BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

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UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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discusses the regional educational development in India. Lesson 2. The need. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Jainism and their educational implication. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. and Jain system of education. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. In. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. 9 . of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Lesson 4. Lesson 5.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world.

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2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.2 1.1 1.5.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.6.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.6.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1.5.1.1.3.1.1.5.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.4.5 Jain system of education 1.6.1.1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.6.LESSON 1.6 Education during British Era 1.6.1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.4.1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.3.1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1.5.1.1.1.

discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.1. 1. elucidate the education during British Era. in morals and in the intellect”.7 1. 1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.1.3. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.8 1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1.1. describe the Jain system of Education 4. That 12 .9 1. but English in taste. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. British system of education presented the modern western model.1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. The history of education passed through Buddhist. Muslim and British periods.1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.6. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. Indian in blood and colour. 1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1. both present and future.1.6.1. has a long past history starting in vedic education.1. in opinion. India.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. “a class of persons. Education in India.1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.

Role of Travel in Education. individually. Forests as Centres of Education. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. 9. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Where pupils were many. questioning by the pupil. managed entirely by Brahmans. religious and spiritual. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. 11. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. 5. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. if they thought fit to do so. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Teacher as Parents. It was not merely intellectual. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Education of Moral. 8. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. 4. generally. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. the monitorial plan was followed. 14. It was also moral. 10. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Education was a private affair of the people. Method of Study. High Status of Teachers. not en masse by the class method. to light. Curriculum. The immediate aim of education. and to agriculture and trade. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. 13 . was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Residential Schools. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Free and Accessible. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. from darkness. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. No State Control on Education. Pupils were taught. Immediate Aim Vocational.knowledge was real. 3. 12. however. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. 13. Individual Teaching. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Religious and Spiritual. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 6. with grants of land or money. as it is generally considered to be at present. from eternal to immorality 2. 16. followed by explanation by the teacher. There was. Method of Instruction.

2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. Wide-Spread Education in Women. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. It was suited to the needs of the society. 1. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. besides preparing for worldly pursuits.17. lived a life of celebacy. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. studied Vedas. They were very cordial and intimate. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.1. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. 2. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

killing of any living being. the most significant of which were the following 1. the handicapped. medium of Pali. 15 . Right speech 4. After attaining the age of 20. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. dressed himself in yellow clothes. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. Right contemplation 1. Education was imparted through the. except the Chandals. partaking of food at prohibited times. Right endeavour 7. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Right knowledge 2. use of intoxicating things.C. 1. which included abstaining from theft. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Right thought 3. I take Refuge to Dharma. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. Right means of livelihood 6. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. disease and death of the human beings. had the right to receive education. watching dances or listening to music. Consequently. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. Right activity 5. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. I take Refuge to Sangh.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. It was denied only to the ill. in which. Right memory 8.4. taking things without being offered. the student had his head shaved of all hair. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. the student remained in a state of Shramana.1. use of cosmetics.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. etc. every class in society. impure conduct. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. he was qualified to become a monk. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. 2.

Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. education was impart in art. agriculture. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. 1. of clothes. 7. nature. After this ritual. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. Hence.. along with education in script writing. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. assumptions.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. archery. aspirations and. knowledge of reviving the dead. 4. approach. etc. etc. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. has no metaphysical value for life. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. magic. beg for alms. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. geology. bodily gestures. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. animal husbandry.4. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. a change is not only total but also perpetual. depth and range. medicine. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. On this occasion. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. women occupied a position inferior to men. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. etc. the presence of the monks was essential. therefore. commerce. however. control over sensuous activities.3. 5. and. 6. 2. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. Whatever its nature and extent. As reality is becoming. elephant lore. military science. a continuous change creating 16 . wear three items. Initially. 3. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. Later on. 8. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. archery. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. handicrafts. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. the science of taming and training animals. meaning. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. These are called later Buddhist schools. so long as it successfully does so. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. nothing is of any permanent consequence. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. arithmetic and religious discussion. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. eat food thrice a day. changing the goals. objectives of human life. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. Even at this stage. cottage industries. be considered the aim of education It. Life is in a flux. It comprehended education in writing. it is regarded as true”.

Validity is effective and consequences. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6.e. i. therefore. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism.. Its chief feature.new and peculiar situations. Jainism insists 17 . in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. 5. Education must. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. and to give it a shape that it has today. goes to Vardhaman.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. it is much older than the latter. 1. whatever works are true and good. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. its pessimistic outlook on life. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. such as. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Write Eight fold path . twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. In fact. however. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. However.1.5. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success.

e) To renounce the world. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. 3. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul.1. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. 2. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. it has a foot in both the words. c) Not to steal. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. but on both. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism.5. rather than the interpretation of the universe. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. As such. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Hence. They are: a) Not to injure. 18 . 9. 5. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. and believe in happiness to all. d) To lead a celibate life. 6. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Development of personality as an individual. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. 1. c) Right conduct.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 4. more stress on individual aims. 7. b) Not utter falsehood. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. 10. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. 1. 2. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. and is to be redeemed and liberated. b) Right knowledge. 3. thought and deed. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. 8.

Belief in transmigration of soul. education should develop sense of discrimination.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Jiva is essentially karmic. 3. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. 1. that would be socially desirable.5. 5. Hence. education must be action based and ideally oriented.5. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 19 . What are Triratnas ? . the precious principles of life that bring happiness.4. Teaching must develop these faculties. 3. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. therefore. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Teaching should be social and tolerant. and should bring happiness to all. 2. success and love. practised and not only aspired for. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 2. 8. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. here and now.

“they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. with rally and rout. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. To set up separate departments of.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. 1.6.6. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. 1. Bombay. philosophy and literature of Europe. 1.6. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. 2. However. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. Madras. 1953). Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. science. primary 20 .1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. North West Province and Punjab. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. 1. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. and not for life.1. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts.6. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”.

1. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. secondary education became a step towards university. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. To ensure qualitative improvement.6. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. 1. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). self-respecting and competent. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. At that time M. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. Later on. at the primary level. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. namely. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). • Secondary education. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools.education was neglected.6. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. • Universal free primary education. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. The universities dominated the secondary education. 1. In 1882.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. Instead of being a self-sufficient course.6.K. Then the prevalent education was anti-national.

Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. 10.1. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Give your answer as instructed in each question b. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. After this stage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. The objective of education was to provide 22 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. all children are to have a common curriculum. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial.

The system of education was well-organised.1. along with education in script writing. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. geology. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education.1. Right thought. b. questioning by the pupil. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. etc. 3.education of European literature.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Right means of livelihood. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. education was impart in art. archery. arithmetic and religious discussion. Right memory. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 2. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 5. followed by explanation by the teacher. 23 . It was suited to the needs of the society. 2. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. Right activity. 4. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. During the Buddhist period. handicrafts. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Right endeavour. military science. 6. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. the science of taming and training animals. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools.. Right contemplation. a. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. Right speech. science and English language. The immediate aim of education. 4. establishment of universities. 1. Right knowledge. 3. 1.

New Delhi : Shipra Publications. b.K. b. (2007). Improvement of Literature. Y.C. Right knowledge. 10. History of Indian Education System. Sharma. Aggarwal. a.7. 11. more stress on individual aims.1. 1882. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Sargent report 12. 8. and Nath. 9. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Development of personality as an individual. J. (2005). 24 .C. Y. Ltd. Singh. Hence. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. J. 1937 1. Ltd. c. Right faith. Right conduct. Development of Educational System in India.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. R. (1984).K. a. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. (2009).

Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.4 National Policy on Education 1.2.2.2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 University Education Commission 1.5 1.9 1.2.2.3.2.3.6 1.2.2.2 1. The 25 .2 Secondary Education Commission 1.4 1.3.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.1 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.3.LESSON 1.2.2.2.7 1.8 1.2.2.2.

technical. girls and women education besides primary. 2. Kothari (1964-66) 8.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided.2. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. explosion of enrolment. 1. National Board of Teacher Education 10. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. curriculum. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. New Educational Policy. secondary and higher education. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3.2. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement.2. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. There had been vast institutional expansion.conditions of the teachers. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. you will be able to: 1. 1986 1. examination system.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. medical and legal education. expansion of vocational. vocational education. National Council for Women’s Education 5. standard of teaching. 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India.3. S. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Post-graduate 26 . Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. diversification of courses of studies. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. analyse the progress of education in free India. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. technological engineering.

material and spiritual. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.3. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 .2. accumulated over the years. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. research et. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. 3. National System of Education. Government of India. D. the New National Policy on Education. Therefore. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. 1.S. Problems of access. 1966. Finally. 4. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. utility and financial outlay.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. the chairman of University Grants commission.teaching. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. The Essence and Role of Education.2. Education is the key to our allround development. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. However. in January 1985.2.3. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. Kothari. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. 2. quality. A. 1952. 1986. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. quantity. 1.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. Education for Equality.3. A meaningfully Partnership.

understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. By working with hands. The UNESCO Report. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. the concepts of work experience. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. attitudes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Thus.” Thus. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. 28 . facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. the minorities and the handicapped.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. It can train practical aptitudes. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage.

With adequate planning. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. According to.” the Kothari Commission mentioned.employment and promote economic independence of the youth.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. if he wishes." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. it will conduce self. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. The Radhakrishnan Commission.” The Mudaliar Commission.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. Besides. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. The Education Commission. the Commission. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . “It may be described. co-ordinations. “The aim of these colleges. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. As such. In 1955.

the. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. Subsequently. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. for quality of life in the rural areas. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses.. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. raising the special facilities. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. Therefore. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. In addition. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. the semester and credit system.ot her. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. the rigid streaming of courses. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. The Central Advisory Board of Education. admission requirements to vocational courses. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. With a view to relating education to the life. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. etc. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work.

who conceived the System of Basic Education. which swept the country for over two decades. manual work resulting in either goods or services. felt that education should be centred around a craft. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum.and the world of work.defined S UP W as “purposive. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. preferably spinning and weaving. giving importance to productivity in the national development. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. 1. etc. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. The wave of Basic Education. The Father of Nation. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. meaningful. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education.. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. 31 . NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. which offer scientific. aimed at this goal. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. meaningful. which are useful to the community. In short. According to committee.2. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. technological courses including Agriculture. Commerce.

32 . Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Shelter 4. The teachers should make use of. so that it is educational in essence. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Health and Hygiene 2. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. tools and techniques and 3. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Culture and recreation 6. be that the work involved is: 1. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Community work and social service. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. 3. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. 4. Food 3. as far as possible. Educative and 3. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. 2. Experimentation with materials. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Clothing 5. locally available materials and tools. Productive 2. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Work practice. The criterion for selection of activities should thus.

It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. To make education more realistic. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. 1. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Check on educated unemployed 4. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. 6.5. Education through work The SUPW should. removal of illiteracy. Merits of the Programme 1. the local community should be actively associated. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. inculcate a faith. Community Service In-1972. as far as possible. etc. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. Productive Work 33 . slum clearance. improve discipline. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. It can become an instrument to build character.2.

What are the work areas in SUPW 6. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. traffic control. if not productive. offering first aid. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. The community. skills and better future for the children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. etc.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. should involve itself in the educational effort. helping the adults-in productive work. in turn.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. Define SUPW 34 . AICTE was set up in year 4.

1. e. d.2. f. 35 . Dr. b. Write short note on SUPW. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.2. a. 1955 4. 3. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. Radhakrishnan 2. 1952 3. meaningful. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. 6. 1. manual work resulting in either goods or services. 1. c. 2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. which are useful to the community.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.2.

(2009). R. New Delhi: A. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.2.K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.H.1.P. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. A. V.C.(2005). Ltd. and Nath.. P. Rao. Y. Publishing Corporation. (2007). History of Education. Y. Development of Educational System in India.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. B. 36 . : Sharma. History and Problems of Indian Education. Anupama.D. (2007). Amala. and Rao.P. Singh.K. J.K. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. History of Indian Education System. (2005).

It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.9 1.6 1.3.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. and liberty.3.3. equality. 1950. 37 . the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.7 1.369 words in the English language version.3.3.3.4 1.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.1 Significance of DPSP 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. directive principles and duties of citizens. assuring its citizens of justice. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3.3.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.5 1.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3. 1949. Besides the English version.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. establishing the structure.3.8 1. containing 395 articles.1 1. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. Being the supreme law of the country.2 1. democratic republic.3. it came into effect on January 26. for a total of 117. procedures.3. there is an official Hindi translation. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.

1947 meeting of the Assembly. 2. 4.In the August 14. After many deliberations and some modifications. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. Through them. understand our Indian constitution. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. 1. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24.3. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. 1947. spread over a period of 2 years.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. political. you will be able to: 1. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. social. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. for 166 days. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. On August 29. 1950.3. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. with Dr. learn the role of central and state government on education. Dr. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. the Drafting Committee was appointed. 1.3.3. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. 1.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. Two days later. administrative. According to the constitution. 1947. legal and environmental. 3. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. 38 .3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. economic. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. in sessions open to public. The Assembly met.

