BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Lesson 4. and Jain system of education. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. Jainism and their educational implication. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. The need. Lesson 2. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. In. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. 9 . Lesson 5. discusses the regional educational development in India.

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5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .LESSON 1.1.6.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1.3.1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1 1.5.6.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1.1.1.1.5.5 Jain system of education 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.4.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1.5.6.1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.1.2 1.5.6 Education during British Era 1.4.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1.6.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.6.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1.3.

while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. 1.1.1. British system of education presented the modern western model. elucidate the education during British Era.1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. has a long past history starting in vedic education.1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. “a class of persons.9 1. The history of education passed through Buddhist.1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.6. but English in taste.7 1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. Muslim and British periods. Indian in blood and colour.6. both present and future. 1. you will be able to: 1.1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. Education in India.1. That 12 . India.1. 1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.8 1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. in morals and in the intellect”. describe the Jain system of Education 4. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. in opinion.3.

The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. 16. Teacher as Parents. questioning by the pupil. Role of Travel in Education. It was also moral. individually. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Education was a private affair of the people.knowledge was real. Forests as Centres of Education. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. generally. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Method of Instruction. Pupils were taught. No State Control on Education. 9. 8. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. 13. 14. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. 3. Curriculum. Religious and Spiritual. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. 11. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. not en masse by the class method. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Free and Accessible. with grants of land or money. It was not merely intellectual. Method of Study. from eternal to immorality 2. and to agriculture and trade. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. 10. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. 5. Immediate Aim Vocational. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. There was. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. to light. 6. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. 4. Education of Moral. if they thought fit to do so. religious and spiritual. from darkness. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 13 . Individual Teaching. followed by explanation by the teacher. however. High Status of Teachers. the monitorial plan was followed. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. The immediate aim of education. 12. Residential Schools. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Where pupils were many. as it is generally considered to be at present. managed entirely by Brahmans. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family.

The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. studied Vedas. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. It was freely available to all those who wanted. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. lived a life of celebacy.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It was suited to the needs of the society.3. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . They were very cordial and intimate. 2. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Wide-Spread Education in Women. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? .1. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values.17. besides preparing for worldly pursuits.

Education was imparted through the. 15 . the most significant of which were the following 1. etc. Right thought 3. Right activity 5. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. partaking of food at prohibited times. every class in society. Right contemplation 1. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. impure conduct. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. I take Refuge to Sangh. use of cosmetics. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. which included abstaining from theft. I take Refuge to Dharma. It was denied only to the ill. the student remained in a state of Shramana. the student had his head shaved of all hair. had the right to receive education. After attaining the age of 20. the handicapped. Right speech 4. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. taking things without being offered. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Right means of livelihood 6.4.1.C.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. except the Chandals. killing of any living being. disease and death of the human beings. Consequently. dressed himself in yellow clothes. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. 2. Right knowledge 2. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. watching dances or listening to music. Right memory 8. Right endeavour 7. medium of Pali. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. 1. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. use of intoxicating things. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. in which. he was qualified to become a monk. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes.

it is regarded as true”. so long as it successfully does so. These are called later Buddhist schools. 8. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. medicine. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. magic.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. agriculture. beg for alms. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. geology. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. elephant lore. has no metaphysical value for life. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. archery. of clothes. arithmetic and religious discussion.3. 4. aspirations and. Whatever its nature and extent. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. 7. It comprehended education in writing. therefore. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. approach. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. Even at this stage. On this occasion. and. archery. changing the goals. education was impart in art. assumptions. handicrafts. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. depth and range. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. a change is not only total but also perpetual.. etc. however. be considered the aim of education It. nature. 6. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. objectives of human life. knowledge of reviving the dead. 2. Initially. etc. Later on. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. bodily gestures. along with education in script writing. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. women occupied a position inferior to men. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. eat food thrice a day. Hence. animal husbandry. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline.4. a continuous change creating 16 . cottage industries. As reality is becoming. 3. the presence of the monks was essential. nothing is of any permanent consequence. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. Life is in a flux. military science. meaning. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. 5. etc. the science of taming and training animals. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. commerce. 1. control over sensuous activities. wear three items. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. After this ritual. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period.

1. However. and to give it a shape that it has today. i. whatever works are true and good. In fact.. 1. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. Write Eight fold path . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. goes to Vardhaman. it is much older than the latter. however. such as. Education must. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed.5. its pessimistic outlook on life. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him.new and peculiar situations. Its chief feature. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. Validity is effective and consequences. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. therefore. Jainism insists 17 .e. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas.

Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. 5. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. b) Not utter falsehood. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. 3. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 4. 6. and believe in happiness to all. 10. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. They are: a) Not to injure. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Hence. 1. rather than the interpretation of the universe. 1. and is to be redeemed and liberated. 3. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. c) Not to steal. 7.5. but on both. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. thought and deed.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. it has a foot in both the words. 2. 8. As such. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. c) Right conduct. 2. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim.1. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. more stress on individual aims. 9. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. b) Right knowledge. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Development of personality as an individual. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. e) To renounce the world.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. d) To lead a celibate life. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. 18 . and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom.

therefore. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . What are Triratnas ? . Teaching must develop these faculties. Teaching should be social and tolerant. 2. 2.4. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. 1. 3. Belief in transmigration of soul. Hence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Jiva is essentially karmic. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. 8.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. education must be action based and ideally oriented. education should develop sense of discrimination. and should bring happiness to all. success and love.5. practised and not only aspired for. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. here and now.5. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. 19 . 3. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. that would be socially desirable.

1. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. 1953).4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. Madras. with rally and rout. Bombay. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.6. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. 1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. science. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854).1.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. and not for life. philosophy and literature of Europe. However. primary 20 . public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. To set up separate departments of. 1.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. 2.6. North West Province and Punjab. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. 1. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.6. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts.1. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”.6.

6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. namely.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. The universities dominated the secondary education. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education.6. self-respecting and competent.K. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 .6. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. To ensure qualitative improvement. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Later on. secondary education became a step towards university. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937).5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. 1. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. In 1882. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. • Secondary education. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools.education was neglected. At that time M. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. 1. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. 1. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. • Universal free primary education. at the primary level. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men.6.

The objective of education was to provide 22 . During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. all children are to have a common curriculum. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education.1.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.At the primary stage (6-11 years). The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . After this stage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. 10. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1.

4. Right endeavour. During the Buddhist period. 6. archery. 4. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools.education of European literature. Right speech. arithmetic and religious discussion. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. along with education in script writing. Right memory. The immediate aim of education. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. 2. the science of taming and training animals. It was suited to the needs of the society. 1. Right contemplation. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. education was impart in art. 23 .. Right knowledge.1. followed by explanation by the teacher. 2. Right activity. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. b. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. science and English language.1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. handicrafts. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. establishment of universities. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. military science. The system of education was well-organised. geology. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. questioning by the pupil. 3. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. Right means of livelihood. a. 5. etc. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 1. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Right thought. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses.

7. Right conduct. (1984). Singh. b. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Y. b. 24 . 8. (2005). (2007). Sharma. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva.C.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.K.C. History of Indian Education System. a. 9. J.1. a. Y. 10. Right faith. and Nath. R. c. Improvement of Literature. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Aggarwal. more stress on individual aims. 1882. Right knowledge. (2009). Development of personality as an individual. Ltd. 11. Hence. J. Sargent report 12.K. 1937 1. Ltd. Development of Educational System in India.

2.2.2.3.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.LESSON 1.2.1 1.6 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.5 1.2.2.2.2.8 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.3.2.7 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.9 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1. The 25 .2.4 1.2.2.2.2.3.2 1.1 University Education Commission 1.3.

3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. S. examination system. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. Kothari (1964-66) 8. New Educational Policy.2. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7.conditions of the teachers. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. girls and women education besides primary. standard of teaching. 2.3. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. technological engineering. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. 1. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. explosion of enrolment. National Council for Women’s Education 5. Post-graduate 26 . Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. expansion of vocational.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. 1. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. There had been vast institutional expansion. analyse the progress of education in free India. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. secondary and higher education. you will be able to: 1.2. curriculum.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. National Board of Teacher Education 10. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. vocational education. diversification of courses of studies.2.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. medical and legal education. technical. 1986 1.

the chairman of University Grants commission. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. Finally.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1.3.S. material and spiritual. The national system of education envisages common educational structure.2. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. quality. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. the New National Policy on Education. National System of Education. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 2. Education for Equality. 1. utility and financial outlay. 1. A. 1966. Therefore. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. quantity. 1. Problems of access. However. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. accumulated over the years. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.teaching.3. Kothari.2. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. 1986. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. D.2. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. 3. in January 1985. A meaningfully Partnership. 1952. The Essence and Role of Education. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . 4. Education is the key to our allround development. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. Government of India. research et. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country.3.

Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production.2. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. The UNESCO Report. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. It can train practical aptitudes. Thus. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. By working with hands. the minorities and the handicapped. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. 28 . needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. attitudes. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the concepts of work experience. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” Thus.

This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. the Commission. With adequate planning. co-ordinations. In 1955. if he wishes. it will conduce self.employment and promote economic independence of the youth.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. The Radhakrishnan Commission. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. The Education Commission. co-operation and implementation of the scheme.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . As such.” The Mudaliar Commission. Besides. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. “The aim of these colleges. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. According to. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. “It may be described. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation.

the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. Therefore. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. In addition. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. With a view to relating education to the life. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education.ot her. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. for quality of life in the rural areas. the semester and credit system. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. raising the special facilities. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. admission requirements to vocational courses. Subsequently. The Central Advisory Board of Education. etc. the. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures.. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. the rigid streaming of courses. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated.

felt that education should be centred around a craft.2. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. aimed at this goal.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. etc. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. meaningful. In short. technological courses including Agriculture. The Father of Nation. 1.defined S UP W as “purposive. who conceived the System of Basic Education. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained.. meaningful. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. According to committee. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. giving importance to productivity in the national development. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. The wave of Basic Education. manual work resulting in either goods or services. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. Commerce. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions.and the world of work. which swept the country for over two decades. preferably spinning and weaving. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. which are useful to the community. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. which offer scientific. 31 . under the diversified curricula of seven streams.

Food 3. Culture and recreation 6. be that the work involved is: 1. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Experimentation with materials. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Productive 2. Shelter 4. 32 . This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. tools and techniques and 3. so that it is educational in essence. 4. 2. 3. locally available materials and tools. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Community work and social service. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. The teachers should make use of. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Work practice. as far as possible. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Clothing 5. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Health and Hygiene 2. Educative and 3. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme.

the local community should be actively associated. Community Service In-1972. Productive Work 33 . 1. 6. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. To make education more realistic. as far as possible. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Merits of the Programme 1. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. removal of illiteracy. slum clearance. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. It can become an instrument to build character.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Education through work The SUPW should. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. improve discipline. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. inculcate a faith. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. etc.5. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood.2. Check on educated unemployed 4. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration.

Define SUPW 34 . and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. offering first aid. etc. AICTE was set up in year 4. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. should involve itself in the educational effort. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. helping the adults-in productive work. if not productive. The community. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . helping the adults in festivals and Functions. traffic control. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. in turn. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. skills and better future for the children.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour.

Write short note on SUPW. meaningful. a.2. 6. b. 35 . Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. f. 2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. which are useful to the community. 1955 4.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. Dr. 1952 3. d. 1.1. 3. Radhakrishnan 2. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. manual work resulting in either goods or services. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. 1. e.2. c.

Singh.2. Publishing Corporation. History of Indian Education System.D. 36 . (2005).K. : Sharma. R. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. (2007).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.K.C. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. Y. (2007). New Delhi: A. V.. B. J. History and Problems of Indian Education. Development of Educational System in India.K. History of Education. Anupama.(2005). A. Ltd. Y.P. and Nath. (2009). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Amala. P. and Rao. Rao.1.P.H.

3.3. and liberty. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. for a total of 117.3.3. there is an official Hindi translation.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. containing 395 articles.3.369 words in the English language version.3.1 1.6 1. equality.3.3. Being the supreme law of the country.2 1.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Besides the English version.9 1. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3. establishing the structure.4 1.1 Significance of DPSP 1.3. 1950. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. procedures.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.8 1. democratic republic. directive principles and duties of citizens. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.3.7 1. assuring its citizens of justice.3. 1949. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. it came into effect on January 26. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.5 1.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. 37 .

1947 meeting of the Assembly. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. 38 . 1. According to the constitution. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. for 166 days. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. 2. 1947. spread over a period of 2 years. economic.3. After many deliberations and some modifications. 1947.3.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. the Drafting Committee was appointed. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. learn the role of central and state government on education. with Dr. in sessions open to public. 1950. administrative. 1. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. The Assembly met. Through them. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. On August 29.3. you will be able to: 1. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. understand our Indian constitution.In the August 14. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 4. political. legal and environmental.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 3.3. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. Dr. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. social. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Two days later. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature.

