Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

UNIT: 1 – V



Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer



Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56


Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University


67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5



3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education

127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233


5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4


UNIT – I 7 .

8 .

educational responsibilities of Central and State Government.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Lesson 4. Lesson 2. discusses the regional educational development in India. Lesson 5. 9 . In. The need. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Jainism and their educational implication. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. and Jain system of education. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools.

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4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1.5.LESSON 1.4.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 Jain system of education 1.1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 . Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.6 Education during British Era 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.5.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1.1 1.1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.6.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.

1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. That 12 . The history of education passed through Buddhist. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.7 1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1.3. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. elucidate the education during British Era.1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. in morals and in the intellect”. you will be able to: 1.1. 1.6.1. 1. describe the Jain system of Education Sargent Report (1944) 1. Indian in blood and colour.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. both present and future. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1. Muslim and British periods. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. India. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.1.6. in opinion.9 1. Education in India.8 1. has a long past history starting in vedic education.1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1. British system of education presented the modern western model. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. “a class of persons. but English in taste.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.

Method of Study. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. 16. to light. 11. Where pupils were many. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Curriculum. No State Control on Education. 6. It was not merely intellectual. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. as it is generally considered to be at present. followed by explanation by the teacher. from darkness. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. with grants of land or money. It was also moral. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Individual Teaching. and to agriculture and trade. Immediate Aim Vocational. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Teacher as Parents. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. The immediate aim of education. Forests as Centres of Education. Religious and Spiritual. 12. religious and spiritual. Role of Travel in Education. 10. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. There was. managed entirely by Brahmans. Pupils were taught. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. the monitorial plan was followed. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7.knowledge was real. not en masse by the class method. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Education of Moral. 14. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. questioning by the pupil. Residential Schools. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. 4. Education was a private affair of the people. 13. however. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. High Status of Teachers. 8. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. 13 . 3. individually. generally. 9. from eternal to immorality 2. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Free and Accessible. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. if they thought fit to do so. 5. Method of Instruction. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education.

Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . besides preparing for worldly pursuits. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. studied Vedas. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Wide-Spread Education in Women.1. They were very cordial and intimate. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony.17. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. lived a life of celebacy. 2. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . It was suited to the needs of the society. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.

he was qualified to become a monk. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Right knowledge 2. dressed himself in yellow clothes. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. I take Refuge to Dharma. After attaining the age of 20. Right activity 5. medium of Pali. 2. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features.C. killing of any living being. I take Refuge to Sangh. except the Chandals. use of intoxicating things. had the right to receive education. which included abstaining from theft. watching dances or listening to music. Right means of livelihood 6. the most significant of which were the following 1. Right thought 3. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Consequently. Education was imparted through the. Right memory 8. It was denied only to the ill. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. 1. Right speech 4. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. Right endeavour 7. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. partaking of food at prohibited times. in which.1. every class in society. the student remained in a state of Shramana. taking things without being offered. the handicapped. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. impure conduct. 15 . etc. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. disease and death of the human beings. the student had his head shaved of all hair.4. Right contemplation 1. He was then ordained to obey ten rules.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. use of cosmetics.

Later on. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. 1. women occupied a position inferior to men. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. geology. These are called later Buddhist schools. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. commerce. control over sensuous activities. Whatever its nature and extent. cottage industries. beg for alms.. meaning. archery. Initially. Hence. Life is in a flux. etc. it is regarded as true”. It comprehended education in writing. the presence of the monks was essential. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. has no metaphysical value for life. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. a continuous change creating 16 . archery. nature. nothing is of any permanent consequence. so long as it successfully does so. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. 4. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. 3. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. changing the goals. therefore. knowledge of reviving the dead. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. magic. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. After this ritual. education was impart in art.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. eat food thrice a day. approach. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. and. elephant lore. On this occasion. 7. objectives of human life. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. military science. depth and range. along with education in script writing. 8. of clothes.4. arithmetic and religious discussion. 5. the science of taming and training animals. etc. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. 2. medicine. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. bodily gestures. a change is not only total but also perpetual. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. agriculture. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. animal husbandry. however. handicrafts. 6. As reality is becoming. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. aspirations and. etc. be considered the aim of education It. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline.3. wear three items. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. Even at this stage. assumptions.

5. and to give it a shape that it has today. goes to Vardhaman. In fact. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. 1. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Jainism insists 17 . and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. therefore.e. However.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. Write Eight fold path . In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. such as. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.1. Validity is effective and consequences. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. its pessimistic outlook on life.. it is much older than the latter. i. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder.5. Education must. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. however. Its chief feature. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. whatever works are true and good. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and and peculiar situations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

10. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Development of personality as an individual. b) Not utter falsehood. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. e) To renounce the world. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. c) Not to steal.1. 3. and believe in happiness to all. and is to be redeemed and liberated. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. it has a foot in both the words. more stress on individual aims. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. 2. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant.5. Hence. c) Right conduct. 18 . 2. 5. rather than the interpretation of the universe. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. 4.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 9. d) To lead a celibate life. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. 7. 8. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. 6. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. They are: a) Not to injure. As such. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 1. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. thought and deed. 1. but on both. 3. b) Right knowledge.

19 . Knowledge is through senses and meditation. here and now. What are Triratnas ? .4. 8. therefore. Belief in transmigration of soul. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. education should develop sense of discrimination. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 3. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. Teaching should be social and tolerant. success and love. 1.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.5. Jiva is essentially karmic. and should bring happiness to all. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . 3. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Hence. Teaching must develop these faculties. that would be socially desirable. 5. 4. practised and not only aspired for.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. 2. 2.

1. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. primary 20 . 1. Bombay.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service.6. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. 1. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. with rally and rout. North West Province and Punjab. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. 2.1.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. To set up separate departments of. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). 1. and not for life. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. 1953). However.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.6. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. Madras. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India.6. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. philosophy and literature of Europe. 1. science.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute.6.

the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. self-respecting and competent. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. at the primary level. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. The universities dominated the secondary education.6. At that time M. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.6. they named these schools as polytechnic schools.6.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. secondary education became a step towards university. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. namely. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. In 1882.K. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937).education was neglected. Later on.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). Then the prevalent education was anti-national. To ensure qualitative improvement. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. 1. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. • Universal free primary education. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. 1. • Secondary education.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. 1. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men.

During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. The report suggested development of adult education scheme.At the primary stage (6-11 years). commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. The objective of education was to provide 22 . The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. After this stage. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . all children are to have a common curriculum. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial.1. 10.

Right thought. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. etc. The system of education was well-organised. 3.1. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. the science of taming and training animals.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Right contemplation. 1. 3. establishment of universities. followed by explanation by the of European literature. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. archery. 2. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. Right endeavour. 1. geology. education was impart in art. The immediate aim of education. 4. Right activity. arithmetic and religious discussion. 2. Right speech.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. along with education in script writing. military science. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. 4. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. During the Buddhist period. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. science and English language. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined.. 23 . It was suited to the needs of the society. 5. Right memory. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Right knowledge. a. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. Right means of livelihood. b. handicrafts. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. 6.1. questioning by the pupil.

Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. (2007). R. Development of personality as an individual. c. Sargent report 12. and Nath. 8. Ltd. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. 1882. a. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 24 . Sharma.1.K. 10. b. J. Hence. Right knowledge. b. Improvement of Literature. Singh. more stress on individual aims.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Right conduct. 11. Y. (2009). Right faith. (1984). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.K.C. Y. a. J. Development of Educational System in India. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.C. History of Indian Education System. 1937 1. 9. (2005). Aggarwal. Ltd.7.

2.2.4 1.2.LESSON 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.3.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3.7 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2.2. The 25 .2.4 National Policy on Education 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.3.2.1 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.5 1.8 1.1 University Education Commission 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.

2. curriculum. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. examination system. medical and legal education. vocational education. National Council for Women’s Education 5. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. Post-graduate 26 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2.2. secondary and higher education. 1. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service.2. analyse the progress of education in free India.3. standard of teaching. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. New Educational Policy. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. girls and women education besides primary. diversification of courses of studies. National Board of Teacher Education 10. technological engineering. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. 1986 1. explosion of enrolment. There had been vast institutional expansion.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. S. Kothari (1964-66) 8. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. expansion of vocational. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan.conditions of the teachers. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. you will be able to: 1. technical. 1.

Problems of access. Therefore. Finally. 2. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.S. National System of Education. 1. A. 4. Government of India. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. the New National Policy on Education. Kothari. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.2. However.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.teaching. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 .3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. accumulated over the years. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission.2. utility and financial outlay. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. quantity. the chairman of University Grants commission. 1952.3. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. A meaningfully Partnership. material and spiritual. D. in January 1985.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. Education for Equality. 1986. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission.2.3. 1.3. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. 1966. 1. Education is the key to our allround development. research et. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. 3. The Essence and Role of Education. quality. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29.

understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. It can train practical aptitudes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. attitudes. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. the concepts of work experience.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Thus. the minorities and the handicapped. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools.” Thus. The UNESCO Report. 28 . the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. By working with hands. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty.

" It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. the Commission.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations.” The Mudaliar Commission. “The aim of these colleges. “It may be described. co-ordinations. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. it will conduce self. The Education Commission. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. As such. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. The Radhakrishnan Commission. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. According to. With adequate planning. if he wishes. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. Besides. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. In 1955.” the Kothari Commission mentioned.

for quality of life in the rural areas.. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. Therefore. In addition. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. the rigid streaming of courses. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. The Central Advisory Board of Education. the. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . Subsequently. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. raising the special facilities. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation.ot her. With a view to relating education to the life. admission requirements to vocational courses. etc. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. the semester and credit system. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education.

Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. which swept the country for over two decades. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. meaningful. The wave of Basic Education. manual work resulting in either goods or services. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. meaningful. Commerce. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. 1. giving importance to productivity in the national development. which offer scientific.. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. technological courses including Agriculture. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. aimed at this goal. preferably spinning and weaving.and the world of work. which are useful to the community. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. etc. According to committee. 31 . Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. felt that education should be centred around a craft. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed.defined S UP W as “purposive. In short. The Father of Nation. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. who conceived the System of Basic Education.2. under the diversified curricula of seven streams.

locally available materials and tools. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Educative and 3. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Health and Hygiene 2. Some Hints to Teachers 1. tools and techniques and 3. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. be that the work involved is: 1. The teachers should make use of. 2. Shelter 4. Work practice. Clothing 5. 32 . enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. 3. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. so that it is educational in essence. as far as possible. Food 3. 4. Community work and social service. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Culture and recreation 6. Productive 2.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Experimentation with materials. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised.

Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. etc. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. removal of illiteracy.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor.5. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. Community Service In-1972. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. 1. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Check on educated unemployed 4.2. To make education more realistic. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. 6. improve discipline. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. slum clearance. Education through work The SUPW should. Productive Work 33 . It can become an instrument to build character. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. as far as possible. inculcate a faith. the local community should be actively associated. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. Merits of the Programme 1. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another.

The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. in turn. helping the adults-in productive work. skills and better future for the children. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. Define SUPW 34 . offering first aid.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. should involve itself in the educational effort. if not productive. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. AICTE was set up in year 4.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. etc. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. traffic control. The community.

e. f.2. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 6. 1955 4. 1. manual work resulting in either goods or services.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. 2. meaningful. 1. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.2. Radhakrishnan 2. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. d. 3. Dr. 35 .9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. c. which are useful to the community. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 1952 3. Write short note on SUPW. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. a.2.1.

Rao.K.P.. P. New Delhi: A. History of Education. History and Problems of Indian Education.K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. B. Amala. R.H. Anupama.K. 36 . (2007). History of Indian Education System.P. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. Y. (2007). Development of Educational System in India. J. (2009). Y. Singh. and Rao. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. and Nath. (2005).D.(2005). Publishing Corporation.2.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. V. Ltd.C. A. : Sharma.1.

there is an official Hindi translation.7 1.9 1.3. Besides the English version.3.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.1 Significance of DPSP 1.3. for a total of 117. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.3.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. and liberty.3. democratic republic.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.6 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. directive principles and duties of citizens.5 1. it came into effect on January 26.3.369 words in the English language version. procedures.4 1. assuring its citizens of justice.2 1.8 1.3. 37 .3.3. establishing the structure. Being the supreme law of the country. equality. containing 395 articles.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. 1950.3.3. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3. 1949.1 1. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.

3. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. in sessions open to public. understand our Indian constitution. The Assembly met.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. 38 .3. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. 1947. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. 1. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. 1. spread over a period of 2 years. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian.3. Two days later. you will be able to: 1. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. for 166 days. the Drafting Committee was appointed. 1947 meeting of the Assembly.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. 4. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. economic. administrative. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 1. According to the constitution. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. with Dr. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. learn the role of central and state government on education. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. 1947. social. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature.3. legal and environmental. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.In the August 14. Dr. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. After many deliberations and some modifications. On August 29. Through them. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 3. political. 1950. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. 2.

provide free legal aid. Protecting health of the workers. Liking wage etc. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Article 41. make effective provision for securing the right to work. and in other cases of undeserved want. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Article 40.government. Organisation of village panchayat. That the health and strength of workers. Equal justice and free legal aid. Equal pay for both sex. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. No abuse of children. sickness and disablement. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. in particular. on the basis of equal opportunity.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Appropriate concentration of wealth. 39 . The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Article 43. Right to work. Condition for dignity of children. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Protecting children from exploitation. The State shall. men and women. for workers. Article 42. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Minimising inequalities in status. The State shall endeavour to secure. old age. Article 39A. and shall. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women.