Organisation of village panchayat. in particular. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Right to work. Protecting children from exploitation. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. and in other cases of undeserved want. Appropriate concentration of wealth. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. 39 . Article 39A. Protecting health of the workers.government. men and women. provide free legal aid. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. sickness and disablement. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. on the basis of equal opportunity. Article 40. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. Article 42. Liking wage etc. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Equal justice and free legal aid. No abuse of children. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. That the health and strength of workers. Equal pay for both sex. The State shall endeavour to secure. Minimising inequalities in status. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Condition for dignity of children. make effective provision for securing the right to work. old age. The State shall. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Article 43. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Article 41. for workers. and shall.

Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. by suitable legislation or in any other way. Article 45. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Article 48A. in particular. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. in particular. 2002 for “45. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Article 43A. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. The State shall endeavour to provide. Article 46. to all workers. Article 48. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. work. Article 44. Note: Subs. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. [declared by or under law made by 40 . Article 49. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Article 47. in particular. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. agricultural. The State shall take steps. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. and. industrial or otherwise. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Participation of workers in management of industries. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. See also Article 21A). a living wage. (Original Article 45.

destruction.Parliament] to be of national importance. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. 1. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. as the case may be. Article 45 . Promotion of international peace and security. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. from spoliation. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. 2. disfigurement. disposal or export. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Article-21A Right to Education. Article 50. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. removal. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Article 51. maintain just and honourable relations between nations.3. may be law determine”. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Separation of judiciary from executive. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2002.

(Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. and. iii. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. and shall protect them. 6. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. ii. 3. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. race. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. his guardian has given his consent thereto. caste. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. 8. from justice and all forms of exploitations. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. 7. 4.” 42 . language or any of them”. 5. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. if such person is a minor. 2002. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. in particular. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied.

43 . style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. the forms. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. 2.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. and by drawing.9. Article 351 gives importance to 6. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. wherever necessary or desirable. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis.3. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. & 1. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. for its vocabulary. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. The central government determines targets and promotes education. Educational Reforms From time to time. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language.

were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. to achieve the desired ends. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. So as to encourage education on right lines. Local bodies and private enterprise. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). The following pilot projects. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. the state governments. By starting these projects. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. 7. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. 6.. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. So that they may work well. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. private agencies etc.3. etc. Production of suitable for children and adults f. All India Council of Medical Science. 4. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. 8. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. 5. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction.

Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. research. 3.3. 10. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 4. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. 9. 1. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. 12. The 45 . for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. education for women. 1. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. books. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. etc. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. reports etc. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. are published by it. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. handicapped. training and statistics. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. is the state responsibility.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. 11. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose.

5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government.3. Write short notes on a. Article 46 4.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. articles in the Directive principles. 1. Explain Directive principles 2. Article 45 b. 1. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 21A c. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . 46 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.3. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.

Article 45 . b. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. a. 1. Describe the educational role of State Government. 2002. b. Clearing House function 9.5. 2002. 47 . for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. The Directive Principles of State Policy. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Article 29 and 30 7. Ambedkar 2. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. may be law determine”. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Article 46 5. a. Article-21A Right to Education. Development of Hindi Language 6. a. 3.3. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 4.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Dr.

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. L. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2008). New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. K and Narang C. S. S. (2009). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2007). 48 . Education in Emerging Indian Society. B. K. Education in Emerging Indian Society. N. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Ghosh. (2004).1. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Dash.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta.3. Bhatia.

4.4. Jainism.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3.4.4. Christianity. Buddhism etc.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.8 1.4 Moral education 1.4.4.4.3.4.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.6 1.4.4. Islam.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.4.1 Why Moral Education 1.1 1.2 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4.7 1.5 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.3.4.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1. religious education should be broad based. Students should be 49 .4.

India' can produce men of character. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. According to E.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. In the complicated and complex society of today. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). duty-consciousness.and dedication.D. "In A multireligious society like ours. know the position of religious education in our country 3.. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. state meaning and need for moral education 1.” Education broadens human outlook. Thus. beauty and goodness so that 50 . The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. religious education and the concept of secularism.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.4. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. 1. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. As result of which. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment.4. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. you will be able to: 1. integrity. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines.

The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. if not regularly. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. Hence. at least occasionally.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. Children attend these organizations. it is clear that the State has no religion. all citizens are free to follow any creed. 1. No religious tax can be imposed on them. rancour. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. castes and creeds. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. In short.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately.4. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. religion and democracy are same. 1.3. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. 1947 we achieved our freedom. through religious practices and 51 . As a matter of fact. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society.4. Viewing the defects of religious education.3. They thought that any kind of narrow. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. According to Article 19. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines.” From the above. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. As our country is a country of diverse religions. According to Article 22.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. realizes God in himself. Thus.

teachings. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. for the development of the individual and the society. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. He also learns about social. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). If unreleased. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. moral and spiritual values. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. It helps to modify habits attitudes. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. As a result of which. when he becomes an adult. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. Good education. It is religious education. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 .. one fully developed. and what is evil. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. intellectual and physical faculties of children. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. temperament etc. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. aggressive. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. what is done and what is not done etc. which can mould. which help him for the development of his character.

Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. 2. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. This should not be allowed to happen.4. 3. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. towards the society.3. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. 1. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. 53 . one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Therefore. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. which is the basic need of a democratic life. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. If we open the pages of history.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. stories of moral greatness. For this.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. 11. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. examples of patriotism. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. 9. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write Article 22 2. Since all religions have virtues. 10. fellow-feeling.5. therefore. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Life histories of great persons of the world. churches and mosques 7.4. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Gurudwara as.

Aparigarha (Non. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. 7. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. is that which develops moral values. Cultivation of emotions. 2.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Moral education. Service to others. 8. They will play their role effectively. the methods of teaching. Ahimsa (Non-violence). 5. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. students.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others.4. Purity. Self sacrifice. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. 3.acquisitiveness). 6. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration).6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Non-injury. 8. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite.4. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. 1. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. 6. Asvada (Control of palate). 4. “Let all be happy and free from disease. 5. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Fearlessness. 55 . 7. The content of the curriculum. therefore. let men see well of one another. 3. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 1. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Patriotism. Satyam (truth). Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Without moral values. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. 4. Swadeshi (Patriotism). in the home. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 2. It they learn what morality is in their early years.

saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. discipline. 56 . religions may be included in the syllabus. 4. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Simple texts and stories concerning different. 1. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. National unity and Spiritual values. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Good manners. 11. Integrity. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Discipline.9. 10. Good temper. Unity of mankind. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. minutes in the morning for group singing.4. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 2. Sharivashram (Physical work). 3. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. In the school programme. Asatyam (Non-thieving). 3. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Efficiency. Secondary Stage 1. The School Assembly should be held for a few.

5. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. 5. 4. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. 2. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. love of humanity. Silent meditation should be encouraged. University Stage 1. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour.4. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. patriotism and self-discipline. should form a normal part of school programme. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 57 . In other words. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. In this connection. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated.

Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. Sri Prakasa 6 . 1.4. 4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The School Assembly should be held for a few.4. the. Training of Character 3. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. minutes in the morning for group singing. For this. 1. a. 1959 5. b.1.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. 2. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. Discuss the aims of Religious education. In short. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 58 . 2. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. a. a. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. b.4. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.

(2008). (2008).H.P. Dash. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2003). (2004). N.H. B. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.1. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. L. 59 . Anmol Publications Pvt. K and Narang C.4. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi: A. (2007). K. Bhatia. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. M. P. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Siddiqui. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Pahuja. N. J. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.C.

5.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5.10 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context. Although. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.5. i.2 1.5.9 1.5.8 1. 60 .1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.4 1.6 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.7 1.5.e.5.5.3 1..5.12 1.5.5 1.11 1. disparities between provinces/States.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5.1 1.5.

know the education suited to different environments.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. 8. 1. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. roads. 1. 4. Accordingly. energy. 6. waters.5. 2.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.1. They therefore.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.5. for example. 3. you will be able to: 1. This leads to separatist movements. 1.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. etc. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. they take appropriate measures. understand the regional educational development in India 3. 7. work hard towards this end.5. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. 5. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 61 .

and. on the basis of regional development may be formed. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. There are many reasons for this during the British rule.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. • Separate States (of course viable States). it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . Secularism. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. Therefore.5. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. 2. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. 4. some average. some States became educationally far advanced. education as a fundamental human right was recognized.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. 62 . while others remained educationally backward. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. 3. Tight security arrangements should be made. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers.

Itanagar. Guwahati.. and provision of informal education to enable those. NIT. After the attainment of independence. Funds amounting to Rs.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity.480. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. while some States like Bihar. Even in each State. However. scholarships.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Regional Centres of IGNOU. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums.14. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. library buildings. the State Governments.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. Mizoram.After the Planning Process has originated. Nagaland and NEHU. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. Tezpur. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments.392. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. NERIST.5. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. the Union Government. books. approved proposals worth Rs. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. etc. In the Central sector. Central Universities of Assam. 63 . as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice.84 crore was released in 2005-06. Silchar. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. Jammu and Kashmir. These projects are in various stages of implementation.g. 1. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Rs. academic buildings. Out of this. remained under developed. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. etc. since its inception in 1998-99. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes.

the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. too. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.501.57 crore and Rs.5.500. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.8 per cent in 05). NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).187.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Out of this an amount of Rs. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Moreover.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.261. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.40. Tezpur University. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). During 2003-04.05 crore and Rs. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. Government expenditure on education. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. A provision of Rs. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. 64 .60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.

North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. telecom.5. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. too. pharma. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). engineering and R&D. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). The Chandigarh Administration. too. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. notes the study. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. 1. for which 16 sites. Karnataka. Moreover. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. English. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Kerala and Gujarat. To add to the woes. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Andhra Pradesh. Medical education. too. Listing the positives. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Tamil Nadu. Karnataka.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . for instance. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur.

year. the interests. Hence it is called as need-based. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. the vocations. the socio-physical conditions. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the teaching methods. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. 66 . The working hours of educational institutions. the needs. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. life-oriented and environment slanted. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. while the former does not. when he will not be sure of time. the curricular subjects. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. the working days: an academic . in which the learners live. and so on. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. In the same manner. taking the average in the middle. The living conditions. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. For a learner living in a rural area. which a non-tribal person cannot do. Then education become realistic and idealistic. even actually looking at the watch. Of course.

What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 67 . There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.5.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. 2.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1.5. to suit education to different environments? 1.5.

S. S. Dubey. (2002). and Nair.N. 68 .G. C. New Delhi: Authors press. Education in Developmental Arena. 60% 1. some of areas which were under the native rulers. a.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Giridhar. Educational Development in India. R. Salim. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001).2. Education Scenario in India.5. A. remained undeveloped 3. (2001).K. New Delhi: Anmol Publications.H. (2008). during the British rule. some States have become more developed than others b. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. semi literate and illiterates. community development. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. secularism and democracy through Indian education. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. 71 . You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. National Integration. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. school community and mass media. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education.

1.2 2.1.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.9 2.1.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.6.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.7 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.1.5.6 Education for Secularism 2.6.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.1 2.LESSON 2.3 2.4 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1.1.1.1.1.8 2.6.1.1.5.1.

4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’.1. colour or wealth. for the people by the people”. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. socialism and secularism 2. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. you will be able to: 1. socialism and secularism 2. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.1.2. 73 . Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 3) Provision of Manual Work. 2. This is the political aspect of democracy. understand the concept of democracy. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy.1. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality.1.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. there should be made no distinction of caste. The students may be associated with the management of the school. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. socialistic and secular state.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. Abraham Lincoln. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. Democracy thus means power of the people. 2. creed. 5) Encouragement to Group Work.

hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. There are different brands of socialism.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. 12) Visits to Legislatures. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. Democracy means 2. 2.. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. debates.1. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. it soon spread all over the world. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. 11) Student Parliament. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. 74 . 8) Opportunities for Social Service. declamation contest etc. may be planned.

6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. Under it. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 2) Socialism aims at equality. the wealthy and the poor. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 75 . 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 2. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. the prince and the peasant. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. free from exploitation.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. oppression and disparity. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.5.5.1. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. but on the path of non-violence. 7) Special facilities for girls. 2. none high”.1. service and cooperation.

Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. 76 . moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools.1.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. According to Holydake. Write any two main features of socialism. “India is a secular-country. "which seeks the development of physical. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. secularism is being propagated. 2.” In every political and educational corner. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. Everyone says. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. 11) State schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

During the recent past. people have narrow mindedness. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.6. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. “Webster further says. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. 3) It permits freedom of worship. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. fraternity.1.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. 9) It stress free inquiry. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines.1. 5) It implies tolerance. liberty. people started believing in regionalism.opposed to religious education. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. 2. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. A large number of people is uneducated. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. the belief that the state morals. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. That is why. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. 77 . There is need of making the people open minded. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact.6. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. 2) It permits freedom of religion.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 8) It believes in co-existence. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. Moral values have to be imbibed. should be independent of religion. education etc. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. Equality. In this type of prevailing situations. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. People have different religions and they have different beliefs.

Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. tours and trips may be organized. Patiala. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based.presented by the students in the gathering. There should be some internal checking of the material being. students belonging to different religions should be associated. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. 1) Moral Education. While doing so. In the hands of such teachers. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. education. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools.1. No doubt. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. that the central string of all religions is one. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. In the celebration of each such function.6. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. 2. The very sight of the building. Religious Education.

our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The term secularism was first used by 8. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. 2.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The word “Seculum” means 7.7 LET US SUM UP 79 .1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. No doubt. Define Secularism 9. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.

a. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Equal Opportunities for Admission. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Since socialism stands for equality. Socialism aims at social justice. 4. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. a. colour or wealth. Provision of Manual Work. 3. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. c. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. b. 6. 2. for the people and the people”. d. Tuition free education b. Abraham Lincoln. 5. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. 3. George Jacob Holydake 80 . In the matter of admitting students in schools. The students may be associated with the management of the school. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. This present age 7. Socialism aims at equality. there should be made no distinction of caste. creed. b. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 4. a. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. 5.1. Respect of Individual Personality.1. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. The two can move only in the consonance with each other.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Power of the people 2.

Dash. J. N. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.C. Theory and Principles of Education. (2003). Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society.8. L. New Delhi : Pahuja. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Anmol Publications Pvt.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. a. It treats all religions on an equal footing. B. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2004). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. P. 81 . Mohanty. K. (2007). (2005). 10. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. It permits freedom of religion. N. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Bhatia.1. should be independent of religion. education etc. the belief that the state morals. a. J. b. (2008). b.” 9. Ltd. K and Narang C. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.

6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2.6.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.2.2.2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2 2.4 2.1 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2.2.2.6.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.LESSON 2.5.9 2.2.2.7 2.2.10 2.8 2.2.5.2.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .3 2.

The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. aims and objectives of the school.2. A teacher is first and foremost. as citizens. emotional. as workers.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. you will be able to: 1. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. 2. development.2.generation to another. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. social. who are placed in his custody. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. a r e 1. The developmental roles of children. moral. and 4. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. as it is t he aim o f modern education. skills. 3. It involves physical.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. social and moral aspects. 2. 83 . understandings. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. as learners.an instructor of school children. application. mental. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. as persons. 2. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. therefore.

There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. economically effective. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. 2. Teacher as a Citizen Next. 2. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education.All education should lead to better behavioural development. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. morally. mentally. motivated.2. culturally confident. The students live. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. a part of their day in 84 . vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. He is to become an active member. He has to look after their physical. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. intellectually. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. physically fit for socially efficient. experiences and acceptance. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. The following are some of such roles described in brief. 1. emotionally. member of his community at the outset. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. morally. inquisitive. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. and aesthetically to become. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. social and emotional health. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. mental. socially. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. 3.

India is a land of many castes. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. activities of the society into which he is born. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. They will be spending with their parents. solve them.the school being under the custody of teachers. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. fine art associations. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. It 85 . there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. 4.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. faiths. Unless. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. photographic clubs. and most of hours. List out the role of teachers towards community development . science club. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs.2. 2. languages and religions. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. creeds. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Dr.

keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. b. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. ‘We should not become parochial. the citizens of the Republic of India. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation.5. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. this integration of the Indian people. narrow-minded provincial.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. 1. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. with straight backs and look up at the skies. stand up straight. a. the study of language and literature. therefore. folklore and teaching of social studies. Radhakrishnan. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice.” Regarding the role of education. Sampurnanand remarked. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. social studies. The only process is the process of education. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. should be emphasised.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. It should broaden the outlook. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. and make into one strong national unit. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr.2. At the primary stage the importance of stories. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality.” 2. poems. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. c. Nehruji has explained this as. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. Let us. national anthem and other national songs.is.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr.

distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Scouts and Guides. Celebrations of National Days. 8. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. 6. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. 9. 7. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. Student Camps. sports. languages and literature. 2. Co-Curricular Activities. 3. Singing of National Anthem. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. symposia. and picnics. ACC. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Taking Pledge. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. 87 . In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. tours. 5. Uniform for School Children. Reverence of National Flag. 10. 4. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country.different social sciences. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. National Days—January 26. militar y training like the NCC. dramatics and youth festivals. educational excursions. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. Textbooks. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. debates. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. t he st udent s and t he community.

iii. Recognition of Institutions. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Admissions. 14. colour. Open-Air Dramas. region or religion. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . 2. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. 88 .11. iv. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. 16. language. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. School Projects. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. 13. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 15. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. flora and fauna. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. v.5. 12. ways of thinking and doing things. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. Educational and Travel Documentaries. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. Students Exchange and Tours. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Admissions to schools. ii.2.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. vii. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Define National Integration 3. viii. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.vi. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Community dinners. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. irrespective of national boundaries. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . The Secondary Education Commission Report observes.2. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. ix. camps. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. 2. cultures and races on equal bases.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices.

friendships between children of different countries. 2. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. 3. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.2.6. In a very real sense. (b) stories of children of other lands. Radhakrishnan states. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. Strong has observed. if it happens. C. Teachers 90 . we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. (c) fairly tales. often in connection with anniversaries. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. 5. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live.” 2. Dr.. Organising of debates and. patriotism is not enough.as important as that of a national citizenship. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. This. Therefore. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. therefore. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. the international level. 4.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.F.2. 6. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.6. 2. that war. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.e. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. of his body and mind. and the healthy development.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding.

Indian and American. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. an Englishman. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Impartial in their Treatment. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. They should not be propagandists. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Russian. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. a German.” Well Informed About World Situations.

come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. and help the students to over . It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. Chronic Poverty . 3.2.2. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. Devaluation of Values . 5. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. the education function can be carried. As the school is but a miniature society.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. leading to. which results in agitation and aggression language.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. 2. Wide Spread Frustration . majority of people are. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. If this is done. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. understand and indiscipline: 1.Another major.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. there is wide spread frustration among all people. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. 4. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. It does not prepare students for life. Defects of the educational System .

Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. 2. etc. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. 5. 3. 4. co-operation.democratic nature.2. 2. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. 2.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. love. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. sympathy and good will among the nations. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. fellow feeling. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . community development. 93 .

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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3. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. During the course of time. Moreover. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Crow and Crow write. led to the printing of books. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. are increasingly used in education. books. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. art galleries. To make them achieve their aim. the invention of the printing press. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Define community. Now internet is being used. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations.V. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. He taught his students orally. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . 2. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. Museums. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. Hence. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. periodicals.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Emphasising this thing. In fact. Then came newspapers. “All the citizens of the community.

classroom teachers. Thus.G.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. It enlightens public opinion. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. “Listening participation” in current history. Various talks. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. 2. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Thus. politics. dram appreciation. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. 2. music. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. current affairs and other areas. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. art. In the emphasis is on sound. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world.6. A lot of work by way of pre. In collaboration with the experts. Effective means of presenting music. It is also an important source of entertainment. languages. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. 101 . A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. the place of importance. Students listen various talks. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts.telecast. Reynolds. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense.3. the teacher still occupies. social studies. rather than on picture. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. Important happening inventions. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. for the teacher through school broadcasts. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science.

It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. at play. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. 4. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. projects or creative activities. At present. Before presenting the programme. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Participation of local teachers and pupils. at any place. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. plays. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. travel talks. informal and non-formal education. 3. at recreational centers. style. Making learning an open system. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. Team-teaching demonstrations. audibility and presentability. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. speech. at drawing room. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. development of lessons. 5. fol classical music. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. School concerts. mathematics. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. 102 .debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.3.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.4 Limitations of formal education 2.8 2.4.4.7 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4.4.4.5 2.4.4.1 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.4.4.4.6 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.4.4.4.4.3.4.3.2 2.4.LESSON 2.4.4.3.

Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan.4. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. 2. you will be able to: 1.4. his mental alertness. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system.4. the community. say the Government or the private enterprise. 3. 2. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 7.3. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. 2. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. open university. 6. compare formal and non formal system of education. the mass media et. imparted at the residence of the teacher. 2. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. To realize this objective of education. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. School is. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. 5. 2. 9. 3. Education. 4. the learner are acquainted. 110 . open school.. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner.2. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. starting and ending at -a particular age.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. the most important agency of formal education. 4. the family. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. it was mostly. the temple. In ancient time in India. Education organised by some agency. 8.

3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. structured education. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society.4. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. or academic degrees. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . In general. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection.4. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. also called tertiary.a secondary education. third stage. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Through early formal education. depending on the jurisdiction. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Higher Education: Higher education. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. or post secondary education. Some education systems have separate middle schools. capacity.2. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. 2.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.3. such as a high school or secondary school. Concepts of proportion.3. diplomas. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. as well as vocational education and training. the elements of language are first learned. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education.

What are levels of formal educational system? . It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. 2. late beginners etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. 2. 3. 4.which will help for nation's development. Agencies can be classified as 2.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities.4. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.3. children with disabilities. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. is an important agency of formal education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 .4. and remote dwellers.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

According to Malcolm A. systematic. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. Therefore. continuing education and on the job oriented education. i. Open university. to help themselves.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. staffed. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. admissions.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. adding up to a true learning society.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. etc.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. However.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.formal education.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. Thus. work and the opportunity to put learning to use.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. curriculum. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. it has its own valid claim to reality. It is much more responsive to needs and change. place of instruction. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. It is deliberate. open learning. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. It unlocks the doors of development plans. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. until 1970 it had not been defined. adults as well as children.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. It is functional. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. planned. financially supported life formal education. one could say that non-formal education is an active. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. Adiseshiah. Non-formal education includes adult education.learning client take some learning objectives. systematic.e. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. it is a more effective tool for rural development.. “Non-formal education should 113 . Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon.

• To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.4. national integration. the Ideas of citizenship. Process of sharing. international understanding. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs.” 2. socialism. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. admissions. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. Lawrence.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. age. To help industrial workers to better their skills. Covering life span of an individual. place of education. co-curricular activities.” According to H. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Preparation for future needs. To develop in the student. exploring. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 5.4. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved.4. i.renewal. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.learning pattern. 6. 2. curriculum. modes of teaching. 114 . Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. 3. Flexibility in various aspects of education. 7.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.4.S. self. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. It should lay emphasis on the self. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. 2.S. 4. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. Part-time education.e.be marketable and vocationalised. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. evaluation etc.

To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Technical. 6. publication and information dissemination. 4. • 2. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.4. 8. Eradication of adult literacy. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. 9. Universalisation of primary education. 2. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 5.4. To offer Secondary. 4.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 10. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. school dropouts. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. 115 . 3. Senior Secondary. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 5.4. Meeting the omissions of formal education. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 7. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 3. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country.4. working adults. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 2. in villages and those who live in towns.

non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. library. effective in modern societal context. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . To better qualifications.4. factory.full time to learners – can be home.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals.2. 4. etc. self-employment iii. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment..4. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. All-round development i. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. 2. 3. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. To increase knowledge and 2. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. etc. Institutions for formal education. centres of correspondence education. training centres in factories. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. if organised in isolation. Therefore. open space. To make if. 2. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. public libraries.4. Again. Radio and television. others are formal and informal. farm.

Written tests. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. institution. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Lecturing T. 7. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Give examples of non formal education? . 117 . Teaching to face teaching.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. List out any two aims of non formal education. Face Contact programmes. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. radio. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Correspondence lesson. . 6.V. Define non formal education.

The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. adults as well as children. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. 2. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. b. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress.4. 3. 2. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Primary level. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. a. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. 4. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Open University. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 118 . Higher Secondary level and University level. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. 4. systematic. Secondary level. Open School. a. the college and the university come under this category.4. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. The school. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution.” 6.4. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. 5. Formal and Non Formal 2. Pre-school level. 7.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. School 3. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal.2. b.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

L. Pahuja. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : 119 . New Delhi : Shipra Publications. K and Narang C. P. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. N. Bhatia. S. Gupta.2. Modern Trends in Indian Education. N.4. Education in Emerging India.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Theory and Principles of Education. (2004). Ltd. Mohanty. Anmol Publications Pvt. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. J. (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C. (2008). Dash. (2005). J. (2008). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. B. Ltd. (2003). K.

1 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.5.LESSON 2.4 Open University 2.5.4.5.5.5.5.5.4.5.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5.2 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5.3.4.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.4.3 Objectives of Open University 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.4 Need for Open University 2.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.4.5.7 2.5.5.3.6 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.3.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.

Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education.5. farmers. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. know the need and objectives of open university. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . characteristics of open university 4.5. you will be able to: 1.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. However. continuing education is a boon.5. This knowledge may be in political field. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. Any person. 2. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. 2. It is a lifelong process.2. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. For them. 2. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. Thus. industries.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. labourers and half educated individuals.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. Under these circumstances.3. give the meaning. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.5. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. economic field or such other fields. It is a continuous process.

our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education.V.directly related to his job. if he gets opportunity to develop them. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature.5. Radio and T. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. deteriorating to his character and personality. Block Development Officers. After the achievement of independence. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures.literate person. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. Radio. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. Thus.V. Doctors. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans.3. cultured and progressive. are also contributing their might for the purpose. For them too continuing education is essential. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Cinema. On the other hand. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Throughout the country. T. 2. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Persons engaged in health services. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. On the other hand. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education.