No abuse of children. Minimising inequalities of opportunities.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Article 41. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. provide free legal aid. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Organisation of village panchayat. and in other cases of undeserved want. Protecting children from exploitation. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Protecting health of the workers. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. That the health and strength of workers. men and women. 39 . old age. Article 40. Article 43. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. for workers. Minimising inequalities in status. sickness and disablement. Right to work. Condition for dignity of children.government. Liking wage etc. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. and shall. make effective provision for securing the right to work. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Equal justice and free legal aid. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Article 39A. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. in particular. Article 42. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Appropriate concentration of wealth. The State shall endeavour to secure. Equal pay for both sex. The State shall. on the basis of equal opportunity.

of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 43A. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 49. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Article 46. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Article 45. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Article 48A. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. industrial or otherwise. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. (Original Article 45. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. See also Article 21A). agricultural. by suitable legislation or in any other way. 2002 for “45. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Article 47. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. a living wage. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. The State shall take steps. in particular. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. The State shall endeavour to provide. in particular. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. and. work. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Note: Subs. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. to all workers. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 44. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. [declared by or under law made by 40 . in particular. Participation of workers in management of industries. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Article 48.

destruction. Separation of judiciary from executive.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Article 45 . “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. disposal or export. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. disfigurement. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. may be law determine”. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Promotion of international peace and security.3. Article-21A Right to Education. 2002. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. as the case may be. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. 1. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. from spoliation. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.Parliament] to be of national importance. removal. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. Article 51. Article 50. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution.

5. ii. race. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. 7.” 42 . and. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. 6. 4. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. from justice and all forms of exploitations. his guardian has given his consent thereto. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. and shall protect them. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. in particular. 2002. caste. 8. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. if such person is a minor. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. language or any of them”. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. iii. 3. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups.

Provision for Education for minorities is given in .3. The central government determines targets and promotes education. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. & 1. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 43 . for its vocabulary. Article 351 gives importance to 6. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. 2.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. the forms. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. wherever necessary or desirable. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Educational Reforms From time to time.9. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. and by drawing.

Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. 4. So that they may work well. 7. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. 8. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. etc.3. So as to encourage education on right lines. Merit scholarships in the public schools c.. By starting these projects. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Local bodies and private enterprise. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. The following pilot projects. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. 6. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). private agencies etc. the state governments. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. 5. Production of suitable for children and adults f. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. to achieve the desired ends. All India Council of Medical Science.

To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. 3. 9. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers.3. etc. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. reports etc. The 45 . 1. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. is the state responsibility. 12. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. 1. are published by it. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. 4. 10. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. research. books. training and statistics. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. education for women. 11. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. handicapped.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized.

3. Article 46 4.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 1. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Article 45 b. articles in the Directive principles. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. 1. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9.3.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Write short notes on a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 46 . Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . 5. Article 21A c. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Explain Directive principles 2. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. The Directive Principles of State Policy. Article-21A Right to Education. Article 45 . Ambedkar 2. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. 2002. 3. may be law determine”. a.3. 4. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article 46 5.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Development of Hindi Language 6. Describe the educational role of State Government. b. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 1. Clearing House function 9. b. a.5. a. 2002. Article 29 and 30 7. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Dr. 47 .

10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta.1. Bhatia. (2009). 48 . Education in Emerging Indian Society. Dash. Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2007). S. N. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. (2008). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. L. K.3. K and Narang C. S. (2004). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ghosh. B. New Delhi: Shipra Publications.

Christianity.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.1 1.2 1.4.3.4.4. religious education should be broad based.4.4.4 Moral education 1. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.4.4.8 1. Islam.4. Buddhism etc.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1. Students should be 49 .4.4.1 Why Moral Education 1.4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4.3.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1. Jainism.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.6 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.3.4.7 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.5 1.

it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Thus. you will be able to: 1. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment.. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. beauty and goodness so that 50 . understand the relationship between religion and education 2.” Education broadens human outlook.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. duty-consciousness. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. integrity. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance.and dedication.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.4. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. know the position of religious education in our country 3. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. In the complicated and complex society of today. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. religious education and the concept of secularism.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. India' can produce men of character. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. "In A multireligious society like ours.4. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. As result of which. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).D. state meaning and need for moral education 1. 1. According to E. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher.

4. religion and democracy are same. Children attend these organizations.3.3. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. Hence. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. As our country is a country of diverse religions. 1. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. No religious tax can be imposed on them. castes and creeds. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. Viewing the defects of religious education. As a matter of fact. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. all citizens are free to follow any creed. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. it is clear that the State has no religion. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes.4. According to Article 22.” From the above. Thus. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. In short. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. 1947 we achieved our freedom. at least occasionally. 1. realizes God in himself. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. They thought that any kind of narrow. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. rancour. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. through religious practices and 51 . According to Article 19. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. if not regularly.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. "In view of the provision in the Constitution.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education.

Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. moral and spiritual values. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual.. which help him for the development of his character. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. and what is evil.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. He also learns about social. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. temperament etc. which can mould. As a result of which. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. It helps to modify habits attitudes. when he becomes an adult. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . what is done and what is not done etc. Good education. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. for the development of the individual and the society. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. If unreleased. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. It is religious education.teachings. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. intellectual and physical faculties of children. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. aggressive. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. one fully developed. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action.

If we open the pages of history. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning.4. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. This should not be allowed to happen. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. which is the basic need of a democratic life. 3. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Therefore.3. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. 2. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. 1. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. towards the society. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. 53 . Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument.

Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Life histories of great persons of the world. 11. examples of patriotism.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . therefore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write Article 22 2. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. they should be discussed in the right earnest.4. For this. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Gurudwara as. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Since all religions have virtues. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. fellow-feeling.5. stories of moral greatness. 10. churches and mosques 7. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.

8. Asvada (Control of palate). Swadeshi (Patriotism). 2. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 55 . Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). 6. is that which develops moral values. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. students. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 5. 8. Brahmacharya (celebacy). the methods of teaching.acquisitiveness). Satyam (truth). 3. Ahimsa (Non-violence). 4. Non-injury. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 5. 7. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 1. They will play their role effectively. 2. Cultivation of emotions. It they learn what morality is in their early years. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 3. Without moral values. 1. Purity. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 4. therefore. let men see well of one another.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Aparigarha (Non.4. Service to others. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. 7. 6. Patriotism.4. Fearlessness. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). The content of the curriculum. Self sacrifice. “Let all be happy and free from disease. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. in the home.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Moral education.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others.

7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. 3. Asatyam (Non-thieving). two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. National unity and Spiritual values. Efficiency. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. The School Assembly should be held for a few. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Integrity. Unity of mankind. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. minutes in the morning for group singing. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. 11. 2. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . 4. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Good manners. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. 3. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Discipline.4. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Secondary Stage 1. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. 10. Good temper.9. Simple texts and stories concerning different. 1. Sharivashram (Physical work). The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. 56 . In the school programme. discipline. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. religions may be included in the syllabus.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. In this connection. Silent meditation should be encouraged. 3. 5. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year .4. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. love of humanity. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. 57 . A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. patriotism and self-discipline. 5. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 4. should form a normal part of school programme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In other words. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. University Stage 1. 2. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage.

The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. a.4. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. 4. 1959 5. In short. minutes in the morning for group singing. Sri Prakasa 6 .8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. 2.1. b. 2. Training of Character 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. b. The School Assembly should be held for a few. For this. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. 1. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. the. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. 58 .4. a. a. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. Discuss the aims of Religious education. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development.4. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.

L. K and Narang C.H. B.H. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C. Anmol Publications Pvt. 59 . Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.P. Ltd.1. N. Publishing Corporation. (2008). (2003). Dash. K.4. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. P. M. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Siddiqui. (2008). (2007).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Bhatia. New Delhi: A. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Pahuja. N. (2004). J.

Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.3 1.5. i.12 1.8 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.5.5.1 1.5.5.5.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context..7 1. Although.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.6 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.10 1.5.5.5. disparities between provinces/States.e. 60 .5.5.9 1.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.11 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.

3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 7. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. for example. waters. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. 1. they take appropriate measures.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. 5. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 2. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. They therefore. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. 1. 4. This leads to separatist movements.5. understand the regional educational development in India 3. you will be able to: 1.5. 1. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 8.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. know the education suited to different environments. energy. work hard towards this end. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1.5.1. 3. 6. 61 . Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. etc. Accordingly. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. roads.

There are many reasons for this during the British rule. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. some average. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. Secularism. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. some States became educationally far advanced. 3. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. 4. on the basis of regional development may be formed. Tight security arrangements should be made. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. 2. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. while others remained educationally backward.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. and. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. Therefore. • Separate States (of course viable States). 62 .5.

Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. library buildings. 1. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. academic buildings. and provision of informal education to enable those.5. Regional Centres of IGNOU.84 crore was released in 2005-06. Jammu and Kashmir.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice.. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. However. scholarships. In the Central sector. NIT. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. Funds amounting to Rs. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Guwahati.480. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters.g. remained under developed. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. the State Governments. Silchar.14. Tezpur. 63 . etc. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Itanagar. while some States like Bihar. approved proposals worth Rs. since its inception in 1998-99. the Union Government.After the Planning Process has originated.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. Nagaland and NEHU. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. Mizoram. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments.392. etc. Even in each State. books. These projects are in various stages of implementation. Central Universities of Assam. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Out of this. NERIST. After the attainment of independence. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. Rs. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.

The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.57 crore and Rs. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).500. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. 64 . the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.8 per cent in 05).40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Out of this an amount of Rs. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. A provision of Rs. During 2003-04.40. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.261. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. Moreover.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.501. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. Tezpur University.5.05 crore and Rs. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. too.187. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Government expenditure on education.

too. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Moreover. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. 1. telecom. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. for instance. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. The Chandigarh Administration. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. for which 16 sites. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. too. is very low compared to Southern and western parts.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . health services and welfare of the citizen population. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. engineering and R&D. notes the study. Karnataka. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Listing the positives. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Tamil Nadu. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats.5. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. To add to the woes. Andhra Pradesh. pharma. English. too. Kerala and Gujarat. Medical education. Karnataka. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu.

For a learner living in a rural area. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. 66 . But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Of course. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. the curricular subjects. the needs. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. the working days: an academic . Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. when he will not be sure of time. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. taking the average in the middle. and so on. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. even actually looking at the watch. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. Hence it is called as need-based. which a non-tribal person cannot do. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. Then education become realistic and idealistic. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. In the same manner. The working hours of educational institutions. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. life-oriented and environment slanted.year. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. the interests. the socio-physical conditions. the teaching methods. the vocations. The living conditions. while the former does not. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. in which the learners live. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only.

Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.5.5.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. to suit education to different environments? 1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . 2. 67 . 2.

K.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. some States have become more developed than others b. 68 . 60% 1. some of areas which were under the native rulers. S.H. Educational Development in India. Education Scenario in India.G. C. remained undeveloped 3. during the British rule. A. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.N. and Nair. Salim. (2008). (2002). Dubey. New Delhi: Authors press. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. (2001). R. a. Education in Developmental Arena.2. S. Giridhar.5.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

community development. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. semi literate and illiterates. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. 71 . Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. National Integration. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. school community and mass media. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept.

6.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.1.1.1.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.3 2.8 2.1.6 Education for Secularism 2.6. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.1.4 2.1.5.5.2 2.1 2.6.9 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .7 2.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.1.LESSON 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.

analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. In the matter of admitting students in schools. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality.1.1. The students may be associated with the management of the school. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 73 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. for the people by the people”. you will be able to: 1. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. there should be made no distinction of caste. 2. 5) Encouragement to Group Work.2. creed. socialism and secularism 2. 3) Provision of Manual Work. socialistic and secular state. 2. Democracy thus means power of the people. Abraham Lincoln. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. socialism and secularism 2.1. This is the political aspect of democracy.1.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. understand the concept of democracy. colour or wealth. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.

What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. 11) Student Parliament. There are different brands of socialism. may be planned.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 12) Visits to Legislatures. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia.1. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. it soon spread all over the world. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum.. 74 . declamation contest etc. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Democracy means 2. debates. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together.

2) Socialism aims at equality. the prince and the peasant. Under it. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. the wealthy and the poor.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society.5. 2.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. none high”. free from exploitation.1. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. but on the path of non-violence. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 7) Special facilities for girls. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 75 .1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. oppression and disparity. 2. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. service and cooperation. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling.5. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work.1.

The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. “India is a secular-country. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. 5. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. 2. 76 . moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’.1. According to Holydake. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. secularism is being propagated. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. Everyone says. Write any two main features of socialism. 11) State schools. "which seeks the development of physical.” In every political and educational corner. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth.

And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity.1. A large number of people is uneducated.6. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. 5) It implies tolerance. people have narrow mindedness. liberty. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. the belief that the state morals. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. People have different religions and they have different beliefs.opposed to religious education. 3) It permits freedom of worship. fraternity.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. Equality. Moral values have to be imbibed. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 77 . During the recent past. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 8) It believes in co-existence.1. In this type of prevailing situations.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. should be independent of religion. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. There is need of making the people open minded. people started believing in regionalism. 9) It stress free inquiry. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. That is why. 2. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. education etc.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. “Webster further says.6.

many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations.6. 1) Moral Education. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. education. Patiala.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. No doubt. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. Religious Education. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. students belonging to different religions should be associated.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. In the celebration of each such function. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. The very sight of the building.1. tours and trips may be organized. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. While doing so.presented by the students in the gathering. In the hands of such teachers. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. 2. that the central string of all religions is one. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. There should be some internal checking of the material being. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The word “Seculum” means 7.1. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. No doubt. The term secularism was first used by 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Secularism 9. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . 2. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions.

