water are lost in this process. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Others make the children very weak. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. etc. After three or four days of fever. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow.This disease is caused by bacteria. Scabies . Ear Infections . cough and fever. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Tonsilitis . Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Diarrhoea . The virus is present in the secretions of throat. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting.

A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. By scratching he causes secondary infections. face and waist. Enlist the common ailments of children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Diphtheria . Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. the child is not able to breathe.• • • • Chicken Pox . The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. 5. It begins with fever. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. raised pink spots appear on head. Typhoid . The child may also have diarrhoea.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Expand DPT . Shortly. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. As the disease progresses. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. If proper treatment is not given. What are communicable diseases? 6. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. separate. the child may die. 199 . The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day.

Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. Sex is popular. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. sprains.1. exciting and body-oriented. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in.1. In such cases. 4. Wounds . It is both biological and psychological. bruises. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. man-woman behaviours. etc. wounds.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. and Community Work and Social Service. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. fainting. 2. 200 .It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. drowning.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. simple fractures. snakebites. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. head injury. 3. fiction. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. swelling.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. eye injury. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. dislocation.g. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. it is a subject of art.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. cuts.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.4. Cuts and Bruises . which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. Drowning . films and jokes. and films. 5. It has its rightful place in education too. 4. Sprains . so-called sex books and periodicals. scorpion stings. bleeding. sprains.

There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. B. In secondary schools. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . but preserve them from disaster and disease. in their ignorance.old values. try experimenting with their bodies. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. Hence. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. The values of life. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. they would be treading the path of sure doom. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. the school. 3. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. Should the boys and girls. 2. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education.. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. celibacy are age. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. health. the religious organisations. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. The home. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. sex education is being recommended in schools. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. In today's liberal and interactive society.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control.

communicable diseases and their prevention. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. common ailments of children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. first aid and sex education. 202 . C.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. there will no crisis in its implementation. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. the school health programmes. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. Teacher education institutions are. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. hence.1. when the courses are already overloaded. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. 4. What are the major components of Sex Education. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

203

4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

204

LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

205

4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

206

Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

207

Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

208

Mention the food nutrients 2. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 209 . List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. If you look at the definition carefully. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day.4. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. minerals.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. Let us talk about each of these aspects.2. 210 . This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s.2.

paratha and poori. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. for example. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. Preferences/customs are also important. the social and religious practices of that region.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. 4. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .sedentary. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). it is also specific to a given activity level . moderate or heavy work. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. dosa are typical of the south. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. sex. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days.g. In the case of adults.6.g. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. Even within given States there is considerable variation. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. People in the east of our country prefer rice. These are: region where the person resides and income. activity level and physiological stress. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness.2. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. In other words. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. A balanced diet is specific firstly.one in the morning and the other at night. construction labourer). There is no point.

Including these 212 . So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. As income increases. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. If you think of your own religious group. income plays a vital role. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. however. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. while another may hate them. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. These determine the acceptability of foods. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. One person may be fond of milk products. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. One must. In addition to these. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. nuts and dry fruits. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. customs. as important for the rich as for the poor. however. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. Even among flesh foods. for example. taboos related to food may play an important role. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. As you read this discussion. However. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods.planning the diet. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. vegetables and fruits. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. Among the social factors. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. fat and sugar tend to increase. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. Having more money. however. Judicious selection of food is. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences.

213 . List out any two healthy food habits. if the teachers have good food habits. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. For this. over-eating or under. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. green leaves. but they should be thrown away.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. fruits. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 17. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 8. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. meat. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . Define balanced diet. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost.eating is hazardous. eggs . Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 8) Walk a while after eating. etc. mouth.

Night blindness. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. preservation of nutrients.2. b. d. Corneal xerosis.2.4. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Beri Beri 4. 4. Conjuctival xerosis.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain food nutrients 4. e. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. When the diet is inadequate. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. a.2. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. 4. c. Discuss good food habits. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Vitamin D 5. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Bitot’s spots. In fact. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 .8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Keratomalacia 3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. good nutrition is essential for good health. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits.

Health and Nutrition Education. 8. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru.C. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. a . S. a.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. b. (2004). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. Food should be consumed after eating well. mouth. A Text Book of Foods.M. Hands. R. R. b. (2008). (2005). Nutrition and Dietetics. Sri Lakshmi B. Food and Nutrition Education. 7. Chopra. Nutrition Science.N.6. minerals. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . (2008).2. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. P. (2009). Food and Nutrition Education. 4.

3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.3.3.3.3.3 4.11 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.12 4.3.6.3.LESSON 4. 216 .3.10 4.7 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3.13 4.8 4.6.3.3.3.3 Impact on Education 4.5 4.4 4.1 4.3.9 4.6.3.3.2 4.

3. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning.4. It is a much wider co ncept. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. the stress is. family planning and sex education etc. describe the impact of population growth on social. characteristics and changes for himself.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. population characteristics. aims at providing the younger generation. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. community.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. 4. It is not sex education. and the consequences of these processes. Whenever we talk of sex education. therefore.3. Population Education. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. you will be able to: 1. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. his societ y and the world. understand the importance of small family norm 5.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. his family. objectives and need for population education 2.3. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. economic and educational development 3. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. state the meaning. 4. There is some difference. 217 . the causes of population change. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.