5. 7. These books are not very useful. (10) first aid. Of course. (1) ancient history. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 123 .4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (17) modern international and national events.V. 2. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 2. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (15) music. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life.3. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. especially women.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. 2.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.5. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. 4. (6) folk stories. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. habits of people of other lands. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (16) liking. 5. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories.. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. and Radio. (7) folk songs. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons.3. 6. Inspite of the great efforts. 3. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (2) basic religious matters. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (14) information about bringing up young children. we have not been able to achieve our targets. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (13) psychology of child behaviour. (8) psychology of adults.

The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. of educational opportunities.5. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e .4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background.4. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. lack of time etc. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. NLM was launched in the year 2. It also attempts to pr ovide equality.5. attendance restrict ion. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. 2.

its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. 2. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. 2. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. IGNOU was established in the year 6. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. and in teaching. Which was the first open university in India? . e.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.unobserved. its education is not class room based but home based. No one is too old or too late to learn. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. d. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? .4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. it makes use of educational techno logy. 3. Education is not a once for-all process. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. c. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. the higher the degree of openness. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. 5. 4. but 125 . It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs.5.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. b. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education.

3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. it a ims at wider and hig her. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities.4. 6. 126 . 2. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced.5. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”.5. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 3. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 5. 2. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. who were deprived of t he same earlier. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 4. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. or who realised too late that they need it. 2. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 4.who did not get it. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. Mo re o ver. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 2.4. 3. cho ice o f co ur ses. supplementing the existing provision.

Correspondence tuition. Every day. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . 7. school drop outs. a state or nation. 1. 127 . Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . List out any four methods of Open University? . 4. Therefore. a society. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. semi – literates.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Self instructional materials.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. you have learnt the concept. cha ng e t heir life compet ence.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. In the present day world. Laboratory works. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Tutor Comments. 6.4. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 3.5. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost.2. 5. 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 8. 2. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons.

To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. Television Lessons. b. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. Explain the objectives.5. which may include house wives. 1985. cho ic e o f co u r ses. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 3.ambitious learners. 9. unskilled workers and other professionals. (1) ancient history. 4. 8. P r int med ia b. 7. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. Broad casting lectures c.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. a. 2.5. 7. a. aspirants for continuing education. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 2. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. b. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (2) basic religious matters.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. its education is not class room based but home based. agricultural and industrial workers. a. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 128 . 8. need and characteristics of Open University. 1988. 6. youth. d.

(2004). Udaiveer. (2004). R.2. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.5. S. L. (2001). New Delhi: Rajat Publication.S. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Reddy. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. 129 . Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. K and Narang C.K. Ltd. K. (2007).. Modern Problems of Education.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Training teachers for all levels of education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. wastage and stagnation. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. All which is the need of the hour. In Lesson 2. examination.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. which may claim the attention of those concerned. and teacher education. 133 . Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. the education of women. its causes and remedial measures. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. Examination reform.

134 .

5 3.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.3 New initiatives.1.2 EFA – How? 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.8 3.LESSON 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.2 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.1.1.6 3.4 3.7 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.3.1. 135 .1.1 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1.3.1.

3. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. social. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. Continuing Education (CE) 1. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. understands the country. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. you will be able to: 1. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. (EOI) 2.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. may be political. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. On the other hand. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. therefore. education received added importance and significance. “The State shall 136 . Therefore. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. economic or cultural. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. Eradication of Illiteracy.1.1. 2. directed that.3. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986.

As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Continuing Education (CE). Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. After the attainment of independence. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. It enables the parents to send their children to School. the national Government under. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. 3. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Universalization of Retention. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Three Stages for Universalization. 137 . for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. rights and responsibilities. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school.endeavour to provide. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Therefore. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . Universalization of Enrolment. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people.

1995 (for upper primary stage). It is safe to assure. Write Article 45. later to 1988. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing.1. 138 . We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment.3. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. 1990.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. present and future.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. UNESCO Bulletin states. This target had to be revised to 1970. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. Therefore. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. then to 1976. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. 3. educational enterprise. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960.

3. sex. their enrolment and retention. 9. 139 . rural areas. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Early childhood education should be streamlined. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. adolescent and adult. 12. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). and Women’s education programme should be improved.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). problem of literacy. FELF. 10. Emphasis must be given on health education. Education of Girls. Apart from primary education.1. slum areas. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Jams and Jellies. 3. creed. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. NAEP. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Disabled. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. nutrition education and sports and games.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. 5. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. etc. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. By undertaking survey. 3. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. the art of preparing fruit-juice. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. their social economic status and occupations. The Social Education. 11. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Education of the Impaired. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 8. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. 6. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres.

Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Expand MLL and SSA . Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.3. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. 4.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.3.1. Wastage and Stagnation. 3. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 .e. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.3 NEW INITIATIVES.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. School Factors .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . Social Factors .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .first stage of education. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. Familial Factors . Personal Factors . it is considered as wastage.

142 . can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Wastage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. . Enumerate the causes of Wastage. 7. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6.

a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. Family Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. in his home. relating to home. rural or urban 3. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. They are described hereunder :1.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .3. Societal Factors .The following factors. School Factors . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. Personal Factors .1. school or society.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.

144 . etc. Define Stagnation? 9. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. uniforms. stationary. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. mid-day meals. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education.

4. Minimum Levels of Learning b. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.1. improvement of curriculum. Universalization of Retention 2. therefore.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. 145 . b.1. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. 6. 3. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. a. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. 4. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. directed that. Hartog Committee. 3. “The State shall endeavour to provide.” 3. 3. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Universalization of Provision b. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA.1. 2.. Universalization of Enrolment c. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. a. a.3.

7. Social Factors 8. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. a. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.1. School Factors d. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. S.K. Crescent Publishing Corporation. Problems of Elementary Education. (2008). improve examination system. Sharma.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Personal Factor b. (2007). S. Familial Factors c. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. New Delhi: 146 .N. 3. T. Hemchand. 9. b.K. introduce graded curriculum. a.

1 3.2.5 New evaluation procedures 3.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.7 Open book examination 3.2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.2.5.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.5.2.2.5.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.4.2 3.2.2.5.5.2.2.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.3.2 Grade System 3.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.3.2.1 Problems of examination 3.2.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.6.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.4 Question banks 3.4.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .LESSON 3.5.5.

2. suggest the new evaluation procedures.2.2. but on the other.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.2.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. 3. 3. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. you will be able to: 1.3.8 3. Besides. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.9 3. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .2. 3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2. 4.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. 3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.2.

6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. etc. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. etc. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes.2.. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. They may cause problems relating to discipline. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. etc. 3. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. waiting rooms for girl students. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. If the students are in sufficient number.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. The following steps should be taken up. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. roadside Romeoism. hostel facilities. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing.3. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. 149 . schools for them wherever necessary.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. They develop secondary sex characteristics. which the educational authorities have to face.

public interested in education. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 150 . It is considered as a major sub-system.2. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. the examination system has an important role to play. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3.4.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. conduct of internal examinations.2. Instruction. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. public administrators and statesmen. 3. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. the net-work of examination system has also become vast.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. appointment of paper-setters. teachers. assessment and Finance.

examiners. training of examiners. etc. etc. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. etc. etc. tabulators. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. announcement of results. invigilators.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. values. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. reducing the domination of knowledge objective.printing and distribution of question papers. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. validity and practicability. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness.2. introducing objective-based testing. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts.4. 3. scrutinizers. etc. establishing reliability.

Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. stereotyped questions. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. 2) From the angle of content of education. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. Rote memorisation.4. 152 .ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. may also discredit them. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. 3) With respect to method of teaching. do not appeal to the students and parents. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. 7) In connection with the question papers... 3. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. Vagaries in making. halo-effect. lack of objectivity etc. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed.2. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. takes the place of comprehensive learning.. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. which they are expected to study. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. it s a common experience that subjectivity. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. Subjects.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. it can be said that they become examination-oriented.

Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Question Books may be developed in all schools. etc. List any two merits of examination. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon.a part of internal assessment.. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Spot valuation. 153 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. 4. may be introduced. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. revaluation. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. re-numbering of answer scripts.develop true love for education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. .

In this system. skills are given importance. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth.5.2. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. The new scheme of assessment. In actual practice. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.2. The students can take any course offered in any department.5. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. When a person chooses to work extra. Every paper is treated equal. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination.2. It is complicated. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . Their interests. 3. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. he is given extra credit points. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.3. attitudes. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3.

• Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course.2. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v.good. An example is a seminar. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development.5. 3. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. only the total credits to be earned is specified. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. Groupism is encouraged. These weightages are called credits. courses can have weightages defined. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper.poor.discipline. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. or as a 4 credit course. v. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . This system reduces comparison of marks. poor. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. In the new system. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. While designing syllabus.

156 . The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.2. 3. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5.2. 3. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. However.5.2. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. 3. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.5. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.

Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. 6. Therefore. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • .2. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. .5.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. However. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships.3. In the hierarchy. There are no proper procedures for selection. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. recruitment. List any four new evaluation procedures. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. 3.

in a sense. 3.. playgrounds.2. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. library books. whether the syllabus has been covered. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools.. Academic inspection. books are followed. disciplinary problems. interpersonal relationships and so on.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. of late. being realised as two different functions. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. When they are fully realised. taking up the follow-up programmes. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. wherever necessary. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. etc. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. laboratory equipment.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. in contrast.qualified personnel. requirements. 158 . finding out whether the prescribed text. complaints and compliments.6. etc. 1. finding out the adequacy of. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. staff. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. submitting of the inspection reports. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. They are. qualifications. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. inspecting the class-room teaching. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. school buildings.

bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection.2. Similarly. or.. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. courses. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. In the light of these conceptualisation. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. Insistence on specialisation in the B. at least.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. once in five years. In the case of departmental candidates. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. aptitude. 3. course in either educational. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well.Ed.Ed. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. their professional knowledge. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors.. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. 159 . modern. M.

d. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. a. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 160 . 4. b. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. 3. b. 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. b. a. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Instruction.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. c. a. 3. 5. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country.2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. 2. 3. Grade System. assessment and Finance. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Administration.

10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. Educational Reforms.a part of internal assessment. S. 7. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. History and Problems of Education in India. R and Sharma. b. b. a. (2002). Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. 5. Problems of Education in India. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. K. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. New 161 . (2005). Multiple sets of question paper. Question banks. (2004). b. a. Vaidya.2. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . a. 3. K. Open book examinations.4. c.

162 .3. 2. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.8 3.3.7 3.3. identify the needs of rural India and social.3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4 3.5 3.3.LESSON 3. 5.10 3.2 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.6 3. 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education. 4.3. you will be able to: 1. 3.3 3.3.9 3.3.1 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3.

. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. in Andhra Pradesh. 10 years of general Secondary Education. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission.3. the Banaras Sanskrit College. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . 2.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919.. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. e. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. The Calcutta Madras. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course.e. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. The. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. Similar is the case with some other States..g. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. i.e. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Commission emphasised to continue.. 8 years of general education. Consequent on the recommendations.specialisation programmes 3. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1.3. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. University Education. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. etc. and 3 years of First Degree Course.

confidence in students. 8. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. 7. who desire to change from one stream to another. is also a plus point . general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 6. 3. 10. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . Provision for transfer of credits to students.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. and.3. habits of hard work and develop . 5. social. to imbibe. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal.a sense of dignity of labour. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. economical and political. to prepare.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . However. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. b. educational channels. historical. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. cultural and economic development of the country. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. 5) to help for the social.

1.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. Philosophically it is not the conception.. to develop national character. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. cultural and' religious tolerance. international understanding. and that required to enter the tertiary level.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. social justice. The General Educational Spectrum. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. Sociologically it is undesirable. and. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . on one hand. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as.national integration. etc. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. democratic living. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. 3. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. cooperativeness. Psychologically. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. at the other.3.

3. technical.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. physics or mathematics. vegetable growing. In the matter of language. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. or other machinery. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. and vocations based on dairy-farming. All these need for an. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. the rural areas have suffered very much. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. In the vocational spectrum. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. fish culture. chemistry. 166 . Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward.— tube-wells. commerce. horticulture. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. technological. Agriculture is the main occupation. Commerce and other disciplines. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. such as Agriculture. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. In our country. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. India is a land of villages. industrial agricultural production is growing. professional. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-.3.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. Science. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. rural health. commerce. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. 2. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. Biology. medical plants. educational and cultural services.

3. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. and the needs. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . In time. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this way..3. social justice.. interests and aptitudes of the students. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. 4. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. There had been favourable reaction from the students. the local resources available. In this it may be concluded. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. can be ensured. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses.etc. and 5. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . etc. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. to imbibe. (2008). Vocational Sepctrum. Mohanty.3.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 3. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. (2005). General Educational Spectrum and b. New Delhi : 168 .a sense of dignity of labour. b.C. b. Modern Trends in Indian Education.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. J. 2. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. S. habits of hard work and develop .3. we studied the history. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. (2007). Dash. Ltd. N. Anmol Publications Pvt. a.3. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. a. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.K. (2001).8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Calcutta University Commission 2. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.3. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. objectives. 3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.3. J. a. B. 3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3.

Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.4.8 3.12 3.9 3.LESSON 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4. social and 169 .4.4.4.4.4.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.13 3.6 3.4.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.4.4.2 3.4.5 3.3 3.11 3.7 3.4.1 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.10 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”. Education contributes to human development.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.

With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. cultural and political development of the individual.4. analyze the women and distance education.4. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. family.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. community and nation is universally acknowledged. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. particularly 170 . higher education of girls developed immensely. 3. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women.higher education in particular. Nursing. During the year 1937. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. While women constituted only 9. The relevance of women’s education to social. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. In the post —independence period. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. 3. There is a close connection between education and development. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. economic. These courses were. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Home Economics. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. For the first time in the history of India. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. you will be able to: 1. although we have miles to go. Teaching and Fine Arts.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. Education . compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. Dr.

Coimbatore.65 lakhs in 1994-95. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. Mother Teresa Women University. Yet. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. The idea of women’s education for equality. out of 9200 and odd colleges.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. 3.1 31.women.2 29. 3.1 24. In 1950-51. Kodaikanal. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .4. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.D. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. Mumbai. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. In the rest of the country.0 43.N.0 16. Even today.4.2 22. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. levels and professions.4. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.0 32. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. we have more than 1200 institutions.0 Today. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.T Women University.9 27. in our country.9 14.

At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .53 34.83 47. 3.4.4%) prefer Arts subjects. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.66 66.1 respectively. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.that of boys.47 65. 2.34 33.46 82.17 52. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.36 3. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.56 64.27 89. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.54 12.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .44 35.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.1 and 14.73 10. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. 3.4.63 Female % 34.

75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. 3. she will only learn fashion. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. etc. financial difficulty of the parents. They gave up their studies to enter home life. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. what is the need for higher education for her. curriculum not suited to their requirements. 173 . irrelevance of the content of education. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. marriage is a very common I factor. distance of the college or university from home. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. promoted and increased. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided.hinders the girls from getting higher education. The major hurdles. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Book banks should be established. Thus. and coeducation may spoil her character.4. In college. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. particularly. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. According to a survey. In every third family. Also. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities.

resources and socio . Empowerment in a nutshell. Geographic distance of educational institutions. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. space. Full-time employment. Distance education is a boon to women. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. It enables to study. There are constraints of time.economic disabilities faced by women. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment.4. It also brings about 174 . 3. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. is the only tool for realising empowerment. Education. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges.4. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. It is a productive investment. which is the most dynamic factor of development.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. 3. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation.

and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. education of women must be given priority in national plans. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. education of women is of paramount importance. Women are partners in development. empowerment means being assertive. legal awareness and economic independence. higher learning. 3. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. This can be achieved through reflection. for full development of our human resources. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 .4. Empowerment is an active. on their own. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. The major objectives of women's higher education.

Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. 176 . UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. The local administration. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. which had been the sole domain of men. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. which is pending for a long time. Reservation for women. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. Better opportunities. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. The educational institutions. 3. has to be implemented at the earliest. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. But their number is small. especially so in the developing countries. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. who are eager to take up courses.4. Scholarships and concessions for women. will encourage them to venture new grounds. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .

She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.000 women in the country. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.3 percent.1%) and architecture and building (38. But.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent.8%). especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. 3. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. especially in developing countries like African countries. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . Chief Executive. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. engineering and related technologies (16. According to Lindy Hyam. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. IDP Education. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%).. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Australia. talents.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Also. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9%). Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . capacities etc.4. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations.

community and the nation. SNDT Women’s University. Kodaikanal. Mumbai. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. 4. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. 3. Coimbatore. Annakodi. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. (2005). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. (2008). 178 . Coimbatore.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera.C. R. Mother Teresa Women University. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.4. (2007).4. individuals and society b.K. Mishra. Centre for Women’s Studies. 2. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. R. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication.R. a. A. S. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.4. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Women Education. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Rajasthan 5. Women Education. 3. create the right attitude towards life.to the family. Mumbai. Pattanaikj. 3. 4. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Rao. SNDT Women’s University. and Swain. (2000). R. Women and Education.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. A. S. 43% 6. and Suryalatha.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3.

whole.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.1 3.5.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. They should be trained. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.8 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.9 3.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5.11 3.4 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5.5.5.5.5.personality of children in and out of school.5.5.2 3.3 3.7 3.LESSON 3.10 3.6 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.

Lack of physical facilities. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. 3. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. know the pre service and in service training facilities. you will be able to: 1. 180 .5. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. Shorter working hours. national consciousness. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 4. and national character. understanding and strong desire for international peace. international. equality and justice.5. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. list out the agencies of teachers education 3.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. social and emotional integration. understand the training teachers for Primary.

Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. Inadequate training in practical skills. At the diploma level. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities.Ed. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. Depending on the levels. Lop-sided curriculum. etc. inservice and extension education programmes. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education.5. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. and M. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. the secondary teacher education. (NCERT) New Delhi.Ed. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. higher secondary teacher education. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. a Diploma course and a Degree course. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. the centre. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . 3. levels.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. who have not been trained earlier. and the collegiate teacher education. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.5. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. it is called the Extension teacher Education. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course.. the state Government.Less qualified teacher educators. If the student teachers are working teachers. students. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. 3.. the primary teacher education. it is called the In-service teacher education.

. state Institutes of Educat ion. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Evaluation unit. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Science Education units. Educational teehnology cells. extensio n service. etc. non-formal. are established. Education cells. depart ments etc. Expand NCERT 2. collegiate cells. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Also Guidance Bureaux. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory .5.

the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. and 183 ... and so on. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. audio visual aids.. which help breaking isolation from one another .• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . to improve curricular programmes.Ed. despite its vast expansion. material conditions relating to libraries. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and .Ed. to prescribe conditions for recognition. primary and secondary school teachers. schools and sister institutions. should be improved on a top priority basis. degree. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . which should include experience in the primary schools too. laboratories. to offer consultative services. to ensure teacher competence. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary.

Hence. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. Agriculture. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. To meet this exigency. etc.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. though no pre-service training. Modern Techniques of Teaching.secondary education. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. Organisation of Content Courses. not came up once again. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. etc. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Modern Methods of Evaluation. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. and XII. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. Meanwhile. Psychology of Students. 184 . With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. The problem. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Workshops.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. methodology and evaluation. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher .ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. whether they should have professional education or. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. Induction Courses.

Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar...Ed.A. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.Ed. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. (Education) are organized by 185 . Pre-service training is for those. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.Ed.Ed.5. Ajmer.Ed.. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.’s are elig ible for M. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. courses and M. Post-Graduates also undergo B.A.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Degree. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Degree and M. State Institutes of Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. All B Ed. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. (Education) and M. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.. These facilities are available for regular students. M. For re-orienting the teachers. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. in Education..S.. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.. 3. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.Ed. Courses leading to B.’s for Ph. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.D. training.

However..A. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. they should be conscientious . Hence the employability of M. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. What is the role of ERIC? .List any two code of conduct for teachers? . 6.). . 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned.. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession.5. (Ed). 5. of conduct—written or unwritten. 3.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 186 . 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.A.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. established by tradition and teachers of the past. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (Ed. and B. 4.

Ajmer.5. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Shorter working hours. 187 . They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 3. b. a. 4. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. b. 3.5. National Council of Educational Research and Training. The necessity is however this.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 3. Explain code of conduct for teachers. 5. Bhopal. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 6. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. a. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. 3. they should be conscientious.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities.5.3. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. However. 4. 2. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time.

and Teacher Education. Teacher Education.N. A. (2003). Corporation. Publication Pvt. B.5. Ltd Aggarwal.D. Teacher Education. J. P. (2010).12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. Tewari. Mohanty. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .3. (2009). New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

In lesson 4. In lesson 1. communicable diseases and their prevention. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. objectives and role of the physical education. 191 . Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. common ailments of children. objectives. Since food is the source of nutrients. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. economic and educational developments. the focus is on the school health programmes. objectives. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. preservation of nutrients. nutritional deficiency diseases. consuming the right amounts becomes important. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. The person’s environment is equally important. If the diet is poor. our attention shifts to physical education – its need.

192 .

1. 193 .1. The programmes of school health education are quite important.10 4. emotional and social. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.7 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.6 4.1.1.LESSON 4.1.1 4.4 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.5 4. It is a miniature society. for giving health education to the children under its custody.11 4.2 4.3 4. mental.1. physical.8 4.1.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.1.e. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.9 4.

To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To give information regarding health rules.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. 7. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. 3. 5. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 10. To develop certain skills concerning health. 6. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. list the common ailments of children 3. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 9. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.1. explain the importance of First aid 5. e. 8. 11. 2. 4. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. know the need for sex education.. 4. Instruction.1. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. cleanliness and healthful living. To develop healthy health habits among children. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. you will be able to: 1.g. 4. training of teachers and evaluation. 194 . to his family and to the community at large. training in first aid and etc. content of health education. understand school health programmes 2. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students.

training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. 5. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. (viii) first aid. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. excusing late. First aid facilities should be made readily available. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. 4. suitable furniture.G. ( iii) sanit at io n.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. The surroundings of schools should be clean. (ii) communit y healt h.C. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . minimizing the travelling distance. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. There should be good drainage facilities. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. Arranging better transportation facilities.coming or absence. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. “Play-for-all” programmes. is imperative. vaccination. cleanliness weeks. Vaccination for small pox. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. 2. The flooring should not be damp. (xii) smoking education etc. There should be regular water supply.1. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. proper doors and windows. arranging class rooms in the ground floors.. as described below 1. inoculation against cholera. Triple Antigen Vaccination. 3. organisation of school health days. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. B. (xl) mental health. direct lighting. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. etc. (v) safety education.. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. The school buildings should be spacious. play festivals. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. typhoid. (vi) nutrition education.4. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. B. 2.

D. insect stings. scalds. • Find out the cases. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • Close the schools. • Keep all rooms clean. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Take nutritious food. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. C. • When sleeping in groups. etc.. burns. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. cuts. bleeding. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. 196 . if epidemic is wide-spread. • Have adequate rest and sleep. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. and other accidents. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. drowning. fainting (epileptic fit). Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. poisons. dislocations. wounds. sports and games in the interest of their health. isolate and notify. fractures.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. These diseases are called communicable diseases. pain in the joints. headache. tuberculosis. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. List out the Health curriculum 3. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye.1. Mention the school health programmes. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses.. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. polio. water or bodily contact. measles etc. 4. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. So they easily get illnesses. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. backache. which are – cold. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. 2. cough.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. There are three stages in any communicable disease.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. fever. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. asthma. 4. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. chicken pox. Once these germs get into the body. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. They are: i) The incubation stage.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

sugar and water. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Children catch cold from persons having cold. 198 . In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Important salts and water are lost in this process.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Hence it is called a killer disease. Hence liquid diet is recommended. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. The child may have fever. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. head-ache and cough. unhygienic bottle feeding. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Ear Infections . He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Measles .It is caused by measles virus. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. cough and fever. Common Cold .is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted.This disease is caused by bacteria. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. The symptoms include cold. Diarrhoea . Scabies . etc.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Tonsilitis . there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Throat is affected. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. eating food which is not clean. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children.When a child suffers from scabies. This is caused by cold virus.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. The following are the common communicable diseases. Mumps . unhygienic living conditions. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. After three or four days of fever. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Some suffer cold due to allergy. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Others make the children very weak.

It begins with fever. Enlist the common ailments of children. the child may die.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism.• • • • Chicken Pox . They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. 199 . Diphtheria . Shortly. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. the child is not able to breathe. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are communicable diseases? 6. Typhoid .This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. separate. The child may also have diarrhoea. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. Expand DPT . Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. By scratching he causes secondary infections. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. raised pink spots appear on head. As the disease progresses. face and waist.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. 5. If proper treatment is not given.

Sex is but an integral part of human personality. swelling. scorpion stings. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. 5.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. head injury. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. it is a subject of art.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. 200 . In such cases.4. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. bruises.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. wounds. so-called sex books and periodicals. cuts. eye injury. 2. bleeding. fiction. snakebites. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. sprains. drowning. 4. Drowning . 3. Wounds . Sprains . fainting. 4.1. simple fractures. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. Sex is popular. sprains. Cuts and Bruises . which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. man-woman behaviours. exciting and body-oriented.g.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. dislocation. It is both biological and psychological.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e.1. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. etc. films and jokes. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. and films. It has its rightful place in education too.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. and Community Work and Social Service.

Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. Should the boys and girls.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. celibacy are age. try experimenting with their bodies. Hence. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. in their ignorance. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. In secondary schools. health. B. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. the religious organisations. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. In today's liberal and interactive society. The home. the school. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude.old values. but preserve them from disaster and disease. The values of life. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge.. 2. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. they would be treading the path of sure doom.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. sex education is being recommended in schools. 3. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life.

Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. Teacher education institutions are. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. first aid and sex education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. 4. common ailments of children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. C. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. there will no crisis in its implementation. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. What are the major components of Sex Education.1. communicable diseases and their prevention. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. the school health programmes. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. when the courses are already overloaded. hence. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. 202 .

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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209 . Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Mention the food nutrients 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3.