Socialism aims at social justice. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Tuition free education b. 3. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Provision of Manual Work. George Jacob Holydake 80 . Explain the concept of Democracy in education. 6. there should be made no distinction of caste. a. Abraham Lincoln. The students may be associated with the management of the school. for the people and the people”. 3. Power of the people 2. 2. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. a. b. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Since socialism stands for equality.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. creed. Socialism aims at equality. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. c. In the matter of admitting students in schools. This present age 7.1. 5. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. b. 5. Respect of Individual Personality. colour or wealth. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Equal Opportunities for Admission. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. 4. a. d.

(2007). K. J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Anmol Publications Pvt. should be independent of religion. Ltd. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. J. the belief that the state morals.C. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.1. It treats all religions on an equal footing. K and Narang C. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.” 9. P. Theory and Principles of Education. Mohanty. (2003). Dash. 10.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. It permits freedom of religion. Bhatia. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. 81 . Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. N. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. education etc. L. (2004). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). a. N. a. b.8. Ltd. Modern Trends in Indian Education. B. New Delhi : Pahuja. (2005). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. b. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2.

1 International understanding in the school 2.2.2.2 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .5.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.8 2.7 2.9 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.10 2.6.3 2.2.4 2.2.2.5.2.2.LESSON 2.2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.6.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2.1 2.2.

as workers. as learners. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. who are placed in his custody. mental. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. understandings. moral. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. a r e 1. 83 . social and moral aspects. aims and objectives of the school.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. you will be able to: 1. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4.2. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. 2.an instructor of school children. as citizens. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. The developmental roles of children. 2. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental.generation to another. development.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. social. It involves physical. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. emotional. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. application. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. and 4. as it is t he aim o f modern education. 2.2. as persons. A teacher is first and foremost. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. therefore. 3. skills. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower.

morally. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. emotionally. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. 3. and aesthetically to become. social and emotional health. The students live. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. inquisitive. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens.2. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. motivated. intellectually. a part of their day in 84 . economically effective. 1. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. mentally. physically fit for socially efficient. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. morally. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. member of his community at the outset. 2. Teacher as a Citizen Next. He has to look after their physical. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. mental. culturally confident. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen.All education should lead to better behavioural development.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. socially. He is to become an active member. experiences and acceptance. 2. The following are some of such roles described in brief.

games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. They will be spending with their parents. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. faiths. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. solve them. India is a land of many castes. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. 2.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. creeds. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. activities of the society into which he is born. Unless. science club.the school being under the custody of teachers. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward.2. List out the role of teachers towards community development . there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. It 85 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. photographic clubs. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. fine art associations.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. languages and religions. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. and most of hours. Dr. 4. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning.

therefore. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.2. the citizens of the Republic of India. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. social studies. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. Let us. narrow-minded provincial. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. should be emphasised. national anthem and other national songs. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. stand up straight. with straight backs and look up at the skies.” 2. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. the study of language and literature. folklore and teaching of social studies. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. this integration of the Indian people.5. Sampurnanand remarked. and make into one strong national unit. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. c.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. b. Nehruji has explained this as. poems. ‘We should not become parochial.” Regarding the role of education.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. It should broaden the outlook. At the primary stage the importance of stories. Radhakrishnan. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme.is. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. The only process is the process of education.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. 1. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . a. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality.

In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Taking Pledge. Co-Curricular Activities.different social sciences. symposia. 8. 87 . National Days—January 26. 9. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. 2. t he st udent s and t he community. Scouts and Guides. sports. tours. 6. Celebrations of National Days. 5. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. militar y training like the NCC. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. dramatics and youth festivals. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. ACC. educational excursions. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. 4. Singing of National Anthem. Uniform for School Children. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Textbooks. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. Student Camps. Reverence of National Flag. 7. debates. 10. and picnics. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. 3. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. languages and literature.

2. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 13. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 88 . School Projects. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. 2. ii. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc.11. 14. Admissions. ways of thinking and doing things. 15. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. 12. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Admissions to schools. Open-Air Dramas. flora and fauna. region or religion. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Recognition of Institutions. iv.5. language. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. iii. 16. Educational and Travel Documentaries. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Students Exchange and Tours. colour. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. v. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i.

Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. vii. cultures and races on equal bases. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 .2. irrespective of national boundaries. camps. 2. Community dinners. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. viii.vi. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Define National Integration 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. ix. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

e. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. 3. Organising of debates and. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. Therefore. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. Dr. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.. often in connection with anniversaries.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding.” 2.2. 2. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. This.6. if it happens.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. patriotism is not enough. (c) fairly tales. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. the international level. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. (b) stories of children of other lands.F. and the healthy development. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. 2. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes.as important as that of a national citizenship. Strong has observed. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.2. C. therefore. Teachers 90 . will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it.6. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations.friendships between children of different countries. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . 5. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. In a very real sense. Radhakrishnan states. of his body and mind. 4. 6. that war. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen.

Russian. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. a German. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts.” Well Informed About World Situations. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should not be propagandists. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Indian and American. an Englishman. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Impartial in their Treatment. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other.

The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. 3.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. Chronic Poverty .2. Wide Spread Frustration . Devaluation of Values . Soon after they leave their educational institutions. As the school is but a miniature society. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . 5.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. there is wide spread frustration among all people. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. 4. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. Defects of the educational System . they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. understand and indiscipline: 1. the education function can be carried. majority of people are.2. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . leading to. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. which results in agitation and aggression language. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. It does not prepare students for life. and help the students to over .For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. 2. If this is done.Another major.

democratic nature.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. sympathy and good will among the nations. community development. fellow feeling. co-operation. 3. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust.2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. 2. 2. love. 4. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. 5.2. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. etc. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. 93 .

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. are increasingly used in education. periodicals. Now internet is being used. the invention of the printing press. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. In fact. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. 2. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Emphasising this thing. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders.V. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. He taught his students orally. Moreover.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. During the course of time. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. art galleries. To make them achieve their aim. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. led to the printing of books. “All the citizens of the community. Then came newspapers. Hence. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Museums. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Define community. Crow and Crow write. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. books.

Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Thus. dram appreciation. Effective means of presenting music. “Listening participation” in current history. It enlightens public opinion. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Important happening inventions. music. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. In the emphasis is on sound.3. the place of importance. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. It is also an important source of entertainment. social studies.classroom teachers. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. A lot of work by way of pre. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion.G.6. Students listen various talks. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. politics.telecast. 2. the teacher still occupies. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. Reynolds. 101 . Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Various talks. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. 2. languages. current affairs and other areas. It stimulates curiosity and interests. art. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. rather than on picture. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. In collaboration with the experts. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Thus.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching.

102 . at play. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. Making learning an open system. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. at any place. travel talks. 5. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. mathematics. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. at drawing room. 4. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. At present. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. plays. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. development of lessons. informal and non-formal education. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. speech. at recreational centers. projects or creative activities. audibility and presentability. 3. School concerts. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. style. Participation of local teachers and pupils. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Before presenting the programme. Team-teaching demonstrations. fol classical music.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.1 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.3.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.2 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.8 2.4.3.6 2.4.4.3.4.4.4.4.4.3.4.4.4.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.7 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4.4.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.5 2.4.4.4.3 Advantages of formal education 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.LESSON 2.

3. the learner are acquainted. say the Government or the private enterprise. his mental alertness. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. it was mostly. 5. the mass media et.4. the community. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 6.4. 2.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. To realize this objective of education. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. you will be able to: 1. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. the most important agency of formal education. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. School is. imparted at the residence of the teacher. 7. 4. starting and ending at -a particular age. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. 2. 3. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 2. 9. 8. 3. open university. In ancient time in India.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. Education organised by some agency. 4. open school.. compare formal and non formal system of education. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college.4. the family. the temple.4. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. Education. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 2. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’.2. 110 . know the characteristics of formal and non formal education.

a secondary education. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society.4. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Concepts of proportion. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Higher Education: Higher education.2. or post secondary education. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. as well as vocational education and training. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.4. such as a high school or secondary school. third stage. and relations are formed and developed through normal play.3.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. In general. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. also called tertiary. depending on the jurisdiction. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. 2.3. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. or academic degrees. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. Some education systems have separate middle schools. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. the elements of language are first learned. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. structured education. Through early formal education.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. diplomas. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. capacity.

2. Agencies can be classified as 2. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.3.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. late beginners etc. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. 2. What are levels of formal educational system? . children with disabilities. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. 3. is an important agency of formal education.4. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. and remote dwellers.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped.which will help for nation's development.

To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. continuing education and on the job oriented education. It unlocks the doors of development plans.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. it is a more effective tool for rural development.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. systematic.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. i. financially supported life formal education.learning client take some learning objectives. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. It is much more responsive to needs and change. place of instruction.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. adults as well as children. It is deliberate. systematic. until 1970 it had not been defined. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. open learning. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. it has its own valid claim to reality. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’.formal education. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. Open university. one could say that non-formal education is an active. etc. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. planned. staffed. Therefore. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. Non-formal education includes adult education. Adiseshiah.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. Thus. However. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. admissions. curriculum. adding up to a true learning society.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. It is functional. “Non-formal education should 113 .e.. According to Malcolm A. to help themselves.

evaluation etc. age. co-curricular activities. i. national integration. 2.S. It should lay emphasis on the self.4. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. 2. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. Part-time education. 7. To develop in the student.learning pattern. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things.be marketable and vocationalised. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status.4. Preparation for future needs. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. admissions.” 2. Process of sharing.e. place of education. international understanding. Covering life span of an individual. socialism.4. curriculum.S. modes of teaching. 6.renewal. 5.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. self. 3. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. 4.” According to H. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. To help industrial workers to better their skills. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. 114 . the Ideas of citizenship.4. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. exploring. Flexibility in various aspects of education. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. Lawrence.

Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. To offer Secondary. Meeting the omissions of formal education. 5. Universalisation of primary education. in villages and those who live in towns.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 4. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives.4.4. 8. 3. Technical. Senior Secondary. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 2. publication and information dissemination. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 6. Eradication of adult literacy. 7.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. 5. • 2.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. school dropouts. 2. 4. 10.4. 115 . To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country.4. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. 3. working adults. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 9. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners.

public libraries. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. open space. 2. self-employment iii. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. if organised in isolation. To make if.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. Again. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . To better qualifications. etc. Radio and television.4. etc. All-round development i. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. training centres in factories. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. 4.4.2.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. 2. others are formal and informal. 3. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. library. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. To increase knowledge and 2. factory. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. farm.. centres of correspondence education.4. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. Therefore. effective in modern societal context.full time to learners – can be home. Institutions for formal education.

6.V. 7. . 117 . Teaching to face teaching. . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Give examples of non formal education? . List out any two aims of non formal education. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Written tests. Correspondence lesson. Face Contact programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Lecturing T. radio. Define non formal education. institution.

7. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. 2. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. 3. adults as well as children.” 6. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Secondary level. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Primary level. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.4. Pre-school level. a. 4. Open School. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. b. The school.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Formal and Non Formal 2.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2.4. Open University. a. the college and the university come under this category.4. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. 118 . 5. 2. Higher Secondary level and University level. School 3. b. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. 4. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. systematic. 2.

Education in Emerging India. K. Mohanty. J.4. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2003). Dash. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. L. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Gupta. (2005).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Theory and Principles of Education. (2004). K and Narang C. (2007). (2008). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). New Delhi : 119 . Bhatia. S. P. N. J. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. N. Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. B. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.C. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.2. Pahuja.

5 2.4 Need for Open University 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.5.1 2.5.5.5.5.3.7 2.4.5.LESSON 2.4.2 2.5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.4.3 Objectives of Open University 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.5.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.3.5.4.4 Open University 2.5.5.6 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.3.5.5.3.5.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.4.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.

1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. For them. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. 2. farmers. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. continuing education is a boon. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts.3.5. Under these circumstances.5. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. This knowledge may be in political field. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. industries. Education is for refinement and enlightenment.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened.5. It is a continuous process. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. Thus. characteristics of open university 4. However. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. 2. labourers and half educated individuals. It is a lifelong process. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon.5. 2. give the meaning. economic field or such other fields. you will be able to: 1. know the need and objectives of open university.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education.2. Any person. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education.

if he gets opportunity to develop them.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. On the other hand. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge.V. T. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further.literate person. Thus. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner.5. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons.V. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. Doctors. Persons engaged in health services. Radio. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. On the other hand. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. deteriorating to his character and personality. Cinema. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. After the achievement of independence. For them too continuing education is essential.directly related to his job. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Radio and T. Throughout the country. cultured and progressive. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. are also contributing their might for the purpose.3. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Block Development Officers. 2. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas.