6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.4. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual.3. the society.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two objectives of Population Education. the family. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. Define Population Education 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. the nation and the world.

With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. the family programmes are also handicapped. 4. Family is considered as a social unit. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. With the larger families. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. 4. Every second two thousand children are being born. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age.6. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it.3.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. which will not be possible without population control. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. health and happiness of its citizens. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion.3. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. economic and educational development of the country. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. 219 . When the family is small. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous.

2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. Swollen cities. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils.6. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. 4.e. facility for drinking water. teacher index.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. unemployment.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets.3.. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too.3. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. heavy intern I migration etc. in buses and trains.6. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. 4. in cinema halls and theatres. In developing countries. pollution of the environment. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. in parks and other places of public gatherings. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. The gulf between them is widening further. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. and so on. 220 . i. Many students herded in a small room. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. organization index and material index. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. toilets. lack of proper health care.

Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. thus.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. even text books would be in short supply. blank verses etc.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. less budget for education. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. can be studied in science and health education. There would be poor library facilities. reproduction. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue.3. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. 221 . Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. less space facilities.. and laboratory equipments. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. can be taken up. Hindi and English. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. bar graphs etc. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. family planning etc. Regional Language. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. There would be very few audiovisual aids. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. essays. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. Social Studies Statistics on population education.

Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. 8. 7. Bihar.4. United States of America. Uttar Pradesh. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. They may arrange them as per average density of population. China. deaths. 10. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. causes of deaths etc. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. West Bengal. Children may compare two families. area and average density of population. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 9. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 11.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 14. 2. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Children with the help of parents. 15. Brazil. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 12. 4. Canada. 13. 5.3. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 3. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children.

Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. values and role children etc. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families.3. 18. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Comparing life in various respects in two families. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. age at marriage. The question. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. we have no right to stop 223 . 16. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. preferences for sex. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. 17.be opened in their schools. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

which education can only do. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. The Family Welfare Program. at varying places in different regions. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . More than 45 years ago. continued . Since the program's inception.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.their entry into the world”. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.were implemented 224 . For Medical Termination of Pregnancy..3.4-6. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. “He who is responsible for population growth.to emphasize family planning services. 4. especially the expansion of child immunization services . however. and the child survival components of the news: program.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. on an overall basis.

and nominal fees for services. a focus on health promotion. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. In April 1996. reliance on local women as community health workers. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. men. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. Moreover. At these meetings. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . In October 1997. Therefore. and the World Conference on Women. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. Local programs vary in their approaches.earlier than the safe motherhood components. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. expansion of services to unmarried women. the community appears willing to pay for services. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media.

which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. 3. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. 4. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. What are the goals of RCH? 4. 1997).12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Its main purposes are to create awareness. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. community. economic and educational development 4.3. Describe the impact of population growth on social.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. involving the community. family. 226 . to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2.emphasizing the needs of the client. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. nation and the world.

and the consequences of these processes.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4.3. b. characteristics and changes for himself. 227 . and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. the causes of population change. 5. 4. a. China. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union.” 2. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Brazil. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. 3. population characteristics. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. less budget for education. a. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Canada. United States of America. his family. area and average density of population. a. bar graphs. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 7. b. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. his society and the world. 6. less space facilities.

Principles of Population Studies. (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Ltd. Reddy. Modern Problems of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K. N. Bhende. Jayapoorni. Coimbatore. Centre for Women’s Studies. T. (2004). J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Changing attitudes to Education in India.4. A. (2005). (1992). Udaiveer. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. V. Kantikar. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. 228 . Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. (2002).3. Ltd.

4 Lead up games 4.4.2 4.4.4.1 4.2 Major games 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4.4.8.4.4.4.8.6 4.9 4.10 4.11 19.3 Indigenous games 4.4.5 4.8.4.4 4.3 4.4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.1 Minor games 4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.LESSON 4.7 4.4.8.

classify the different types of games. as it should 230 . teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. 4. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. 4. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.4. which forms its most valuable assets. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. the youth of the country. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. perseverance.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. The concept of physical education has been made broader. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. leadership and balance in defect.4. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. team spirit. you will be able to: 1. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. moral fitness and emotional fitness. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.4. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. social fitness. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. mental alertness. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.4.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. full records of physical activities should be maintained.

Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. They go hand in hand. They are inseparably united together. leadership. obedience to rules. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Every individual is a part of society. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Therefore. team spirit. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. To be more precise. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. The educational efforts at home.

physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. Regarding the significance of physical education.” The Secondary Education Commission. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers.4. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. mo ral. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. a sound health. ment al. Rousseau states. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. Physical exercises. H. C. pleasing manners. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. game and sports.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. Just like Education. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. 4. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. nor body but the whole man.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.” Montaigue writes. Buck has observed that 232 .

endurance. speed. “If we wish to develop the whole being. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. initiative. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. elegance. etc. 233 . strength.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief.a properly directed physical education should result in health. flexibility and power. happiness. Froebel says.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. coordinative abilities.4. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. we must exercise the whole human being. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. efficiency and character. resourcefulness and smartness. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development.” In brief.” 4. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life.

including all racial groups and historical ages. plagues and famines. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. these fundamental things have always been present. systems of government. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. its adherents and its enemies. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. in greater or lesser degree. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Tournaments foster this sentiment. poetry and painting. 234 (i) (ii) . should help in the spiritual development of the student. While wars. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. they may form gangs. Every age has its artists. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. have come and gone in the long record of mankind.

and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two importance of Physical Education. bravery and interest in games and sports. to develop tolerance.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 235 . respect for rules. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. B. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. obedience. self. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. etc. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. 3.sacrifice. 2.\ to develop perseverance.