A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. If you look at the definition carefully. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s.2. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. 210 . C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients.2.4.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. Let us talk about each of these aspects. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. minerals. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.

sedentary. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . People in the east of our country prefer rice. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. There is no point.6. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.g. A balanced diet is specific firstly. paratha and poori. the social and religious practices of that region. it is also specific to a given activity level . The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. 4. sex.g. activity level and physiological stress. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. dosa are typical of the south. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. In other words. These are: region where the person resides and income. moderate or heavy work. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns.2. construction labourer). for example. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . Preferences/customs are also important. Even within given States there is considerable variation. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable.one in the morning and the other at night. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. In the case of adults.

Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. customs. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. If you think of your own religious group. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. As income increases. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. As you read this discussion. income plays a vital role. as important for the rich as for the poor. however. Including these 212 . They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods.planning the diet. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. One must. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. for example. taboos related to food may play an important role. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. nuts and dry fruits. Even among flesh foods. while another may hate them. One person may be fond of milk products. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. however. vegetables and fruits. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. In addition to these. Having more money. However. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. however. Among the social factors. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. These determine the acceptability of foods. fat and sugar tend to increase. Judicious selection of food is.

213 . Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. if the teachers have good food habits. For this. 17. over-eating or under. List out any two healthy food habits. fruits. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed .7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. mouth. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits.eating is hazardous. etc. Define balanced diet.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. 8) Walk a while after eating. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. meat. green leaves. 8. eggs . 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. but they should be thrown away. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables.

d. Beri Beri 4. preservation of nutrients. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A.4. Conjuctival xerosis. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Night blindness.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. In fact. Vitamin D 5. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Explain food nutrients 4.2. Bitot’s spots. good nutrition is essential for good health. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. e. Corneal xerosis.2. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. When the diet is inadequate.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. 4. c.2. 4. b. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Discuss good food habits. Keratomalacia 3. a.

4. Chopra. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.N. P.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. R. Nutrition Science. (2004). A Text Book of Foods. Food should be consumed after eating well. (2009). Food and Nutrition Education. b. (2005).2. a. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . b. mouth. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Sri Lakshmi B. Health and Nutrition Education.M. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Food and Nutrition Education.C. (2008). a . R. minerals. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. (2008).6. 7. S. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . Hands. Nutrition and Dietetics. 8. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra.

3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.7 4.3.13 4.1 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.6.11 4. 216 .3.9 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.10 4.3.3.3.6.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3.3.3.3.3 Impact on Education 4.3.8 4.LESSON 4.5 4.3.3.12 4.6.3.3.

217 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the importance of small family norm 5. describe the impact of population growth on social. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. 4. his family. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. community. you will be able to: 1. the causes of population change. 4. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. It is a much wider co ncept. There is some difference. population characteristics. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education.3.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. and the consequences of these processes. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. objectives and need for population education 2.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. characteristics and changes for himself. aims at providing the younger generation. his societ y and the world. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. Whenever we talk of sex education. therefore. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. the stress is. family planning and sex education etc. Population Education. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. state the meaning.3.3.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.4. It is not sex education. economic and educational development 3.

4.3. 4. the nation and the world. the family.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. the society.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. Define Population Education 2. List out any two objectives of Population Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.

economic and educational development of the country.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner.3. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age.3.6. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. Every second two thousand children are being born. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. which will not be possible without population control. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. the family programmes are also handicapped. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. health and happiness of its citizens. 219 .6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. When the family is small. 4. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Family is considered as a social unit. With the larger families. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. 4.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country.

more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. Swollen cities. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. in buses and trains. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. The gulf between them is widening further. toilets.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. 4. organization index and material index. Many students herded in a small room. i.6. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. teacher index. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. In developing countries. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. 220 . there is an inverse relationship between population and development. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom.6.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. pollution of the environment. 4. and so on. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. heavy intern I migration etc.3.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective.. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. unemployment.3. in parks and other places of public gatherings. lack of proper health care. facility for drinking water.e.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. in cinema halls and theatres. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’.

Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. essays. thus. Hindi and English. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. family planning etc. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. can be taken up. 221 . can be studied in science and health education. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. Regional Language. bar graphs etc.. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. There would be poor library facilities. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. There would be very few audiovisual aids. blank verses etc. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. less space facilities. reproduction. less budget for education. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. Social Studies Statistics on population education.3. and laboratory equipments.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. even text books would be in short supply.

8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 9. 13. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Children may compare two families. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. 11. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. United States of America. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . 2. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 14. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Children with the help of parents. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. West Bengal.3. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 15. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. They may arrange them as per average density of population. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Uttar Pradesh. Bihar. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Brazil. 4. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 3. China. 8. area and average density of population. 10. Canada. causes of deaths etc. 7. 5. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. deaths.4. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 12.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. 16. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. age at marriage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. preferences for sex.3. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Comparing life in various respects in two families. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. values and role children etc. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. The question. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.be opened in their schools. we have no right to stop 223 . 17. 18. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage.

were implemented 224 .to emphasize family planning services.4-6. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. especially the expansion of child immunization services .6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. however. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. fertility levels have declined throughout the country.3. at varying places in different regions. and the child survival components of the news: program. which education can only do. the total fertility rate decreased from 6.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.. The Family Welfare Program. Since the program's inception. “He who is responsible for population growth. on an overall basis. 4.their entry into the world”. More than 45 years ago. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. continued . The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).

In October 1997. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. the community appears willing to pay for services. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. At these meetings. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. and the World Conference on Women. Therefore.earlier than the safe motherhood components. and nominal fees for services. Moreover. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. men. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. a focus on health promotion. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. reliance on local women as community health workers. In April 1996. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. expansion of services to unmarried women. Local programs vary in their approaches.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3.3. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. What are the goals of RCH? 4.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.emphasizing the needs of the client. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. community.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. Describe the impact of population growth on social. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. 1997). The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. involving the community. 3. nation and the world. 226 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. family. 4. Its main purposes are to create awareness. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. economic and educational development 4.

Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. 7. a. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.” 2. his society and the world. bar graphs. b. and the consequences of these processes. the causes of population change. population characteristics.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4.3. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. United States of America. less space facilities. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. less budget for education. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. 3. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 227 . 6. Canada. 5. area and average density of population. Brazil. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. 4. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. a. his family. characteristics and changes for himself. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. b. a. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. China.

Ltd. Principles of Population Studies.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Bhende. Udaiveer. Changing attitudes to Education in India. 228 . “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development.4. (2005). (2005). A. Modern Problems of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.3. T. J. Coimbatore. (2004). Ltd. Centre for Women’s Studies. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. V. Kantikar. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Jayapoorni. (2002). New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Reddy. (1992). Modern Trends in Indian Education.K. N.

4.LESSON 4.4.4.6 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3 Indigenous games 4.4.4.4.4.1 Minor games 4.8.5 4.4.10 4.4.4 Lead up games 4.9 4.4.2 Major games 4.4.4.3 4.4 4.8.1 4.8.4.4.11 19.2 4.4.7 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.8.

leadership and balance in defect. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. moral fitness and emotional fitness. the youth of the country. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value.4. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. perseverance. The concept of physical education has been made broader.4. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. full records of physical activities should be maintained.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.4. as it should 230 . team spirit. you will be able to: 1. 4. state the meaning of Physical Education 2.4. classify the different types of games. social fitness. 4. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. mental alertness. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. which forms its most valuable assets. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body.

Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. They are inseparably united together. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. They go hand in hand.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. To be more precise. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. obedience to rules. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Therefore. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Every individual is a part of society. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. leadership. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. team spirit. The educational efforts at home. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific.

” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. nor body but the whole man. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. 4. Just like Education. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. a sound health. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. Regarding the significance of physical education. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side.” Montaigue writes. C. H. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. Buck has observed that 232 . Rousseau states. pleasing manners.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain.” The Secondary Education Commission. mo ral. game and sports.4. Physical exercises. “Physical education does neither train up the soul.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. ment al.

5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. efficiency and character. strength. initiative. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. Froebel says. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. flexibility and power.a properly directed physical education should result in health. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. we must exercise the whole human being. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.4. etc. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. coordinative abilities.” 4. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. happiness. elegance. speed. endurance.” In brief. resourcefulness and smartness. 233 . Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. “If we wish to develop the whole being.

because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Every age has its artists. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. poetry and painting. these fundamental things have always been present. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. While wars. in greater or lesser degree. systems of government. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. If no opportunity is provided to the students. plagues and famines. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. 234 (i) (ii) . This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. they may form gangs. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. its adherents and its enemies. Tournaments foster this sentiment.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. including all racial groups and historical ages. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A.

3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. 235 . Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. self. bravery and interest in games and sports. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. etc. B. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. Write any two importance of Physical Education.sacrifice. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. respect for rules. to develop tolerance. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. 2.\ to develop perseverance. obedience. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination .

and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 7. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 4. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. is essential. Be punctual. 10. Be self-confident. Inform health principles. 15. Be in the uniform. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 11.H. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 14. 5. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students.4. 16. Act as a leader. 2. and readmission after they have recovered. Keep the field ready for the activities. 6. 9. 3. 12. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases.4. and. .4. Posture screening should be done. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Be well-prepared. 13. 8. injuries among pupils should be made. defects. Be sportive. Haag. Usually parents. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. 236 1. 4. Always keep the whistle ready. students.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 4. 3. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. 4. Such inst incts as imitation.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Lead up games. their development is handicapped. 4.4. As such they are well enjoyed by children. chasing. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. 1.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. the play. less equipment and less expense. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Indigenous games. 237 .4. Moreover. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. frolic and jo y. 2.8.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules.

the games can be modified according to convenience. trapping. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. snatching the kerchief. Tennis. couple tag. dribbling. For each game the rules are many. Tennikoit.. 238 . skipping. Basket Ball. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. zig zag relay. on mountain tops and on river beds. over ball pass Relay. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Dodging. benefit in playing minor games.8. some of them are played indoors. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. under ball pass Relay. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. spiking. Cricket. Ball Badminton. They are played for a shorter duration. the play equipment. Shuttle Badminton. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. on hard courts. Soft Ball.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Hockey. While many of them are played in the open playfields. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag.4. The dimension of the posts and nets. boosting. Jump the stick clay and so on. Kabaddy etc. heading. with implements or without implements. Hopping. women take part most of the games. These games require varied skills such as running. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Volley Ball. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Except a few games. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. wherever the kids assemble. 4. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. hitting. stopping.With a very few rules. pitching. Khokho. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Throwing. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. driving. the number of players and substitutes. bowling etc. catching. On lawns. on sea-shore. muffling. Jumping. finding the partner.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game.4. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. For example. death. and . While observing the players in action.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. Kho-kho. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. Games may be classified as 6. List out some major games. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. They have an abundant social value. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. On occasions like marriage. birth. festivals connected with religion and public functions.4. 4. these games being popular. 7. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. they are in existence.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 .8. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. An example for indigenous game is 8. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes.8. All the fundamental tactics. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.

a.4. a. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 2. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities.4. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 4. 3. b. a. Minor and Major 240 . to develop physical stamina.4. 3. to secure physical health b. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 5. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. a. b. 4. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. aims and objectives and need of physical education.4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. 2. physically and emotionally fit and alert. c. b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. d. Posture screening should be done.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.

4.C. (2005). Mohanty. J. Modern Trends in Indian Education. 241 . New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. G. (2008). Aggarwal.4.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews.6. Khokho. Ball Badminton. Krishna murthy. Tennis. Health. (2008).K. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Hockey. (2009). Cricket. Foot-ball. Shuttle Badminton. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Khokho 8. Basket Ball. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Soft Ball. J. Handbook of Physical Education. Ltd. Tennikoit. Kabaddy 7. Physical Education and Sports. Volley Ball. J.

5.5.5.2 4.1 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.6 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.LESSON 4.5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.7 4.5.5.4 4.5.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.3 4.1 Natural Environment 4.11 4.5.9 4.2 Manmade Environment 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.8 4.5.10 4.5.5.

2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. it covers the following elements: 1. Awareness.5. 2. 3. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. 3. Attitude. list out the types of environment 3. 4. Evaluation Ability.5. 5.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Participation. Details are given below: I. The best place to start such learning is school. 243 . Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. economic. Broadly. 2. 4. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. population explosion and resource depletion could be. role of teacher in environmental conservation. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. political. you will able to: 1. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values.educat ion for the environment. 6. aesthetic and educational factors. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. education about the environment and education through the environment. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Knowledge. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Essential knowledge about the Environment.5. Skills. social. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. 4.

Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. • Biological magnification E. a. D. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. 244 . Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. F. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes.B. Oxidants Other pollutants. heat sink and wind flow in cities. 2. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1.

Sterilisation. 3. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Family planning ii. Persuasion: i. 2. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. c. 4. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Control of population growth a. The pill ii. economic. Use of medical science i. Abortion iv.3. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. III. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. B. The human ecosystem II. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. 2. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Intrauterine device iii. Birth control through education b. Socio-economic measures.

Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. 246 . Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Air pollution abatement ii. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. (UNESCO. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. Water pollution abatement. e) Recycling. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Define Environmental Education. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 3. 1983). 2. List out the major causes of Environmental problems.