(14) information about bringing up young children. 2. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. Of course.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. especially women. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (15) music.. 5. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (1) ancient history. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (17) modern international and national events. 4. we have not been able to achieve our targets. 7. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. Inspite of the great efforts. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. 3. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (16) liking. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (13) psychology of child behaviour. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. 2. (10) first aid. and Radio.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. 2. habits of people of other lands.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. 123 .3. (6) folk stories. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (8) psychology of adults. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. 6. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (7) folk songs.V.5.5. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. These books are not very useful.3. (2) basic religious matters.

2. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . NLM was launched in the year 2. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. lack of time etc. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . What is the objectives of NLM? 3. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.4. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. It also attempts to pr ovide equality.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. of educational opportunities.5. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. attendance restrict ion. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns.5. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University.

Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. No one is too old or too late to learn. the higher the degree of openness. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. 2. 2. IGNOU was established in the year 6. 4. b. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. its education is not class room based but home based. Which was the first open university in India? . c. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.5. 5. e. and in teaching.4.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. Education is not a once for-all process.unobserved. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. but 125 . 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it makes use of educational techno logy. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. d. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a.

3. 126 . assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. cho ice o f co ur ses.5. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 5.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 4. Mo re o ver. 6. 3.who did not get it. or who realised too late that they need it. it a ims at wider and hig her. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 2. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. 2. 4. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. supplementing the existing provision. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 2. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 2. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. who were deprived of t he same earlier.5. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc.4. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities.4.

The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Laboratory works. Self instructional materials. 2. a state or nation.4. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . Therefore. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. 5. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n .5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. 6. 7.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In the present day world. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. 2. 3. 8. Tutor Comments. 127 . cha ng e t heir life compet ence.5. Correspondence tuition. 8. Every day. a society. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored.2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. you have learnt the concept.5. 1. school drop outs. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 4. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. semi – literates. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. List out any four methods of Open University? .

6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6.ambitious learners. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. Television Lessons. (1) ancient history. youth. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 8. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. b. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. (2) basic religious matters. unskilled workers and other professionals. its education is not class room based but home based. a.5. 8. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. Broad casting lectures c. 1985. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 2. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. 2. d. 7. Explain the objectives. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 3. P r int med ia b. agricultural and industrial workers. a. 128 . 9.5. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. need and characteristics of Open University. aspirants for continuing education. which may include house wives. 1988. 6. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. b. 7. a.

Modern Problems of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Udaiveer.K. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.S. S. Reddy. Ltd. (2004).. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2004). K. (2001). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.5. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. (2007). K and Narang C. L. 129 . New Delhi: Rajat Publication. R.2.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

In Lesson 2. examination. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. 133 . the education of women. which may claim the attention of those concerned. its causes and remedial measures. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. and teacher education. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. All which is the need of the hour. Examination reform. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Training teachers for all levels of education. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. wastage and stagnation.

134 .

1.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.3.1.5 3.1 3.1.1.3 New initiatives.2 3.1.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.3.1 EFA – For whom? 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.4 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1.LESSON 3.6 3. 135 .7 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 EFA – How? 3.3.8 3.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.1.

1.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. directed that. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. “The State shall 136 . Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. Therefore. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation.1. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). social. (EOI) 2. Continuing Education (CE) 1. 3. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. understands the country. 2. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. Eradication of Illiteracy.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. economic or cultural. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). may be political. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. On the other hand. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. therefore. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. education received added importance and significance. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.3.

within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Universalization of Retention. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . After the attainment of independence. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. 3. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. It enables the parents to send their children to School. Universalization of Enrolment. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. Continuing Education (CE). After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Three Stages for Universalization. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. rights and responsibilities. Therefore. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Even then we have not yet achieved the target.endeavour to provide. the national Government under.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. 137 .

later to 1988. It is safe to assure. Write Article 45. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. 138 . While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. then to 1976. This target had to be revised to 1970.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. present and future. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. 1990. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. 1995 (for upper primary stage). Therefore. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. UNESCO Bulletin states.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us.1. 3. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. educational enterprise.

The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. problem of literacy. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. Jams and Jellies. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. 11.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. adolescent and adult. and Women’s education programme should be improved. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. rural areas.3. Apart from primary education. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. 3. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Disabled. creed. 9. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. 8. Emphasis must be given on health education. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. NAEP. 12. 3. slum areas. their social economic status and occupations. 139 . nutrition education and sports and games. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. sex. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Education of the Impaired. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). The Social Education. 10. FELF. 5. Education of Girls. etc.1. their enrolment and retention. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Early childhood education should be streamlined. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. the art of preparing fruit-juice. 6. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. By undertaking survey. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.3 NEW INITIATIVES. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Wastage and Stagnation. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.3. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. 4. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3.3.1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. 3. Expand MLL and SSA .4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 .e.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.

The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. Social Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . School Factors . it is considered as wastage. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. Personal Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. Familial Factors .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.first stage of education.

Define Wastage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. 7. . 142 . Enumerate the causes of Wastage. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education.

3. school or society.The following factors. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. Personal Factors .1. Family Factors . Societal Factors .The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . They are described hereunder :1.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. School Factors . rural or urban 3. in his home. relating to home.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.

discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. stationary. 144 . —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. mid-day meals. uniforms. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Stagnation? 9. etc. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education.

Hartog Committee. 4. a.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. a.. b. “The State shall endeavour to provide. therefore. 2. 3. 145 . improvement of curriculum.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. directed that.” 3. a.1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. 4.1. Minimum Levels of Learning b. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Universalization of Retention 2. Universalization of Provision b. 6. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Universalization of Enrolment c. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. 3. 3. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation.3.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA.

(2007). introduce graded curriculum. 9.1. School Factors d. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. improve examination system. b.K. a.N. Personal Factor b. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Crescent Publishing Corporation. S. T. Sharma. Familial Factors c. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2001). (2008). Social Factors 8. Hemchand. Problems of Elementary Education. 3. a. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. New Delhi: 146 . S.7.K.

6 Inspection and Supervision 3.5.5.2.2.2.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2 Grade System 3.5.4.2.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.4.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2.5 New evaluation procedures 3.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2.2.4 Question banks 3.5.5.2.6.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.1 3.2.2.2.2.3.LESSON 3.5.2.2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .5.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2.2.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.7 Open book examination 3.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.4.2.1 Problems of examination 3.

you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2. 3. 3.2. 3.2.3.2.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.8 3.2. Besides. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.3. suggest the new evaluation procedures. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .9 3. 3.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. but on the other. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .2. 4. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.

waiting rooms for girl students. If the students are in sufficient number. 149 . other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated.3.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. The following steps should be taken up. 3. etc. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. etc. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. They may cause problems relating to discipline. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools.2. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. which the educational authorities have to face. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. hostel facilities. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. etc. They develop secondary sex characteristics. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. roadside Romeoism.. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. schools for them wherever necessary.

school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. It is considered as a major sub-system.4. 3. public interested in education. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. assessment and Finance. 150 .2. the examination system has an important role to play. public administrators and statesmen. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. appointment of paper-setters. conduct of internal examinations.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. Instruction. teachers. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country.2. With the mass growth of educational enterprise.

3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. pursuing objective-oriented instruction.2. 3. training of examiners. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. etc. announcement of results. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness.4. establishing reliability. reducing the domination of knowledge objective.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. examiners. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. etc. etc. tabulators. etc. validity and practicability. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees.printing and distribution of question papers. etc. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. invigilators. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. scrutinizers. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. introducing objective-based testing. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. values.

instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. Subjects. which they are expected to study.4. stereotyped questions. Rote memorisation. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. 3) With respect to method of teaching. lack of objectivity etc. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation.. it s a common experience that subjectivity. 3.. halo-effect. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. may also discredit them. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. do not appeal to the students and parents. takes the place of comprehensive learning..2. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. 152 . it can be said that they become examination-oriented. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. 2) From the angle of content of education. 7) In connection with the question papers. Vagaries in making. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. not meant to be assessed in the examinations.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers.develop true love for education. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. etc. 4. Spot valuation. re-numbering of answer scripts. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.a part of internal assessment. Question Books may be developed in all schools. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. may be introduced. List any two merits of examination.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. revaluation. 153 . . Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon.. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students.

5. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. Every paper is treated equal.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.5.2.2. When a person chooses to work extra. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. The students can take any course offered in any department. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.3. attitudes. 3. skills are given importance. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. Their interests. he is given extra credit points. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. It is complicated. In actual practice.2. The new scheme of assessment. In this system. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .

Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits.2. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120.5. This system reduces comparison of marks. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. poor. The human error of evaluation is ± 10.good.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. In the new system. v. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4.discipline. While designing syllabus. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v.poor. only the total credits to be earned is specified. These weightages are called credits. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. Groupism is encouraged. An example is a seminar. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. courses can have weightages defined. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. 3. or as a 4 credit course.

2.2. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. 3. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.5.2.5. 3. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. 3. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.5. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. However. 156 .

and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. . 3. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. In the hierarchy. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India.2. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . However. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Therefore.5. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. There are no proper procedures for selection. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. List any four new evaluation procedures. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. 6. recruitment. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.3.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.

Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. in a sense. finding out the adequacy of. requirements. 158 .6. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. complaints and compliments.2. school buildings.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. inspecting the class-room teaching. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties.. When they are fully realised.. playgrounds. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. 1. taking up the follow-up programmes. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. Academic inspection. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. being realised as two different functions. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. etc. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. books are followed. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. qualifications. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect.qualified personnel. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. wherever necessary. They are. disciplinary problems. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. staff. library books. in contrast. etc. of late. 3. interpersonal relationships and so on. laboratory equipment. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. finding out whether the prescribed text. whether the syllabus has been covered. submitting of the inspection reports.

Insistence on specialisation in the B. M. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. 159 . giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. 3.2. course in either educational. In the light of these conceptualisation.. In the case of departmental candidates. once in five years. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Similarly. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought.. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. aptitude. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. at least. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well.Ed. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. modern. courses. or. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. their professional knowledge. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them.Ed.

examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. d. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. 3. 5.2. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. 3.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. a. 3. a. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Administration. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.2. 2. a. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. b. Instruction. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. b. assessment and Finance.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Grade System. 3. 160 . b.2. c. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.

(2002). History and Problems of Education in India. c. R and Sharma. (2004). Vaidya. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. K. b. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. a. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Educational Reforms. New 161 . a. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Problems of Education in India. 3. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers.4. Question banks. a. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. (2005).2. b. b. 7.a part of internal assessment. Multiple sets of question paper. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . S. 5. K. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Open book examinations.

4.2 3. 162 .6 3.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3 3.5 3.3.3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. identify the needs of rural India and social. 3. 2. 3.4 3.3.8 3.3.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. impact of Higher Secondary Education. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.7 3.3.10 3.3.3. 5.3.1 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3.LESSON 3.9 3. you will be able to: 1.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.

This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. i.e. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. 10 years of general Secondary Education. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. Consequent on the recommendations. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education.. e. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country.g. 2. The.specialisation programmes 3. Commission emphasised to continue. University Education.. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. in Andhra Pradesh.3. 8 years of general education. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education.3.. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. etc.e. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . The Calcutta Madras. Similar is the case with some other States. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. and 3 years of First Degree Course. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. the Banaras Sanskrit College..

b. to prepare.3.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 6. social. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. 5) to help for the social. habits of hard work and develop . 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. Provision for transfer of credits to students. 5. educational channels. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. historical. and. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. is also a plus point . economical and political. to imbibe. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. 3.confidence in students. 7. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . who desire to change from one stream to another. 10.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . However. cultural and economic development of the country.a sense of dignity of labour. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. 8.

and. at the other. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. 1. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. to develop national character. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. democratic living. Sociologically it is undesirable.3.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. cooperativeness. Psychologically. 3. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. social justice. on one hand. etc. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. international understanding. Philosophically it is not the conception. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. cultural and' religious tolerance. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level.. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. and that required to enter the tertiary level. The General Educational Spectrum.national integration.

the rural areas have suffered very much. Commerce and other disciplines. commerce. vegetable growing. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. In the vocational spectrum. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. Agriculture is the main occupation. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. semi-skilled and unskilled levels.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. such as Agriculture. In our country.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. commerce. fish culture. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. horticulture. technological. or other machinery. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. professional. All these need for an. physics or mathematics. Science. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. educational and cultural services. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced.3. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. medical plants. India is a land of villages. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. rural health. 166 . technical. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Biology. chemistry. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. and vocations based on dairy-farming.— tube-wells. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. In the matter of language. 3. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. industrial agricultural production is growing. 2. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced.

Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . and 5. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum.. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. In this it may be concluded. In time. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. interests and aptitudes of the students. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the local resources available. and the needs. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. 3. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. etc. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. In this way.. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. social justice. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. There had been favourable reaction from the students.3. can be ensured.etc. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . 4.

J. a. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2001). B. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. N. Vocational Sepctrum. (2008). Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. objectives. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. New Delhi : 168 . 3. (2005). 3. Mohanty.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. a. Dash. we studied the history. b.3. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Anmol Publications Pvt.3. J.K.3.a sense of dignity of labour. S.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.3. to imbibe. 3. General Educational Spectrum and b. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.C.3. 2. b. (2007). a. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. Calcutta University Commission 2. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. habits of hard work and develop .

but the lighting of a fire”.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.5 3.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail. Education contributes to human development.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.11 3.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.9 3.4.4.4.7 3.4.4.4.3 3.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.8 3.4.4.10 3.4.4.13 3.LESSON 3.6 3.12 3.4.4.1 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.2 3. social and 169 .4.