(Original Article 45. in particular. [declared by or under law made by 40 . Article 43A. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. agricultural. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Article 48A. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. See also Article 21A). work. Article 46. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. to all workers. a living wage. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Participation of workers in management of industries. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Uniform civil code for the citizens. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. and. Note: Subs. in particular. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Article 48. industrial or otherwise. by suitable legislation or in any other way. The State shall endeavour to provide. Article 49. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. 2002 for “45. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. in particular. Article 47. Article 45. Article 44. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. The State shall take steps. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections.

as the case may be. 2002. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. destruction. Separation of judiciary from executive. Article-21A Right to Education. may be law determine”. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 45 . The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security.3.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. disfigurement. from spoliation. disposal or export. Promotion of international peace and security. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. Article 50.Parliament] to be of national importance. removal. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Article 51. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . 1.

shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. 4. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. ii. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. race. 3. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. and. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. 6. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. language or any of them”.” 42 . and shall protect them. 7. in particular. iii. from justice and all forms of exploitations. 2002. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. 5. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. caste. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. if such person is a minor. 8. his guardian has given his consent thereto. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups.

2. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. & 1. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. and by drawing. Article 351 gives importance to 6. wherever necessary or desirable. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. 43 . the forms. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language.9. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5.3.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. The central government determines targets and promotes education. Educational Reforms From time to time. for its vocabulary. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. 7. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. the state governments. So as to encourage education on right lines. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Production of suitable for children and adults f. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. 5. 6. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. private agencies etc. Local bodies and private enterprise. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Promoting Inter-state understanding g. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. All India Council of Medical Science. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society.3. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. By starting these projects. 8. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. So that they may work well. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government.. The following pilot projects. 4. etc. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. to achieve the desired ends. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education.

Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas.3. 1. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. 12. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. reports etc. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 11. The 45 . 4. 3. research. handicapped. books. education for women. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. is the state responsibility. 9. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. training and statistics. 10. are published by it. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. 1. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. etc. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2.

Article 45 b. 5. 1. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Article 21A c. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. articles in the Directive principles. Explain Directive principles 2.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Write short notes on a.3.3. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 46 . The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Article 46 4. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8.

Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Article 29 and 30 7. may be law determine”. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. b. 2002. b. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. a. Dr. Article-21A Right to Education. The Directive Principles of State Policy.5.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Clearing House function 9. Ambedkar 2. Development of Hindi Language 6. 3. Article 46 5. 2002. 4. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.3. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Describe the educational role of State Government. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. a. Article 45 . 47 . (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. a. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 1. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers.

K and Narang C. Dash. S. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. N. L.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta.1. (2009). Ghosh. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 48 . Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. (2004).3. Bhatia. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. K. (2008). S. B. Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2007).

4. religious education should be broad based. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.4.2 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4.4 Moral education 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1. Students should be 49 . Christianity.1 Why Moral Education Aims of Religious Education INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.3. Buddhism etc.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.3.7 1.4.1 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4. Islam.8 1.4.4. Jainism.

The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. you will be able to: 1. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. beauty and goodness so that 50 .3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. integrity. India' can produce men of character. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions.and dedication.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. "In A multireligious society like ours. 1. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. religious education and the concept of secularism. know the position of religious education in our country 3. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.D.4. In the complicated and complex society of today. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication.. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. state meaning and need for moral education 1. duty-consciousness. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).” Education broadens human outlook. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. Thus. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. According to E. As result of which. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon.

The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. at least occasionally. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. realizes God in himself.3. Viewing the defects of religious education. According to Article 22. Children attend these organizations. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. through religious practices and 51 . Thus. 1. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. As our country is a country of diverse religions. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity.” From the above. rancour. all citizens are free to follow any creed.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. religion and democracy are same. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. it is clear that the State has no religion.3. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. 1. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values.4. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. They thought that any kind of narrow. 1947 we achieved our freedom. Hence. In short. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. No religious tax can be imposed on them. castes and creeds. As a matter of fact. According to Article 19. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes.4. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. if not regularly.

It helps to modify habits attitudes. which can mould. As a result of which.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. He also learns about social. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. If unreleased. when he becomes an adult. temperament etc. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. Good education. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary.teachings. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. for the development of the individual and the society. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. aggressive. which help him for the development of his character. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. intellectual and physical faculties of children. It is religious education.. and what is evil. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. one fully developed. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. moral and spiritual values. what is done and what is not done etc.

3. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. 3. If we open the pages of history. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture.4. 53 . It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. 1. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. towards the society. Therefore. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. which is the basic need of a democratic life. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. 2. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. This should not be allowed to happen. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible.

Since all religions have virtues. 9. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. therefore.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 .5. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. fellow-feeling. stories of moral greatness. Gurudwara as. churches and mosques 7. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. 11. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Write Article 22 2. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. For this. Life histories of great persons of the world. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. examples of patriotism. 10. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples.

the methods of teaching. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 8. Aparigarha (Non. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 5. 4. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. 8. Moral education.4. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). The content of the curriculum. Cultivation of emotions. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. is that which develops moral values. Satyam (truth).of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Without moral values. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. 7. Self sacrifice. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. 7. 3. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Fearlessness. They will play their role effectively. 5. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’.4. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. students. Swadeshi (Patriotism).5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. “Let all be happy and free from disease. 2. Non-injury. 6. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. 1. therefore. Purity. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Patriotism.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Brahmacharya (celebacy). 55 . let men see well of one another. Asvada (Control of palate).acquisitiveness). 2. Service to others. 3. 4. 1. 6. in the home.

Good manners. 3. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Unity of mankind. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. 3. 11. 10. Integrity. National unity and Spiritual values. minutes in the morning for group singing. Sharivashram (Physical work). Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. 4. Good temper. Discipline. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Efficiency. religions may be included in the syllabus. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). 56 . Asatyam (Non-thieving). Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. loyalty and self-sacrifice. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Simple texts and stories concerning different.9. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. 1.4. discipline. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. 2. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Secondary Stage 1. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. In the school programme. The School Assembly should be held for a few.

5. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. love of humanity. Silent meditation should be encouraged. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. should form a normal part of school programme. In other words. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. 57 . A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. patriotism and self-discipline. 2.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. University Stage 1. In this connection. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . 3.

1. minutes in the morning for group singing.1. 1959 5. 2. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. b. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. In short. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. Training of Character 3. a. For this. 2. The School Assembly should be held for a few. a. 4. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. Sri Prakasa 6 . Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3.4. b.4. 58 . Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. the. 1. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. a. Discuss the aims of Religious education.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.

Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. N. (2004). N.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. 59 . M. B. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Pahuja. (2008).4. Bhatia.1. Publishing Corporation. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.P.C. (2003). L. (2008). Theory and Principles of Education. Dash. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. K and Narang C. K. Ltd. (2007). Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Siddiqui. J. New Delhi: A. P. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.H. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.H.

12 1.11 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.10 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.6 1. i.5.e.5.9 1.8 1.1 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5.7 1.5.4 1.5.5. 60 .LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2 1. Although.5. disparities between provinces/States.5 1.5.. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.

work hard towards this end. 5.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. energy. waters. 6. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. Accordingly. understand the regional educational development in India 3. 4. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. 8. IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.1. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. They therefore.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. know the education suited to different environments. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. 61 . roads. etc. 2. they take appropriate measures. 1. This leads to separatist movements. Selfishness of the regional political leaders.5. for example. 1.5. 7. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. you will be able to: 1. 3.

Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. Therefore. and. 2. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. 62 . • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. Tight security arrangements should be made. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . some average. on the basis of regional development may be formed. some States became educationally far advanced. 3.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions.5. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. 4. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. while others remained educationally backward. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. • Separate States (of course viable States). Secularism. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly.

Even in each State. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. approved proposals worth Rs. etc.5. Central Universities of Assam. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. academic buildings. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities.480. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. while some States like Bihar. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. and provision of informal education to enable those. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Rs. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. NERIST. Regional Centres of IGNOU.After the Planning Process has originated. since its inception in 1998-99. These projects are in various stages of implementation. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. In the Central sector.g. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. However. Tezpur. NIT. scholarships. Jammu and Kashmir. the Union Government. the State Governments. books. 1. 63 . After the attainment of independence. Mizoram.14. library buildings.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. etc.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. Funds amounting to Rs. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Nagaland and NEHU. Guwahati. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. Itanagar. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Silchar.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity.392.. remained under developed. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education.84 crore was released in 2005-06. Out of this. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e.

Tezpur University. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.57 crore and Rs. Out of this an amount of Rs.5. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.261. 64 . too. Government expenditure on education.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. During 2003-04. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.05 crore and Rs. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.500.501.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. Moreover.40. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.187. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. A provision of Rs. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.8 per cent in 05). Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.

The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. The Chandigarh Administration. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. telecom. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. Kerala and Gujarat. too. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Moreover. notes the study. To add to the woes. Karnataka. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . Medical education. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. engineering and R&D. 1. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. too. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. for which 16 sites. pharma. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. for instance. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. health services and welfare of the citizen population. too. Karnataka.5. English. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Listing the positives. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra.

Hence it is called as need-based.year. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. Of course. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. the curricular subjects. and so on. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. when he will not be sure of time. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. life-oriented and environment slanted. the needs. Then education become realistic and idealistic. in which the learners live. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the teaching methods. 66 . The living conditions. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. the vocations. taking the average in the middle. the working days: an academic . and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. which a non-tribal person cannot do. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. even actually looking at the watch. the interests. while the former does not. In the same manner. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. the socio-physical conditions. The working hours of educational institutions. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. For a learner living in a rural area.

11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . 2.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. 1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. 67 . 2. to suit education to different environments? 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.5.5. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.

and Nair. New Delhi: Anmol Publications.H. Education in Developmental Arena. S.5. (2001). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Dubey. Salim.N. R. C. during the British rule.K. Giridhar. A. New Delhi: Authors press. some States have become more developed than others b. a. Education Scenario in India. some of areas which were under the native rulers. remained undeveloped 3. S. 68 .13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2008). Educational Development in India. 60% 1. (2002).2.G. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. community development. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. National Integration. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. school community and mass media. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. 71 . the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. semi literate and illiterates.

5.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.9 2.LESSON Education for Secularism 2.1.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.5.1 2.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 . SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.3 2.1.7 2.8 2.2 2.6.4 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.1.

5) Encouragement to Group Work. creed. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. This is the political aspect of democracy.2.1. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. for the people by the people”. 2. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. colour or wealth. In the matter of admitting students in schools. OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Democracy thus means power of the people. socialistic and secular state. there should be made no distinction of caste. 73 .1. you will be able to: 1. The students may be associated with the management of the school. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Abraham Lincoln. 3) Provision of Manual Work. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. socialism and secularism 2. understand the concept of democracy.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. socialism and secularism 2.

These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. There are different brands of socialism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 11) Student Parliament. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. 12) Visits to Legislatures. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. debates. 2.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. Democracy means 2. may be planned. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 74 . declamation contest etc. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. it soon spread all over the world.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching..

7) Special facilities for girls. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. oppression and disparity. the wealthy and the poor. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. free from exploitation. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low.5.1. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 2. service and cooperation. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. Under it. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. the prince and the peasant. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 2. 75 . but on the path of non-violence. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. none high”.5.1.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools.

“India is a secular-country.” In every political and educational corner. 2. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. 11) State schools. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary.1. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. 5. secularism is being propagated. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Write any two main features of socialism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. According to Holydake. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. "which seeks the development of physical. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. Everyone says. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 76 .

opposed to religious education. liberty. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. During the recent past. the belief that the state morals. A large number of people is uneducated. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading.6. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. There is need of making the people open minded. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. 2. 9) It stress free inquiry. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life.1.6. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. people started believing in regionalism. “Webster further says. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. 3) It permits freedom of worship. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. Equality. 5) It implies tolerance. 8) It believes in co-existence. should be independent of religion. education etc. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. people have narrow mindedness. People have different religions and they have different beliefs.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is.1. Moral values have to be imbibed. 77 .2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. In this type of prevailing situations. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. fraternity. That is why. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact.

many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. 2. education. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. No doubt. Religious Education. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. In the hands of such teachers. that the central string of all religions is one. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. students belonging to different religions should be associated.6. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students.1. The very sight of the building. 1) Moral Education. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. While doing so. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. In the celebration of each such function. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. Patiala. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. There should be some internal checking of the material being. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. tours and trips may be organized. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children.presented by the students in the gathering. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Secularism 9.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. The word “Seculum” means 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. The term secularism was first used by 8. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. No doubt. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. 2.