The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. way is called environmental or ecological factor. He modifies according”.5. These are biotic components. A change in one brings about a change in the other.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. Biological environment The biological environment. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4.5. to his needs. -other. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. telex. includes the plants.other components of the environment.4.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. animals and other organisms (biotic).5. Any constituent or condition of the environment. 4. They interact with each.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4.5. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.5.5. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. a. b. fax agricultural apparatus.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .

nuclear warfare. social studies. etc. noise control. air pollutants from industries. population. solar cookers. alternate sources of energy. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. need for conservation. are the topics which may be taught in History. balance of nature. maintaining the ecological diversity. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. use of medicinal plants. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. relation between population and pollution. (ii) Air pollution. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. sources. reasons. excellent recreation sites. extinction of species. effects o f CFC. industrial survey. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. t heir role in preventing pollution. change in climate may be added. nuclear energy. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . windmills. effects. role of trees in building economy. mineral survey. History The rise and fall. etc. biogas plants. food chain and food-web. preventing siltation of dams.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. greenhouse effect. importance of nitrogen cycle. ozone depletion. of civilizations. ozone layer deplet ion. river systems. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. wars and hazards of war. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. preserving the watersheds. acid rain. industrial pollut io n. need for bio-diversity. use of pesticides. sources of pollut ion. noise pollution. trees reducing noise pollution. natural way of controlling pests. desertification 248 . evolution. water scarcity.. explosion deforestation. supplying timber for various uses. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. over exploitation of ground water.

Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. 249 . Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control.5. 12. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 4. 3. 6. 10. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Peepal and Tulsi.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Providing. 13. 14. 2. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 5. 11. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 7. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 8. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. animal and plants. Developing awareness about environmental issues. aims and scope. Organising conferences. 4.may be inc ded in Geography. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 9. group discussions and seminars. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan.

6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Use public transport wherever it is possible. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Never put any left over chemicals. Reuse carrier bags. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. World Environmental falls on 250 . used oils down the drain. all these can cause serious pollution. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden.Send their waste oil. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. especially plastics. If it is done. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. it will cause pollution. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Don’t burn any waste. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. 5.

rather than conquest and mastery. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. viz. Att itudes of balance towards nature. concern for others). To provide reference materials for children’s use. The groups may exchange. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Social responsibilit y (common good. CFCs. (cleanliness. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry.mat erials. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. potable water.5. nuclear wars. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. To provide materials needed for practical work. To arrange visits or expeditions. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. orderliness and beauty). Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. deforestation. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. values and habits. To arrange for visiting speakers. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio .8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information.). The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. loss of bio-diversity. etc.4. etc. diversity and stability. developing desirable attitudes. dest roying nat ural habitats. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. Conservation of natural resources.. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Harmony with the nature . and 251 . Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. depletion of ozone. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. Concern for species.

It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. 252 .11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.5. 4. 8. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. preserving natural cycles.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.5. 4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.

a. Environment and Human Rights. (2007). water scarcity. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . a. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Y. Ltd. Ltd. Providing.5. importance of nitrogen cycle. b. 5. sources. greenhouse effect. 3. 6.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. To provide reference materials for children’s use. relat ion between population and pollution. 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. b. June 5 7. S..K. Nanda. Publications Pvt. concern for others). Environmental Education. acid rain. a. To provide materials needed for practical work. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. air pollutants from industries. reasons. (ii) Air pollution. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. effects. Udaiveer.K. new problems from science and technology. Kuldeep. S.K. ozone layer deplet ion. New Delhi : Authors Press. sources of pollution. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. T. Social responsibilit y (common good. b. a. group discussions and seminars. 8. (1997). specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Anmol Publications Pvt. explosion deforestation. (2007). b. New Delhi : Sharma. Awareness. Organising conferences.\ 4.2. Education for values. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. over exploitation of ground water. Environmental Education. Knowledge. Modern Problems of Education.K. (2004). Rapid population growth. population.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . in fact. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. man is essentially a moral being. It is self-realisation. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. the emancipation of spirit. Universal Education. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure.” 5. Education according to idealism." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. The universe is regarded as a thought process. moral. Education must contribute to development of culture.our life. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. According to Rusk'. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm.3. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe.1. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. enrichment and transmission of culture. promote and transmit it to rising generation. should be universal in nature. Spiritual Development. Therefore.

1. So he should embody. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. 3. Philosophy. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. So health. the school is a garden.the spiritual qualities of mankind. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all.3. Learning through reading. The plant can grow. 2.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. no doubt. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. It considers teacher as. 4. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Learning through lecturing. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. History.3. a spiritual guide for the child. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. 5. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. should be there. Mathematics etc. so subjects like Religion. However. subjects like Languages. and collation (striving) should find due place. For this no particular method has been suggested.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. an indispensable necessity. friend and guide. According to Frobel. affecting (feeling).4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. hygiene.” He is thus. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. Ethics. Learning through questioning. 5. For intellectual development. Learning through imitation. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. He sets the environment in which education takes place. Herbert advocated instruction method. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method.1. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. According to idealism. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. He carries the child from darkness to light. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . Science. Learning through discussion. So cognition (knowing). class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming.” 5.

4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. 2. text books. curricula. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. formal lessons or examinations. time tables.preservation.perfection and beauty. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.1. "Education should make 263 • .4. In the words of Ross. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.1. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Perfection of Human Machine. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. Ross explains. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5.

subjects like history. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. rational harmoniously balanced. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. “Education finds its purpose. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. It is based on the psychology of the child. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Chemistry.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Literature. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Botany etc Language. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. Arithmetic. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. geography should also be included in the curriculum.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. 4. Naturalistic curriculum. Biology.4. It stresses basic sciences. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. is based on the nature of the child. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Therefore. useful and mature child. Zoology.1. • 5. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Education should. There is no place for religious and moral education. therefore. In all. education should develop the child into Joyous. 264 .

4.4. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Dalton Plan. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Heuristic method.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. In the .5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. It discards all rigid.4.1. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Learning through observation. Here the emphasis is on the individual method.1. a provider of an ideal environment. he should be taught by experience alone. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. 5. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.1. 2. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . the stage.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.5. Learning through experience. Rousseau says.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. 5. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Learning by doing. 3. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.

According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Agriculture. social and moral aspects.5.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed.1. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. 5. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Geography. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Continuous Growth.absolutism of idealism. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Sciences. Vocational and 266 . Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Personal Social Adjustment. Social Science. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order.5. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. is true. Subjects. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Physical training. All Round Development of an Individual. 5. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. diversified and flexible. Social Efficiency. History. The individual has not only to adjust himself. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. The aim of educational development.1. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. intellectual. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences.

Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. He must be trained. Methods of teaching should not be fixed.1. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. a senior partner and a sincere guide. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. should find proper place. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. The subjects.1. He has to be active. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. a teacher occupies an important position.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy.Technical Education. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism.5. activities and experience should be integrated properly. alert and resourceful. Learning by Doing.5.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity.” 5. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.

1. literary or humanistic education.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. specific. 3. Literature. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. 2.1. 4.5. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. scientific and psychological education.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. History. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. 5.6. Crafts. Biography Philosophy. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Chemistry. Psychology. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 4. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Sex Education. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Biology. Music and Dance. Mathematics. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. rich and happy. intellectual. 5. Education is preparation for a complete living. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. practical. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. 2. It favours child-centered. 5.6. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Study of Subjects like Language. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life.1. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Astrology. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Population Education. Art. 3. liberal.

6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.1. easily and pleasantly.6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. certainly and clearly.5.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.1.

Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Universal Education 2. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Demonstration and Observation 270 . 5. a. c. Learning through imitation. Learning through discussion. Learning through reading. Sciences. Social Science. a. Rousseau 5. Agriculture. 5. Physical training. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life.7 LET US SUM UP We have. b. naturalism. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Languages.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Child centered c. Learning through experience b. History. Vocational and Technical Education. pragmatism and realism. has no end other than growth. Education according to pragmatism. Experimentation d. d. 5. Geography.1. Self preservation & Self expression 4. in this lesson.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Tours / Excursion e.5. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Self Realisation b. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim.1. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. 6. Learning through questioning. Learning through lecturing. a. & curriculum. 3. e. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization.

New Delhi : A. Foundations of Education.H. P. Ltd. New Delhi : Bhatia. Publishing corporation. Pahuja. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. (2003). Anmol Publications Pvt. Theory and Principles of Education. L. N. (2007). New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Narang C.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. (2004). of Pathak. 271 . Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education.5. R.P. O. (2007). K.P. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.1. P.

2.5.LESSON 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.4.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.3 Methods of teaching 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2.1 5.2.3.3 Methods of teaching 272 .4.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2.2.2.4.2.2.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.3.3.4.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.3.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2.2.2.2.2.4 Views about teacher 5.2.4.1 Aims of Education 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.3.2.2 5.4 Views about teacher 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2 Curriculum 5.5.2.3.3 Methods of Teaching 5.5.2 Curriculum 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.

2. economic and political reconstruction in our country. an artist. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.2. 5.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. content and methods. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.4 Role of the teacher 5. Tagore was a poet.2. 3.2. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.2.2. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. 2.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. Gandhiji was primarily a social. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 273 . On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.5. you will able to: 1. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.5. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. 5. mind and spirit.8 5. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.6 5.7 5.2.

"I attach more. nor the gross animals body. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. 5.2. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. through life and for life. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage.3." Dignity of Labour. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. 'Man is neither mere intellect. In the words of Gandhiji. it is education of life. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. strength of mind. It really provides opportunity for character building. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. righteousness. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. mind and soul of children He further observed. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. 274 .intellectual and physical faculties of the children. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. His scheme of education is life centred. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.supporting. self-restraint and service of humanity. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education.

5. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations.2.Training for Leadership. Individual and Social Aims. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. wood work. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders.3. "Development of the moral character. According to Gandhi. Music. Art. gardening. metal work. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. leather work have been suggested. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Only good individual forms a better society. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. General Sciences. Mother-tongue. the realization of the ultimate reality. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Drawing and Hindustani.

Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. proficient. Basic education is other wise known as 4. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.3. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.trained.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.2.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.3. men of 276 . The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.

5. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Education must be child centered. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots.knowledge.3. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. That is why. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. He also advocates freedom for the child.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.4. He believed in the oneness of humanity. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.2.K. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. He was a true patriot. 5.” Like all other ideals. 5. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.3. • Education should involve manual work. Gandhi in 1937.2. • Cult of non-violence. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. he was a true Vedantist 5.2. • Ideal of citizenship.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. He was deadly against untouchability. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.

He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Civics.4. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. them solve problems of day to day life. Chemistry. Therefore. complete manhood could be attained. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. International Understanding. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. deeper in. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. It should help the learner have good physique. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Dance. It should help. wider in range. the more dedicated and devoted. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Religion and Psychology. That way only.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. sentiment. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. etc. International understanding. 279 . Zoology. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Music.Language and Literature . Tagore said." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. could help in forging unity among all. Botany. he said. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. "Mankind must realise a unity. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. stronger in power than ever before. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Geography. (vi) Philosophy. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners.2. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History.

5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. Activity Method Heuristic Method.” He further says.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. Tagore rightly says. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.2. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. 280 . It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.2. In 1921. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. 5.4.4." 5.2. 5.4.

Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is open to all irrespective of country. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6.g. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. 9. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. race. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. 281 .Shanthiniketan has open spaces. 10. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself." He was against the theoretical type of education. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. 4. 2. man making. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. Education for Self-reliance. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Education for Self-realization. Book learning. Freedom. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Education for strong Moral Character. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. character forming and assimilation of ideas. According to him.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. Concept of Education.5.” 5. 3. Purity of thought. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only.2.5. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. work and deeds come out of it. Education should make a person self-reliant.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . The whole beauty of life is linked with it.2. He believed in to learning or selflearning.

And above all. 283 . Thirdly he wished that games. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Every individual should be trained for concentration. That will serve the purpose of education fully. engineering and technical subjects. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other.2.2. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. 6. Of course. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.5.5.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. A physically strong person is the need of the society. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.the learners on different students in the discussion. The teacher should be the facilitator. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Swami. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Philosophy and Theology. 5. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Religion. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. 5. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. 5.5. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. Secondly he wanted Science. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.2. Education for Physical Development. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Discussion Method.5. philosopher and guide to the students He.

broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. in this lesson. 12. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. and pragmatist . Their educational ideas. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. Gandhiji as a Idealist. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. 2. 5. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher.Substantiate your answer. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. We have seen that Tagore.6 LET US SUM UP We have.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 284 . Write short notes on Basic education.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. ears and eyes. legs. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. of course.2. 3.2. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. naturalist.

2. leather work have been suggested. d. 10. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Nai Talim 4. 1937 7. gardening. e. c. a. Self realization. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Technique of Correlation 6. a. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Ideal of citizenship.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. metal work. f. Explain Vishwabharathi. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Heuristic Method. Basic education. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Teaching while Walking b. wood work. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 9. 5. b.4. a. a. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 5. Meditation and concentration c. Activity Method d. 11. Self-Study b. 5. Discussion Method 285 . Cult of non-violence. c. Debate and Discussion Method. Education should involve manual work.2. Activity Method b. Learning by Doing c. 8. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 3. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.