3.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. While women constituted only 9. Dr. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. These courses were. although we have miles to go. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. The relevance of women’s education to social. higher education of girls developed immensely. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. Home Economics. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. economic. Teaching and Fine Arts. 3. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. analyze the women and distance education. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. For the first time in the history of India. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. In the post —independence period. community and nation is universally acknowledged. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. During the year 1937. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. family.higher education in particular. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. Education . you will be able to: 1. particularly 170 . cultural and political development of the individual. There is a close connection between education and development.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered.4. Nursing.4.

participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. Mother Teresa Women University. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. levels and professions.T Women University.4.65 lakhs in 1994-95.9 27.1 31. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.9 14. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Kodaikanal.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.4. in our country. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. 3.0 43. we have more than 1200 institutions. Even today. Yet. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.0 16.women. Mumbai. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).1 24. out of 9200 and odd colleges. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .0 32. Coimbatore.D. In the rest of the country.4.N. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. 3. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.2 29. In 1950-51.0 Today. The idea of women’s education for equality. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.2 22.

1 and 14.that of boys.47 65.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .4.73 10.54 12.4%) prefer Arts subjects.1 respectively.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.4.4.44 35. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.36 3. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . 3. 3. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .66 66.63 Female % 34. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.46 82.53 34. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.34 33. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.17 52. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.56 64.27 89.83 47. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .

Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. what is the need for higher education for her. curriculum not suited to their requirements. marriage is a very common I factor. irrelevance of the content of education. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. The major hurdles. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. etc. she will only learn fashion. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. 173 . Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. In every third family. particularly. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education.4. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized.hinders the girls from getting higher education. distance of the college or university from home. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. 3. In college. Book banks should be established. They gave up their studies to enter home life. Also. and coeducation may spoil her character.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. financial difficulty of the parents. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. Thus. According to a survey. promoted and increased. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. They argue that when their daughter need not earn.

4. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. 3. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. There are constraints of time. is the only tool for realising empowerment. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Geographic distance of educational institutions. resources and socio . It is a productive investment. Full-time employment.economic disabilities faced by women. Education. 3. Empowerment in a nutshell.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. It enables to study. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development.4. Distance education is a boon to women. which is the most dynamic factor of development.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. It also brings about 174 . because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. space.

but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. education of women is of paramount importance. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. 3. The major objectives of women's higher education.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. Empowerment is an active. Women are partners in development. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. higher learning. education of women must be given priority in national plans. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. This can be achieved through reflection. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. for full development of our human resources. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers.4. legal awareness and economic independence. on their own. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. empowerment means being assertive.

Scholarships and concessions for women. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. which is pending for a long time. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. which had been the sole domain of men. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. But their number is small. Better opportunities. 176 . Reservation for women. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. The educational institutions. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. who are eager to take up courses. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. has to be implemented at the earliest. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. will encourage them to venture new grounds. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. The local administration.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .4. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. 3. especially so in the developing countries.

Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? .3 percent.1%) and architecture and building (38. capacities etc. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. Also. Chief Executive. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). According to Lindy Hyam.9%).000 women in the country. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs.4. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. talents. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . But. Australia. IDP Education. engineering and related technologies (16. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. especially in developing countries like African countries. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. 3. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability.8%). women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.

S. (2005). 43% 6. 2. Women Education. Annakodi. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. individuals and society b. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Mumbai. A. Coimbatore. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. A. Women and Education. (2000). 4. and Suryalatha. (2008).13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.4. SNDT Women’s University. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.K. Pattanaikj. S.4. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. Mishra.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. SNDT Women’s University. R. Coimbatore. 178 . Mother Teresa Women University. Kodaikanal. a. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. (2007). create the right attitude towards life. Mumbai.to the family. R. 3. 4. community and the nation. Rao. 3.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. R.C.R.4. and Swain. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. 3. Women Education. Centre for Women’s Studies. Rajasthan 5.

5.8 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .10 3.2 3.3 3.5.5.5 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. whole.4 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5.5.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.11 3.9 3.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. They should be trained. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.7 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.1 3.5. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.5.5.LESSON 3.5.6 3.personality of children in and out of school.

national consciousness. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. 4.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. and national character. 3. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. you will be able to: 1. know the pre service and in service training facilities.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. equality and justice.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5. 3. understanding and strong desire for international peace. Lack of physical facilities. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. Shorter working hours.5. Dearth of new technology of teaching. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. understand the training teachers for Primary. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. 180 .5. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. international. social and emotional integration.

3. levels. inservice and extension education programmes. a Diploma course and a Degree course. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. it is called the In-service teacher education. the centre. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities.Ed. At the diploma level.Ed.5. etc. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. and M. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . (NCERT) New Delhi. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. who have not been trained earlier. If the student teachers are working teachers. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Inadequate training in practical skills. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. Lop-sided curriculum. Depending on the levels.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers.. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training.Less qualified teacher educators. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. the primary teacher education.. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. it is called the Extension teacher Education. the state Government. students.5. higher secondary teacher education. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. the secondary teacher education. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. 3. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. and the collegiate teacher education.

extensio n service. collegiate cells. Expand NCERT 2. depart ments etc.5. Education cells. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. non-formal..Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Educational teehnology cells. state Institutes of Educat ion. Also Guidance Bureaux. are established. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Evaluation unit. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. 3. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Science Education units.

degree. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . which should include experience in the primary schools too. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. despite its vast expansion. material conditions relating to libraries. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. to improve curricular programmes. to ensure teacher competence. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. which help breaking isolation from one another . and 183 .post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. to offer consultative services..Ed. to prescribe conditions for recognition.Ed. primary and secondary school teachers. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. audio visual aids. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers.. should be improved on a top priority basis. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. and so on. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . schools and sister institutions. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed .. laboratories. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards.

Modern Methods of Evaluation. etc. Induction Courses.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Organisation of Content Courses. The problem. Modern Techniques of Teaching. Agriculture. and XII. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. Hence. though no pre-service training. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. methodology and evaluation. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education.secondary education. 184 . Meanwhile.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. whether they should have professional education or. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . not came up once again. Psychology of Students. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. etc.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. Workshops. To meet this exigency.

A. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . Ajmer. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Ed. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.Ed. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. Degree.’s are elig ible for M.Ed. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. These facilities are available for regular students. Degree and M.Ed.. in Education. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. (Education) and M.. State Institutes of Education. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. training. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. M. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.’s for Ph. courses and M.. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. (Education) are organized by 185 .A. Post-Graduates also undergo B.Ed. Courses leading to B.. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. All B Ed. Pre-service training is for those.Ed. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates..D. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. For re-orienting the teachers.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier..S. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.5..

6. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.A. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. established by tradition and teachers of the past. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .. 5. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.). of conduct—written or unwritten.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.A. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. .5. 186 . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. and B. (Ed). 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . Hence the employability of M. (Ed. What is the role of ERIC? . 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. they should be conscientious . However.

4. a. 4.5. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. a. a. they should be conscientious.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. 3. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. 187 . 3. Explain code of conduct for teachers. b. 3.5.5. Shorter working hours. However. Bhopal. b. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 3.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 6. 2.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 2. National Council of Educational Research and Training. Discuss the problems of teacher education. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Ajmer. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Dearth of new technology of teaching. The necessity is however this.3. 5.

Ltd Aggarwal. Corporation. J. Teacher Education. A. Teacher Education.5. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . Tewari. Mohanty.N. and Teacher Education.3. Publication Pvt.D. (2009). (2010). B.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. P. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. (2003).

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

objectives. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. objectives. If the diet is poor. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. 191 . Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. The person’s environment is equally important.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. nutritional deficiency diseases. the focus is on the school health programmes. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. In lesson 1. consuming the right amounts becomes important. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. In lesson 4. economic and educational developments. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. communicable diseases and their prevention. common ailments of children. Since food is the source of nutrients. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. objectives and role of the physical education. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. preservation of nutrients.

192 .

193 .1.8 4.1.10 4.1.5 4.3 4.1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody.LESSON 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1.1.1. physical.1.2 4.1 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.9 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1. mental.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.4 4.7 4. It is a miniature society. emotional and social. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.e. The programmes of school health education are quite important. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.11 4.6 4.1.1.

194 . e. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. 4. To give information regarding health rules. explain the importance of First aid 5. know the need for sex education. To develop certain skills concerning health. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. training of teachers and evaluation. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student..2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. cleanliness and healthful living. list the common ailments of children 3.g. 9.1. understand school health programmes 2. 8. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. 10. To develop healthy health habits among children. Instruction. 3. content of health education. training in first aid and etc. 4.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. 11. you will be able to: 1. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. 2.1. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 7. 5. to his family and to the community at large. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 4. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 6. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases.

proper doors and windows. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. Arranging better transportation facilities. The surroundings of schools should be clean. as described below 1. Triple Antigen Vaccination. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1.. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. 4. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. minimizing the travelling distance. (vi) nutrition education. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. The flooring should not be damp. (v) safety education. Vaccination for small pox. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings.1. “Play-for-all” programmes.coming or absence. organisation of school health days. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. direct lighting. First aid facilities should be made readily available.G. 2.C. B. The school buildings should be spacious. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. suitable furniture. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. 3. (viii) first aid. (xii) smoking education etc. 5. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. B. (xl) mental health. ( iii) sanit at io n. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. is imperative. 2.. (ii) communit y healt h.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A.4. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. excusing late. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. etc. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. inoculation against cholera. vaccination. play festivals. typhoid. There should be regular water supply. cleanliness weeks. There should be good drainage facilities.

• Keep all rooms clean. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. cuts. 196 . scalds. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. • When sleeping in groups. insect stings. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. • Find out the cases. fainting (epileptic fit). poisons. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. isolate and notify. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves.. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. sports and games in the interest of their health. wounds. D. • Have adequate rest and sleep. and other accidents. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. • Take nutritious food. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. burns. C. • Close the schools. etc. if epidemic is wide-spread. fractures.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. drowning. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. bleeding. dislocations.

The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. List out the Health curriculum 3. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 2. measles etc. Once these germs get into the body.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention the school health programmes. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. cough. They are: i) The incubation stage. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. 4. There are three stages in any communicable disease. tuberculosis. fever. polio. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. 4. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage..1.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. water or bodily contact. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . which are – cold.1. pain in the joints. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. asthma. chicken pox. headache. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. These diseases are called communicable diseases. backache.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. So they easily get illnesses. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people.

This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Hence it is called a killer disease. The symptoms include cold. After three or four days of fever. Mumps . head-ache and cough. Measles . The following are the common communicable diseases. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Important salts and water are lost in this process. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Scabies . etc. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Tonsilitis .It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Some suffer cold due to allergy.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Common Cold . cough and fever. Diarrhoea . Throat is affected. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands.It is caused by measles virus. The child may have fever. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. sugar and water. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems.This disease is caused by bacteria. 198 . This is caused by cold virus. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. unhygienic bottle feeding. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Others make the children very weak. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. unhygienic living conditions. eating food which is not clean. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Ear Infections .One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Hence liquid diet is recommended. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort.When a child suffers from scabies.

The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. the child may die. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. Shortly. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. Enlist the common ailments of children. Diphtheria . Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The child may also have diarrhoea. 199 . the child is not able to breathe. raised pink spots appear on head. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. 5. Typhoid . As the disease progresses. Expand DPT . The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks.• • • • Chicken Pox . The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. What are communicable diseases? 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. If proper treatment is not given. separate. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. It begins with fever. face and waist. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. By scratching he causes secondary infections.

7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. 4. swelling. In such cases. scorpion stings.g. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. films and jokes. eye injury. Wounds . which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. fiction.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. 3. Sex is popular. dislocation. drowning. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.1. 200 .8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. sprains. 2. fainting. so-called sex books and periodicals. etc. man-woman behaviours. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. bleeding. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. it is a subject of art.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures.4. sprains. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. Sprains . and Community Work and Social Service. exciting and body-oriented.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. It has its rightful place in education too.1. 5. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. Cuts and Bruises .Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Drowning . head injury. 4. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. and films.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. bruises. snakebites. cuts. simple fractures. It is both biological and psychological. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. wounds.

Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. In secondary schools. they would be treading the path of sure doom. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. Hence. Should the boys and girls. 3. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. sex education is being recommended in schools. In today's liberal and interactive society. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community.old values. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. in their ignorance. health. celibacy are age. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. The home. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge.. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. The values of life. 2. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. try experimenting with their bodies. the school. the religious organisations. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. B. but preserve them from disaster and disease. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it.

C. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. communicable diseases and their prevention. hence. when the courses are already overloaded. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. there will no crisis in its implementation. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. 4.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. What are the major components of Sex Education. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. common ailments of children. first aid and sex education. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach.1. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. Teacher education institutions are. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. the school health programmes.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. 202 .