4. 6. is essential. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Usually parents. 15. 9. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 4.4. and. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. injuries among pupils should be made. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 8.4. Haag. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 14. and readmission after they have recovered. 12. 10. Act as a leader. 7. 4. Be punctual. 3. 13. 2. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. . 236 1. Be self-confident. defects. 11. 16. 5. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Posture screening should be done. Be in the uniform. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Keep the field ready for the activities. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of.H. Be sportive. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. students. Always keep the whistle ready. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Inform health principles. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Be well-prepared. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must.

frolic and jo y. 237 . 1.8. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. less equipment and less expense. 4. their development is handicapped.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. chasing. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. 4. 3. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Indigenous games. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. 2. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.4. the play.4. Lead up games. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Such inst incts as imitation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Moreover.

Kabaddy etc. Hopping. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. driving. Hockey.4. Basket Ball. trapping. hitting. boosting. skipping. Khokho. 238 . Dodging. wherever the kids assemble. on sea-shore. the play equipment. over ball pass Relay.8. Soft Ball. some of them are played indoors. stopping. Tennikoit. on mountain tops and on river beds. Jump the stick clay and so on. Ball Badminton. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. For each game the rules are many. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. muffling. Except a few games. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. snatching the kerchief.With a very few rules.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. While many of them are played in the open playfields. dribbling. couple tag. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. catching. Throwing. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Cricket. on hard courts. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Volley Ball. under ball pass Relay. zig zag relay. Shuttle Badminton. spiking. The dimension of the posts and nets. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. benefit in playing minor games. bowling etc. heading. women take part most of the games. They are played for a shorter duration. finding the partner. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest.. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. 4. the number of players and substitutes. the games can be modified according to convenience. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Jumping. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. pitching. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. with implements or without implements. Tennis. These games require varied skills such as running. On lawns. They are rules approved by the International Associations.

4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. they are in existence.4. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.4. While observing the players in action. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. these games being popular. birth. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . List out some major games. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. All the fundamental tactics. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. festivals connected with religion and public functions. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. An example for indigenous game is 8.8. 4. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. Kho-kho. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. They have an abundant social value. 7. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. death. On occasions like marriage. Games may be classified as 6. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. and . For example.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu.4.

Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. 2. b. b. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Minor and Major 240 . Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education.4. aims and objectives and need of physical education. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. 4. to develop physical stamina. 4. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Schools should help students to keep them mentally.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. to secure physical health b. 4. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. 2. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. d.4. Posture screening should be done. a. 5. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. a. 3. Briefly discuss the different types of games. a.4. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 4. 3. a. c.

(2008). Soft Ball. Shuttle Badminton.C. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Handbook of Physical Education. Ltd. Basket Ball. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. J. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Mohanty. Aggarwal. Krishna murthy. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Cricket. Khokho. J. Tennis.K. Volley Ball. Khokho 8.4. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. G. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Hockey. (2008). Physical Education and Sports. Foot-ball. (2005). (2009).6. Ball Badminton. Kabaddy 7. 241 . 4. Health. J. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Tennikoit.

5.4 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.10 4.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.3 4.5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.11 4.5.5.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .1 Natural Environment 4.5.5.5.7 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.5.1 4.9 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .8 4.5.5.6 4.5.LESSON 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.2 4.5.

educat ion for the environment.5. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. Attitude. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Evaluation Ability. 2. Knowledge. 4. 4. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Broadly.5. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. 3. 3.5.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. 2. you will able to: 1. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. 6. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. The best place to start such learning is school. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. political. aesthetic and educational factors. social. Skills. education about the environment and education through the environment. Participation. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Awareness. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 4. it covers the following elements: 1. economic. Essential knowledge about the Environment.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. 243 . 5. role of teacher in environmental conservation. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. population explosion and resource depletion could be. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. list out the types of environment 3. Details are given below: I.

Oxidants Other pollutants. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle.B. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. 244 . Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. 2. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. a. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. F. heat sink and wind flow in cities. • Biological magnification E. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. D.

Sterilisation. economic. Birth control through education b. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Persuasion: i. Abortion iv. III. Use of medical science i. 3. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. 2. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . 2. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. The human ecosystem II. 4. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Intrauterine device iii. Control of population growth a. Socio-economic measures. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. The pill ii. c. B. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems.3. Family planning ii.

Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Define Environmental Education. 3. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1983). Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 246 . e) Recycling. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Water pollution abatement. Planning human intervention on the natural processes.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. (UNESCO. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Air pollution abatement ii.

to his needs. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. telex. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. animals and other organisms (biotic). includes the plants.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. way is called environmental or ecological factor. Any constituent or condition of the environment. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.5. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. a.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. A change in one brings about a change in the other. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. b. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.other components of the environment.5. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.5.4.5. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . -other. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.5. fax agricultural apparatus. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. They interact with each. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. He modifies according”. Biological environment The biological environment. 4.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 .5. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. These are biotic components.

harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. History The rise and fall. importance of nitrogen cycle. excellent recreation sites. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. wars and hazards of war. sources. t heir role in preventing pollution. biogas plants. ozone layer deplet ion. sources of pollut ion. industrial survey. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. noise control. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. population. etc. preserving the watersheds. natural way of controlling pests. relation between population and pollution. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. supplying timber for various uses. preventing siltation of dams. need for conservation. ozone depletion. etc. are the topics which may be taught in History. river systems. need for bio-diversity. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. desertification 248 . over exploitation of ground water. maintaining the ecological diversity. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. food chain and food-web. mineral survey.. role of trees in building economy. acid rain. effects o f CFC. noise pollution. balance of nature. use of medicinal plants. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. nuclear warfare. industrial pollut io n. social studies. alternate sources of energy. air pollutants from industries. windmills. solar cookers. explosion deforestation. effects. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . are the topics which may find place in Zoology. trees reducing noise pollution. greenhouse effect. change in climate may be added. of civilizations. water scarcity. evolution. use of pesticides. extinction of species. nuclear energy. (ii) Air pollution. reasons.

Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 4. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 8. 6. 2. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Providing. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Organising conferences. 11. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. animal and plants. 14.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. group discussions and seminars. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology.5. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 9. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 12. 4. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment.may be inc ded in Geography. 5. 7. 249 . Peepal and Tulsi. 13. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 3. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. aims and scope. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 10. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres.

Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. especially plastics. If it is done.Send their waste oil. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. all these can cause serious pollution. Reuse carrier bags. Don’t burn any waste. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. it will cause pollution. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. used oils down the drain. Never put any left over chemicals. Use public transport wherever it is possible. 5. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. World Environmental falls on 250 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit.

5. Social responsibilit y (common good. etc. developing desirable attitudes. diversity and stability. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. and 251 . To provide reference materials for children’s use. Att itudes of balance towards nature. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. To provide materials needed for practical work. loss of bio-diversity. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. rather than conquest and mastery.). concern for others). Conservation of natural resources. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. viz. etc. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. deforestation.mat erials. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . values and habits. (cleanliness. depletion of ozone. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. Harmony with the nature . To discuss the approach to problems or topics. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. To arrange visits or expeditions. orderliness and beauty).. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. CFCs. The groups may exchange. To arrange for visiting speakers.4. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. potable water. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. Concern for species. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. nuclear wars. dest roying nat ural habitats.

9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. 4. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.5.5. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3.5. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. preserving natural cycles. 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 252 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. 4. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. 4.

Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Organising conferences. 8. S.. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.K. Modern Problems of Education. ozone layer deplet ion. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. b. 3. over exploitation of ground water. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Education for values. Nanda. Providing. Environment and Human Rights. To provide materials needed for practical work. greenhouse effect. sources of pollution.K. Awareness. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. air pollutants from industries. b. new problems from science and technology. (2004).12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Environmental Education. Udaiveer. Social responsibilit y (common good. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Y. Rapid population growth. b. group discussions and seminars. effects. population. a. Knowledge. b. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. a. 5. June 5 7. Publications Pvt. Anmol Publications Pvt. reasons. Ltd. importance of nitrogen cycle.2.5. acid rain.\ 4. (ii) Air pollution. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. 6. Environmental Education. (1997). New Delhi : Authors Press. To provide reference materials for children’s use. sources.K. (2007). a. a. water scarcity. (2007). New Delhi : Sharma. 4. relat ion between population and pollution. Ltd. concern for others). explosion deforestation. Kuldeep. S. T.K.

254 .

UNIT – V

255

256

PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

257

258

LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

259

5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
260

2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. Education must contribute to development of culture. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. the emancipation of spirit. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. It is self-realisation. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm.our life.1. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. man is essentially a moral being. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. in fact. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. enrichment and transmission of culture. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. Universal Education. The universe is regarded as a thought process.3.” 5. Education according to idealism. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. should be universal in nature. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. moral. Spiritual Development. According to Rusk'. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. Therefore.

2. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. Mathematics etc. affecting (feeling). Science. He carries the child from darkness to light. Learning through discussion. 3.1. a spiritual guide for the child. So he should embody. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.1. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage.” He is thus. an indispensable necessity. the school is a garden. hygiene.3. It considers teacher as. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. so subjects like Religion. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . However. An idealist teacher is a philosopher.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. So cognition (knowing). “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. 5. and collation (striving) should find due place.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. History. should be there. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. Ethics. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. Learning through reading. The plant can grow. Learning through lecturing.the spiritual qualities of mankind. Herbert advocated instruction method. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. Philosophy. friend and guide. subjects like Languages. He sets the environment in which education takes place. According to Frobel. Learning through imitation. no doubt. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. 5. For intellectual development. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. Learning through questioning. For this no particular method has been suggested. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. According to idealism.3.” 5. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. So health. 4.

preservation. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. Perfection of Human Machine. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. time tables. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. "Education should make 263 • . text books.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century.1. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. Ross explains. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. curricula.perfection and beauty.1.4. In the words of Ross. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. 5. formal lessons or examinations. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.

aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Botany etc Language. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. geography should also be included in the curriculum. 4. Literature. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Naturalistic curriculum. his interests and inborn tendencies 2.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. It emphasises physical and health education 5. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. In all. Arithmetic.1. Chemistry. 264 . useful and mature child. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. rational harmoniously balanced. Education also aims at helping the individual t. It stresses basic sciences. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Biology. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Therefore. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. subjects like history. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. therefore.4. Education should. education should develop the child into Joyous. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. “Education finds its purpose. Zoology. • 5. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. is based on the nature of the child. There is no place for religious and moral education. It is based on the psychology of the child. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1.

the stage.1. 5. Heuristic method. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. a provider of an ideal environment.4. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. 3.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.4. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching.1.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Learning through experience. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Learning through observation. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. 5.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher.5. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. It discards all rigid.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. Learning by doing. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. In the . 4. Dalton Plan. Rousseau says. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Here the emphasis is on the individual method. 2. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. he should be taught by experience alone.

diversified and flexible.1. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. of human personality is in terms of his physical. The aim of educational development.absolutism of idealism. Continuous Growth. intellectual.5. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. History. Social Efficiency. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. is true. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. 5. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. All Round Development of an Individual. social and moral aspects. Vocational and 266 . 5.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Agriculture. Physical training. Social Science. Subjects. Geography. Sciences. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Personal Social Adjustment. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. The individual has not only to adjust himself. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based.5. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements.1. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.1.5. The subjects. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. He has to be active. Learning by Doing. He must be trained. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher.5. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. 5. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. a senior partner and a sincere guide. should find proper place.” 5. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. a teacher occupies an important position.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education.Technical Education. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. alert and resourceful.

a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Art.1. Population Education. Literature. Astrology.5. Mathematics. Geography are unnecessary 268 . 2. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Sex Education. intellectual. Education is preparation for a complete living. 3. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Biology.1.1.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. practical. literary or humanistic education. 2. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind.6. 5. Crafts. Music and Dance. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. 3.6. History. Study of Subjects like Language. 5. Chemistry. 4. specific. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. 5. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. liberal. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. It favours child-centered. 4. Biography Philosophy. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. rich and happy. Psychology. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. scientific and psychological education. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics.

6. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.1. easily and pleasantly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. certainly and clearly. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.1.5.

a.1. Vocational and Technical Education. a. Geography. Rousseau 5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.5. Learning through lecturing. pragmatism and realism. Self Realisation b. Learning through discussion. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. a. Agriculture. Learning through imitation. Learning through questioning. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. d. e. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Tours / Excursion e. Education according to pragmatism. Learning through reading. Child centered c. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Universal Education 2. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. & curriculum. Social Science. in this lesson. Experimentation d. naturalism.1. 3. Languages.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5. 5.1. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. has no end other than growth. 5. b. Learning through experience b. c. Sciences. History.7 LET US SUM UP We have. 6. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Physical training.

(2003). Publishing corporation. Anmol Publications Pvt. P.P. (2004). L. (2007). Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.1. K. (2007). New Delhi : A. Pahuja. Foundations of Education.H. of Pathak. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Theory and Principles of Education.P. O. R. N. New Delhi : Bhatia. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Narang C. Ltd.5. 271 . P.

2.3.3 Methods of teaching 272 .3.2.2.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.1 Aims of Education 5.5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.4.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2 Curriculum 5.4 Views about teacher 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.2.3.4.4.3.2.2.2.5.2.4.2.2.2 5.3.LESSON 5.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.3.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2.4 Views about teacher 5.2.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2.4.2.2.3 Methods of teaching 5.2 Curriculum 5.2.3 Methods of Teaching 5.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.1 5.5.1 Aims of Education 5.

5. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. 2.2. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.2.4 Role of the teacher 5. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.2.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. mind and spirit.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. you will able to: 1.7 5. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.5. Gandhiji was primarily a social. 5.2.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. Tagore was a poet. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. 273 . explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.8 5.2.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.6 5.2. economic and political reconstruction in our country.2. content and methods. 3. an artist. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.5.

It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. His scheme of education is life centred. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. it is education of life. 'Man is neither mere intellect. In the words of Gandhiji. 5. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. self-restraint and service of humanity. mind and soul of children He further observed. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. righteousness. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage.2. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. through life and for life." Dignity of Labour. "I attach more. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. It really provides opportunity for character building. 274 . strength of mind. nor the gross animals body. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji.intellectual and physical faculties of the children.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words.3.supporting.

Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue.2. 5. Individual and Social Aims. Mother-tongue. gardening. wood work. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Only good individual forms a better society.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. Music. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 .the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. the realization of the ultimate reality.3. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. "Development of the moral character. metal work.Training for Leadership. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. General Sciences. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . development of the whole all were directed: towards. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. According to Gandhi. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. leather work have been suggested. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Art. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Drawing and Hindustani.

3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. proficient. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Basic education is other wise known as 4.3.2. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.3. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.trained. men of 276 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.2.

PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. 5. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1.3. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Education must be child centered. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. 3. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. He also advocates freedom for the child. That is why. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.knowledge.

• Ideal of citizenship. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.K.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. • Cult of non-violence.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.2.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.2. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” Like all other ideals. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. 5. 5. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.4. he was a true Vedantist 5. • Education should involve manual work. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . Gandhi in 1937. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. He believed in the oneness of humanity.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. He was deadly against untouchability. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.3.2. He was a true patriot.

Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. he said. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. (vi) Philosophy. stronger in power than ever before. Civics. Music. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Botany. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics.4. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Chemistry. complete manhood could be attained. them solve problems of day to day life. It should help the learner have good physique. Geography.2. Therefore. sentiment.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. wider in range. etc. "Mankind must realise a unity.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . deeper in. Zoology. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. could help in forging unity among all. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. It should help. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. International understanding.Language and Literature . Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Tagore said. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. International Understanding. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Religion and Psychology. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Dance." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. the more dedicated and devoted. 279 . That way only.

” He further says. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.2.4. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. Activity Method Heuristic Method. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.4.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. In 1921. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. 280 .2.4.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. 5. Tagore rightly says.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.2. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students." 5. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. 5.

It is open to all irrespective of country. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 9.g. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. 281 . Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. race. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere.

character forming and assimilation of ideas. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 .5. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Concept of Education. Book learning.2. Education for Self-realization.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. Education for Self-reliance.” 5. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all.2. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Freedom. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. He believed in to learning or selflearning. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. Education for strong Moral Character.5. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. work and deeds come out of it. man making. According to him. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. 2. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace." He was against the theoretical type of education.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. 4. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. 3. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. who possess sweet and amicable tempers.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Education should make a person self-reliant. Purity of thought.

Education for Physical Development. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Religion. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses.2.5. The teacher should be the facilitator.2. Education should help in the physical development of an individual.5. Discussion Method. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. 5. 5. 6. And above all. Thirdly he wished that games. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Every individual should be trained for concentration. philosopher and guide to the students He. A physically strong person is the need of the society. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. engineering and technical subjects. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Secondly he wanted Science.5. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Of course. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.2. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.the learners on different students in the discussion.5. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Swami. 5. That will serve the purpose of education fully. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Philosophy and Theology. 283 .

We have seen that Tagore. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. 284 . begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. 5.6 LET US SUM UP We have. 5. in this lesson. legs.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. naturalist. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. Gandhiji as a Idealist. 3. Write short notes on Basic education. of course. Their educational ideas. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature.2. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. 12.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11.2. and pragmatist . Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. 2.Substantiate your answer. ears and eyes.

(i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. 1937 7. metal work. Teaching while Walking b. a. Activity Method d. Ideal of citizenship. Discussion Method 285 . d. Debate and Discussion Method. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. f. Meditation and concentration c. Basic education. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. e. Nai Talim 4.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Learning by Doing c. wood work. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. a. c. gardening. 3. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. a. Heuristic Method. Self-Study b. 10. Technique of Correlation 6. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. c. Explain Vishwabharathi. 2. Activity Method b. Education should involve manual work. 5. 11. leather work have been suggested. Cult of non-violence.4. Self realization. 9. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. b.2. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. 8. a. 5. 5.

2. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2007). (2004). K and Narang C. C. Publishing Corporation. N. Dhiman. Ltd. K. New Delhi : Aggarwal. (2003). O. Pahuja. (2002). N. on Bhatia.P. New Delhi : A.5. Theory and Principles of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. B.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash.H. Anmol Publications Pvt. P. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2007). L. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. 286 . J. P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Foundations of Education. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education.

10 5.11 5.3.3.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.3.3.3 5.4 5.3.3.6 5.3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .9 5.3.8 5.3.7 5.3.2 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.LESSON 5.1 5.5 5. In this lesson.3.

3. the plain area. in Russia or in Japan. living in the hilly area.A. is a means to the process.3. Then in a big country like India. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. new behaviour may be acquired. state the meaning of curriculum 2. In the words of Kerney and Cook. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. Curriculum is intimately related to education. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. 5. A g o o d curricu lu m. it is identical wit h socializat ion. Both the processes are integrated. In it.under the direction of the school. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. Since the demands. in the U. you will be able to: 1. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. While education is learning. While education is a process. in fact . understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s .4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. there is a large number of communities. 5. the plateau area and 288 . the desert area. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. curriculum signifies situations for learning. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. in the form of new experience. present behaviour may be modified. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. maintained or eliminated.. In the former sense.S. From the latter point of view. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. curriculum. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5.3. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan.

much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. Again. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. 5. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. differs from individual to individual. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. and 289 . customs and needs. according to modern trends in the educational process. therefore. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. Besides craft.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. too. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. It must differ from locality and from society to society. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. democratic and socialistic country. environment. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. it is. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy.3. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. From a slave-country we became secular. the learning capacity of children. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. studying therein. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. irrespective of their needs and environment. In fact . However.

objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. social. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery.. uninspiring and unscientific. in instructional objectives. Vocational Efficiency. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Goals of Primary Education. aims. tangible. etc. They speak of immediate purposes of education. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . moral.g. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. unambiguous and functional. e. They speak of perfect goals. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.g.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. social. unsatisfactory. which may or may not be attained. 1.. So it is inadequate. Application Objective. individual or Social and so on. Goals of Secondary Education. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. aesthetic and spiritual development. They are visionary goals e. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. Understanding Objective. of classroom. emotional.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. 5. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. specific. 2. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. they depend on the political. etc. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. 4.. 290 . Knowledge Objective. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. They are achievable.. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. They may be ultimate or proximate. general or specific.. National Integration.3.g. The word “Curere” means 2. remote or immediate. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. eg. e. 3. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. Self Realisation.