N. N. Publishing Corporation. Anmol Publications Pvt. O. (2003). L. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 286 .P. P. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.H. (2007). on Bhatia. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. (2004). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. K. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Pahuja.2. (2002).5. P. J. B. K and Narang C. Ltd. C. Theory and Principles of Education. Dhiman.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. New Delhi : Aggarwal. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : A.

9 5.3.1 5.LESSON 5.3.3.11 5.4 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.2 5.3 5.3.3.3.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.3.8 5.6 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.5 5.7 5.3. In this lesson.10 5.

It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. Both the processes are integrated.. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. From the latter point of view. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. While education is a process. While education is learning. the plateau area and 288 . new behaviour may be acquired. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. is a means to the process. curriculum. in the form of new experience. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. present behaviour may be modified. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. In it. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. 5.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. living in the hilly area. maintained or eliminated. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. Then in a big country like India.3. Since the demands. in Russia or in Japan. state the meaning of curriculum 2. Curriculum is intimately related to education. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. there is a large number of communities. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s .under the direction of the school. in the U.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the desert area. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. In the former sense. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. you will be able to: 1. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. In the words of Kerney and Cook.A.3. 5. curriculum signifies situations for learning.3.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. A g o o d curricu lu m. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. the plain area.S. in fact . it is identical wit h socializat ion.

The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. From a slave-country we became secular. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. and 289 . irrespective of their needs and environment. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. according to modern trends in the educational process. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. the learning capacity of children. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. Besides craft. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs.3. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. therefore. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. It must differ from locality and from society to society. 5. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. environment. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. customs and needs. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. it is. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. differs from individual to individual. too.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. However. democratic and socialistic country. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. Again. studying therein. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. In fact . also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils.

Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. Vocational Efficiency. unsatisfactory. which may or may not be attained. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. So it is inadequate. 290 . It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. general or specific. aesthetic and spiritual development. e. moral. uninspiring and unscientific. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. They speak of immediate purposes of education. Application Objective..3.. specific.. etc. They speak of perfect goals. The word “Curere” means 2. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . 2.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture.g. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. Goals of Primary Education. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. aims. emotional. of classroom. e. Goals of Secondary Education.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Self Realisation..g. remote or immediate. individual or Social and so on. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. eg. Knowledge Objective. etc. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. tangible. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. Understanding Objective. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. They may be ultimate or proximate. they depend on the political. They are visionary goals e. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. 4. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. 5. They are achievable. National Integration. etc.g. unambiguous and functional. in instructional objectives.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. 1. social. social.

on the playing fields. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. The old and prevalent curriculum is under.” 291 . “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. capacities. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. Raymont rightly says. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. needs.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns.5. Crow and Crow remarks. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. The interests. in the class rooms. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. but it includes the totality of experiences.3. According to Crow and Crow. heavy fire. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. finding them very interesting and captivating. educationists. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. abilities.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.

The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 .Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. tendencies. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. moral. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. mental. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. aptitudes. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. capacities and abilities. Due to these variations and differences. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. urges. They often waste it or rather kill it. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. time in a useful manner.

H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. Similarly. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. 3. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. To ensure success of the process. 2. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. organized. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. phased preparation. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. development of professional capability at all levels. 293 . evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”.curricular.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. administrative programme need be planned. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives.

Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. 18. 11. 10. in the class room.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 1937 19. a. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils.3. 5. laboratory. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . 12. Child Centred Education b. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. library. workshop. Relation with Life c. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. principles of curriculum construction. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Run. 5. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.3. 17. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16.

S. (2007). N. (2007). S.K. Lakshmi. P. (2007). 295 . Innovations in Education. (2001). New Delhi : Isha Books. New Delhi : Authorspress. D.S. Curriculum and Instruction. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Bhalla. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited.5.3.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Curriculum Development. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. and Sarita Kumari.

2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.9 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4.7.4.4.4 5.7.6.LESSON 5.4.3 5.1 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.7.4.4.4.8 5.2 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.4.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.6.4.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.10 5.5 5.4.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.7.

tolerance for the opinions of others. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. Gradually. honesty. 5. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. know the importance of science education. 4.4. We mean curiosity. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. open-mindedness. 297 . By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. explain the concept of scientific attitude.4. you will be able to: 1. 3.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not.4. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. 2.during the second half of this century. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. newer and newer industries started growing. 5.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners.5. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. superstition or emotion. in the economic reconstruction of society.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

Through newspapers. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Central science workshop. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 5. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Principles are formulated. 6. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 2. seminars and symposiums. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 3.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. 5. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Organisation of science fairs. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Promotion of science clubs. as well as of the society.4. 4.So that. After such experience and training. 5. Devotion towards nature increases. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Love for truth enhances. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. 3. 2. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work.4.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Thinking and memory develops. Schemes of teaching science. 5. 6. 4. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Through examinations. Selection for science education. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. 7. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations.

prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. Write any two advantages of Science Education. therefore. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. 7.4. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. For laboratory and workshop techniques. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. each child to “enquiry skill building”. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 .1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.4. They ask many questions about the objects they see. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other.needs and conditions. sex or religion. Training of science teachers. essential that teachers. After presenting the problem. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It is. objectivity. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They encounter many social events as they grow. Enquiry teaching is. 5. should provide opportunities to. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative.6. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In the inquiry approach. 5. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. They experience natural phenomenon.

3. if they like. 6. 300 . 5. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? .4. 3.books.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues.Herma Wouk. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences.6. test. 2. . Appreciating pupils ideas. Adopting creative models of teaching. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It requires consistent thinking. Giving less directions.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. . stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Social sciences. 4. 5. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. Evidence. to ask questions and experience things. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. stern pursuit of accurate data. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. commands or orders. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 5. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook.

The students observation. to develop among the learners. critical thinking and suspended judgments. keen observation. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. of vast resources running waste. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. therefore should be unbiased and objective. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. it must be encouraged. 5. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. school and society at large. neighbourhood. These include open mindedness. To achieve this we should understand what it means. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. practiced.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. and emphasized during the learning process . There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed.(Smith 2008).1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude.4. friends. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. (Vaidya 2007). Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”.7. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. For instance. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. see and feel the need of developing this attitude.

pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions.4.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions.7. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. rumor. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. 2007). Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. In considering a situation or a problem. (Das. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. understanding and logic. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. The intention to respect another’s point of view. intuition or wishful thinking”. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. 302 . understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. think and work it”. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. 5. he studies all aspects of it. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. or superstitions.

5. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.7. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.7. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.4. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.4. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. but to begin only after careful planning. • 5.

List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 304 . Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. it must be encourages.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. 5. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. 5. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook.4. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. practiced and emphasized during the learning process.

Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. objectivity. Planning of activities 5. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. 3. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. 305 . New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. (2006). 5. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. Proper example of the teacher c. a. Reflections on Scientific attitude. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Adopting creative models of teaching. Wide reading b.B (2008). Love for truth enhances. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. (2000). 5. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. b. S. b.S. N.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. 4. a. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Rao. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Discuss the importance of science education 14. The intention to respect another’s point of view. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.5. 16.4. Yadav. 2.4. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. M. Study of superstitions d.4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. a. (2008). D.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. a. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Vaidya.

11 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions. 2. actively.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5. state the concept.5.5.5.5.5.3 5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.4 5.10 5. objectives and characteristics. areas of institutional planning.5.1 5.5.5.5 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population. 5.LESSON 5.6 5. you will be able to: 1.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.9 5.7 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. 306 .2 5.5.5.8 5.

4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning.5. • to involve teachers and school administrators.5. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. • to make planning development-oriented. every parent. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. which become the bases for further planning at the district.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. in the task of educational planning. and each student are regarded as separate entities. each teacher. every teacher. Institution should be regarded as the unit. • To make institutional planning more successful. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.3. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. and every student in the process of educational planning. 5. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. and supplement planning from above. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. State and national levels from below. 5. and. teachers and students is not lost sight of. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. executive as well as public.

council and. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. Co-curricular activities. it becomes the basis for school inspection. and Personnel services. which will be discussed in the general. 5.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. (2) Co. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. Classwork. Syllabus. 308 . (3) TeachingLearning Aids.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers.5. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion.5.curricular Activities. approved after making necessary modifications. etc. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes.• implemented. Examinations. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning.

scientific and historical excursions. etc. etc. 3. Organisation of Pupils. etc. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. etc. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. etc.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Organising play-for-all programmes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Equipping of laboratory and library. Fair distribution of syllabi. Courts. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Improving the internal assessment. Running science clubs. Conducting of educational. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Preparation of audio-visual aids. charts and apparatus. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.No. Organisation of class-room libraries. Preparation of instructional material. 1. Preparation of models. Undertaking remedial instruction services. hobby-centres. Celebrating of national and international festivals. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Improving the subject competence of teachers. Editing the school magazine. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Organisation of Students’ Association. Organisation of Self-Government Days.

A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. teacherinspector. Administrator-State. teacher-managing body. parent-teacher associations. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. which are divided as the in. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. etc. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. ii. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. administrator-supervisor. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships.5.” The human relationships in. understanding. students’ associations. headmasters associations. pupils. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. pupil310 . The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. administrator-pupil. administrator-administrator. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. co-operation. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. science teachers’ associations. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. teachers. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators.5. parents. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. teacher-pupil. and solidarity. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. teacher-State. and —pupil-pupil. teacher-teacher. involving mainly human materials. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. teacher-nonofficial functionaries.

supervision and superintendence. pupil-community leader. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. to accomplish.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. to carry out. According to C. pupil-non-official functionaries. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. social sciences and other disciplines. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. organisation and management.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. now-a-days. superintendence. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. 311 . It is also being modernized to become a technique. pupil-parent. supervision. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. administrator. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. organisation. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. It covers personnel and material management. V. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. teacher-parent. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. to attend. control. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. To administer means to manage. etc. teacher-community leader." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. and to serve. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. Good.State. pupil-inspector. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes.

13. Communication . Socio-Scientific Approach .The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. 9. 2.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. it is not worth-while. The relationship should change from master. This is the latest democratic trend in management.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. 6. Liasion with the Public .Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.Of all the approaches. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. Rapport between the Management and Employees . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. If it is more. 3. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. 4. without this the efficacy will be handicapped.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. Motiviation . 8.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.Any good management will always have good public relations. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. Leadership . Democratic Management . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. He should be an artist in human relationships.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 5. If the cost benefit ratio is less. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. Decision Making . Those. 12. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 7. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. 11.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. 10. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. Cost-Benefit Analysis . Economic Management . Worker Participation . who occupy the managerial positions.Management should be efficient and economical 312 .The manager should have leadership traits. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. Better Human Relationships . low.

Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. 313 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. objective. improvement of teaching methods. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. enrichment of curricula.g. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. and cooperative performance should be ensured. 18. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. 14.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept.These two are.5. to improve the quality of education it provides. 5. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. 19. 5. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17.too. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.5. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work.

b. Examinations.5. H. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. a. (2003). 2. R. 4. c. Leadership c.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. APH Publishing Corporation. e. Fundamental of Educational Management. Tarachand and Prakash. S. a. Motiviation d. (2001). Co-curricular activities. In group and Out group 5. Communication 5. Singh. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. a. a. Classwork. d. Decision Making b. b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration.M. it becomes the basis for school inspection. f. Syllabus.K. Instruction.5. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. and Personnel services. 314 . NUEPA. b. (1995). Educational Administration.5.

Realized the problems of school education. School. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Healthy Food Habit 4.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Inspection and Supervision 3.Pre-service and In-services facilities. population education.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. higher education. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Buddhist and Jain system of education. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .1 Gurukula system of education.teachers should have : 1.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. women education and teacher education in India. 4. nutritional requirement. 1. Economic 315 .4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.Article 45 .I. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. New evaluation procedures.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.Preventive measures. Community and Mass Media 2.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Sex-education 4. physical education and environmental education 5. Preservation of nutrients. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. 2.1 Primary Education : Education for all. Communicable diseases . social Impact 3.CORE PAPER .4 India's Secular Policy .1 Inculcation of Socialism.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Common ailments of Children.2 Nutritional deficiencies.3 Educational Influences of Home. Code of conduct for teachers. wastage and Stagnation 3.3 Directive Principles . Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.1 School Health Programme.Religious and Modern Education 1. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. Examination reforms. Balanced diet.5 Regional Educational Development in India . First Aid.

Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. Curriculum and national goals .4 4. 5. Delhi : University Publications 2.Aim. Prof. curriculum and teacher's role 5.4. Tagore 5.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Socialization. and Sharma R.K.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. B. and Human Development. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Hemchand.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Kalan Paper Packs 10. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. REFERENCE 1. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. (2004) Problems of Education in India.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. Ram S. (1999) Culture.K. Naturalism and Pragmatism . Mahatma Gandhi. and Mohanty R. New Delhi: NCERT 3.C. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. Realism.1 Idealism. (2005) Foundations of Education.R. R. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.S. Ghanta R. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Sharma. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. 7.N. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.K. T.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. 316 .K.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Taneja V. Mishra. and Dash B. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. Saraswathi T. Pandy V. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.N.

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