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Mention the food nutrients 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. 209 . Rickets is the deficiency of 5.

is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied.2. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. 210 . The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. minerals. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients.2. Let us talk about each of these aspects. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet.4. If you look at the definition carefully. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s .

This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. dosa are typical of the south. Preferences/customs are also important. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 .sedentary. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. People in the east of our country prefer rice. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). activity level and physiological stress. construction labourer). A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables.g. moderate or heavy work. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. A balanced diet is specific firstly. These are: region where the person resides and income. paratha and poori. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems.g.2. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. In other words. sex. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. the social and religious practices of that region. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. for example.one in the morning and the other at night. 4.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier.6. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. In the case of adults. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. it is also specific to a given activity level . This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. There is no point. Even within given States there is considerable variation. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.

While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. Even among flesh foods. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. taboos related to food may play an important role. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. As income increases. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. however. Having more money. Including these 212 . They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. These determine the acceptability of foods. One person may be fond of milk products. customs. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. nuts and dry fruits. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. while another may hate them. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. however. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. Judicious selection of food is. however. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. vegetables and fruits. If you think of your own religious group. income plays a vital role. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. As you read this discussion. Among the social factors. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. for example. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. as important for the rich as for the poor. However. One must. In addition to these.planning the diet. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. fat and sugar tend to increase. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. enables a person to add more variety to the diet.

2) Food should be consumed after eating well. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. eggs . don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . green leaves. 213 . 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. fruits. meat. over-eating or under. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. 8. but they should be thrown away. mouth.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. Define balanced diet. For this. 8) Walk a while after eating. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.eating is hazardous. List out any two healthy food habits. 17. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. if the teachers have good food habits.

d. Vitamin D 5. Beri Beri 4. c.2. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. e. In fact. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Conjuctival xerosis. good nutrition is essential for good health. preservation of nutrients. Explain food nutrients 4. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Keratomalacia 3. When the diet is inadequate. b. 4. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. 4. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Corneal xerosis.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies.4.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. Discuss good food habits. Night blindness.2. Bitot’s spots.

11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. Health and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. R. (2008). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. (2004). 8. b. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . P. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.6. (2008).C. minerals. 4. Food and Nutrition Education. Nutrition and Dietetics.2. Food and Nutrition Education. Sri Lakshmi B.M. Hands. R. mouth. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Chopra. (2009). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. S. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. a. Food should be consumed after eating well. a .N. 7. Nutrition Science. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . A Text Book of Foods. (2005). C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. b.

6.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.5 4.3.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.3.7 4.11 4.3.3.3.2 4.3.3.3.13 4.6.3.3.3.LESSON 4.1 Impact on social development 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.12 4. 216 .3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3.3 4.9 4.3.3 Impact on Education 4.3.1 4.3.8 4.6.4 4.10 4.

understand the importance of small family norm 5.4. Whenever we talk of sex education.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. 4. characteristics and changes for himself. It is not sex education. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. you will be able to: 1. state the meaning.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. community. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. economic and educational development 3. therefore.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.3. There is some difference. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. describe the impact of population growth on social. and the consequences of these processes. Population Education. his family.3. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. aims at providing the younger generation. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. family planning and sex education etc. It is a much wider co ncept. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. the stress is. population characteristics. the causes of population change. 4. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. 217 . his societ y and the world.3.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. objectives and need for population education 2.

5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the society.3.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 4. the family.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. Define Population Education 2. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.3. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the nation and the world. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.

economic and educational development of the country.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. social welfare schemes can be implemented well.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. Every second two thousand children are being born. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. health and happiness of its citizens. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. With the larger families.6. 4. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. When the family is small.3. which will not be possible without population control. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Family is considered as a social unit.3. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. 219 . This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. 4. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. the family programmes are also handicapped. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.

They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition..6. unemployment. lack of proper health care. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development.3. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. Swollen cities.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. 4.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. teacher index. organization index and material index. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. heavy intern I migration etc.e. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends.3. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. in buses and trains. i. 220 . more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. 4. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index.6. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. in cinema halls and theatres. toilets. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. and so on.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. In developing countries. facility for drinking water. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. pollution of the environment. there is an inverse relationship between population and development.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. The gulf between them is widening further. in parks and other places of public gatherings. Many students herded in a small room.

There would be poor library facilities. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. reproduction. less space facilities. Regional Language. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility.3. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. bar graphs etc. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. less budget for education.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. can be studied in science and health education. family planning etc. There would be very few audiovisual aids. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. Hindi and English. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Social Studies Statistics on population education. essays. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. and laboratory equipments. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. can be taken up. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. thus. even text books would be in short supply. It has got to be integrated with other subjects.. 221 . Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. blank verses etc. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners.

Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Bihar. Canada. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. causes of deaths etc. area and average density of population. They may arrange them as per average density of population. deaths. 12. 9.4. 11. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Children with the help of parents. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 3. Brazil. 13. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. United States of America. 14. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. West Bengal. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. 15. Uttar Pradesh. 8. 4. Children may compare two families. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. China. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. 10. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 5. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times.3. 7. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 2.

we have no right to stop 223 . Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. 16. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. values and role children etc. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Comparing life in various respects in two families. 18. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The question. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4.3. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education.be opened in their schools. preferences for sex. age at marriage. 17.

The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). on an overall basis. The Family Welfare Program. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. which education can only do. at varying places in different regions.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.were implemented 224 . Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3.3. especially the expansion of child immunization services .10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.to emphasize family planning services. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. should be overcome at the intellectual levels.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. continued . For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. and the child survival components of the news: program.their entry into the world”. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. however. “He who is responsible for population growth. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.4-6. 4. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. Since the program's inception. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. More than 45 years ago.

reliance on local women as community health workers. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. In April 1996. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. Local programs vary in their approaches. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. At these meetings. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. Therefore. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. a focus on health promotion. and nominal fees for services. In October 1997. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. the community appears willing to pay for services. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. and the World Conference on Women. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. men. expansion of services to unmarried women. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding.earlier than the safe motherhood components. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . Moreover. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well.

Describe the impact of population growth on social. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. What are the goals of RCH? 4.3. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion.emphasizing the needs of the client. 3. economic and educational development 4. Its main purposes are to create awareness.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. 4. community. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. family.3.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. nation and the world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. 226 . 1997). improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. involving the community.

Canada. his family. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. China. 6. Brazil. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.” 2. his society and the world.3. the causes of population change. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. bar graphs. b. 5.4. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. 3. a. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. population characteristics. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. b. a. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. and the consequences of these processes. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. 4. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. a. United States of America. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. less space facilities. 7. 227 . To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. less budget for education. area and average density of population. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. characteristics and changes for himself.

Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Centre for Women’s Studies. Reddy. V. (2005). “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Changing attitudes to Education in India. N. (2002). (1992).K. Udaiveer. Ltd. Principles of Population Studies. A. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Modern Problems of Education. 228 .3. Coimbatore. Bhende. J. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House.4. (2005). Kantikar. (2004). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. T. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Jayapoorni.

12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .1 4.11 19.4.4.8.4.1 Minor games 4.4.4.4 Lead up games 4.8.4.4 4.2 Major games 4.3 Indigenous games 4.6 4.4.4.4.10 4.3 4.4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.7 4.2 4.5 4.8.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.4.LESSON 4.9 4.4.4.4.8.4.

3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. which forms its most valuable assets. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. perseverance.4. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.4. social fitness. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. the youth of the country. moral fitness and emotional fitness.4. as it should 230 . and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. 4. leadership and balance in defect. The concept of physical education has been made broader. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. mental alertness. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. full records of physical activities should be maintained. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. you will be able to: 1. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. team spirit. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education.4. classify the different types of games.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness.

Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Therefore. To be more precise. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. They are inseparably united together. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. team spirit. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. leadership. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Every individual is a part of society. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. They go hand in hand. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. The educational efforts at home. obedience to rules. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific.

recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. pleasing manners. Rousseau states. H.4. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. C.” The Secondary Education Commission. mo ral. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. ment al. Buck has observed that 232 . nor body but the whole man. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. Regarding the significance of physical education. Physical exercises.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks.” Montaigue writes. Just like Education. a sound health. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. game and sports. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. 4.

” In brief.” 4. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. elegance. flexibility and power. resourcefulness and smartness. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. strength. happiness. endurance. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. we must exercise the whole human being. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. etc. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. coordinative abilities.a properly directed physical education should result in health. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. efficiency and character. Froebel says. 233 .4. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. initiative.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. speed. “If we wish to develop the whole being.

Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. If no opportunity is provided to the students. plagues and famines. 234 (i) (ii) . Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Tournaments foster this sentiment. including all racial groups and historical ages. its adherents and its enemies.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. While wars. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. poetry and painting. Every age has its artists. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. they may form gangs. in greater or lesser degree. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. systems of government. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. these fundamental things have always been present. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. should help in the spiritual development of the student.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. respect for rules. to develop tolerance. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. bravery and interest in games and sports.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. obedience. B. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. etc. 3. 235 . to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . Write any two importance of Physical Education.sacrifice.\ to develop perseverance. self. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. 2.

Be sportive. 8. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. 4. Be in the uniform. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Keep the field ready for the activities.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 11. 14. 15. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 12. is essential. 10. and. . teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases.4. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. 4. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 16. injuries among pupils should be made. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 2. Haag. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.H. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 9. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 3. Inform health principles. students. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.4.4. Usually parents. Act as a leader. 7. Be punctual. 236 1. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. and readmission after they have recovered. Be self-confident. Always keep the whistle ready. 13. defects. Posture screening should be done. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Be well-prepared. 6. 5.

4. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.4.4. chasing. the play. Such inst incts as imitation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 237 . 4. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. 2. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Lead up games. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules.8. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Indigenous games. frolic and jo y. 1. As such they are well enjoyed by children. less equipment and less expense. Moreover. their development is handicapped. 4.

Ball Badminton. on hard courts. On lawns. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. Kabaddy etc. Jump the stick clay and so on. Volley Ball. the play equipment. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Jumping. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Basket Ball. the games can be modified according to convenience. The dimension of the posts and nets. 4. on mountain tops and on river beds. driving. Soft Ball. dribbling. bowling etc. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. some of them are played indoors. They are played for a shorter duration. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. skipping. These games require varied skills such as running. the number of players and substitutes. boosting. hitting. Dodging. 238 . They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag.4. women take part most of the games. Hopping. While many of them are played in the open playfields. zig zag relay. Hockey. Tennis. Cricket. heading. trapping. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. catching. benefit in playing minor games. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. under ball pass Relay. over ball pass Relay. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. spiking. Tennikoit. stopping. For each game the rules are many.With a very few rules. snatching the kerchief. with implements or without implements. Shuttle Badminton. muffling. on sea-shore. finding the partner.. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. pitching.8. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. couple tag. Except a few games. wherever the kids assemble. Throwing. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Khokho.

and .4. 7. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. List out some major games. they are in existence. birth. Kho-kho. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. While observing the players in action. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. death. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. They have an abundant social value. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes.8. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game.4.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. For example. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Games may be classified as 6. All the fundamental tactics. these games being popular. 4. festivals connected with religion and public functions.8. An example for indigenous game is 8. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. On occasions like marriage. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball.

4. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. 2. a. b. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. 4. c. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 4. a. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. to develop physical stamina. 4. aims and objectives and need of physical education. 5. Minor and Major 240 . physically and emotionally fit and alert. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.4. to secure physical health b. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. b. 3.4. b. a. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education.4. 2. Posture screening should be done. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. a. d. 3. Briefly discuss the different types of games.

12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. 4. Ball Badminton. (2008). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Foot-ball. J. Basket Ball. Aggarwal. Khokho 8. Cricket.4. Tennikoit. Soft Ball. (2005). Shuttle Badminton. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J.6. Handbook of Physical Education.C. Mohanty. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Hockey. Ltd. Krishna murthy. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.K. Health. Tennis. 241 . Physical Education and Sports. Khokho. Volley Ball. (2008). (2009). Modern Trends in Indian Education. G. J. Kabaddy 7.

5.5.8 4.9 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.3 4.1 Natural Environment 4.11 4.7 4.6 4.5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.5.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.5.5.1 4.5.4 4.LESSON 4.5.5.2 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.10 4.

4. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. population explosion and resource depletion could be.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. 3. Broadly. Knowledge. 4. 3. Skills. Awareness. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. aesthetic and educational factors. Participation. education about the environment and education through the environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Attitude. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. list out the types of environment 3. 4. 243 . economic. 5. 2. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values.5. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. role of teacher in environmental conservation. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors.5. Evaluation Ability.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. it covers the following elements: 1. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Details are given below: I. political. The best place to start such learning is school.educat ion for the environment. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems.5. Essential knowledge about the Environment. social. you will able to: 1. 6. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. 2. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological.

Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. 244 . D. a. heat sink and wind flow in cities. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Oxidants Other pollutants. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. F.B. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. • Biological magnification E. 2.