5.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. heavy fire. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. The interests.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. in the class rooms. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. Raymont rightly says. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. According to Crow and Crow. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. capacities. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. finding them very interesting and captivating. Crow and Crow remarks. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. educationists. but it includes the totality of experiences.3.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. abilities. on the playing fields. needs. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future.” 291 . Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.

the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. time in a useful manner. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. capacities and abilities. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. tendencies. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. aptitudes. moral. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. Due to these variations and differences. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. urges. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. mental. They often waste it or rather kill it.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them.

: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. development of professional capability at all levels. phased preparation. 3. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. 293 . make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. administrative programme need be planned. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. 2. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. organized. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. To ensure success of the process. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. Similarly. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning.curricular.

principles of curriculum construction. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. laboratory. Run.3. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. library. 5.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 1937 19. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. workshop. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.3. a.3. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . 18. 17. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. 11. Relation with Life c. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. in the class room. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. 10. Child Centred Education b. 12.

Lakshmi. N.3. (2007). P.K. New Delhi : Isha Books. Bhalla.5. S. Innovations in Education. S.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. New Delhi : Authorspress. (2007). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. D. (2007). Curriculum and Instruction. 295 . Curriculum Development. (2001). and Sarita Kumari.S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.

4.4.4.4.3 5.10 5.4.1 5.4.7.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.9 5.7.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.8 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.6.4 5.4.4.4.7.6.7.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.LESSON 5.5 5.4.2 5.4.4.

They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. 2. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. newer and newer industries started growing. you will be able to: 1.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not.5. 5.4. 5. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. 4.during the second half of this century. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. know the importance of science education. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. Gradually. 3. in the economic reconstruction of society.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. 297 . honesty. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. yet real advancement in this area was achieved .side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. open-mindedness. We mean curiosity. tolerance for the opinions of others. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking.4. superstition or emotion. explain the concept of scientific attitude.4.

4. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work.So that.4. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Principles are formulated. 5. Schemes of teaching science. seminars and symposiums. Thinking and memory develops. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Through examinations. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. 2. 3. stipends and appreciations in various ways. 6. Central science workshop. After such experience and training. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 5. Organisation of science fairs. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 4. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Devotion towards nature increases. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. 7. Selection for science education. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Promotion of science clubs. 5. 5. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. 3. 2. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Through newspapers. as well as of the society. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 6. Love for truth enhances. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 .4.

Write any two advantages of Science Education. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. After presenting the problem. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. Enquiry teaching is. each child to “enquiry skill building”. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.6. essential that teachers.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. In the inquiry approach. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. therefore. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.needs and conditions. 5. Training of science teachers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. They encounter many social events as they grow. For laboratory and workshop techniques. objectivity. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. sex or religion. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. 5. They ask many questions about the objects they see. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . They experience natural phenomenon.4. 7. should provide opportunities to. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. It is.

offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook.4. 3. 5. 300 . proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Appreciating pupils ideas. Social sciences. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to ask questions and experience things. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. 4. Giving less directions. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Evidence.Herma Wouk. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. test.6. 6. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . 3. stern pursuit of accurate data.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1.books. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 5. . Adopting creative models of teaching.4. if they like. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. It requires consistent thinking. . Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. commands or orders. 2.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation.

In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way.(Smith 2008). In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. keen observation. The students observation. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. (Vaidya 2007). Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. of vast resources running waste. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. to develop among the learners. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. neighbourhood. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. For instance. therefore should be unbiased and objective. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. To achieve this we should understand what it means. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. practiced. friends. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. 5. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. it must be encouraged.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . These include open mindedness. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. school and society at large.4.7. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. and emphasized during the learning process . critical thinking and suspended judgments.

The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. think and work it”. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. rumor. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. (Das. he studies all aspects of it. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. intuition or wishful thinking”. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. understanding and logic. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. The intention to respect another’s point of view. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. 5. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. He is patient and reserved in his judgement.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.4. or superstitions. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. 302 .2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions.7. In considering a situation or a problem. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. 2007). An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof.

The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.7. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.7.4. • 5.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. but to begin only after careful planning.4. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. 5. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.

practiced and emphasized during the learning process. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. 5. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. it must be encourages. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.4. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. 304 .

(2006). A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. a. D. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. objectivity. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.S. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. b. 4. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. N. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. b. Study of superstitions d. a. S. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Planning of activities 5.4. b. Adopting creative models of teaching. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. 5.4. 16. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. 3. Wide reading b. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Rao.B (2008). 5. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. Reflections on Scientific attitude. 305 .5. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Vaidya. (2008). Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. 2. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Yadav. (2000). M. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools.4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. a. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Proper example of the teacher c. a. Love for truth enhances.

5. 5.5. actively.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.8 5.LESSON 5. 2. you will be able to: 1.5.5.4 5.10 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. areas of institutional planning.5.5.5 5.3 5.5.5.5.11 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5. 306 .5.9 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.6 5.1 5. objectives and characteristics.5. state the concept.7 5.5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5.2 5.

every parent. teachers and students is not lost sight of. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. 5. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. • To make institutional planning more successful. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans.3.5. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. which become the bases for further planning at the district. Institution should be regarded as the unit. • to make planning development-oriented. and each student are regarded as separate entities. executive as well as public. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. 5. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning.5. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. and. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. in the task of educational planning. and every student in the process of educational planning. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. and supplement planning from above. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. State and national levels from below. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. each teacher. every teacher. • to involve teachers and school administrators. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy.