Explain the concept of Democracy in education. Equal Opportunities for Admission. d. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. there should be made no distinction of caste. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. 5. 3. Abraham Lincoln. This present age 7. a. George Jacob Holydake 80 . What are the implications of socialism on education 2. Provision of Manual Work.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 3. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. for the people and the people”. a. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 4. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. In the matter of admitting students in schools. a. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. b. 4. creed.1. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. 6. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 5. colour or wealth. Power of the people 2. Socialism aims at equality. Since socialism stands for equality. Socialism aims at social justice.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Tuition free education b. c. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Respect of Individual Personality. b. 2.1.

8. 10. K. Ltd. P. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. It treats all religions on an equal footing. (2003).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2004). It permits freedom of religion. should be independent of religion. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. a. K and Narang C. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. J. J. L. Mohanty.1.” 9. Bhatia. (2007). b. the belief that the state morals. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. (2005). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Anmol Publications Pvt. B. a. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. (2008). Theory and Principles of Education.C. N. Ltd. New Delhi : Pahuja. b. Dash. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. education etc. 81 .

2.2.2 2.5.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration Role of education in developing National Integration 2.1 2.3 2.2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.LESSON 2.5.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .1 International understanding in the school 2.2.7 2.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.4 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.8 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.10 2.

It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. and 4. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental.2. 83 . explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. aims and objectives of the school. as learners. moral. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. who are placed in his custody.2. It involves physical. as citizens. The developmental roles of children. 2. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. mental. as it is t he aim o f modern education. 2. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. as workers. application. skills.generation to another. emotional. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. 2. social and moral aspects.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. A teacher is first and foremost. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. understandings. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. you will be able to: 1. therefore. 3. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. instructor of school children. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. a r e 1. development. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. as persons.

All education should lead to better behavioural development. motivated. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. social and emotional health. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. experiences and acceptance. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. and aesthetically to become. The students live. intellectually. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. He is to become an active member. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. 3. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. culturally confident. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. mental. 1. physically fit for socially efficient. a part of their day in 84 . socially. He has to look after their physical. mentally. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y.2. emotionally. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. 2. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. inquisitive. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. Teacher as a Citizen Next. morally. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. 2. economically effective. morally. The following are some of such roles described in brief. member of his community at the outset. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner.

It 85 . Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. fine art associations. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural.2. Unless. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. 2. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 4. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. solve them. activities of the society into which he is born. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. and most of hours.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. India is a land of many castes. creeds. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. photographic clubs. languages and religions.the school being under the custody of teachers. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. They will be spending with their parents. List out the role of teachers towards community development .5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Dr. science club. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. faiths. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. Sampurnanand remarked.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. ‘We should not become parochial. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. folklore and teaching of social studies. Radhakrishnan. and make into one strong national unit. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . Nehruji has explained this as.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. c.” Regarding the role of education.5. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. should be emphasised. poems. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. 1. national anthem and other national songs.” 2. the study of language and literature. narrow-minded provincial. the citizens of the Republic of India. It should broaden the stand up straight. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. social studies. therefore. Let us. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. this integration of the Indian people. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . with straight backs and look up at the skies.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. b. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. At the primary stage the importance of stories. a.2. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. The only process is the process of education.

9. educational excursions. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. tours. t he st udent s and t he community. Co-Curricular Activities. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. and picnics. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. 3. Reverence of National Flag. sports. languages and literature. 8. symposia. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. dramatics and youth festivals. Taking Pledge. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. 5. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. 7. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. 4. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. 10. National Days—January 26. Celebrations of National Days. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. debates. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. 6. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. 2. Textbooks. Student Camps. Scouts and Guides. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. militar y training like the NCC. ACC.different social sciences. Uniform for School Children. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. 87 . Singing of National Anthem.

ii. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. 12.2. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. flora and fauna. 14.5. language. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. 13. 88 . on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. iv. Admissions to schools. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. region or religion. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. 15. School Projects. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. 2. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. Students Exchange and Tours. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. Educational and Travel Documentaries. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and .11. Open-Air Dramas. colour. Admissions. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. ways of thinking and doing things. 16. v. iii. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Recognition of Institutions. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country.

6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes.2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. vii. viii. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. camps. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.vi. Define National Integration 3. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. irrespective of national boundaries. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. ix. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . cultures and races on equal bases. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Community dinners.

we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the important as that of a national citizenship. Dr. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding.2.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. 2. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. Strong has observed. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. 3. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. if it happens. (b) stories of children of other lands. (c) fairly tales. the international level. often in connection with anniversaries. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs.. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.6. and the healthy development. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. In a very real sense. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.2. Teachers 90 . This. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. that war. Radhakrishnan states. patriotism is not enough.F. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Therefore.” 2. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. 6. therefore. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. 2.6. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. 4. Organising of debates and. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. 5. of his body and mind.e. C.friendships between children of different countries. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.

Impartial in their Treatment. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. an Englishman. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . Russian. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils.” Well Informed About World Situations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should not be propagandists. a German. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. Indian and American. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum.

Another major.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. leading to. which results in agitation and aggression language. It does not prepare students for life. Chronic Poverty . the education function can be carried. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. If this is done. and help the students to over .7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . Devaluation of Values . It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. 3. majority of people are.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. there is wide spread frustration among all people. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. Defects of the educational System .Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. 2. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. As the school is but a miniature society. 4. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.2. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. understand and indiscipline: 1. 5. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. Wide Spread Frustration .2. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.

2. fellow feeling. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 93 .8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being.democratic nature. 3. 2. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. co-operation.2. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . sympathy and good will among the nations. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. 2. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. 5. 4. 2. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. love.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. community development. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System


Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.


STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency Functions and role of schools in the society Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency Radio as an agency of education Television as an agency of education Press as a medium of education Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.

9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.

16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together. MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.




1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society


2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.


3. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Hence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. art galleries.V. During the course of time. “All the citizens of the community. periodicals. To make them achieve their aim. Emphasising this thing. books. 2. Then came newspapers.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. Moreover. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. He taught his students orally. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Crow and Crow write. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. led to the printing of books. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . the invention of the printing press.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. Museums. Define community. are increasingly used in education. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. Now internet is being used. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. In fact.

art. social studies. 101 . Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Important happening inventions. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Effective means of presenting music. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. languages. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. for the teacher through school broadcasts. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. politics. Thus. Students listen various talks. In collaboration with the experts. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning.6. Reynolds. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. It enlightens public opinion. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. 2. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. In the emphasis is on sound. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. 2.G. Various talks. It stimulates curiosity and interests. rather than on picture. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. the teacher still occupies. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. music.3.telecast.classroom teachers. It is also an important source of entertainment. the place of importance. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. current affairs and other areas. dram appreciation. A lot of work by way of pre. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. “Listening participation” in current history. Thus.

development of lessons. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. 3. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. projects or creative activities. travel talks. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. At present. fol classical music. at drawing room. 4. Making learning an open system. at play. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. plays. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. audibility and presentability. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. Team-teaching demonstrations. Before presenting the programme. Participation of local teachers and pupils. style. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. speech. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. School concerts. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. at any place. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. informal and non-formal education. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. mathematics. 102 . at recreational centers. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. 5.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.


Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.


For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.


Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.

2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.

Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4.7 Advantages of formal education Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .2 2.8 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.3.1 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4 Non formal educational system Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.4.LESSON 2.3.5 Agencies of Non formal education Characteristics of formal education 2.

his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 7. 2. imparted at the residence of the teacher. it was mostly. 2. the family. compare formal and non formal system of education. 5. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Education organised by some agency. Education associated with a degree or certificate. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises.4. the temple. In ancient time in India. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. To realize this objective of education. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 110 . open school. you will be able to: 1. open university. School is. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. Education. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 2.4. his mental alertness. 6. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. 4. 3. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’.4.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. the community. 9. 8. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. the mass media et.. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school.4. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. 2. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. say the Government or the private enterprise. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. 4. the most important agency of formal education. starting and ending at -a particular age.2.3. the learner are acquainted. 3. 2.

main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Concepts of proportion. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. third stage. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. In general. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. or post secondary education. 2. as well as vocational education and training. also called tertiary. Higher Education: Higher education. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing .2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools.3.4. the elements of language are first learned. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. or academic degrees. capacity.a secondary education. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills.3. Some education systems have separate middle schools. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. usually between the ages of zero or three and five.4. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. structured education. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Through early formal education. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. depending on the jurisdiction. such as a high school or secondary school. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal.2. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. diplomas.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation.

Agencies can be classified as 2.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. is an important agency of formal education.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. 4. children with disabilities. 2. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. late beginners etc.4.which will help for nation's development.4. What are levels of formal educational system? .3. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. 3. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. 2. and remote dwellers. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.

it is a more effective tool for rural development. staffed. open learning. It is deliberate. admissions. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. Therefore. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. financially supported life formal education. It is much more responsive to needs and change. i.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population.learning client take some learning objectives. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. According to Malcolm A. planned. one could say that non-formal education is an active.formal education. place of instruction. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. systematic. It unlocks the doors of development plans. However. Adiseshiah. etc. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. Open university. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. Non-formal education includes adult education.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. It is functional. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. to help themselves. it has its own valid claim to reality.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. Thus. curriculum. continuing education and on the job oriented education. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. adding up to a true learning society. until 1970 it had not been defined.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action.e. “Non-formal education should 113 . mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. systematic.. adults as well as children. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured.

self. co-curricular activities.” According to H. 2.” 2. place of education. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. Process of sharing. To help industrial workers to better their skills. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. admissions. Preparation for future needs. 114 . The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. age. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.4. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. It should lay emphasis on the marketable and vocationalised. 4. Flexibility in various aspects of education. evaluation etc. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. 2. exploring. 7.4. 6. Part-time education. international understanding. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. To develop in the student. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. national integration. 3. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.e.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. i. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. curriculum.learning pattern.renewal. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them.4. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. Covering life span of an individual.4.S. 5. socialism. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.S. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Lawrence. modes of teaching. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. the Ideas of citizenship.

3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. school dropouts. 2.4. 5. Eradication of adult literacy.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. in villages and those who live in towns. Technical. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. 6.4. Senior Secondary. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. 9. 3. • 2. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 7. publication and information dissemination. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. 3. 2. Meeting the omissions of formal education. 10. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 115 . To offer Secondary. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 8. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 4. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 5.4. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 4.4. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Universalisation of primary education. working adults.

5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. 3. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. others are formal and informal. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.2. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. Radio and television. if organised in isolation. Again. To better qualifications.4.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1.4. Therefore. All-round development i. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . public libraries. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education.. 2.full time to learners – can be home. etc. farm. 4. Institutions for formal education. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. effective in modern societal context.4. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. 2. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . self-employment iii. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. factory. open space. etc. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. To make if. library. training centres in factories. To increase knowledge and 2. centres of correspondence education.

Essay Assignments and short answer questions. 7. Correspondence lesson. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Written tests. 117 . List out any two aims of non formal education. Define non formal education. Lecturing T. Face Contact programmes. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. .V. .6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. radio. 6. institution. Teaching to face teaching. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Give examples of non formal education? .

educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Open University. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. a. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. 2.” 6. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. a. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. School 3.4. 3. Higher Secondary level and University level. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 5. the college and the university come under this category. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. adults as well as children. Pre-school level.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. 4. The school. Open School. 4. 7. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. systematic. Formal and Non Formal 2. 2.4. Secondary level. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Primary level. b.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 118 . 2. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution.2. b. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.4.

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J.2. K and Narang C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2003). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Gupta.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.4. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2008). Mohanty. L. Pahuja. Anmol Publications Pvt. Bhatia. B. (2008). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2005). Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). N. P. Dash. Theory and Principles of Education.C. (2004). Education in Emerging India. Ltd. K. New Delhi : 119 . N. S. J.

1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons Continuing education for literate adults Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.4.5.LESSON 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.3 Objectives of Open University Need for Open University 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.3.4 Open University 2.3.7 2.5 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.

Education is for refinement and enlightenment. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3.5. However. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. This knowledge may be in political field.5. farmers. characteristics of open university 4. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. 2. understand the meaning of continuing education 2.3. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.5. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. It is a lifelong process.5. economic field or such other fields. continuing education is a boon. 2. Any person.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. labourers and half educated individuals. give the meaning. industries. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. It is a continuous process. For them. 2. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened.2. you will be able to: 1. Under these circumstances.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Thus.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. know the need and objectives of open university. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools.

and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. are also contributing their might for the purpose.V. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. if he gets opportunity to develop them. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Thus. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Persons engaged in health services. On the other hand. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Block Development Officers.directly related to his job. Radio and T. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures.3. deteriorating to his character and personality. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress.5. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Radio.literate person. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . For them too continuing education is essential. Throughout the country. cultured and progressive. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. After the achievement of independence. 2. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. On the other hand.V. T. Cinema. Doctors. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons.

It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (7) folk songs.3. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. (9) fundamentals of philosophy.V. 7. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (15) music. 4. (16) liking. (14) information about bringing up young children. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. 2. (13) psychology of child behaviour. (17) modern international and national events. 5..are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. 3. habits of people of other lands.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (6) folk stories. and Radio. These books are not very useful. we have not been able to achieve our targets. 6. (10) first aid. 2. Of course. (1) ancient history. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. Inspite of the great efforts. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge.3. 123 . In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme.5. especially women. (2) basic religious matters. (8) psychology of adults. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as.5. 2. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely.

5. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.4. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. NLM was launched in the year 2. 2.5. lack of time etc. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. attendance restrict ion. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. of educational opportunities.

and in teaching. it makes use of educational techno logy. Education is not a once for-all process. 4. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . 5. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. but 125 .unobserved. b. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. No one is too old or too late to learn. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. the higher the degree of openness. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. 2. d. Which was the first open university in India? . its education is not class room based but home based. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. 3.5. e.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. IGNOU was established in the year 6. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. c. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. 2. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course.

He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n.5. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. it a ims at wider and hig her. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 6.5. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 2. supplementing the existing provision. who were deprived of t he same earlier. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 5. 126 . 3. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. or who realised too late that they need it.4. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. Mo re o ver.4. 4.who did not get it.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. 4. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. 2. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 2. 2. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 3. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . cho ice o f co ur ses. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all.

Self instructional materials. Correspondence tuition.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 7. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. school drop outs.5. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. 2. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. In the present day world. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. 5. 127 . 8. Laboratory works. you have learnt the concept. 6. 2.4. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons.5.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. semi – literates. a society. Every day. 8. 1. a state or nation. t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . Tutor Comments. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. List out any four methods of Open University? . 4.

(1) ancient history. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. youth. need and characteristics of Open University. 2. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. a. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 7. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.ambitious learners.5. agricultural and industrial workers. a. Television Lessons. aspirants for continuing education. (4) the fundamentals of economics.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 8. d. 1988. its education is not class room based but home based. unskilled workers and other professionals. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification.5. b. which may include house wives. (2) basic religious matters. P r int med ia b. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. b. 7. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 128 . 3. 1985. 2. 6. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 9. 8. 4. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. Explain the objectives.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. a. Broad casting lectures c.

(2004). Udaiveer.5.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. K. Modern Problems of Education.S.2. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. 129 . R. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. (2001). K and Narang C. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. (2004). Reddy. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: Rajat Publication.K. L. S. Ltd.

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UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

and teacher education. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. Training teachers for all levels of education. All which is the need of the hour. 133 . its causes and remedial measures. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. which may claim the attention of those concerned. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. Examination reform. wastage and stagnation. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. In Lesson 2. the education of women. examination. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision.

134 .

1 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.6 3.2 EFA – How? 3. 135 .4 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.2 New initiatives.5 3.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1.LESSON 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.7 3.1 EFA – For whom?

know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. understands the country. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. Continuing Education (CE) 1. (EOI) 2. social. Eradication of Illiteracy.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. education received added importance and significance. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. economic or cultural. you will be able to: 1. 3. “The State shall 136 . The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate.1. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. 2.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. therefore.1. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. On the other hand. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. Therefore. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3.3. may be political. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). directed that.

As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. rights and responsibilities. Continuing Education (CE). Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Universalization of Retention. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. It enables the parents to send their children to School. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. 137 . After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. the national Government under. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. Universalization of Enrolment. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. 3. Therefore.endeavour to provide. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. After the attainment of independence. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Three Stages for Universalization.

Therefore. 1995 (for upper primary stage). This target had to be revised to 1970. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. educational enterprise. 3. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. 1990. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. present and future. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. 138 . UNESCO Bulletin states. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. later to 1988. It is safe to assure.1. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country.3. Write Article 45. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. then to 1976.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools.

10. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. 11. and Women’s education programme should be improved. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. 6. their enrolment and retention. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). 3. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. Education of Girls. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. 139 . sex. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. In order to make the programme of education for all community. 5. 3. adolescent and adult. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. 8. problem of literacy. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. NAEP.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. Education of the Impaired. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. The Social Education. slum areas.1. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. nutrition education and sports and games. 12. their social economic status and occupations. 9. Apart from primary education. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Disabled. rural areas. Emphasis must be given on health education.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). To implement the programme of education for all UEE.3. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. By undertaking survey. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Early childhood education should be streamlined. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. FELF. Jams and Jellies. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. creed. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. etc. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.3 NEW INITIATIVES. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 .1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Expand MLL and SSA .e. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. 3. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.1. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Wastage and Stagnation.3. 4.3. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.

School Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. Familial Factors .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .first stage of education. it is considered as wastage.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. Social Factors . Personal Factors .

occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 142 . . 7. . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Wastage. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6.

3. rural or urban 3.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. Personal Factors .The following factors.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Societal Factors .1. They are described hereunder :1. School Factors . relating to home. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. school or society. Family Factors . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . in his home.

—provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? .discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. 144 . uniforms. mid-day meals. Define Stagnation? 9. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. stationary. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. etc.

for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. a. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Universalization of Provision b. b. a. directed that. 6. 4. 3. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc.3. “The State shall endeavour to provide.1.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. Hartog Committee. 3.” 3. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA..6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. 2.1. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation.1.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. improvement of curriculum. Universalization of Enrolment c. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. 145 . Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. therefore. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. 3. Universalization of Retention 2. a. 4. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.

(2007). Personal Factor b. b. 9. (2008). S. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001). Problems of Elementary Education. New Delhi: 146 . New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers.K.7. Hemchand.K. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.1. Social Factors 8. Sharma. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. T. Crescent Publishing Corporation. S.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. a. introduce graded curriculum.N. School Factors d. 3. improve examination system. Familial Factors c. a.

1 Advantages of Co-education 3.3 Modern reforms of examination Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education Disadvantages of Co-education 3.4 Question banks 3.4.1 Inspection and Supervision 3.2.LESSON Grade System 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.6.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation The problem of reform of Examination Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts Problems of examination 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.5 New evaluation procedures 3.2.7 Let us sum up 147 .6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2.7 Open book examination 3.2.

It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.2. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.3.2. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. but on the other. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.2.2.2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2.9 3.8 3. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . 3. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. you will be able to: 1. 3. Besides. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. 3. 3.2. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. suggest the new evaluation procedures.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.

2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. If the students are in sufficient number. hostel facilities. which the educational authorities have to face. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. waiting rooms for girl students. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. roadside Romeoism. etc. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. schools for them wherever necessary.3. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. 149 . by providing free education and liberal scholarships. etc. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. etc. They may cause problems relating to discipline. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. 3. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. They develop secondary sex characteristics. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education..2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. The following steps should be taken up. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement.2.

Instruction.4.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. public interested in education. the examination system has an important role to play. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. public administrators and statesmen.2. teachers. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. assessment and Finance. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. 150 . With the mass growth of educational enterprise. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils.2. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. It is considered as a major sub-system.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. 3. conduct of internal examinations. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. appointment of paper-setters. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

etc. values. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively.2. etc. etc. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. 3. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. announcement of results. invigilators. establishing reliability. training of examiners. scrutinizers. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. etc. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 .2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. tabulators. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. examiners. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. introducing objective-based testing. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. validity and practicability.4. etc. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation.printing and distribution of question papers. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees.

it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. 7) In connection with the question papers. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. which they are expected to study.. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. 3) With respect to method of teaching. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally.4. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. it s a common experience that subjectivity.. do not appeal to the students and parents. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Rote memorisation. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education.. lack of objectivity etc. 2) From the angle of content of education.2. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. takes the place of comprehensive learning.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. Vagaries in making.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. halo-effect. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. may also discredit them. 152 . Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. 3. stereotyped questions. Subjects.

. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. List any two merits of examination. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers.develop true love for education. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. . Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. may be introduced.a part of internal assessment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Spot valuation. 4. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. revaluation. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. etc. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. 153 . Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. re-numbering of answer scripts.

Every paper is treated equal. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. In actual practice. skills are given importance.5. When a person chooses to work extra. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. attitudes. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3.2. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. 3. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. Their interests. The students can take any course offered in any department. It is complicated.5. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . he is given extra credit points. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. The new scheme of assessment.3.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.2. In this system. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .2. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.

which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. These weightages are called credits. only the total credits to be earned is specified. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning.poor. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. v. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4.discipline.5. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . Groupism is encouraged.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development.good. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits.2. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. 3. courses can have weightages defined. In the new system. or as a 4 credit course. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. poor. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. This system reduces comparison of marks. While designing syllabus. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. An example is a seminar.

156 . Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.2.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.5. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992.5. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.2. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.2. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. 3. 3. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment.5. 3. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. However.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.

Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard.2. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. Therefore. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . However. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. There are no proper procedures for selection.5. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. List any four new evaluation procedures. . recruitment. In the hierarchy. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. 3. 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2.

etc. finding out whether the prescribed text. They are. books are followed. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. Separation of Inspection and Supervision.. There has been dearth of properly trained and well.6. in a sense. When they are fully realised. etc.2. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. whether the syllabus has been covered. staff. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools.qualified personnel.. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. school buildings. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. assisting the schools in their qualitative development.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. inspecting the class-room teaching. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. complaints and compliments. wherever necessary. in contrast. qualifications. 3. 1. requirements. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. 158 . being realised as two different functions. taking up the follow-up programmes. interpersonal relationships and so on. laboratory equipment. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. playgrounds. of late. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. Academic inspection. library books. submitting of the inspection reports. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. disciplinary problems. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. finding out the adequacy of. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning.

159 . or. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors.. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives.Ed. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. at least. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. 3. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo.. Insistence on specialisation in the B. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. aptitude. their professional knowledge. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. In the case of departmental candidates.Ed.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. M. In the light of these conceptualisation. modern. courses. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Similarly.2. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. course in either educational. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. once in five years. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well.

Grade System. 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 2. a. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India.2. 160 .2. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. 4.2. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. 5. Administration. c. 3. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. b. Instruction. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. d. b. 3. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. 3. b. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. assessment and Finance.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. 3. a.

b. S. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. (2004).a part of internal assessment. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. 7. (2005). Multiple sets of question paper. K. (2002). Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Problems of Education in India.4. Vaidya. a. Question banks. 5. a.2. New 161 . a. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. Educational Reforms. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . History and Problems of Education in India. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. c.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. R and Sharma. 3. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. b. Open book examinations. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. K. b.

11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. 4.3. you will be able to: 1.9 3.7 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. 162 .4 3.3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.LESSON 3.3 3.10 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3. 2. identify the needs of rural India and social.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. 3.3.3. 5. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.2 3.5 3.

This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1.3. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . 3 years of Higher Secondary Education..e. Commission emphasised to continue. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. e. 2. Consequent on the recommendations. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education.. 8 years of general education. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. the Banaras Sanskrit College. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines.. The Calcutta Madras. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses .3. etc. i. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education.specialisation programmes 3. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. The.g. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. University Education. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. 10 years of general Secondary Education. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage.. and 3 years of First Degree Course.e. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. Similar is the case with some other States. in Andhra Pradesh.

educational channels. who desire to change from one stream to another. economical and political. historical.3. However. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. b. social. 5. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. and. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. to imbibe. 10. cultural and economic development of the country. 7.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a.confidence in students. to prepare. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. 5) to help for the that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . 6. habits of hard work and develop . The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 8. is also a plus point . The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.a sense of dignity of labour. Provision for transfer of credits to students. 3.

international understanding. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. 1. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. and. Sociologically it is undesirable.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. cooperativeness. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. to develop national character. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. Philosophically it is not the conception. 3. etc. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as.. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. cultural and' religious tolerance.3. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. democratic living.national integration. Psychologically. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. The General Educational Spectrum. at the other. and that required to enter the tertiary level. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. on one hand. social justice.

Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. chemistry. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. the rural areas have suffered very much. Agriculture is the main occupation. physics or mathematics. fish culture. 166 . they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. such as Agriculture.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. technical. In the vocational spectrum. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. professional. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. vegetable—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. 3. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. industrial agricultural production is growing. technological. 2. All these need for an. In the matter of language. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. commerce. India is a land of villages. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. rural health. and vocations based on dairy-farming. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. horticulture. Science. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Commerce and other disciplines. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. In our country.— tube-wells. commerce. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. educational and cultural services. medical plants. Biology.3. or other machinery. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced.

4. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. can be ensured. In time.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. and the needs. the local resources available.3. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely .etc. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. etc. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . and 5. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses.. In this it may be concluded. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. interests and aptitudes of the students. social justice. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. There had been favourable reaction from the students. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits.. 3. In this way.

Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. B. S. 3. Calcutta University Commission 2.C.3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. (2001). J. 3. 3. habits of hard work and develop . Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. Vocational Sepctrum. b. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2005). (2008). Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : 168 . we studied the history.K. b. to imbibe. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Dash. a. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. 3. 2. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. Modern Trends in Indian Education. a. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. objectives. a.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Mohanty.3. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3.3.3.a sense of dignity of labour. Ltd. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.3.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. J. (2007). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. N. General Educational Spectrum and b. Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.13 3.4.9 3.LESSON 3.4. social and 169 .2 Faculty wise enrolment 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.3 3.11 3.1 3.10 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.2 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.7 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.12 3.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4.8 but the lighting of a fire”.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.6 3.5 3. Education contributes to human development.4.4.

After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. 3. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. There is a close connection between education and development. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. cultural and political development of the individual. analyze the women and distance education. although we have miles to go. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. During the year 1937. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women.4. community and nation is universally acknowledged. Nursing. you will be able to: 1. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . 3. For the first time in the history of India. While women constituted only 9. Teaching and Fine Arts. family. These courses were. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. Dr. higher education of girls developed immensely. The relevance of women’s education to social. In the post —independence period.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. Home Economics. Education . economic.higher education in particular. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development.4.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. particularly 170 . No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered.

In 1950-51. Kodaikanal. we have more than 1200 institutions.T Women University.D. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. in our country. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.2 22.1 31.0 16. The idea of women’s education for equality. Mumbai.9 14.2 29. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.0 32. Coimbatore.0 Today. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. levels and professions. 3. Mother Teresa Women University.4.women. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.4.4. In the rest of the country.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.N. 3. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . Yet. Even today. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.9 27.0 43. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.1 24. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). out of 9200 and odd colleges. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.65 lakhs in 1994-95.

47 65. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.63 Female % 34. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .34 33.46 82. 2.4.that of boys.1 respectively. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .54 12.36 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.27 89.44 35.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . particularly in the technical and industrial streams.83 47.66 66.4.73 10. 3.4.17 52.56 64.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. 3. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.1 and 14.53 34.4%) prefer Arts subjects.

They gave up their studies to enter home life.hinders the girls from getting higher education. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. irrelevance of the content of education. Book banks should be established. The major hurdles. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. she will only learn fashion. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. financial difficulty of the parents. In every third family. distance of the college or university from home. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. 173 . Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations.4. According to a survey. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. particularly. In college. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. marriage is a very common I factor. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. 3. etc. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. curriculum not suited to their requirements. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. Also. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. what is the need for higher education for her. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. and coeducation may spoil her character. Thus.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. promoted and increased. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education.

8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Geographic distance of educational institutions.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. which is the most dynamic factor of development. 3. It also brings about 174 . It enables to study. Full-time employment. and the limitations of the conventional education system.economic disabilities faced by women. is the only tool for realising empowerment. 3. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Education. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Empowerment in a nutshell. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development.4. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Distance education is a boon to women. There are constraints of time. space. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment.4. resources and socio . It is a productive investment.

empowerment means being assertive. higher learning. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. legal awareness and economic independence.4. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. education of women must be given priority in national plans. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. The major objectives of women's higher education. 3. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. Empowerment is an active. education of women is of paramount importance.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. This can be achieved through reflection. Women are partners in development. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. for full development of our human resources. on their own.

has to be implemented at the earliest. will encourage them to venture new grounds. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. Reservation for women. But their number is small. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Better opportunities. especially so in the developing countries. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. 176 . which had been the sole domain of men. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. who are eager to take up courses. 3. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. The local administration. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. The educational institutions.4.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. which is pending for a long time. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. Scholarships and concessions for women.

Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. But. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). especially in developing countries like African countries. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education.1%) and architecture and building (38. Also. Chief Executive.4. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.000 women in the country. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. engineering and related technologies (16. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.3 percent. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. talents. 3. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. capacities etc.8%). participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.9%). and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. According to Lindy Hyam.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Australia. IDP Education.

Mother Teresa Women University. R. 43% 6. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. R. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.K. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. R.C. Kodaikanal.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. SNDT Women’s University. 178 . Mumbai. S. A. Coimbatore. A. Rajasthan 5. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. individuals and society b. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Women Education.4. Mumbai. S. the family. (2007). (2000).4.4. 4.R. create the right attitude towards life. (2005). 3. Annakodi. Centre for Women’s Studies. (2008). a. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Rao. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Women Education. and Suryalatha. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Mishra. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. 3. Women and Education. and Swain. community and the nation. SNDT Women’s University. Pattanaikj. 4. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Coimbatore.

Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.7 3.10 3.5.11 3.personality of children in and out of school.5.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching. They should be trained.5.2 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. 3.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5.9 3.3 3.LESSON 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5. whole.8 3.6 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.

5. social and emotional integration. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. 3. international. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. 4. Shorter working hours. and national character. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Lack of physical facilities. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. you will be able to: 1. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. understand the training teachers for Primary.5.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. know the pre service and in service training facilities. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. understanding and strong desire for international peace. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. national consciousness. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. equality and justice. 180 .5. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 3. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching.

Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. etc. 3. 3. who have not been trained earlier. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise.. it is called the In-service teacher education. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. inservice and extension education programmes. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. students.Ed. the primary teacher education. the state Government. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education.5. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. it is called the Extension teacher Education. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Depending on the levels. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.5. Inadequate training in practical skills. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. the secondary teacher education. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. and M. If the student teachers are working teachers. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. and the collegiate teacher education. higher secondary teacher education. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. At the diploma level. the centre. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them.Ed. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities..Less qualified teacher educators. a Diploma course and a Degree course. Lop-sided curriculum. levels. (NCERT) New Delhi.

Education cells. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Science Education units. Educational teehnology cells. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. extensio n service. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. etc. collegiate cells.. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Write any two problems of Teacher Education? .5. non-formal. Expand NCERT 2. 3. depart ments etc.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. are established. Evaluation unit. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Also Guidance Bureaux. state Institutes of Educat ion.

to improve curricular programmes. to prescribe conditions for recognition. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. audio visual aids... and 183 . laboratories. degree. despite its vast expansion. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. primary and secondary school teachers. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and .• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified .post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . to ensure teacher competence. material conditions relating to libraries..Ed. and so on. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. should be improved on a top priority basis. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. which help breaking isolation from one another . through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. schools and sister institutions. which should include experience in the primary schools too. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. to offer consultative services. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary.Ed.

The problem. whether they should have professional education or. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. Modern Methods of Evaluation. Meanwhile. Hence.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. etc. though no pre-service training. 184 . methodology and evaluation. To meet this exigency. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi.secondary education. Workshops. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. Induction Courses. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. Agriculture. not came up once again. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. Modern Techniques of Teaching. and XII. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. etc. Organisation of Content Courses. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Psychology of Students.

(RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.. (Education) and M.. Post-Graduates also undergo B. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. Ajmer. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. State Institutes of Education. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.A. These facilities are available for regular students.D.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.... inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. in Education.5. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions... All B Ed. 3.Ed. Courses leading to B. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.’s for Ph.A.’s are elig ible for M. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.Ed. Pre-service training is for those.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.S.Ed. Degree and M. M. Degree. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.Ed.Ed. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . (Education) are organized by 185 .Ed. For re-orienting the teachers. training. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. courses and M.

A. 4.A.5.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. 5. What is the role of ERIC? . 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. established by tradition and teachers of the past. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .List any two code of conduct for teachers? .. and B. 6. (Ed).. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 186 . of conduct—written or unwritten. 3.). they should be conscientious . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. Hence the employability of M. . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. (Ed. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . However. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.

They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Dearth of new technology of teaching. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Shorter working hours.5. 3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 6. b. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. Ajmer. The necessity is however this.3. a. 187 . Bhopal.5. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. National Council of Educational Research and Training. b. 5. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. they should be conscientious. However. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. 4. 3. Discuss the problems of teacher education. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore.5. 3. 2. a. 3. 4. 2. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. Explain code of conduct for teachers.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. a.

New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . (2010). Publication Pvt. Mohanty.D. A. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. (2009). P. J. Ltd Aggarwal. Corporation.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. Teacher Education. Teacher Education. B.5.3. (2003). and Teacher Education. Tewari.N.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

common ailments of children. If the diet is poor. communicable diseases and their prevention. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. In lesson 1. In lesson 4. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. The person’s environment is equally important. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. the focus is on the school health programmes. Since food is the source of nutrients. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. preservation of nutrients. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. 191 . objectives. economic and educational developments. consuming the right amounts becomes important. nutritional deficiency diseases. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. objectives and role of the physical education.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. objectives. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson.

192 .

mental.6 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1.4 4.1.3 4. emotional and social.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1. 193 .1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. for giving health education to the children under its custody.1.LESSON 4. physical.5 4.1.8 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time. The programmes of school health education are quite important. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1. It is a miniature society.11 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.9 4.10 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.2 4.1 4.1.e.7 4.1.

To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. explain the importance of First aid 5. training of teachers and evaluation. 3. 194 . you will be able to: 1. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. 6. 2. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. e. cleanliness and healthful living. 11. 4.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. understand school health programmes 2. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. training in first aid and etc.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5. to his family and to the community at large. 8.g.. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1.1. To develop certain skills concerning health. 7. To give information regarding health rules. 10. 4. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. 9. Instruction. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. know the need for sex education. 4. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. list the common ailments of children 3. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. content of health education.1. To develop healthy health habits among children.

The school buildings should be spacious. ( iii) sanit at io n. cleanliness weeks. as described below 1. (ii) communit y healt h. (xii) smoking education etc. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. vaccination.coming or absence.C.. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. direct lighting. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. is imperative. excusing late. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. etc. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. The flooring should not be damp. (vi) nutrition education. “Play-for-all” programmes. (v) safety education. Arranging better transportation facilities. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. 2. (xl) mental health. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. First aid facilities should be made readily available. B. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled.G. Vaccination for small pox. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises.4. minimizing the travelling distance. The surroundings of schools should be clean. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. typhoid. 5. proper doors and windows. (viii) first aid. 3. play festivals. B. 2. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. organisation of school health days. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. 4.1. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . There should be good drainage facilities. suitable furniture. Triple Antigen Vaccination. There should be regular water supply.. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. inoculation against cholera.

alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. wounds. D. dislocations. • Take nutritious food. fractures. if epidemic is wide-spread. poisons. and other accidents. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. fainting (epileptic fit). • When sleeping in groups. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. bleeding.. • Close the schools. drowning. burns. • Find out the cases. cuts. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Keep all rooms clean. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. C. sports and games in the interest of their health. scalds. 196 . etc. • Have adequate rest and sleep. insect stings. isolate and notify.

water or bodily contact. chicken pox. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. asthma. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • .. fever. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1. measles etc. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. So they easily get illnesses. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. headache. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. They are: i) The incubation stage. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. Once these germs get into the body. Mention the school health programmes. These diseases are called communicable diseases. pain in the joints. which are – cold. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. tuberculosis. backache.1. polio. 4.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. There are three stages in any communicable disease. cough. List out the Health curriculum 3. 4. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. 2.

The symptoms include cold. Diarrhoea . Others make the children very weak. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Scabies .is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system.When a child suffers from scabies. Measles . Important salts and water are lost in this process. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Tonsilitis .This disease is caused by bacteria. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. head-ache and cough. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. The child may have fever. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Mumps . sugar and water. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Common Cold . Some suffer cold due to allergy. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added.It is caused by measles virus. Ear Infections . 198 . Children catch cold from persons having cold. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Throat is affected. Hence liquid diet is recommended.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. cough and fever. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. The following are the common communicable diseases. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. unhygienic living conditions. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. After three or four days of fever. unhygienic bottle feeding. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Hence it is called a killer disease. etc. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. This is caused by cold virus. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. eating food which is not clean. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery.

Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. Expand DPT . The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Shortly. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Typhoid . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Diphtheria . As the disease progresses. The child may also have diarrhoea. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. By scratching he causes secondary infections.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. face and waist.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism.• • • • Chicken Pox . It begins with fever. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. 199 . The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. If proper treatment is not given. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. raised pink spots appear on head. separate. Enlist the common ailments of children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. the child may die. What are communicable diseases? 6. the child is not able to breathe.

it is a subject of art.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. drowning. and Community Work and Social Service.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. cuts. In such cases.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. scorpion stings. It has its rightful place in education too. 3. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. 4.1. wounds. 5. Sex is but an integral part of human personality.1. so-called sex books and periodicals. 4.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. etc. Sex is popular. man-woman behaviours.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. fainting. 200 . and films. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. Wounds .Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. It is both biological and psychological. head injury.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. eye injury. sprains. sprains. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. bleeding. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. exciting and body-oriented. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. bruises. simple fractures. Cuts and Bruises . films and jokes. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. 2. swelling. fiction.4. dislocation. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future.g. Sprains . Drowning . Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. snakebites.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1.

have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. try experimenting with their bodies. B. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. but preserve them from disaster and disease. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. In secondary schools.old values. In today's liberal and interactive society. The values of life. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. 3.. The home. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. sex education is being recommended in schools. the religious organisations. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. celibacy are to give sex education to the young. Should the boys and girls. in their ignorance. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. the school. 2. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. Hence.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. they would be treading the path of sure doom. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. health. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. communicable diseases and their prevention. C. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. What are the major components of Sex Education. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. hence.1. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. the school health programmes. common ailments of children.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. 202 . Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. Teacher education institutions are. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. 4. when the courses are already overloaded. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. first aid and sex education. there will no crisis in its implementation. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.



SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.


STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.


4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:


Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.


Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy


What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. 209 . Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Mention the food nutrients 2.

you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. minerals. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. If you look at the definition carefully.2. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.4. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. 210 . E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Let us talk about each of these aspects. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied.2.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .

In the case of adults. People in the east of our country prefer rice. the social and religious practices of that region. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body.6. There is no point.sedentary. Preferences/customs are also important. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . A balanced diet is specific firstly. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. activity level and physiological stress.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. it is also specific to a given activity level . Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. Even within given States there is considerable variation. 4. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex.g. for example. dosa are typical of the in the morning and the other at night. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.2. paratha and poori. In other words. construction labourer). sex. These are: region where the person resides and income. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. moderate or heavy work. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately.g. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress).

This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. Even among flesh foods. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. In addition to these. One must. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. Among the social factors. vegetables and fruits.planning the diet. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. If you think of your own religious group. However. nuts and dry fruits. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. however. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. taboos related to food may play an important role. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. As you read this discussion. income plays a vital role. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. while another may hate them. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. One person may be fond of milk products. Having more money. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. however. fat and sugar tend to increase. for example. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. As income increases. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. customs. Including these 212 . These determine the acceptability of foods. as important for the rich as for the poor. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Judicious selection of food is. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. however. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices.

2) Food should be consumed after eating well. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . Define balanced diet.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. fruits. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. but they should be thrown away. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. meat. 17. 8) Walk a while after eating.eating is hazardous.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. green leaves. For this. eggs . Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. mouth. List out any two healthy food habits. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 213 . over-eating or under. if the teachers have good food habits. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. etc. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. 8. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food.

2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. 4. Keratomalacia 3. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Discuss good food habits. preservation of nutrients. Conjuctival xerosis. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Beri Beri 4. Explain food nutrients 4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Bitot’s spots. 4. Vitamin D 5. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. d. b. a. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Night blindness. Corneal xerosis.2. good nutrition is essential for good health. c. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. In fact. e. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. When the diet is inadequate.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies.4.

Nutrition and Dietetics. minerals. (2009). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. P. (2004). A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.2. S.6. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . (2005).M. R. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s.N. mouth. (2008). 4. A Text Book of Foods. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Food and Nutrition Education. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. b. 7. Health and Nutrition Education. R.C. Hands. (2008). Sri Lakshmi B. Food should be consumed after eating well. a . 8. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. a. Chopra. b. Food and Nutrition Education. Nutrition Science.

3.3.12 4.2 4.1 4.7 4.6.9 4.3 4.3.10 4.4 4.5 Impact on social development 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.13 4. 216 .3.3 Impact on Education 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.3.

describe the impact of population growth on social. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. Population Education. his societ y and the world. his family.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.3. It is not sex education. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. understand the importance of small family norm 5. economic and educational development 3. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. population characteristics. the causes of population change. objectives and need for population education 2.4. aims at providing the younger generation. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. It is a much wider co ncept. therefore. and the consequences of these processes. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. state the meaning.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. 217 . There is some difference. characteristics and changes for himself. the stress is. 4. community.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. 4. family planning and sex education etc.3. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as.3. you will be able to: 1. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. Whenever we talk of sex education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. the family. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.4. Define Population Education 2. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 4.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . the nation and the world.3. List out any two objectives of Population Education. the society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

When the family is small. the family programmes are also handicapped. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. Every second two thousand children are being born. 219 . If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. 4. health and happiness of its citizens. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. which will not be possible without population control. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. With the larger families. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. social welfare schemes can be implemented well.3. 4. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. economic and educational development of the country. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty.3. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it.6. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Family is considered as a social unit. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.

6. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. lack of proper health care.3. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. 4. facility for drinking water. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. i. heavy intern I migration etc. and so on.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. in cinema halls and theatres. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. Swollen cities. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. 220 .The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets.e. unemployment.3. The gulf between them is widening further. 4. in parks and other places of public gatherings. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. teacher index. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. organization index and material index. in buses and trains. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.. toilets. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio.6. Many students herded in a small room. pollution of the environment. In developing countries.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends.

7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. blank verses etc. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. can be taken up. Social Studies Statistics on population education. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. bar graphs etc. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. less space facilities. and laboratory equipments. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. thus. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. can be studied in science and health education. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. even text books would be in short supply. There would be poor library facilities. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. family planning etc. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. less budget for education. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. essays. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Hindi and English. There would be very few audiovisual aids. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. reproduction. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. 221 . Regional Language.3.

Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. They may arrange them as per average density of population. causes of deaths etc. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. West Bengal. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Canada. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. area and average density of population. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Children with the help of parents.4. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 2. deaths. 9. Bihar. United States of America. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Uttar Pradesh. 14. China. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. 7. 11. 12. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Children may compare two families. 8. 13. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 15.3.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 3. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Brazil. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 4. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. 5. 10.

how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Comparing life in various respects in two families. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. The question. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on opened in their schools. we have no right to stop 223 . Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. 18. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. values and role children etc. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. preferences for sex. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village.3. 17. 16. age at marriage.

The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).their entry into the world”. 4. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. “He who is responsible for population growth.3. at varying places in different regions. More than 45 years ago. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. however. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. which education can only do.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. on an overall basis. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. and the child survival components of the news: program. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . should be overcome at the intellectual levels. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. especially the expansion of child immunization services . The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. continued . Since the program's inception.were implemented 224 . The Family Welfare emphasize family planning services.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3.4-6..

The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. At these meetings. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. a focus on health promotion. expansion of services to unmarried women. men. the community appears willing to pay for services. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. In April 1996. Local programs vary in their approaches. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. and nominal fees for services. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. reliance on local women as community health workers. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Therefore. In October 1997. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services.earlier than the safe motherhood components. Moreover. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. and the World Conference on Women. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program.

3. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. community.3. 226 . involving the community. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. 4. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. 1997). Describe the impact of population growth on social.emphasizing the needs of the client. family.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. 3. Its main purposes are to create awareness. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. economic and educational development 4. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. What are the goals of RCH? 4. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. nation and the world. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

population characteristics. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. a. the causes of population change. 5. 227 . Brazil. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. and the consequences of these processes. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. his family. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. a. his society and the world. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. United States of America. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. less space facilities. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. characteristics and changes for himself. area and average density of population. less budget for education.3. b. a. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. 4. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. b. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.” 2. 6. 7. bar graphs. China. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. Canada.4. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union.

Centre for Women’s Studies. T.4. Modern Problems of Education. (2004). Ltd. Jayapoorni.K.3. (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. A. Kantikar. Changing attitudes to Education in India. (1992). Udaiveer. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. (2002). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 228 .14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. (2005). Coimbatore. Principles of Population Studies. Modern Trends in Indian Education. N. Reddy. J. Bhende. V. Ltd. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development.

4.8.11 19.1 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.4.5 4.8.4 Lead up games 4.1 Minor games 4.4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4.3 Indigenous games 4.2 Major games 4.4.2 4.6 4.3 4.9 4.4.4 4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.7

social fitness.4. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.4. the youth of the country. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education.4. The concept of physical education has been made broader. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. 4. mental alertness. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5.4. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. which forms its most valuable assets.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. moral fitness and emotional fitness. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. classify the different types of games. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. leadership and balance in defect. 4. as it should 230 .” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. perseverance. team spirit. full records of physical activities should be maintained. you will be able to: 1. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. state the meaning of Physical Education 2.

obedience to rules. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. They go hand in hand. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Therefore. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. team spirit. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. leadership. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. To be more precise. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. The educational efforts at home. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Every individual is a part of society. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. They are inseparably united together.

“It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain.” The Secondary Education Commission.” Montaigue writes. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. 4.4. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. Rousseau states. mo ral. pleasing manners. Physical exercises. Buck has observed that 232 . Regarding the significance of physical education. H. nor body but the whole man. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. a sound health. ment al. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. game and sports. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. C. Just like Education.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India.

resourcefulness and smartness. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. speed. coordinative abilities. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. “If we wish to develop the whole being. etc. 233 . happiness. efficiency and character. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.a properly directed physical education should result in health.” 4. Froebel says.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. we must exercise the whole human being. elegance. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. endurance.” In brief. strength.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. flexibility and power. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.4. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. initiative.

“Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. should help in the spiritual development of the student. systems of government. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. they may form gangs. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. including all racial groups and historical ages. If no opportunity is provided to the students. in greater or lesser degree. Every age has its artists. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. plagues and famines.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. its adherents and its enemies. While wars.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. these fundamental things have always been present. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. poetry and painting. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. 234 (i) (ii) .

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two importance of Physical Education. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. respect for rules. bravery and interest in games and sports. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. etc. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. 235 .\ to develop perseverance.sacrifice. to develop tolerance. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. B. self. 2. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. obedience. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination .

Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education.4. Usually parents. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. and readmission after they have recovered. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. 10. 8. 4. 7. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Inform health principles. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. is essential. 11. 12. Haag. 6. Be well-prepared. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. 2. defects. students. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 15. 5. 16. Act as a leader. Be in the uniform.4. Always keep the whistle ready. 3.4. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. 236 1. Be punctual. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Be self-confident. 14. 13. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.H. Keep the field ready for the activities. Be sportive.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 9. 4. injuries among pupils should be made. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Posture screening should be done. .6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. and.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. their development is handicapped. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Indigenous games. the play. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. 4. less equipment and less expense. Such inst incts as imitation.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. 1. 4. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. frolic and jo y. chasing.8. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. 2. 237 . 3. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. As such they are well enjoyed by children.4. Moreover. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.4. Lead up games.

8. 238 . on sea-shore. Kabaddy etc. The dimension of the posts and nets. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. couple tag. They are played for a shorter duration. Jumping. zig zag relay. Cricket. boosting. Khokho. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Ball Badminton. Tennikoit.. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. finding the partner. women take part most of the games. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. 4. driving. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools.With a very few rules. on hard courts. the play equipment. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Jump the stick clay and so on. Tennis.4. Hopping. Except a few games. muffling. under ball pass Relay. snatching the kerchief. On lawns. They are rules approved by the International Associations. over ball pass Relay. Throwing. stopping. spiking. dribbling. the number of players and substitutes. Soft Ball. benefit in playing minor games. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Basket Ball. on mountain tops and on river beds. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. trapping. the games can be modified according to convenience.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. bowling etc. with implements or without implements. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. wherever the kids assemble. These games require varied skills such as running. Shuttle Badminton. some of them are played indoors. Volley Ball. Hockey. While many of them are played in the open playfields. skipping. pitching. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. heading. catching. hitting. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. For each game the rules are many. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Dodging.

3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. they are in existence. 7.8. On occasions like marriage. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. For example. and . Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.4. festivals connected with religion and public functions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. While observing the players in action. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. An example for indigenous game is 8.4. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. these games being popular. All the fundamental tactics. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . They have an abundant social value. death. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. Kho-kho. birth. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. List out some major games. 4. Games may be classified as 6.

9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. a. 3. to secure physical health b. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. b. Minor and Major 240 . c. a. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. aims and objectives and need of physical education. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. b. 4. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. 3. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Posture screening should be done. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. d. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. to develop physical stamina. a.4.4. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. 2. a.4. 5. 4. 2. Briefly discuss the different types of games.4. 4. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.

Tennikoit. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. J. Health. (2008). G. (2009). New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Shuttle Badminton. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.4. Soft Ball. Handbook of Physical Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Volley Ball. Tennis.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. 241 . Ltd. Basket Ball. Modern Trends in Indian Education. J. Cricket. Krishna murthy. J. Khokho.C. Physical Education and Sports. Kabaddy 7. Foot-ball. Aggarwal. Khokho 8. Hockey. Ball Badminton. (2005).6. (2008).K. 4. Mohanty. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.

5.7 4.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.10 4.6 4.5.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.4 4.5.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.11 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.8 4.2 4.LESSON 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.1 Natural Environment 4.5.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment . Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.9

3. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. list out the types of environment 3. 6. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. 2. you will able to: 1. Evaluation Ability. population explosion and resource depletion could be. 3. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. Skills. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 4. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Knowledge.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. political.educat ion for the environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. education about the environment and education through the environment. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. 5. 243 . Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. The best place to start such learning is school. Attitude. Participation.5. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. 4. Awareness. social. 2.5. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. Essential knowledge about the Environment.5.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. aesthetic and educational factors. Broadly. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. 4. it covers the following elements: 1. Details are given below: I. economic.

Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. 2. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. 244 . Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. D. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. F. • Biological magnification E. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Oxidants Other pollutants. a. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law.B. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes.

2. B. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . 4. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Abortion iv. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. 2. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. 3. Sterilisation. III. Use of medical science i. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Intrauterine device iii. Family planning ii. Control of population growth a. c. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Persuasion: i. Socio-economic measures. economic. The pill ii. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Birth control through education b.3. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. The human ecosystem II.

Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 3. 246 . e) Recycling. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Water pollution abatement. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. Air pollution abatement ii. Define Environmental Education. 1983). (UNESCO. 2. Planning human intervention on the natural processes.

He modifies according”.5. way is called environmental or ecological factor. fax agricultural apparatus.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4.5.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.5.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. b. Any constituent or condition of the environment. A change in one brings about a change in the other. to his needs. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.other components of the environment. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.5. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.5. These are biotic components. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. Biological environment The biological environment. They interact with each.5.4. animals and other organisms (biotic). a. includes the plants. -other. telex. 4. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.

air pollutants from industries. alternate sources of energy. ozone layer deplet ion. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. natural way of controlling pests. trees reducing noise pollution. mineral survey. supplying timber for various uses. importance of nitrogen cycle. social studies. wars and hazards of war. use of medicinal plants. population. solar cookers. (ii) Air pollution. noise control. ozone depletion. etc. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. industrial pollut io n. desertification 248 . food chain and food-web. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. explosion deforestation. effects. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. relation between population and pollution. extinction of species. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. acid rain. maintaining the ecological diversity. over exploitation of ground water. sources of pollut ion.. evolution. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. preventing siltation of dams. windmills. etc. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . role of trees in building economy. river systems. noise pollution. excellent recreation sites. effects o f CFC. are the topics which may be taught in History. use of pesticides. need for bio-diversity. sources. greenhouse effect. need for conservation. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. water scarcity. balance of nature. biogas plants. of civilizations. History The rise and fall. reasons.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. industrial survey. t heir role in preventing pollution. nuclear energy. preserving the watersheds. nuclear warfare. change in climate may be added.

Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 4. aims and scope. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 7. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 12. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 13. 8. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 14. 2. Organising conferences.5. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 5. Peepal and Tulsi. animal and plants. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin.may be inc ded in Geography. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 6. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. 249 . group discussions and seminars. 10. 4. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 11. 3. Providing. 9. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Don’t burn any waste. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. 6. especially plastics. Reuse carrier bags. or form a car pool for everyday travel. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. If it is done. Never put any left over chemicals. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. it will cause pollution.Send their waste oil. World Environmental falls on 250 . so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. used oils down the drain. 5. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. all these can cause serious pollution. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal.

concern for others). loss of bio-diversity. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. orderliness and beauty). potable water. etc. developing desirable attitudes. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. viz. CFCs.mat erials. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. To provide reference materials for children’s use. dest roying nat ural habitats. To arrange for visiting speakers. and 251 . The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. deforestation. nuclear wars. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. values and habits. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information.4. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry.. etc. To arrange visits or expeditions. Social responsibilit y (common good. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature.). To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. (cleanliness. diversity and stability. rather than conquest and mastery. To provide materials needed for practical work. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. depletion of ozone. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Concern for species. Conservation of natural resources. Harmony with the nature . minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. The groups may exchange.5. Att itudes of balance towards nature.

4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.5. 252 . Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.5.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. 4. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. 4. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.5. 8. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. preserving natural cycles. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

importance of nitrogen cycle.K. concern for others).5. b. Knowledge. Anmol Publications Pvt. Education for values. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. population. a. (1997). water scarcity. air pollutants from industries. b. effects. S. June 5 7. ozone layer deplet ion. sources of pollution. Rapid population growth. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. greenhouse effect. acid rain. (2007). (ii) Air pollution. T. Environmental Education. (2007). Kuldeep. New Delhi : Sharma. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. 6. To provide materials needed for practical work. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Providing. relat ion between population and pollution.2. Ltd. Publications Pvt. Modern Problems of Education. 4.\ 4.K. Udaiveer. Environment and Human Rights. New Delhi : Authors Press. 3. (2004). new problems from science and technology.. 8. Organising conferences. Ltd. explosion deforestation. a. Nanda.K. sources.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Y. group discussions and seminars. b.K. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. a. S. reasons. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Awareness. b. Social responsibilit y (common good. a. over exploitation of ground water. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Environmental Education. 5.

254 .




Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.



STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism Idealism and aims of Education Idealism and Curriculum Idealism and methods of teaching Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism Naturalism and aims of Education Naturalism and Curriculum Naturalism and methods of teaching Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

259 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to

Education according to idealism. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. should be universal in nature. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man.1. the emancipation of spirit.” 5.our life. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. The universe is regarded as a thought process. man is essentially a moral being. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. It is self-realisation. inviolable and hence holy life” In short.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. Therefore. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. enrichment and transmission of culture. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve.3. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. Education must contribute to development of culture." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. Universal Education. in fact. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. According to Rusk'. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Spiritual Development. moral.

According to idealism. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. According to Frobel. History. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Learning through reading. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. should be there. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. friend and guide. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. The plant can grow. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man.” 5. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. so subjects like Religion. 4. a spiritual guide for the child.3. an indispensable necessity. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all.1. Ethics. For intellectual development. Science. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students.1. 5. For this no particular method has been suggested. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. Learning through lecturing. He carries the child from darkness to light.the spiritual qualities of mankind.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. affecting (feeling). and collation (striving) should find due place. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. 3. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. So cognition (knowing).4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . the school is a garden.” He is thus. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. hygiene. 5. However.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. So health. no doubt. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Herbert advocated instruction method. Learning through discussion. Mathematics etc. Philosophy. subjects like Languages. So he should embody. He sets the environment in which education takes place. Learning through imitation.3. Learning through questioning. It considers teacher as. 2. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum.

time tables.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Ross explains. Perfection of Human Machine. text books.preservation. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. formal lessons or examinations.perfection and beauty.1. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.1. 5. "Education should make 263 • . In the words of Ross. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. curricula. 2.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.

Therefore. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Literature.4. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Education also aims at helping the individual t. “Education finds its purpose. Zoology. It stresses basic sciences. Naturalistic curriculum. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. subjects like history. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. rational harmoniously balanced. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. education should develop the child into Joyous.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. useful and mature child. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Biology. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. In all.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. It is based on the psychology of the child. 4. Botany etc Language. Chemistry. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. geography should also be included in the curriculum.1. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. Education should. There is no place for religious and moral education. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. • 5. 264 . Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Arithmetic. is based on the nature of the child. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. therefore.

5. 5. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 .1. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. the stage. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.1. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Learning through observation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It discards all rigid. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4.4. Learning by doing. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Heuristic method.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. 3. Learning through experience.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. 5. 2. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. he should be taught by experience alone. Dalton Plan. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. a provider of an ideal environment. 4. Rousseau says.1. In the .naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.

Physical training. The individual has not only to adjust himself. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. 5. intellectual. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. social and moral aspects. diversified and flexible. Agriculture.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Sciences. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons.absolutism of idealism. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. The aim of educational development.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Social Efficiency.5.5. All Round Development of an Individual. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. History.1. Vocational and 266 . According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Social Science. Subjects. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life.1. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. is true. Geography. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Continuous Growth. 5. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Personal Social Adjustment. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order.

Methods of teaching should not be fixed. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. a senior partner and a sincere guide.1. He has to be active.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. 5.5. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. alert and resourceful. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. He must be trained. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. should find proper place. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” 5.1.Technical Education. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. activities and experience should be integrated properly. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a teacher occupies an important position.5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. The subjects. Learning by Doing.

4. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. History. 5. Sex Education. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Literature. Astrology. It favours child-centered. Biology. 2. 3. Psychology. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism.1. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. 2.6. rich and happy. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1.6. Study of Subjects like Language. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. practical. literary or humanistic education. Crafts. Population Education.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. liberal. Education is preparation for a complete living. scientific and psychological education.1.5. Biography Philosophy. 5. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. specific. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life.1. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. 4. Art. 3. intellectual. Mathematics. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 5. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Chemistry. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Music and Dance. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Geography are unnecessary 268 .

5. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.6.1. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . certainly and clearly.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. easily and pleasantly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1.

a. b. Vocational and Technical Education. e. Experimentation d. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Learning through discussion.5. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Demonstration and Observation 270 . whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Languages. 6. a. Learning through experience b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Learning through lecturing. Learning through imitation. Social Science.1. Self Realisation b. Learning through reading. pragmatism and realism. Self preservation & Self expression 4. 5. d.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. in this lesson.1. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Learning through questioning. 5.1. Education according to pragmatism. c. Geography. Universal Education 2. has no end other than growth. Rousseau 5. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. History. Agriculture. 3. naturalism. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Physical training. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. 5. Tours / Excursion e. Child centered c. a. & curriculum. Sciences. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss.7 LET US SUM UP We have. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization.

Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. (2003). Foundations of Education. Ltd.H. R.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Bhatia. L. N. P. Narang C. O. K. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004). Publishing corporation. of Pathak. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.P. P. 271 . Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : A. Pahuja. (2007). (2007).P.5.1.

6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.4.1 Aims of Education 5.2 Curriculum 5.2.1 Aims of Education Gandhiji as Naturalist.2.4 Views about teacher Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi Aims of Education 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda Gandhiji and Curriculum EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.5.2.4 Views about teacher Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2.3 Methods of teaching 272 .2 Curriculum 5.LESSON Methods of teaching 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.4.3 Methods of Teaching 5.1 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.

2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.4 Role of the teacher 5.7 5. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.2.2. 5. 5. Gandhiji was primarily a social. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.2. 2. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.8 5. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. you will able to: 1.2. economic and political reconstruction in our country. 3. Tagore was a poet. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.5.2.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2. mind and spirit. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. content and methods. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.6 5. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.5. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. an artist.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.2. 273 .

importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. His scheme of education is life centred. righteousness." Dignity of Labour.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. In the words of Gandhiji.supporting. 5.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. 274 . nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education.3. self-restraint and service of humanity. through life and for life. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. it is education of life. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. 'Man is neither mere intellect. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. mind and soul of children He further observed. "I attach more. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character.2. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. strength of mind. nor the gross animals body. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. It really provides opportunity for character building. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words.

He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Music. General Sciences. According to Gandhi. gardening. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Art. the realization of the ultimate reality.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered.Training for Leadership. wood work.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . Drawing and Hindustani. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Individual and Social Aims. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development .2.3. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. 5. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. metal work. "Development of the moral character. Only good individual forms a better society. leather work have been suggested. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Mother-tongue.

It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. proficient.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. Basic education is other wise known as 4.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.trained.2.2. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. men of 276 .3.3. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . Education must be child centered. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots.3. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. That is why. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies.knowledge. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. 5. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. He also advocates freedom for the child. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1.

Gandhi in 1937. he was a true Vedantist 5. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.2. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. • Ideal of citizenship. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. • Cult of non-violence. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. He believed in the oneness of humanity. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.” Like all other ideals. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.2.2. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. He was a true patriot.4.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.3. He was deadly against untouchability. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.K.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. 5. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. • Education should involve manual work.

The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. wider in range. Botany. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. stronger in power than ever before. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Religion and Psychology. complete manhood could be attained. It should help. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. could help in forging unity among all. etc. Dance. International Understanding. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Therefore. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Geography. 279 . them solve problems of day to day life. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. (vi) Philosophy. sentiment. Music. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. he said.4. Zoology.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . International understanding.2. Chemistry. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. That way only. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. deeper in. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. It should help the learner have good physique. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Tagore said. "Mankind must realise a unity.Language and Literature . Civics. the more dedicated and devoted.

“He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children." 5. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. Activity Method Heuristic Method. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. 5. In 1921.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.4. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.4. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.4. 280 . The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.2. 5. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.” He further says.2.2.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. Tagore rightly says. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. It is open to all irrespective of country. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. 10. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2.g. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. race. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. 281 . 9. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3.

” 5. Education for Self-realization. character forming and assimilation of ideas.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . The whole beauty of life is linked with it. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. who possess sweet and amicable tempers.2. Education for strong Moral Character. According to him.2. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Purity of thought. He believed in to learning or selflearning.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. man making.5. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. 4. Education should make a person self-reliant. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.5. work and deeds come out of it. Freedom." He was against the theoretical type of education. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. Book learning. 3. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Education for Self-reliance. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. Concept of Education. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. 2.

The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Philosophy and Theology. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Every individual should be trained for concentration.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta.2. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Discussion Method. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.the learners on different students in the discussion. That will serve the purpose of education fully.5. 283 . There the teacher provided just guidance to them. 5. Education for Physical Development. Religion. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.5. Thirdly he wished that games. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Secondly he wanted Science. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. engineering and technical subjects.2. A physically strong person is the need of the society. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.5. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts.5. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. And above all. philosopher and guide to the students He. Of course. 6. 5. 5.2. The teacher should be the facilitator. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Swami.

2.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and pragmatist . List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. legs.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people.Substantiate your answer. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. 3. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. in this lesson. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life.2. Gandhiji as a Idealist. naturalist.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. We have seen that Tagore. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. 5. 2. Their educational ideas. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands.6 LET US SUM UP We have. ears and eyes. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 284 . Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. 12. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. Write short notes on Basic education. of course.

(i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. 2. Ideal of citizenship. Meditation and concentration c. metal work. Explain Vishwabharathi. Teaching while Walking b. wood work. Learning by Doing c. Discussion Method 285 . c. 10. a. 11. Self-Study b. 3. a. a. Basic education. Self realization. a. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Nai Talim 4. 8. e. gardening. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 5. 5. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Heuristic Method. 9. Activity Method d. Activity Method b. Debate and Discussion Method. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Technique of Correlation 6.4. Education should involve manual work. Cult of non-violence. c. d. 1937 7. f.2. 5.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. leather work have been suggested. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. b.

9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. Foundations of Education. on Bhatia. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Theory and Principles of Education. P.5. Publishing Corporation. Pahuja. New Delhi : Aggarwal. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : A. (2004). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2002).H. (2007). P. K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N. O. (2003). Dhiman. C. 286 . (2007).2. J. L. B. Ltd. K and Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education.P. N. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.

The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 . In this lesson.3.3.LESSON 5.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.5 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.4 5.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible. 5.3.1 5.7 5.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.9 5.10 5.3 5.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.8 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3.6 5.11 5.

in fact . curriculum. While education is learning. state the meaning of curriculum 2. One is the individual process and the other is the social process.3. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Then in a big country like India. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. is a means to the process.3.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. While education is a process.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Curriculum is intimately related to education. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. present behaviour may be modified.S. maintained or eliminated. there is a large number of communities. the desert area.3. 5. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. new behaviour may be acquired. living in the hilly area. From the latter point of view. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. 5. in the U.. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. Since the demands. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. Both the processes are integrated. the plateau area and 288 . A g o o d curricu lu m. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . the plain area. In the former sense.A. curriculum signifies situations for learning. In it. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. you will be able to: 1. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. in Russia or in Japan. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. it is identical wit h socializat ion. in the form of new experience.under the direction of the school. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. In the words of Kerney and Cook. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India.

studying therein. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. customs and needs. it is. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. Again. In fact . from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. therefore. environment. differs from individual to individual. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. From a slave-country we became secular. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. irrespective of their needs and environment. too. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. according to modern trends in the educational process. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. Besides craft. It must differ from locality and from society to society. the learning capacity of children. 5. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission.3. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. and 289 . The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. democratic and socialistic country. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. However. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained.

It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical.g.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. So it is inadequate. specific. Vocational Efficiency. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. social. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. aims. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. unsatisfactory. remote or immediate. Application Objective. etc. individual or Social and so on. National Integration. 4. emotional. Goals of Secondary Education.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They may be ultimate or proximate. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. social. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. 5. tangible. Understanding Objective. of classroom. 1. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. unambiguous and functional.. etc. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception.. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. They speak of immediate purposes of education. Goals of Primary Education.g. etc. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. uninspiring and unscientific. They are visionary goals e. eg. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. in instructional objectives. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. which may or may not be attained. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Knowledge Objective. The word “Curere” means 2. moral. general or specific. aesthetic and spiritual development.g. e. 3.. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process.3. they depend on the political.. 290 . e. 2. Self Realisation. They are achievable.. They speak of perfect goals.

age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. in the class rooms. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. capacities. needs. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. heavy fire. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. on the playing fields. finding them very interesting and captivating. educationists. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. The interests. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. Crow and Crow remarks. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. but it includes the totality of experiences.” 291 .3. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. abilities. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. Raymont rightly says. According to Crow and Crow.5. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.

and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. tendencies. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. capacities and abilities. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. urges. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. aptitudes. time in a useful manner. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. moral. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. They often waste it or rather kill it. Due to these variations and differences. mental.

Similarly. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. 2.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. To ensure success of the process. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. administrative programme need be planned. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. phased preparation. 293 . H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. 3. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. organized. development of professional capability at all levels. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management.curricular. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books.

laboratory.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. 11. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. 1937 19. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Run. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. library. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. Child Centred Education b. 5. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 10.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16.3. a. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. 18.3. 12. Relation with Life c.3. 17. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. workshop. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. principles of curriculum construction. in the class room. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. 5.

S. Innovations in Education. (2001). Lakshmi. and Sarita Kumari. (2007). New Delhi : Isha Books. Bhalla. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S. P.3. N. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. (2007). (2007). Curriculum Development. 295 .5. D. New Delhi : Authorspress.K. Curriculum and Instruction. S.

8 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.7.7 Scientific Attitude 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.LESSON 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.9 5.4 5.10

They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. know the importance of science education. 5. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. 297 .3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. 5. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. explain the concept of scientific attitude.during the second half of this century.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. in the economic reconstruction of society. newer and newer industries started growing.4. 4. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners.4.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. We mean curiosity. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. 2. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings.4.5. tolerance for the opinions of others. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. superstition or emotion. Gradually. honesty. open-mindedness. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. you will be able to: 1. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth .

seminars and symposiums. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations.4. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Organisation of science fairs. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Principles are formulated. 5.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. as well as of the society. After such experience and training. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. 5. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Promotion of science clubs. 5. stipends and appreciations in various ways. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Devotion towards nature increases. Central science workshop. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. 4. 3. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Selection for science education. 6. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 6. Schemes of teaching science. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching.So that. Thinking and memory develops.4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 4. 7. 3. 2. Through examinations. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Through newspapers. 5. Love for truth enhances. 2. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . models and scientific instruments for laboratories.

It is. They experience natural phenomenon.6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 5.needs and conditions. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. sex or religion. Enquiry teaching is. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste.4. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. For laboratory and workshop techniques. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. therefore. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. They ask many questions about the objects they see. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. 5. They encounter many social events as they grow. Training of science teachers. In the inquiry approach. each child to “enquiry skill building”. objectivity. should provide opportunities to. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. Write any two advantages of Science Education. essential that teachers. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. After presenting the problem. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative.4. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . 7. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations.

Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. . . Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. 5.4. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. 5. 5. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Appreciating pupils ideas. 6. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. 2. commands or orders. Giving less directions. Social sciences.Herma Wouk. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. 3. to ask questions and experience things. test.6. if they like. 300 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. stern pursuit of accurate data.4. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. It requires consistent thinking. Evidence. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Adopting creative models of teaching.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1.books.

They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. friends. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. and emphasized during the learning process . The students observation. therefore should be unbiased and objective. critical thinking and suspended judgments. To achieve this we should understand what it means. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. These include open mindedness. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society.4. school and society at large. to develop among the learners. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. (Vaidya 2007). The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. keen observation. of vast resources running waste. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education.(Smith 2008).7. it must be encouraged. practiced. For instance. 5. neighbourhood. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students.

Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education.7. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. (Das. intuition or wishful thinking”. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. he studies all aspects of it. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. 2007). In considering a situation or a problem. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. understanding and logic. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. 302 . 5. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science.4. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. or superstitions. rumor. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. think and work it”. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. The intention to respect another’s point of view.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them.

7. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. but to begin only after careful planning. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. • 5. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.4. 5.4. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.7.

see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook.4.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. practiced and emphasized during the learning process.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. it must be encourages. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 304 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. 5. 5.

Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. 5. 5.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. a.4.S. 16. 2. 305 . A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Discuss the importance of science education 14. M. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. Adopting creative models of teaching. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students.5. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. Planning of activities 5. Proper example of the teacher c. (2008). a. 4. Study of superstitions d.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. b. D. Vaidya. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. 3. b. N. Yadav. a. a. Reflections on Scientific attitude.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. Rao. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. objectivity.B (2008). (2000). A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. S. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.4. Wide reading b. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Love for truth enhances.4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. The intention to respect another’s point of view. (2006). A text book on modern methods of teaching physics.

5. areas of institutional planning. you will be able to: 1.10 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.5.9 5.5.5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.4 5.7 5.3 5.8 5.5. objectives and characteristics. actively.6 5.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.1 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2 5.11 5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2.LESSON 5.5. state the concept.5. 306 .5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5. 5.

5. every teacher. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator.5. State and national levels from below. executive as well as public. each teacher. and every student in the process of educational planning. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . every parent. • to involve teachers and school administrators. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. 5. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. • To make institutional planning more successful. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy.3. Institution should be regarded as the unit. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. in the task of educational planning. and. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. and supplement planning from above. and each student are regarded as separate entities. which become the bases for further planning at the district. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. • to make planning development-oriented. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. 5. teachers and students is not lost sight of.

The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. approved after making necessary modifications. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. it becomes the basis for school inspection. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Classwork. Examinations. which will be discussed in the general. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.5. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. Co-curricular activities. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. Syllabus. 308 . Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. (2) Co.5.curricular Activities. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. council and. 5. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. and Personnel services.• implemented. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. etc.

Organisation of class-room libraries. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. etc. 1. Organisation of Students’ Association. hobby-centres. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. 2. charts and apparatus. Running science clubs. 3. Courts. Editing the school magazine. etc. Organisation of Pupils. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Preparation of instructional material. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. etc. Conducting of educational.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Improving the internal assessment. scientific and historical excursions.No. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Fair distribution of syllabi. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Celebrating of national and international festivals. etc. etc. Organising play-for-all programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Preparation of models. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Equipping of laboratory and library. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children.

pupils. ii. teacherinspector. Administrator-State. teacher-pupil.” The human relationships in. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. and —pupil-pupil. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. administrator-administrator. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. and out-group relationships are as given below i. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. teacher-State. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. administrator-supervisor.5.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. etc. parents. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. and solidarity. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. understanding. parent-teacher associations. teacher-managing body. which are divided as the in. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. headmasters associations. involving mainly human materials. co-operation. science teachers’ associations. teachers. students’ associations. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. pupil310 . teacher-teacher.5. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships.

School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. to attend. pupil-community leader. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. organisation. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. to accomplish. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. To administer means to manage. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. It is also being modernized to become a technique. administrator. pupil-inspector. teacher-community leader. and to serve. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. pupil-non-official functionaries. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. organisation and management. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. According to C. social sciences and other disciplines. It covers personnel and material management. V. supervision.5.State. teacher-parent. control. now-a-days. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. superintendence.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. supervision and superintendence. to carry out. etc. Good. pupil-parent. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 311 . As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences.

7. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. Leadership .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. Cost-Benefit Analysis .Management should be efficient and economical 312 . 9. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. Socio-Scientific Approach . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. This is the latest democratic trend in management. He should be an artist in human relationships. 13. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. If it is more. who occupy the managerial positions.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.The manager should have leadership traits.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. low. 6. 2. 3. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.Any good management will always have good public relations. 11. Liasion with the Public . Worker Participation . Those. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. Democratic Management . the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. Decision Making . 5. If the cost benefit ratio is less. 8. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. 12. Rapport between the Management and Employees . Motiviation . Economic Management . Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. The relationship should change from master.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. 4. Communication . It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. Better Human Relationships .Of all the approaches. it is not worth-while. 10.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence.

Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. and cooperative performance should be ensured. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. objective.too.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance .These two are. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. 5.5.g. improvement of teaching methods. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. 5. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. enrichment of curricula. 19. 18. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. 313 . Wastage and duplication should be avoided. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. to improve the quality of education it provides. 14. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.

(1995). Communication 5. and Personnel services. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. Leadership c. H. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Instruction. NUEPA. S. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Tarachand and Prakash. Fundamental of Educational Management. Co-curricular activities. a. (2001).5. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.K. 4. a. f. R.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 2. Classwork. b. APH Publishing Corporation. b. Motiviation d. Syllabus. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. 314 . d. b. Educational Administration. Examinations. Singh. a.5. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. In group and Out group 5. a. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Decision Making b. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. c. (2003).M. e.

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Balanced diet.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Code of conduct for teachers. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. wastage and Stagnation 3.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. 4.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. Community and Mass Media 2.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.Preventive measures. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. First Aid.CORE PAPER . nutritional requirement. higher education. Communicable diseases .3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Sex-education 4.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .5 Regional Educational Development in India .teachers should have : 1.Pre-service and In-services facilities.Religious and Modern Education 1.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Healthy Food Habit 4.1 School Health Programme. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. physical education and environmental education 5. New evaluation procedures. School.2 Nutritional deficiencies. Preservation of nutrients. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. Examination reforms. Common ailments of Children. 2.3 Directive Principles . 1. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.1 Inculcation of Socialism.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.3 Educational Influences of Home. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Realized the problems of school education. Inspection and Supervision 3.1 Primary Education : Education for all.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .Article 45 . women education and teacher education in India.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.1 Gurukula system of education. social Impact 3. Economic 315 .4 India's Secular Policy .I. population education.

Kalan Paper Packs 10. Sharma. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. 7.K. Realism. Tagore 5. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.K. curriculum and teacher's role 5. REFERENCE 1. and Dash B.K.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Prof.S. Naturalism and Pragmatism .3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Taneja V. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. New Delhi: NCERT 3. B. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Ghanta R. Socialization. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. Delhi : University Publications 2. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. T. Mishra. 316 .improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.4 4. Pandy V. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.N. 5.1 Idealism.N. Curriculum and national goals . and Sharma R.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Ram S. and Mohanty R. and Human Development. Mahatma Gandhi.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Saraswathi T.4. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. R. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.R. (2004) Problems of Education in India.K. Hemchand.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9.Aim.C. (1999) Culture. (2005) Foundations of Education.

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