Control of population growth a. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Abortion iv. Socio-economic measures. 2. Family planning ii. The human ecosystem II. Persuasion: i. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Intrauterine device iii. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Birth control through education b. Sterilisation. 2. Use of medical science i. B. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. c. 3. economic. The pill ii.3. III. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. 4.

b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. 1983). Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 246 . (UNESCO. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Water pollution abatement. e) Recycling. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Define Environmental Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. 3. Air pollution abatement ii. 2.

Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.5. includes the plants.4. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.5.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. -other. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. They interact with each. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .5. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . A change in one brings about a change in the other. He modifies according”. 4. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.5. These are biotic components.other components of the environment.5. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. animals and other organisms (biotic).5. b. way is called environmental or ecological factor. Any constituent or condition of the environment. fax agricultural apparatus.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. Biological environment The biological environment. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. a. telex. to his needs.

use of pesticides. sources of pollut ion. maintaining the ecological diversity.. windmills. trees reducing noise pollution. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. water scarcity. change in climate may be added. solar cookers. evolution. excellent recreation sites. food chain and food-web. etc. reasons. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . nuclear warfare. relation between population and pollution. desertification 248 . are the topics which may be taught in History. population. river systems. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. balance of nature. t heir role in preventing pollution. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. etc. ozone layer deplet ion. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. acid rain. alternate sources of energy. noise pollution. use of medicinal plants. preserving the watersheds. industrial survey. History The rise and fall. need for conservation. of civilizations. sources. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. over exploitation of ground water.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. air pollutants from industries. supplying timber for various uses. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. natural way of controlling pests. need for bio-diversity. wars and hazards of war. nuclear energy. mineral survey. ozone depletion. role of trees in building economy. effects. preventing siltation of dams. noise control. social studies. importance of nitrogen cycle. greenhouse effect. (ii) Air pollution. effects o f CFC. industrial pollut io n. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. extinction of species. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. biogas plants. explosion deforestation.

This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. aims and scope. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 9.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 11. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 10. 8. 7. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. 14. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 2. 3. Peepal and Tulsi. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community.5. Providing. 4. 4. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 249 . Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. 13. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education.may be inc ded in Geography. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. animal and plants. 5. group discussions and seminars. Organising conferences. 12. 6.

especially plastics. it will cause pollution. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. or form a car pool for everyday travel. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. World Environmental falls on 250 .Send their waste oil. Use public transport wherever it is possible. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. 6. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Don’t burn any waste. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Reuse carrier bags. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. 5. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. If it is done. Never put any left over chemicals. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. used oils down the drain. all these can cause serious pollution. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

To discuss the approach to problems or topics.. nuclear wars. rather than conquest and mastery. Harmony with the nature . depletion of ozone. viz. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. deforestation. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Concern for species. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere.). concern for others).5. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. and 251 . Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection.4. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. developing desirable attitudes. potable water. CFCs. Att itudes of balance towards nature. To initiate and develop discussion and debate.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. values and habits. To provide reference materials for children’s use. The groups may exchange. orderliness and beauty). Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. To arrange for visiting speakers. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. etc.mat erials. To provide materials needed for practical work. loss of bio-diversity. etc. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Social responsibilit y (common good. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. To arrange visits or expeditions. diversity and stability. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . dest roying nat ural habitats. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. (cleanliness. Conservation of natural resources.

Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. 4. preserving natural cycles. 252 .5. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. 4. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. 8. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.5. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. 4.5. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.

effects. 3. relat ion between population and pollution. S. Social responsibilit y (common good.5. b. Nanda. S. New Delhi : Authors Press. 4. reasons. sources of pollution. b. Knowledge. new problems from science and technology.. (ii) Air pollution.\ 4. (2007). (1997). population. June 5 7. over exploitation of ground water. b. air pollutants from industries. Y.K. Ltd. water scarcity. Modern Problems of Education. a. 8. Udaiveer. Kuldeep.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . b. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Environment and Human Rights. T. a. importance of nitrogen cycle. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Rapid population growth. acid rain. New Delhi : Sharma. a. explosion deforestation. group discussions and seminars.K. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Publications Pvt.K. 6. Education for values. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Environmental Education. sources. (2007). greenhouse effect. Awareness. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Organising conferences. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.2. Anmol Publications Pvt. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. ozone layer deplet ion. Providing. (2004). Ltd. To provide materials needed for practical work. a.K. 5. Environmental Education. concern for others).

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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should be universal in nature. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind.1. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. the emancipation of spirit. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. man is essentially a moral being. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . Therefore. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. Universal Education. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm.3. Education must contribute to development of culture. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Spiritual Development.our life. enrichment and transmission of culture. The universe is regarded as a thought process. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted.” 5. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. moral. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. It is self-realisation. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. in fact. According to Rusk'. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Education according to idealism.

friend and guide.the spiritual qualities of mankind.3. 5. For intellectual development. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. For this no particular method has been suggested. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1.1. 2. 4. hygiene. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. Learning through reading. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. He carries the child from darkness to light.1. affecting (feeling). According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. The plant can grow. 5. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. Learning through discussion. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. According to idealism. an indispensable necessity. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. Learning through questioning.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Ethics.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. However.” He is thus. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. and collation (striving) should find due place. According to Frobel. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. Philosophy.3. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. a spiritual guide for the child. Learning through lecturing. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. So he should embody. so subjects like Religion. So health. So cognition (knowing). should be there.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. no doubt. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Herbert advocated instruction method. It considers teacher as. He sets the environment in which education takes place.” 5. Science. Mathematics etc. subjects like Languages. 3. History. Learning through imitation. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . the school is a garden.

Ross explains. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. 5.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.4. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. formal lessons or examinations. In the words of Ross. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. curricula. time tables. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. 5.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.preservation.1. text books.1. 2. "Education should make 263 • . “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.perfection and beauty. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Perfection of Human Machine.

The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. subjects like history.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Literature. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. therefore. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Education should. • 5. education should develop the child into Joyous. Zoology.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Biology. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. In all. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Botany etc Language. 4. is based on the nature of the child. Therefore. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Naturalistic curriculum. It stresses basic sciences. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. There is no place for religious and moral education. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. It is based on the psychology of the child. 264 . Chemistry.4. “Education finds its purpose.1. rational harmoniously balanced.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. useful and mature child. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Arithmetic. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that.

“Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Heuristic method.4. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. 5. Learning through experience. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. 4. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. In the . Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. It discards all rigid. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. 5.1. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. the stage. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism.5.4. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Learning by doing. he should be taught by experience alone. Dalton Plan. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.1.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. 3.1. Learning through observation. a provider of an ideal environment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Rousseau says. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. a supplier of materials and opportunities.

interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment.absolutism of idealism. Continuous Growth. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience.5. diversified and flexible. Personal Social Adjustment. The aim of educational development.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. 5. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems.5.1. The individual has not only to adjust himself. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Geography. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. History. Social Science. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Sciences. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism.1. Social Efficiency. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Agriculture. 5. Subjects. social and moral aspects. intellectual. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Vocational and 266 . All Round Development of an Individual.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. is true. Physical training.

3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. 5.1. alert and resourceful. activities and experience should be integrated properly. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. a teacher occupies an important position. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child.1. Methods of teaching should not be fixed.5. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Learning by Doing. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He has to be active. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. He must be trained. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment.5. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. a senior partner and a sincere guide.” 5. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. should find proper place. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. The subjects. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.Technical Education. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .

2. 3. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. liberal.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Biography Philosophy. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Sex Education. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism.6. The basic tenets of realism are 1.1. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. 4. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. rich and happy. 5. It favours child-centered. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things.1. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. 5. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Art.1.6. scientific and psychological education. 2. Chemistry. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Biology. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. History. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Education is preparation for a complete living. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. practical. 5. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. 4. literary or humanistic education.5. Literature. specific.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. 3. Music and Dance. Astrology. intellectual. Crafts. Mathematics. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Psychology. Study of Subjects like Language. Population Education. Geography are unnecessary 268 .

5.1. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . certainly and clearly. easily and pleasantly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.

What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Learning through imitation. 3. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Geography. a. a. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. 5. Learning through experience b. d.5. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Universal Education 2. Self Realisation b.1. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Vocational and Technical Education. Tours / Excursion e. & curriculum.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Education according to pragmatism. Learning through discussion. Learning through lecturing. Sciences. History. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Learning through questioning. Languages. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. has no end other than growth. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Social Science.1. naturalism. a. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.1. Agriculture. 5. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. 6. e. Experimentation d. Physical training. Rousseau 5. c. b. pragmatism and realism. Learning through reading. in this lesson. 5. Child centered c.

R.H.5.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. 271 . Narang C. P. O. of Pathak. P. (2003).1. New Delhi : A. Ltd. Pahuja. (2007). K.P. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. (2004). Theory and Principles of Education. (2007).P. New Delhi : Bhatia. Foundations of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. N. L. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Publishing corporation. Anmol Publications Pvt.

2.2.3.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.2.1 5.4.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.2.4 Views about teacher 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2 Curriculum 5.5.2.3.4.2.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2.4.3 Methods of teaching 272 .3 Methods of Teaching 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.2.5.4 Views about teacher 5.5.2.3.3.2.3.2.2.2.2.1 Aims of Education 5.4.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.3.LESSON 5.2.2 Curriculum 5.4.3 Methods of teaching 5.

2.2.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.2.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. Gandhiji was primarily a social. an artist. 5. 5.2. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. you will able to: 1.2.2. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.2. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. 273 .5.5. Tagore was a poet. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.6 5. 2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. mind and spirit.8 5. 3.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.2. economic and political reconstruction in our country. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.4 Role of the teacher 5. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.7 5. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. content and methods.

3. 'Man is neither mere intellect." Dignity of Labour. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. nor the gross animals body. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. His scheme of education is life centred.2. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. it is education of life. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. strength of mind. mind and soul of children He further observed. righteousness. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. This can be matched with any modern concept of education.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. 274 . through life and for life. 5. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. It really provides opportunity for character building. In the words of Gandhiji. self-restraint and service of humanity. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.supporting. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. "I attach more.

good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Individual and Social Aims. the realization of the ultimate reality. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies.3. Mother-tongue. General Sciences.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Drawing and Hindustani. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Art. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations.2.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. "Development of the moral character. According to Gandhi. leather work have been suggested. 5. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. gardening. wood work. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Only good individual forms a better society. Music. development of the whole all were directed: towards. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. metal work.Training for Leadership.

expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.3.2. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. proficient. men of 276 . Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Basic education is other wise known as 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.trained.2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.

5. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Education must be child centered.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST.2. He has an experimental approach towards life 2.knowledge. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.3. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. 3. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. He also advocates freedom for the child. That is why. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education.

and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. • Ideal of citizenship. He was deadly against untouchability.4.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. • Cult of non-violence. he was a true Vedantist 5. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. • Education should involve manual work. He was a true patriot. 5. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.2. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.2.2. He believed in the oneness of humanity. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.3. Gandhi in 1937.” Like all other ideals. 5.K. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .

complete manhood could be attained. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. could help in forging unity among all.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. he said. sentiment. Tagore said. stronger in power than ever before. Geography. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. them solve problems of day to day life. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Dance. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. That way only. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. "Mankind must realise a unity.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. It should help the learner have good physique. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. wider in range. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully.4. the more dedicated and devoted. Zoology. International understanding. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Religion and Psychology.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Chemistry. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. etc. Therefore. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Music. 279 . Civics. It should help. (vi) Philosophy. International Understanding. deeper in. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education.Language and Literature .2. Botany. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students.

Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. 5.4. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.2.2. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.4. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.” He further says. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. Tagore rightly says. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.2. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. 280 . 5. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. Activity Method Heuristic Method. In 1921. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.4." 5. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.

Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. It is open to all irrespective of country. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. 281 . Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11.g. 10. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. race.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Education for strong Moral Character.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Education for Self-realization. Freedom. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him.2.5. Concept of Education. man making. Education should make a person self-reliant. Education for Self-reliance. 3. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. 4. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 .1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only." He was against the theoretical type of education. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. character forming and assimilation of ideas. According to him. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life.” 5. Purity of thought. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Book learning. He believed in to learning or selflearning.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. work and deeds come out of it. 2. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. The whole beauty of life is linked with it.2.5. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only.

Education should help in the physical development of an individual.2. Of course. Thirdly he wished that games. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching.5. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Education for Physical Development. Swami. philosopher and guide to the students He.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend.5. A physically strong person is the need of the society. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. Every individual should be trained for concentration. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners.2. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. 5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. And above all. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. 5. 5. The teacher should be the facilitator. engineering and technical subjects. Philosophy and Theology.5. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things.the learners on different students in the discussion. Discussion Method. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Secondly he wanted Science.2. 6. That will serve the purpose of education fully.5. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. 283 . He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Religion.

3. 5.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. 12. naturalist. Write short notes on Basic education. 284 . legs.Substantiate your answer. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. Gandhiji as a Idealist. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. of course. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. 5.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11.2. Their educational ideas. We have seen that Tagore. in this lesson. 2. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. ears and eyes. and pragmatist . begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.6 LET US SUM UP We have.

2. Nai Talim 4. d. Teaching while Walking b. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Learning by Doing c. b. metal work. Activity Method d. 1937 7. 5.4. Self realization. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. c. e. Technique of Correlation 6. Self-Study b. leather work have been suggested. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. 11. 5. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Cult of non-violence. Debate and Discussion Method. 5. 8. a. a. 3. gardening. c.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. a. 2. Discussion Method 285 . 9. Meditation and concentration c. Heuristic Method. a. Explain Vishwabharathi. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Activity Method b. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Education should involve manual work. wood work. Ideal of citizenship. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Basic education. 10. f.

New Delhi : Aggarwal. (2007). J. (2007).P. Anmol Publications Pvt. Pahuja. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.2. B. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K. on Bhatia.H. C. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Dhiman. Publishing Corporation. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Theory and Principles of Education. K and Narang C. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2004). P. Foundations of Education. N. Ltd.5. N.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. L. New Delhi : A. 286 . Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. (2002). (2003). O. P.

12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.8 5.3 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .10 5.3.3.3.2 5.3.3.6 5.5 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.7 5.1 5.3.4 5.3.3.LESSON 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum. In this lesson. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.9 5.3.3.3.11 5.3.

explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Since the demands. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways.A. in the form of new experience. is a means to the process.S. 5. in the U. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. the plateau area and 288 . ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. 5. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. it is identical wit h socializat ion. From the latter point of view.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. A g o o d curricu lu m. present behaviour may be modified.3. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. the plain area. living in the hilly area. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . curriculum also offers a wide contrast. maintained or eliminated. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. curriculum signifies situations for learning. in Russia or in Japan.3. new behaviour may be acquired. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences.3. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child.. you will be able to: 1. curriculum. Both the processes are integrated. state the meaning of curriculum 2. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. the desert area. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. Curriculum is intimately related to education. In it. in fact . adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture.under the direction of the school. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. there is a large number of communities. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. In the words of Kerney and Cook.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. While education is learning. Then in a big country like India. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. While education is a process. In the former sense.

5. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. However. From a slave-country we became secular. studying therein. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. customs and needs. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. irrespective of their needs and environment. too. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. differs from individual to individual. It must differ from locality and from society to society. democratic and socialistic country. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. Besides craft. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. environment. according to modern trends in the educational process. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. it is. therefore.3. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. the learning capacity of children. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. and 289 . Again. In fact . much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded.

4.3. Application Objective. tangible. eg. aims. of classroom. social. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. aesthetic and spiritual development. etc. they depend on the political.g. uninspiring and unscientific.. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. National Integration..(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. The word “Curere” means 2. They speak of perfect goals. 2.g. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands.. 1. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. e. moral. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . Self Realisation. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. So it is inadequate. Knowledge Objective.. social. Understanding Objective. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. 3. in instructional objectives. remote or immediate. specific. They are visionary goals e. which may or may not be attained. Vocational Efficiency.. general or specific. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. Goals of Secondary Education. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. etc. They are achievable. unambiguous and functional. Goals of Primary Education. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. emotional. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. They speak of immediate purposes of education. e. 5. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. unsatisfactory.g. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. They may be ultimate or proximate. individual or Social and so on. 290 . there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals.

The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. educationists.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. capacities. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. Crow and Crow remarks. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects.5. abilities. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. According to Crow and Crow. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. The interests. Raymont rightly says. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. finding them very interesting and captivating. but it includes the totality of experiences. heavy fire. on the playing fields.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum.3. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. needs. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. in the class rooms.” 291 . Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children.

The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. Due to these variations and differences. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. aptitudes. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. mental. They often waste it or rather kill it. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. tendencies. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. moral. urges.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. capacities and abilities. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . time in a useful manner.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer.

In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. 2. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. development of professional capability at all levels. administrative programme need be planned. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. organized. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. Similarly. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. 293 . phased preparation. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes.curricular. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. 3. To ensure success of the process. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations.

17. 5. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee.3. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Run. laboratory. 12. Relation with Life c. Child Centred Education b.3. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. library. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. a. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 18. in the class room. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d.3. 11.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. principles of curriculum construction.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. 5. workshop. 1937 19. 10.

(2007). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. Bhalla. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.5.3. New Delhi : Isha Books.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.S. S. New Delhi : Authorspress. and Sarita Kumari. 295 . N. (2007). (2007). (2001). D. Innovations in Education. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Lakshmi. Curriculum Development. Curriculum and Instruction. P.K. S.

LESSON 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.4.8 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.7.4.4.9 5.4.2 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4 5.4.4.4.5 5.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.10 5.4.4.4.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.6.1 5.4.7.4.3 5.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.7.7.6.

tolerance for the opinions of others. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . you will be able to: 1.4. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. 4. 5.5. explain the concept of scientific attitude. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. open-mindedness. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. honesty. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . 3. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. newer and newer industries started growing. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. in the economic reconstruction of society. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. Gradually.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.during the second half of this century. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. 297 .4.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. 2. We mean curiosity. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. 5. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. superstition or emotion.4. know the importance of science education.

5.4. Schemes of teaching science. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. 3. Through examinations. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction.4. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Selection for science education. Love for truth enhances. Devotion towards nature increases. 7. Central science workshop. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Principles are formulated. Organisation of science fairs. 4. Through newspapers. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 4. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. After such experience and training. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 5. 2. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 2. Thinking and memory develops.So that. seminars and symposiums. stipends and appreciations in various ways. 6.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. 5. Promotion of science clubs. as well as of the society. 3. 5.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 6.

the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.6. objectivity. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It is. Training of science teachers. They ask many questions about the objects they see. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . After presenting the problem. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. Write any two advantages of Science Education. therefore. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. They experience natural phenomenon. Enquiry teaching is. 7. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force.4.needs and conditions. In the inquiry approach. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. each child to “enquiry skill building”. 5. should provide opportunities to.4. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. sex or religion. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. They encounter many social events as they grow. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. For laboratory and workshop techniques.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. essential that teachers.

Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. 6. stern pursuit of accurate data. 5. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 300 . . What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to ask questions and experience things. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. if they like.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Giving less directions. 5.4. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.Herma Wouk.6. .4. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. It requires consistent thinking. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Social sciences. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. commands or orders. test. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Evidence. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. 5. 2.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Appreciating pupils ideas. 3. 3. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. 4. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions.books. Adopting creative models of teaching.

Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation.4. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. of vast resources running waste.7. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. and emphasized during the learning process . It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. keen observation. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. 5. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. For instance. The students observation. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. critical thinking and suspended judgments. (Vaidya 2007). to develop among the learners. therefore should be unbiased and objective. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. These include open mindedness. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . To achieve this we should understand what it means. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. school and society at large. it must be encouraged.(Smith 2008). friends.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. neighbourhood. practiced.

looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. he studies all aspects of it. 302 . Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences.7. 2007). Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. think and work it”. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. In considering a situation or a problem. rumor.4. (Das. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. 5. understanding and logic. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. or superstitions. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. intuition or wishful thinking”.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.

but to begin only after careful planning. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.7.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. 5. • 5.7.4. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.4. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.

5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it must be encourages. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. 304 .• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. 5. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook.4.

New Delhi : Anmol Publications. 16. 5. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Love for truth enhances. b. a. 2. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. The intention to respect another’s point of view. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. S. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Study of superstitions d. Adopting creative models of teaching. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. 305 . Yadav. Vaidya. (2008). M. Rao. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. a.5. objectivity. Planning of activities 5. Reflections on Scientific attitude. a.4. Proper example of the teacher c. Discuss the importance of science education 14. a. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. b.B (2008). 4. Wide reading b. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. b. N. (2000).4. 5. D. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. (2006). Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa.4.S. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop.

5.5. state the concept.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.LESSON 5.11 5.5. areas of institutional planning.5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.5.7 5.8 5.5.5 5.5. actively.5.5. you will be able to: 1.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.3 5.6 5. 306 .5.10 5. objectives and characteristics.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.4 5.5. 2.9 5.2 5.1 5.

in the task of educational planning. • to involve teachers and school administrators.5.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. teachers and students is not lost sight of. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. 5. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. every teacher. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. and every student in the process of educational planning. 5. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.3. every parent. which become the bases for further planning at the district. State and national levels from below. and.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education.5. executive as well as public. and each student are regarded as separate entities. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. each teacher. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. • To make institutional planning more successful. and supplement planning from above. • to make planning development-oriented. Institution should be regarded as the unit. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy.

The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. it becomes the basis for school inspection. 308 . council and. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. etc. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. Co-curricular activities. (2) Co. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.curricular Activities. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.5. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. and Personnel services. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. approved after making necessary modifications. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. 5. which will be discussed in the general. Syllabus. Classwork.5. Examinations.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as.• implemented.

Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Fair distribution of syllabi. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Preparation of instructional material. 1. charts and apparatus. etc. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Preparation of models.No. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. 2. Conducting of educational. Celebrating of national and international festivals. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. etc. etc. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Organisation of class-room libraries. Organisation of Students’ Association. etc. scientific and historical excursions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Courts. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Running science clubs. Equipping of laboratory and library. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Organisation of Pupils.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Editing the school magazine. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Organising play-for-all programmes. etc. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Improving the internal assessment. Preparation of audio-visual aids. hobby-centres.

which are divided as the in. and —pupil-pupil. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. co-operation. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. teacher-managing body.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. science teachers’ associations. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. pupil310 . parent-teacher associations. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. teacher-teacher. headmasters associations. teacher-State. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. ii. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also.” The human relationships in. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. administrator-supervisor. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. teacher-pupil. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. teacherinspector. understanding.5. administrator-pupil. and solidarity. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. etc. teachers. administrator-administrator. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. pupils. Administrator-State. students’ associations. parents. involving mainly human materials. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships.5. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.

pupil-inspector. superintendence. Good.5. teacher-parent. supervision and superintendence. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. pupil-parent. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. V. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. to attend. 311 . Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management.State. It is also being modernized to become a technique. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. organisation and management. According to C. and to serve. teacher-community leader. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. organisation. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. to accomplish. control. administrator. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. It covers personnel and material management. supervision. to carry out. To administer means to manage. etc. pupil-community leader. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. social sciences and other disciplines. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. pupil-non-official functionaries. now-a-days.

The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. 5.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. 11. 3. Decision Making . Democratic Management . It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. 7. Communication . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. Rapport between the Management and Employees .Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. 4. Better Human Relationships . 12. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. He should be an artist in human relationships. Worker Participation . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. it is not worth-while. The relationship should change from master. 10. Cost-Benefit Analysis .Any good management will always have good public relations. 6. 8. This is the latest democratic trend in management. If it is more. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. 9. low. 2. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. If the cost benefit ratio is less.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . Liasion with the Public . who occupy the managerial positions. Economic Management . He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. 13.The manager should have leadership traits.Of all the approaches. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. Leadership . Socio-Scientific Approach . Those.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. Motiviation .lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.too. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. 5. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. improvement of teaching methods. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. and cooperative performance should be ensured. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained.g. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. objective. to improve the quality of education it provides. 5. 19. 14. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance .5. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. enrichment of curricula. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.These two are. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 313 .9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept.5. 18.

Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Educational Administration. 2. R. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Classwork. Co-curricular activities. NUEPA. a. In group and Out group 5. a. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. (2001). Singh.K. f. Motiviation d. 4. Instruction. b. 314 . S. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. e. a. Syllabus. APH Publishing Corporation. it becomes the basis for school inspection.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Decision Making b. Tarachand and Prakash. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. and Personnel services.M. Leadership c.5. (1995). Examinations. b. b. H. c. Fundamental of Educational Management. a.5.5. d. Communication 5. (2003).11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Economic 315 . Community and Mass Media 2.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Realized the problems of school education.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Common ailments of Children. Sex-education 4. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Communicable diseases .2 Secondary Education : Co-education. social Impact 3. Code of conduct for teachers.Pre-service and In-services facilities.Article 45 . Buddhist and Jain system of education. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. New evaluation procedures.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Inspection and Supervision 3. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Examination reforms. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .1 Primary Education : Education for all. School.1 Gurukula system of education.Religious and Modern Education 1. 2.3 Educational Influences of Home. Preservation of nutrients. First Aid. physical education and environmental education 5.4 India's Secular Policy . UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. population education. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. 1.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.5 Regional Educational Development in India .1 School Health Programme.3 Directive Principles . Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Healthy Food Habit 4. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. nutritional requirement. wastage and Stagnation 3. Balanced diet.CORE PAPER . 4. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.2 Nutritional deficiencies. women education and teacher education in India.Preventive measures.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.teachers should have : 1. higher education.I.

Ram S. Pandy V.N.R. Realism. Naturalism and Pragmatism . Socialization. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.K.K. (2005) Foundations of Education. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Hemchand. Mishra. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Sharma.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Tagore 5. Taneja V. T. Prof. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.C. and Mohanty R. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.S. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. curriculum and teacher's role 5.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Ghanta R.K. Mahatma Gandhi. REFERENCE 1.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . 316 . (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. R. and Dash B.1 Idealism.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. and Sharma R. 7.K. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Saraswathi T. 5. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. and Human Development.Aim. (2004) Problems of Education in India.4. B. Delhi : University Publications 2.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.4 4. (1999) Culture. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Curriculum and national goals .4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.N.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.

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