(3) TeachingLearning Aids. it becomes the basis for school inspection. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. Co-curricular activities. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. Examinations. etc. 308 . Syllabus. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. 5. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs.• implemented. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. (2) Co. approved after making necessary modifications. Classwork.curricular Activities. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. council and.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. and Personnel services.5. which will be discussed in the general. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.5.

Preparation of instructional material. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . etc. Organising play-for-all programmes. etc. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Courts.No. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Undertaking remedial instruction services. 3. Organisation of Pupils. etc. 2. etc. Conducting of educational. etc. Fair distribution of syllabi. charts and apparatus. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Organisation of Students’ Association. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Running science clubs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Preparation of models. hobby-centres. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Equipping of laboratory and library. scientific and historical excursions. 1. Editing the school magazine. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Improving the internal assessment. Organisation of class-room libraries.

The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. co-operation.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. and solidarity.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved.” The human relationships in. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. headmasters associations. administrator-pupil. pupil310 . administrator-administrator. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. pupils. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. science teachers’ associations. teacher-managing body. involving mainly human materials. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher.5. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. teacher-State. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. teacherinspector. etc. understanding. administrator-supervisor. parent-teacher associations. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. teachers. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. teacher-pupil. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. teacher-teacher. Administrator-State. parents.5. ii. and —pupil-pupil. students’ associations. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. which are divided as the in.

teacher-community leader. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. to attend. teacher-parent.5. Good. now-a-days. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. It is also being modernized to become a technique. V. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. It covers personnel and material management. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. 311 . The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. It relates to administration of a single educational institution." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. etc. and to serve. According to C. control. To administer means to manage. organisation. supervision and superintendence. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. superintendence.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. supervision. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. pupil-community leader. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. organisation and management. pupil-parent.State. administrator. to carry out. pupil-non-official functionaries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. pupil-inspector. to accomplish. social sciences and other disciplines.

lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . Worker Participation . He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. it is not worth-while. 7. Better Human Relationships . Communication . 11. He should be an artist in human relationships.Of all the approaches.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 13. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. 10.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. This is the latest democratic trend in management. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. Leadership . 6. who occupy the managerial positions. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. The relationship should change from master. 8.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.The manager should have leadership traits.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. 2.Any good management will always have good public relations. 12.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. Rapport between the Management and Employees . If the cost benefit ratio is less. Cost-Benefit Analysis . Decision Making . He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. Those. 9. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 3. Liasion with the Public .The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 4. Socio-Scientific Approach . Democratic Management .The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. without this the efficacy will be handicapped.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. 5. low. Motiviation . Economic Management . He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . If it is more.

18.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept.5. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution.These two are. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. 14. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. 5.5. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. objective. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. enrichment of curricula. and cooperative performance should be ensured. 313 . to improve the quality of education it provides. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. improvement of teaching methods. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. 19.too.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Wastage and duplication should be avoided.g. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions.

a. In group and Out group 5. Tarachand and Prakash. Classwork. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. a.K.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. b. 4. Instruction.M. Syllabus. Communication 5. Educational Administration. b.5.5. 314 . New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. it becomes the basis for school inspection. APH Publishing Corporation. R. S. Leadership c. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. b. NUEPA. Singh. d. Examinations. H. f. Fundamental of Educational Management. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. c. (2001). Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. (1995). Motiviation d. Co-curricular activities.5. 2. a. (2003). and Personnel services. e. Decision Making b. a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .Article 45 . Code of conduct for teachers.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. nutritional requirement. 4.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .1 School Health Programme. Inspection and Supervision 3.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. 1. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Buddhist and Jain system of education.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Realized the problems of school education. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . 2. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. population education. physical education and environmental education 5. wastage and Stagnation 3. women education and teacher education in India. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.I.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.2 Nutritional deficiencies.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. higher education.1 Gurukula system of education. Community and Mass Media 2.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Examination reforms.CORE PAPER . Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.4 India's Secular Policy .4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Sex-education 4.5 Regional Educational Development in India . Common ailments of Children. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Communicable diseases .Religious and Modern Education 1. Preservation of nutrients. First Aid.Preventive measures.1 Primary Education : Education for all. New evaluation procedures. School.Pre-service and In-services facilities. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. Healthy Food Habit 4.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. social Impact 3.3 Directive Principles . Economic 315 . Balanced diet.3 Educational Influences of Home.teachers should have : 1.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.

3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . 316 . New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. and Sharma R. Curriculum and national goals . Ram S. Saraswathi T. B.K. 7. 5.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.N. Ghanta R.4 4. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Hemchand.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Pandy V. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.C. Socialization.4. T. Sharma. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.K.K. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Tagore 5. REFERENCE 1. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Mahatma Gandhi. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.R.S. (1999) Culture.1 Idealism. Realism. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.Aim.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.N. and Human Development. Delhi : University Publications 2. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. (2005) Foundations of Education. and Dash B. and Mohanty R. R.K. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Naturalism and Pragmatism . Prof. curriculum and teacher's role 5. (2004) Problems of Education in India. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. Mishra. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Taneja V.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful