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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. 9 .HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Lesson 2. Jainism and their educational implication. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. discusses the regional educational development in India. Lesson 5. Lesson 4. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. In. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. and Jain system of education. The need.
1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 18.104.22.168 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.5.6 Education during British Era 1.5 Jain system of education 1.LESSON 1.1 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.3.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 22.214.171.124.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 126.96.36.199 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.6.2 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.4.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 220.127.116.11.1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 18.104.22.168.1.4.
6.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.1. in opinion.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1.1. in morals and in the intellect”.6. describe the Jain system of Education 4.3. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. Education in India. India. That 12 . both present and future. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. but English in taste.1. The history of education passed through Buddhist.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1. elucidate the education during British Era. 1. “a class of persons. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. has a long past history starting in vedic education. 1. you will be able to: 1.1. British system of education presented the modern western model. 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. Muslim and British periods. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.8 1.9 1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.7 1. Indian in blood and colour.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.
not en masse by the class method. No State Control on Education. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. from darkness. generally. Curriculum. Free and Accessible. 13. Role of Travel in Education. 11. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. religious and spiritual. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. High Status of Teachers. Forests as Centres of Education. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Teacher as Parents. individually. Where pupils were many. Pupils were taught. 4. questioning by the pupil.knowledge was real. It was also moral. if they thought fit to do so. Education of Moral. 3. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. 12. followed by explanation by the teacher. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Individual Teaching. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. as it is generally considered to be at present. Education was a private affair of the people. with grants of land or money. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. 14. There was. 13 . 16. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. The immediate aim of education. Residential Schools. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Method of Study. Religious and Spiritual. and to agriculture and trade. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Immediate Aim Vocational. from eternal to immorality 2. however. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Method of Instruction. 5. 9. 10. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. the monitorial plan was followed. to light. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. 6. 8. It was not merely intellectual. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. managed entirely by Brahmans. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life.
It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. 1. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. 2. studied Vedas. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . They were very cordial and intimate. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony.1.17. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. It was suited to the needs of the society. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. lived a life of celebacy. Wide-Spread Education in Women. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.3.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised.
15 . Right thought 3. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. It was denied only to the ill. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. every class in society. I take Refuge to Sangh. use of cosmetics. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. impure conduct. the handicapped. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. Right contemplation 1. he was qualified to become a monk.1. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. use of intoxicating things. taking things without being offered.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. Right endeavour 7. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Right speech 4. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. which included abstaining from theft. medium of Pali. except the Chandals.4. 2. disease and death of the human beings. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. I take Refuge to Dharma. had the right to receive education. dressed himself in yellow clothes. 1. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Right activity 5. the student remained in a state of Shramana. killing of any living being. After attaining the age of 20. watching dances or listening to music. the student had his head shaved of all hair. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. in which. partaking of food at prohibited times. the most significant of which were the following 1. Right means of livelihood 6. etc. Right knowledge 2. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms.C.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Education was imparted through the. Consequently. Right memory 8. he had to perform the Pababja ritual.
bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. It comprehended education in writing. military science. nothing is of any permanent consequence. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. 5. a change is not only total but also perpetual. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. 7. however. animal husbandry. 3. a continuous change creating 16 . elephant lore. arithmetic and religious discussion. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. Hence. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. etc. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. 2. control over sensuous activities. archery. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. As reality is becoming. Even at this stage. education was impart in art. agriculture. Whatever its nature and extent.. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. approach. nature. 8. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. beg for alms. medicine. along with education in script writing. 1. These are called later Buddhist schools. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. changing the goals. magic. Initially. of clothes. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. aspirations and. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life.4. Later on. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. handicrafts. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. 4. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. geology. knowledge of reviving the dead. the presence of the monks was essential. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. be considered the aim of education It. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. After this ritual. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years.3. cottage industries. etc. 6. commerce. assumptions. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. eat food thrice a day. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. women occupied a position inferior to men. has no metaphysical value for life. the science of taming and training animals. wear three items. it is regarded as true”. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. etc. so long as it successfully does so. and. depth and range. Life is in a flux. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. meaning. bodily gestures. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. objectives of human life. therefore. On this occasion. archery.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.. goes to Vardhaman. 5. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. Education must. In fact. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter.5. Its chief feature. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Validity is effective and consequences. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. 1. and its refusal to believe in supreme God.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. it is much older than the latter. therefore. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. such as.e. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. whatever works are true and good. its pessimistic outlook on life.new and peculiar situations.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. however. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. i. Jainism insists 17 . However. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. Write Eight fold path . and to give it a shape that it has today. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed.
5. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. 2. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. 8. 1. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. As such. 5. Development of personality as an individual.1. more stress on individual aims. 3. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Hence. 1. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. it has a foot in both the words. c) Not to steal. 3. b) Not utter falsehood. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. c) Right conduct. 10. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 4. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. 18 . b) Right knowledge. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. d) To lead a celibate life. e) To renounce the world. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. 2. 9. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. thought and deed. and believe in happiness to all. and is to be redeemed and liberated. 7. They are: a) Not to injure. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. 6. but on both. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.
1. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. here and now. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . 4. education must be action based and ideally oriented. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. 5. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. Belief in transmigration of soul.5.4. success and love. Hence. 3. practised and not only aspired for. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Teaching must develop these faculties. What are Triratnas ? . education should develop sense of discrimination. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 1. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. 2. 19 . Jiva is essentially karmic. Teaching should be social and tolerant. therefore. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. that would be socially desirable. 8. and should bring happiness to all. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 2.
To set up separate departments of.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. 1.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report.1. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. and not for life. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.6. 2. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. North West Province and Punjab. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). philosophy and literature of Europe.1. 1. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.6. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. with rally and rout. primary 20 . 1. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. However. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal.6. Madras. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. Bombay.6. 1953). To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. 1. science.
7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. • Universal free primary education. At that time M.6. they named these schools as polytechnic schools.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937.6. • Secondary education. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. Later on.K. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. In 1882. self-respecting and competent. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. at the primary level.education was neglected. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. 1. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. 1. The universities dominated the secondary education. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). namely. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. secondary education became a step towards university. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. 1. Then the prevalent education was anti-national.6. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. To ensure qualitative improvement. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education.
At the primary stage (6-11 years). commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. 10. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. all children are to have a common curriculum. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. The objective of education was to provide 22 .1. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. After this stage. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
23 . Right knowledge.1.. 3. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Right activity. 5. It was suited to the needs of the society. military science. questioning by the pupil. handicrafts. Right memory. science and English language. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Right thought. 2. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Right contemplation. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. followed by explanation by the teacher. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. education was impart in art. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. b. 4. During the Buddhist period. Right means of livelihood.education of European literature. geology. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education.1. 1. archery. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. establishment of universities. the science of taming and training animals. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. etc.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 3. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. The system of education was well-organised. 6. The immediate aim of education. 4. arithmetic and religious discussion. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Right speech. Right endeavour. 1. along with education in script writing. 2. a.
Right conduct. b. Aggarwal. Sargent report 12. Right faith. R. Development of Educational System in India.C. (1984). a. History of Indian Education System. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K. and Nath. Improvement of Literature. 1937 1. Ltd.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2009). Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.7. 10.K. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Y. Sharma. Right knowledge. c. (2007). Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Ltd. Development of personality as an individual.1. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C. Singh. b. J. Y. a. 11. 9. 24 . Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. J. (2005). Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 1882. more stress on individual aims. 8. Hence.
2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2.3 Kothari Commission 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.3.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.6 1. The 25 .2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 22.214.171.124 University Education Commission 1.2.1 1.3.5 126.96.36.199 1.9 1.2.3. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.LESSON 188.8.131.52 1.8 1.2 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.
analyse the progress of education in free India.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. standard of teaching. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. vocational education. medical and legal education. technical. explosion of enrolment. diversification of courses of studies.2. curriculum. S. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education.3. National Board of Teacher Education 10.conditions of the teachers. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. 1. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2.2. 1986 1. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. New Educational Policy. National Council for Women’s Education 5. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. 2.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. girls and women education besides primary. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. examination system. There had been vast institutional expansion. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. you will be able to: 1. 1. technological engineering. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. secondary and higher education. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. expansion of vocational. Kothari (1964-66) 8. Post-graduate 26 .
This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. A meaningfully Partnership.3. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. in January 1985. 1986. However.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23.2.3. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. quantity.S.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. Education is the key to our allround development. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. A. The Essence and Role of Education. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. Finally. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. 1. quality. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 .2. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. 3.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. 2. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. research et. Education for Equality. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. accumulated over the years.3. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country.teaching. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission.2. 1. 4. utility and financial outlay. D. Kothari. National System of Education. Government of India. Problems of access. 1966. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. Therefore. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. 1. material and spiritual. the New National Policy on Education. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. the chairman of University Grants commission. 1952. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation.
understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Thus. the concepts of work experience. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. 28 . the minorities and the handicapped. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education.2. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. By working with hands. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It can train practical aptitudes.” Thus. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. The UNESCO Report. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. attitudes.
co-ordinations. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. it will conduce self. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more.” The Mudaliar Commission. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. With adequate planning. According to. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. the Commission. The Radhakrishnan Commission. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. if he wishes. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. Besides. “The aim of these colleges. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. As such. The Education Commission. “It may be described.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. In 1955. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education.
the semester and credit system. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. The Central Advisory Board of Education. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs.ot her. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. etc. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. Therefore. admission requirements to vocational courses. the rigid streaming of courses. for quality of life in the rural areas. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. Subsequently. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. With a view to relating education to the life.. raising the special facilities. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. the. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. In addition.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further.
preferably spinning and weaving. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. who conceived the System of Basic Education.and the world of work. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence.2. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. manual work resulting in either goods or services. meaningful. Commerce. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. giving importance to productivity in the national development. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. The wave of Basic Education. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. In short. meaningful. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. which offer scientific. According to committee. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. which swept the country for over two decades. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. which are useful to the community. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. 31 . 1.. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. aimed at this goal.defined S UP W as “purposive. The Father of Nation. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. etc. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. felt that education should be centred around a craft. technological courses including Agriculture.
The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Health and Hygiene 2. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. 32 . Work practice. so that it is educational in essence. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. tools and techniques and 3. Culture and recreation 6. as far as possible. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. 4. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Food 3. be that the work involved is: 1. Shelter 4. Educative and 3. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Clothing 5. Productive 2. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. locally available materials and tools. 3. Community work and social service. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. The teachers should make use of. Experimentation with materials. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. 2.
Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Education through work The SUPW should. Merits of the Programme 1. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. as far as possible. slum clearance. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Reduction of gap in work and education 2.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. the local community should be actively associated. It can become an instrument to build character. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. Community Service In-1972.5. etc. 6. 1. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. removal of illiteracy. inculcate a faith. Productive Work 33 . To make education more realistic. improve discipline. Check on educated unemployed 4. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject.2.
The community.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. AICTE was set up in year 4. helping the adults-in productive work. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . helping the adults in festivals and Functions.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. etc. in turn. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. offering first aid. if not productive. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. traffic control.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. Define SUPW 34 . should involve itself in the educational effort. skills and better future for the children. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area.
2. e. which are useful to the community. 1952 3.1. 1955 4. Dr. manual work resulting in either goods or services. d. 2. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Write short note on SUPW. 1. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 1.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. c. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. 6. Radhakrishnan 2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 35 . Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. 3.2. f. b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. meaningful.2. a. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India.
B.(2005).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. A. R. (2007).P.K. Amala. History of Indian Education System.K. : Sharma. Y. Singh.K. (2009). New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. P.D. V. and Rao. J. 36 . and Nath.1. Anupama. (2005). History and Problems of Indian Education..P. Ltd. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Development of Educational System in India. (2007). New Delhi: A. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C. Publishing Corporation.2. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. Rao.H. History of Education. Y.
8 1.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. containing 395 articles. it came into effect on January 26.3. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.1 Significance of DPSP 1.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. procedures. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.9 1. directive principles and duties of citizens. 1949.1 1.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.2 1.4 184.108.40.206. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. for a total of 117.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.6 1. Being the supreme law of the country. assuring its citizens of justice. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.7 1.3. 37 .3. Besides the English version.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.3.5 1.3. 1950.369 words in the English language version. democratic republic.3. there is an official Hindi translation. establishing the structure. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.3. and liberty. equality.3.
3. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. social.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee.In the August 14. legal and environmental. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. administrative. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. the Drafting Committee was appointed. economic. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. The Assembly met. you will be able to: 1. 1947. spread over a period of 2 years.3. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. 1947. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 1. According to the constitution.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. 38 . 1947 meeting of the Assembly. 1950. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. 2. Two days later. 1. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. learn the role of central and state government on education.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. After many deliberations and some modifications. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. 1. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. 3. political. with Dr. On August 29.3. in sessions open to public. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. for 166 days. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. understand our Indian constitution. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. Dr. 4.3. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. Through them. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws.
and in other cases of undeserved want. Article 42. Article 43. Protecting health of the workers. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. men and women. Condition for dignity of children. Article 40. The State shall. Article 41. Article 39A. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. The State shall endeavour to secure. and shall.government. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. Minimising inequalities in status. on the basis of equal opportunity. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. 39 . Appropriate concentration of wealth. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Protecting children from exploitation. Liking wage etc. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. for workers. in particular. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Organisation of village panchayat. Equal pay for both sex. Right to work. Equal justice and free legal aid. old age. make effective provision for securing the right to work. provide free legal aid. That the health and strength of workers. No abuse of children. sickness and disablement. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. within the limits of its economic capacity and development.
for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. See also Article 21A). the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. work. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. (Original Article 45. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Participation of workers in management of industries. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. a living wage. in particular. and. industrial or otherwise. 2002 for “45. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. in particular. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Article 48A. Note: Subs. Article 44. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. to all workers. agricultural. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. The State shall take steps. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Uniform civil code for the citizens. The State shall endeavour to provide. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Article 43A.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Article 49. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Article 46. Article 45. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. in particular. Article 47. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Article 48. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. by suitable legislation or in any other way. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. [declared by or under law made by 40 .
Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. Article 50. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. 2002. Promotion of international peace and security. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. Article-21A Right to Education. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. as the case may be. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Article 45 . 2. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. removal. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. destruction. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. 1. disposal or export. Article 51. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. disfigurement.Parliament] to be of national importance. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. maintain just and honourable relations between nations.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. Separation of judiciary from executive. may be law determine”. from spoliation.
and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. 6. caste. and. 4. language or any of them”. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups.” 42 . if such person is a minor. 2002. 5. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. his guardian has given his consent thereto. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. from justice and all forms of exploitations. race. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. 3. in particular. and shall protect them. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. ii. 7. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. 8. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. iii.
the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. and by drawing. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Educational Reforms From time to time. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. & 1. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. for its vocabulary. 2. the forms. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. 43 . The central government determines targets and promotes education. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis.9. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. wherever necessary or desirable. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country.3. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule.
which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. the state governments. to achieve the desired ends. Local bodies and private enterprise. 5. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. private agencies etc. etc. By starting these projects. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. 6. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. 4.. All India Council of Medical Science. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training.3. So that they may work well. Production of suitable for children and adults f. The following pilot projects. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). So as to encourage education on right lines. 8. 7. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry.
From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. The 45 . The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Material concerning nation-wide interests. books. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. 10. reports etc. are published by it. 9. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. 12. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside.3. 4. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. is the state responsibility. 11. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. 3. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. education for women. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. etc. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. 1. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. 1. training and statistics. research. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. handicapped.
important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.3. articles in the Directive principles. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Article 21A c.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. 46 . Article 46 4. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 45 b. Write short notes on a. Explain Directive principles 2.
Dr. Article 46 5. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Article-21A Right to Education. Ambedkar 2.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. a. Describe the educational role of State Government. Development of Hindi Language 6. a. may be law determine”. Clearing House function 9. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Article 29 and 30 7.5. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. b. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. 4. 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. 2002.3. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 2002. The Directive Principles of State Policy. 47 . 3. a. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Article 45 .
Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in Emerging Indian Society. S. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. L. (2009). N.1. Education in Emerging Indian Society. K. 48 .3. (2008).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. (2004). Dash. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2007). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K and Narang C. B. Ghosh. S. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Bhatia.
8 1. religious education should be broad based.4. Islam.3 Precautions while introducing 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168.4.4.4. Christianity. Jainism.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.2 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.1 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4. Students should be 49 .4.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.1 Why Moral Education 1. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.3.7 1.4 Moral education 1.4.4. Buddhism etc.6 22.214.171.124 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 126.96.36.199.
An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals.D. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. India' can produce men of character. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. know the position of religious education in our country 3. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. beauty and goodness so that 50 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. According to E. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.4. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. In the complicated and complex society of today. Thus. integrity. religious education and the concept of secularism. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. As result of which.” Education broadens human outlook. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. you will be able to: 1. 1. duty-consciousness. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon.and dedication. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).4. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. state meaning and need for moral education 1. "In A multireligious society like ours.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions.. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong.
idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. 1. at least occasionally. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August.3. all citizens are free to follow any creed. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. According to Article 22. According to Article 19.” From the above. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. 1. In short. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. As a matter of fact. Viewing the defects of religious education. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.3. Children attend these organizations. rancour. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. 1947 we achieved our freedom. if not regularly. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society.4. it is clear that the State has no religion. realizes God in himself.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. castes and creeds. As our country is a country of diverse religions. religion and democracy are same. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. through religious practices and 51 . It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. No religious tax can be imposed on them.4.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. They thought that any kind of narrow. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. Hence. Thus.
one fully developed. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. when he becomes an adult. which help him for the development of his character. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. which can mould. for the development of the individual and the society. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character.teachings. what is done and what is not done etc. He also learns about social.. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. aggressive. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. It helps to modify habits attitudes. If unreleased. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. intellectual and physical faculties of children. moral and spiritual values. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. It is religious education. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. Good education. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. temperament etc. As a result of which. and what is evil.
“Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. 1. If we open the pages of history. which is the basic need of a democratic life. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. 3. This should not be allowed to happen.4.3. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. Therefore. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. 2. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. 53 . In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. towards the society. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds.
Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. 11. they should be discussed in the right earnest. fellow-feeling. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. churches and mosques 7.4. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 9. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Write Article 22 2. Since all religions have virtues. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. For this. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. stories of moral greatness. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. therefore.5. examples of patriotism. 10.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Life histories of great persons of the world. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Gurudwara as.
Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. “Let all be happy and free from disease.4. is that which develops moral values. Moral education. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. They will play their role effectively. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. 1. 55 . 8. 7. 2. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Service to others. It they learn what morality is in their early years. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’.4. 3. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Brahmacharya (celebacy). 3. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Asvada (Control of palate). the methods of teaching. The content of the curriculum. 5. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Non-injury. in the home. 7. Cultivation of emotions.acquisitiveness). personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. therefore. Purity. 6. 5.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. 2. Ahimsa (Non-violence). they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. 8. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Patriotism. let men see well of one another. Aparigarha (Non. Fearlessness.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 4. students. Satyam (truth). Swadeshi (Patriotism). Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 4. Without moral values. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Self sacrifice. 1. 6. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together.
Simple texts and stories concerning different. Asatyam (Non-thieving). The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Secondary Stage 1. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Discipline. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. discipline. 3. 2. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). 10. 11. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. In the school programme. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Unity of mankind. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Integrity. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. National unity and Spiritual values. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. 1. Efficiency. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Sharivashram (Physical work). Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Good temper. 4. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Good manners. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.9. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. minutes in the morning for group singing. 3. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. religions may be included in the syllabus.4. The School Assembly should be held for a few. 56 . loyalty and self-sacrifice. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship.
4. 3. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. 57 .4. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. patriotism and self-discipline. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. 2. should form a normal part of school programme. Silent meditation should be encouraged. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. In this connection. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . In other words. University Stage 1. love of humanity. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. 5. 5. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.
Training of Character 3. Discuss the aims of Religious education. 1. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. a. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. The School Assembly should be held for a few. a. a. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. For this.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. 58 . the. Sri Prakasa 6 .4. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. 2. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.4. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. 1.1. b. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. minutes in the morning for group singing. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. 4.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. b. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. 1959 5. In short.
(2008). B. (2004).H. K and Narang C.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.C. N. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.4.1. M. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.H. Publishing Corporation. N. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A. Pahuja. (2008). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Bhatia. K. P. Dash. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 59 . (2003). L. New Delhi : Siddiqui. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.P. Anmol Publications Pvt. J. Theory and Principles of Education.
6 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 1.e. 60 .7 188.8.131.52.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5. i. disparities between provinces/States.3 1..8 1. Although. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.184.108.40.206.5 1.12 1.11 1.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.9 220.127.116.11 1.5.4 1.5.2 1.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.
Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. They therefore. 3. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. waters.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 1. 1. energy.5. know the education suited to different environments.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. 2. Accordingly. understand the regional educational development in India 3.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. 7. 61 .1. for example. roads. 1. etc. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.5. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. This leads to separatist movements.5.5. 6. they take appropriate measures. work hard towards this end. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 5. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. 8. 4.
some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. 2. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. while others remained educationally backward. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. some average. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. 4.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. 3.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. Tight security arrangements should be made. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. on the basis of regional development may be formed. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. and. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. • Separate States (of course viable States). some States became educationally far advanced. Secularism. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. 62 . • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. Therefore.5.
After the Planning Process has originated.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. 63 . freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. approved proposals worth Rs. etc. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development.14. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e.84 crore was released in 2005-06. NERIST.. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. Itanagar. since its inception in 1998-99. etc. Silchar. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. Out of this. the Union Government. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. Regional Centres of IGNOU. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. These projects are in various stages of implementation. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. Tezpur. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. NIT. Nagaland and NEHU. Jammu and Kashmir. while some States like Bihar. After the attainment of independence.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. Funds amounting to Rs. Rs. books. Mizoram. In the Central sector. Guwahati. academic buildings. and provision of informal education to enable those.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. scholarships. remained under developed.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005.5.g. library buildings. the State Governments. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Central Universities of Assam. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. Even in each State.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice.392. 1.480. However.
With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. Tezpur University.500. During 2003-04. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.501.05 crore and Rs.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.261. too.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. 64 . The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.5. A provision of Rs.57 crore and Rs. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.40. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Moreover.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.8 per cent in 05). the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.187. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Government expenditure on education. Out of this an amount of Rs.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.
Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Andhra Pradesh. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). health services and welfare of the citizen population. for which 16 sites. Moreover. Medical education. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Listing the positives. notes the study. for instance. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Karnataka. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. English. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Tamil Nadu. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. The Chandigarh Administration. engineering and R&D. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. too. too.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. too.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . Karnataka. 1. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. pharma. To add to the woes. Kerala and Gujarat. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. telecom. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region.5.
Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. Hence it is called as need-based. taking the average in the middle. the teaching methods. and so on. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. the needs. For a learner living in a rural area. even actually looking at the watch. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. Then education become realistic and idealistic. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. the curricular subjects. when he will not be sure of time. which a non-tribal person cannot do. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. The working hours of educational institutions.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. The living conditions. the interests.year. while the former does not. In the same manner. the working days: an academic . and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Of course. the vocations. 66 . There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. life-oriented and environment slanted. the socio-physical conditions. in which the learners live.
How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.5. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . to suit education to different environments? 1. 67 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. 2. 1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. 2. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.5.5.
a.G. Education Scenario in India. 60% 1. R. (2002). Education in Developmental Arena. Educational Development in India. New Delhi: Authors press. and Nair. remained undeveloped 3. C. (2001). Giridhar. A. Salim. 68 .K. (2001). during the British rule. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi: Anmol Publications.N. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. Dubey.2.5.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S. S. some of areas which were under the native rulers. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. some States have become more developed than others b.H. (2008).
UNIT – II 69 .
71 . Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. community development. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. National Integration. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. semi literate and illiterates. school community and mass media. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. secularism and democracy through Indian education. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education.
1.6.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 18.104.22.168.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.6.4 2.1.2 2.9 2.1.8 22.214.171.124 2.3 2.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.5.LESSON 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.6 Education for Secularism 2.6.7 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 126.96.36.199.
social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic.1. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. Abraham Lincoln. 2. socialism and secularism 2.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 2.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. there should be made no distinction of caste.1. colour or wealth. understand the concept of democracy.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 73 .2. for the people by the people”. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it.1. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Democracy thus means power of the people. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 3) Provision of Manual Work. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and.1. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. socialism and secularism 2. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. This is the political aspect of democracy. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. The students may be associated with the management of the school. creed. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. you will be able to: 1. socialistic and secular state. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy.
What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There are different brands of socialism.. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Democracy means 2. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. 2. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. it soon spread all over the world. 74 . With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 11) Student Parliament. declamation contest etc. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. debates. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. may be planned. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India.1. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. 12) Visits to Legislatures. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
2) Socialism aims at equality. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.5. service and cooperation.1. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 7) Special facilities for girls. oppression and disparity. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. free from exploitation. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. none high”. 75 . 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. the wealthy and the poor. Under it.5. but on the path of non-violence. 2. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 2. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. the prince and the peasant.1.
Everyone says. 76 . the concept of socialism may be defined as a system.1. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. secularism is being propagated. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. “India is a secular-country. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. 2. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. "which seeks the development of physical. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” In every political and educational corner. Write any two main features of socialism. According to Holydake. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. 11) State schools.
2. 5) It implies tolerance. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. Moral values have to be imbibed.6. 2) It permits freedom of religion. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. There is need of making the people open minded. trifles over petty religious matters are caused.opposed to religious education. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. should be independent of religion. That is why. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. 77 . 3) It permits freedom of worship. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. 8) It believes in co-existence. education etc. the belief that the state morals. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. fraternity. 9) It stress free inquiry. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. “Webster further says. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights.1. In this type of prevailing situations. liberty. A large number of people is uneducated.1. Equality.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. During the recent past. people have narrow mindedness.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact.6. people started believing in regionalism. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society.
Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. In the hands of such teachers.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based.presented by the students in the gathering. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. In the celebration of each such function. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. While doing so. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.Corruption and disbelief are rampant.6. students belonging to different religions should be associated. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. tours and trips may be organized. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. There should be some internal checking of the material being. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. No doubt. Religious Education. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures.1. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. education. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. Patiala. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. 1) Moral Education. 2. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. The very sight of the building. that the central string of all religions is one. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers.
Define Secularism 9. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . 2. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10.1. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. The word “Seculum” means 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. The term secularism was first used by 8. No doubt. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering.
Socialism aims at social justice. Equal Opportunities for Admission. In the matter of admitting students in schools. 5. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. Provision of Manual Work.1. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Tuition free education b. 4. b. Socialism aims at equality. 2. This present age 7. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. colour or wealth. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. 3. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. c. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. b. creed. George Jacob Holydake 80 . This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. for the people and the people”.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5. Abraham Lincoln. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. a. 4. a. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. Since socialism stands for equality.1. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Respect of Individual Personality. a. d. there should be made no distinction of caste. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. 3. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. 6. Power of the people 2.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic.
According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Dash. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. the belief that the state morals. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. P. L. 81 . Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C. b. education etc. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. should be independent of religion. New Delhi : Pahuja. N. J. a. B. (2007).8. (2004).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.1. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2003). (2008). Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. J. b. K and Narang C. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. 10.” 9. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. a. It treats all religions on an equal footing. (2005). It permits freedom of religion. Ltd. N. Bhatia. Mohanty.
9 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2.2 2.10 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.LESSON 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.4 2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.8 22.214.171.124.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.
83 . understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. skills. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. Children are the potential wealth of a nation.2. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. social. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. you will be able to: 1. therefore. 3. 2. It involves physical. as citizens. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. social and moral aspects. aims and objectives of the school. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. 2. mental.an instructor of school children. development. as learners. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. and 4. who are placed in his custody. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. application. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. A teacher is first and foremost. as it is t he aim o f modern education. understandings. as workers. a r e 1. emotional. The developmental roles of children. moral.generation to another. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. 2. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. as persons.2. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3.
He is to become an active member. and aesthetically to become. member of his community at the outset. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. social and emotional health. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. emotionally. The students live. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. socially. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. culturally confident. mental. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. economically effective. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. physically fit for socially efficient. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. inquisitive. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. a part of their day in 84 . mentally. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. morally.2. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. The following are some of such roles described in brief. 1. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. morally. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. 2.All education should lead to better behavioural development. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. 3. He has to look after their physical. 2. Teacher as a Citizen Next. motivated. intellectually. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. experiences and acceptance.
fine art associations. List out the role of teachers towards community development . Dr. Unless. 2.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. It 85 . faiths. languages and religions. India is a land of many castes. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school.2.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural.the school being under the custody of teachers. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. and most of hours. solve them. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. creeds. 4. photographic clubs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. activities of the society into which he is born. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. science club. They will be spending with their parents.
Sampurnanand remarked. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme.” Regarding the role of education. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. national anthem and other national songs. the study of language and literature.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. poems.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. social studies.2. should be emphasised. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. stand up straight. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 .” 2. and make into one strong national unit.is. b. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. this integration of the Indian people. a. therefore. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. At the primary stage the importance of stories. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. c. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. 1. It should broaden the outlook. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. Nehruji has explained this as. ‘We should not become parochial. the citizens of the Republic of India.5. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. narrow-minded provincial. folklore and teaching of social studies. Let us. The only process is the process of education. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . with straight backs and look up at the skies. Radhakrishnan.
Celebrations of National Days. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Textbooks. 6. Taking Pledge. Co-Curricular Activities. symposia. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. sports. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. dramatics and youth festivals. debates. educational excursions. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. 4. Student Camps. 3. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. 7. and picnics. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. 8. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Reverence of National Flag. ACC. t he st udent s and t he community. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. 5. languages and literature. 87 . They should also be the taught meaning of the verses.different social sciences. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Singing of National Anthem. militar y training like the NCC. 10. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. 9. Uniform for School Children. 2. tours. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Scouts and Guides. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. National Days—January 26.
2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Admissions to schools. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. ii. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. ways of thinking and doing things.2. language. 2. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. colour. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Open-Air Dramas. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. iv. 15.11.5. Recognition of Institutions. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. region or religion. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. v. 12. 14. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. Admissions. 13. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . School Projects. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 88 . They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. flora and fauna. iii. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. 16. Educational and Travel Documentaries. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. Students Exchange and Tours.
irrespective of national boundaries. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. camps.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. viii. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Community dinners. Define National Integration 3. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 .vi.2. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. 2. vii. cultures and races on equal bases. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. ix. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5.
e. 5. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. This. Therefore. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. the international level. often in connection with anniversaries.2. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. and the healthy development. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. In a very real sense. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. (b) stories of children of other lands. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. patriotism is not enough. Strong has observed.” 2. 2. Dr. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.2. (c) fairly tales. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.friendships between children of different countries..6. Teachers 90 .” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. 6.as important as that of a national citizenship. 4.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. therefore. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies.F. Radhakrishnan states. C.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged.6. Organising of debates and.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. 3. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. that war. if it happens. 2. of his body and mind.
colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. an Englishman. Indian and American. Impartial in their Treatment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7.” Well Informed About World Situations. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Russian. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. a German.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should not be propagandists. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 .
Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . majority of people are. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves.2. leading to. It does not prepare students for life.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. 4.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. Devaluation of Values . If this is done.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. 3. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. the education function can be carried. Chronic Poverty . 5.2. and help the students to over . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. Wide Spread Frustration . understand and indiscipline: 1. there is wide spread frustration among all people. 2. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . Defects of the educational System .Another major. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. As the school is but a miniature society. which results in agitation and aggression language. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society.
2. sympathy and good will among the nations. co-operation. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. 93 . fellow feeling. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. community development.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. etc. 2. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. List out six characteristics of a good teacher.2. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. love. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development.2.democratic nature.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. List out the factors causing social tension in schools .
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 126.96.36.199 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 188.8.131.52 Functions and role of schools in the society 184.108.40.206 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 220.127.116.11 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 18.104.22.168 Radio as an agency of education 22.214.171.124 Television as an agency of education 126.96.36.199 Press as a medium of education 188.8.131.52 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
184.108.40.206 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 220.127.116.11 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
18.104.22.168 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
22.214.171.124 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. are increasingly used in education. Define community. Hence. led to the printing of books. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. To make them achieve their aim. “All the citizens of the community. Now internet is being used. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. During the course of time.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Then came newspapers.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. He taught his students orally. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room.V. art galleries. the invention of the printing press.3. Museums. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Crow and Crow write.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Emphasising this thing. books. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. periodicals. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. Moreover. In fact.
As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. dram appreciation.G. the teacher still occupies. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. In the emphasis is on sound. Important happening inventions.3. Effective means of presenting music. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. A lot of work by way of pre. the place of importance. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. It enlightens public opinion. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. 2. Students listen various talks. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. music. It is also an important source of entertainment. art. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. current affairs and other areas.classroom teachers. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Thus. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Reynolds. social studies. It stimulates curiosity and interests. “Listening participation” in current history. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. rather than on picture. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. 101 .6. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. 2. Various talks. In collaboration with the experts. Thus. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. languages. politics.telecast. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning.
fol classical music. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. at play. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. audibility and presentability. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. development of lessons. plays. at recreational centers. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. Making learning an open system. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. style. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. projects or creative activities. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. speech. informal and non-formal education. 5. travel talks. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. 4. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. 3. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. at drawing room. 102 . drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. Participation of local teachers and pupils. At present. at any place. mathematics. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Team-teaching demonstrations. School concerts. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Before presenting the programme. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 126.96.36.199 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
188.8.131.52 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 184.108.40.206 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
2 Aims of Non formal education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.1 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 220.127.116.11.8 18.104.22.168.4.4 Non formal educational system 22.214.171.124 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.5 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 126.96.36.199 Advantages of formal education 2.4.4.LESSON 2.2 Levels of formal education system 188.8.131.52.3.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 184.108.40.206.4.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .2 2.6 2.4.7 2.4.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4.
9. 5.4. say the Government or the private enterprise. the family. Education.. you will be able to: 1.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. imparted at the residence of the teacher. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Education organised by some agency. 110 . the learner are acquainted.4. In ancient time in India.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. the temple. open university.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 2. 4. the mass media et. 2. it was mostly. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 2. his mental alertness. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 2.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. To realize this objective of education. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 3. open school.3. 3. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner.4.4. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. the most important agency of formal education. 2. 4. Education associated with a degree or certificate.2. 7. the community. compare formal and non formal system of education. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 6. School is. starting and ending at -a particular age. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. 8.
But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. capacity. diplomas.3. Concepts of proportion. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. also called tertiary. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. or post secondary education. Some education systems have separate middle schools. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 .2. structured education. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education.4. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society.4. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Through early formal education.3. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. third stage.a secondary education. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Higher Education: Higher education. depending on the jurisdiction. In general. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. or academic degrees.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. the elements of language are first learned. as well as vocational education and training. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. 2.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. such as a high school or secondary school. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing .
Agencies can be classified as 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. What are levels of formal educational system? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4.3. and remote dwellers.which will help for nation's development. 3. Write any two characteristics of formal education? .4. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. 2.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. 4. 2. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. late beginners etc. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. is an important agency of formal education. children with disabilities. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.
” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. admissions. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems.. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. open learning. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. adding up to a true learning society.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. It is deliberate. systematic. Adiseshiah. to help themselves. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. etc. until 1970 it had not been defined. Open university. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. It is much more responsive to needs and change. Therefore.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. i.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. it has its own valid claim to reality. continuing education and on the job oriented education. curriculum. it is a more effective tool for rural development. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. systematic.e. It unlocks the doors of development plans. It is functional.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured.formal education. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. financially supported life formal education. “Non-formal education should 113 . staffed. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. However.learning client take some learning objectives.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. place of instruction. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. Thus. Non-formal education includes adult education. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. According to Malcolm A. planned. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. one could say that non-formal education is an active.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. adults as well as children.
3. To help industrial workers to better their skills. admissions. self. i.4. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.” According to H. evaluation etc. the Ideas of citizenship.e.learning pattern. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.S. 4. It should lay emphasis on the self.S. To develop in the student. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. Part-time education. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. curriculum. national integration. Preparation for future needs. 7. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 114 . secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.4. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. 2.be marketable and vocationalised. Process of sharing. 2. international understanding.renewal. modes of teaching. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. 6. place of education. 5. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. socialism.4. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. Covering life span of an individual. Lawrence.” 2. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. Flexibility in various aspects of education. age. exploring. co-curricular activities.4.
• To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 5. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. To offer Secondary.4. Universalisation of primary education. 115 . 7.4. 6. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. school dropouts.4. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 3. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 4.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 2. Eradication of adult literacy. working adults. 10. 5. publication and information dissemination. 9. 3. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge.4. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. in villages and those who live in towns. Technical. 8. 2. • 2. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 4.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Senior Secondary.
2. etc. effective in modern societal context. others are formal and informal. To better qualifications. 4.2. To make if.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. To increase knowledge and 2.4. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . Institutions for formal education. 2. open space. library. 3. All-round development i. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.full time to learners – can be home. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. factory. self-employment iii. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras.. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. Radio and television.4. training centres in factories. etc.4. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. public libraries. Again. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. Therefore. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . farm. centres of correspondence education.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. if organised in isolation. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute.
period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. . radio. institution. List out any two aims of non formal education. Written tests. 6. Lecturing T. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Teaching to face teaching.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. 117 . Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Face Contact programmes.V. Correspondence lesson. Define non formal education. Give examples of non formal education? . . 7. Essay Assignments and short answer questions.
Open School. Open University. 118 . 5. Pre-school level. Higher Secondary level and University level.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Secondary level. a. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. 4. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. 3. 2. a. 4.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. the college and the university come under this category. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. 7.4. b. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. School 3. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Primary level.2. The school. b. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. adults as well as children. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned.4. 2. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. 2.” 6. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. systematic. Formal and Non Formal 2.4.
4. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). (2005). New Delhi : 119 . Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. B. Gupta. N. Ltd. P. Bhatia. (2003). (2008). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. L. S. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004). K.2. J. Mohanty. J. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. N. Theory and Principles of Education. (2008). New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Dash. Education in Emerging India. Modern Trends in Indian Education. K and Narang C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Pahuja.
4 Agencies of continuing education 2.5.4 Open University 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 220.127.116.11.3.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.4 Need for Open University 18.104.22.168.5.4.3 Continuing education for literate adults 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.1 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.7 2.LESSON 188.8.131.52.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.6 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 184.108.40.206.3 Objectives of Open University 2.5 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.5.2 2.5.
there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. economic field or such other fields. It is a continuous process. Any person. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. give the meaning.5. Thus. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon.5. It is a lifelong process. continuing education is a boon. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. Under these circumstances. This knowledge may be in political field. 2. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. know the need and objectives of open university. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. However. industries. For them. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other.2. farmers.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . labourers and half educated individuals. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2.3. 2. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. characteristics of open university 4. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies.5. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.5.
Throughout the country. On the other hand. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. On the other hand.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation.V. Persons engaged in health services. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education.literate person. Thus.directly related to his job. Block Development Officers. Radio. cultured and progressive. deteriorating to his character and personality. are also contributing their might for the purpose. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest.5. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. T. After the achievement of independence. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. Doctors. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Cinema. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. For them too continuing education is essential.3. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. 2.V. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Radio and T.
especially women. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education.5. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. 4. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. habits of people of other lands. (15) music. 7. 2.3.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (1) ancient history. 5. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 2.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. and Radio. 3. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life.V. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. Inspite of the great efforts. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. These books are not very useful. (14) information about bringing up young children. (17) modern international and national events. we have not been able to achieve our targets. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (10) first aid. (16) liking.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. (2) basic religious matters. 6.5. Of course. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons.. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. 2. 123 . (6) folk stories. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. (13) psychology of child behaviour. (8) psychology of adults.3. (7) folk songs.
attendance restrict ion. of educational opportunities. lack of time etc. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. What is the objectives of NLM? 3.4. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It also attempts to pr ovide equality.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. NLM was launched in the year 2. 2. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns.5. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University.
2. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. and in teaching. No one is too old or too late to learn. Education is not a once for-all process. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. 3. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. d. it makes use of educational techno logy.unobserved. Which was the first open university in India? . there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. IGNOU was established in the year 6. e.5. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . 2. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. c. but 125 . the higher the degree of openness. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. 5. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. its education is not class room based but home based. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education.
4. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. cho ice o f co ur ses. 3.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. it a ims at wider and hig her. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 3. 126 . 2. who were deprived of t he same earlier. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 4. or who realised too late that they need it. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. supplementing the existing provision. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n.5. 2.4. 2. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all.4. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. Mo re o ver. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . annu al wr it t en examinat io n. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 6. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 2.who did not get it.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 5. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced.5. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc.
Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. you have learnt the concept.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y.4. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. a society. 2. Self instructional materials. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. 5. Tutor Comments.5. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. List out any four methods of Open University? . Correspondence tuition. Therefore.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. 8. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . In the present day world. school drop outs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Every day. 2. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. 4. 3.5.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. 6. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . a state or nation. 127 . 1. Laboratory works. 7.2. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. semi – literates. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 8.
unskilled workers and other professionals. Broad casting lectures c. a. 1985. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. P r int med ia b. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. 2. need and characteristics of Open University.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (4) the fundamentals of economics. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. its education is not class room based but home based. 4. a. 8. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. 128 . To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. a. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. d.5. which may include house wives. 2. b. 7. (2) basic religious matters. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 3. aspirants for continuing education. Television Lessons. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. b. agricultural and industrial workers. 7. youth. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 1988. 6. Explain the objectives. 8.5. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. 9.ambitious learners. (1) ancient history.
129 . K and Narang C. (2001).5. L. Reddy. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. S. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. K.S. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. (2004).8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Modern Problems of Education. (2004). New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Ltd. Udaiveer. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. R.K. (2007).2.
UNIT – III 131 .
its causes and remedial measures. and teacher education. Examination reform. Training teachers for all levels of education. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. wastage and stagnation. which may claim the attention of those concerned. the education of women. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. In Lesson 2. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. 133 . New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. examination. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. All which is the need of the hour.
9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 220.127.116.11 New initiatives.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1.6 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1 3.2 3.1. 135 .1.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.1.1.LESSON 3.1.5 3.2 EFA – How? 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.8 3.4 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.3.1.7 3.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.3.1.
There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy.1. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. economic or cultural. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). may be political. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. understands the country. 2. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. 3. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. education received added importance and significance. therefore.3. directed that. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). Continuing Education (CE) 1. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. Therefore. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. “The State shall 136 . Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. you will be able to: 1. Eradication of Illiteracy. social. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. (EOI) 2.1. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. On the other hand.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI).3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years.
The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Therefore. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education.endeavour to provide. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. the national Government under. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Continuing Education (CE). From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Universalization of Retention. 3. It enables the parents to send their children to School. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Three Stages for Universalization. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. rights and responsibilities.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. After the attainment of independence. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. 137 . it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. Universalization of Enrolment. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school.
present and future. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. It is safe to assure. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. This target had to be revised to 1970.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. 138 .1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. educational enterprise. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write Article 45. later to 1988. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. 3. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind.3. then to 1976. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. 1995 (for upper primary stage). for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. Therefore. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. UNESCO Bulletin states. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. 1990.
we have to develop the programme of Adult education. 3.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. rural areas. Apart from primary education. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Early childhood education should be streamlined. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. problem of literacy. By undertaking survey. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. The Social Education. slum areas. 5. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all.1. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. 11. 139 . By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste.3. their social economic status and occupations. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 12. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). Education of the Impaired. 9. nutrition education and sports and games. creed. adolescent and adult. sex. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Education of Girls. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. 10. Disabled. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. and Women’s education programme should be improved. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. their enrolment and retention. Jams and Jellies. etc. NAEP. 3. FELF. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. 8. Emphasis must be given on health education. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. 6.
Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.3.e. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.3 NEW INITIATIVES.3. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Wastage and Stagnation. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Expand MLL and SSA . 4. 3. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3.
The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Personal Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.first stage of education. Social Factors . School Factors . Familial Factors .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. it is considered as wastage. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.
can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. . 142 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. . Define Wastage. 7.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education.
The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.1. Societal Factors . school or society. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. relating to home. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. Personal Factors .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .3. rural or urban 3. School Factors .The following factors. Family Factors . in his home. They are described hereunder :1. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.
discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. etc. Define Stagnation? 9. mid-day meals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . 144 . stationary. uniforms. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books.
2. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. 4. Hartog Committee. therefore.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. improvement of curriculum. Universalization of Enrolment c. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA.” 3. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. Universalization of Provision b. Minimum Levels of Learning b. 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. a. Universalization of Retention 2.1.. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. b. a. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. 3. a. 3.1. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. “The State shall endeavour to provide.1. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. 145 . 6. 4. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. directed that.
S. New Delhi: 146 . Problems of Elementary Education. a. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. 3. S. improve examination system.K. (2001). Social Factors 8. Hemchand. 9. b. introduce graded curriculum.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Familial Factors c.1. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.7. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Crescent Publishing Corporation.K. Personal Factor b. a. T. (2008). Sharma. (2007). School Factors d.N.
2.2.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.5.5 New evaluation procedures 18.104.22.168 Grade System 22.214.171.124.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.2.2 3.2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 126.96.36.199.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 188.8.131.52 Choice Based Credit System 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.5.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.1 Problems of examination 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .2.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 18.104.22.168.1 3.7 Open book examination 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.4 Question banks 22.214.171.124 The problem of reform of Examination 3.LESSON 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2.2.
4.2.2. 3. 3.8 126.96.36.199 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. Besides.3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. suggest the new evaluation procedures.2. you will be able to: 1.2.9 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. but on the other. 3.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2. 3.3.
roadside Romeoism. The following steps should be taken up. 3. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers.3.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. which the educational authorities have to face.. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions.2. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. etc. etc. etc. 149 . They develop secondary sex characteristics. If the students are in sufficient number. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. hostel facilities. They may cause problems relating to discipline. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. schools for them wherever necessary. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. waiting rooms for girl students. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided.
teachers. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.2. public administrators and statesmen. 150 . With the mass growth of educational enterprise. the examination system has an important role to play. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. the net-work of examination system has also become vast.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. conduct of internal examinations.2.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. Instruction. assessment and Finance. It is considered as a major sub-system.4. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. 3. public interested in education. appointment of paper-setters. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too.
values. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . maintaining the process of continuous evaluation.printing and distribution of question papers. examiners.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. announcement of results. tabulators. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. etc. validity and practicability. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. introducing objective-based testing. training of examiners. establishing reliability. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. etc. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. etc. 3. etc. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. invigilators. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts.2. reducing the domination of knowledge objective.4. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. etc. scrutinizers.
lack of objectivity etc.2. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. may also discredit them. 152 . it can be said that they become examination-oriented. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education.. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. halo-effect. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. 3) With respect to method of teaching. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. it s a common experience that subjectivity. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. which they are expected to study.. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. 2) From the angle of content of education. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public.. takes the place of comprehensive learning. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. stereotyped questions. do not appeal to the students and parents. Vagaries in making. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. Rote memorisation.4. 7) In connection with the question papers. 3. Subjects.
153 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. List any two merits of examination. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. revaluation. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. 4. may be introduced. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers..a part of internal assessment. .Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. etc. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students.develop true love for education. re-numbering of answer scripts. Spot valuation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Question Books may be developed in all schools.
Advantages More autonomy is given to students.3.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. 3. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. Every paper is treated equal. In this system.2.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. In actual practice. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .2. Their interests. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. When a person chooses to work extra.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. he is given extra credit points.2. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.5. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. The students can take any course offered in any department. It is complicated. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests.5. The new scheme of assessment. attitudes. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. skills are given importance.
dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. In the new system. or as a 4 credit course. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. This system reduces comparison of marks. These weightages are called credits. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses.poor.5. courses can have weightages defined. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning.discipline. 3. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. While designing syllabus. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Groupism is encouraged.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. poor.2.good. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . v. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. An example is a seminar. only the total credits to be earned is specified. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course.
most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. However.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. 3. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. 3. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5.5. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.2. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 3. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 156 . If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.2. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.5.2.
. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India.3. 3.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. Therefore. However. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 6.2. List any four new evaluation procedures. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . There are no proper procedures for selection.2. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. recruitment. In the hierarchy. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.
laboratory equipment. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. taking up the follow-up programmes. disciplinary problems. qualifications. 1. library books. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. They are.. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. staff. 158 . etc. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. complaints and compliments. in a sense. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. interpersonal relationships and so on. When they are fully realised. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. being realised as two different functions. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. books are followed. requirements. etc. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. finding out the adequacy of. in contrast. school buildings. submitting of the inspection reports. Academic inspection. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. wherever necessary. inspecting the class-room teaching..qualified personnel. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. of late. 3. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning.6.2. playgrounds. whether the syllabus has been covered. finding out whether the prescribed text. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools.
Ed. 159 . 3. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. Insistence on specialisation in the B. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. aptitude. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field.Ed.. once in five years. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. Similarly. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors.2. at least. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. or. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. modern. courses. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. In the case of departmental candidates. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. In the light of these conceptualisation. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose.. course in either educational. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. M. their professional knowledge.
It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. a. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.2. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 3. Instruction. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. 5. assessment and Finance. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. d. 160 . examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Administration. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.2. b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. a. 4. b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. b. a. 3.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. 2. Grade System. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. c.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
4. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. a. K. Vaidya. b. 5. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. a. (2004). Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. New 161 . Open book examinations.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Problems of Education in India. Educational Reforms. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. (2002). To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Question banks. a. History and Problems of Education in India.2. S. Multiple sets of question paper. 3. b. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. 7. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. R and Sharma.a part of internal assessment. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. K. (2005). c. b.
3.3.3 3.3. 5.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.LESSON 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. 162 .4 3.6 3.9 3.3.8 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3.5 3.10 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2 3.1 3. you will be able to: 1. analyze the general and vocational spectra. identify the needs of rural India and social.3.3.7 3.3. 2.3.3. 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. 4.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3.3.
12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta.. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States.. in Andhra Pradesh. Commission emphasised to continue. i. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. The. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. e.3. University Education. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. 10 years of general Secondary Education. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . the Banaras Sanskrit College. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. Similar is the case with some other States.e. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. Consequent on the recommendations. 8 years of general education. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. etc. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education.e... Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 .3. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.g.specialisation programmes 3. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. and 3 years of First Degree Course. The Calcutta Madras. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. 2.
It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. to imbibe. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. b.confidence in students. who desire to change from one stream to another. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 10. social. 8. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures.3. cultural and economic development of the country. Provision for transfer of credits to students. However. 5) to help for the social. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. educational channels. and. to prepare. historical. economical and political. 3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . is also a plus point . 6. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal.a sense of dignity of labour. habits of hard work and develop .4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. 5. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. 7. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical.
it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students.3. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. democratic living. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. to develop national character. and that required to enter the tertiary level. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. 3. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X.. at the other. Psychologically.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. The General Educational Spectrum. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . and. etc. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Sociologically it is undesirable. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. Philosophically it is not the conception.national integration. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. cultural and' religious tolerance. international understanding. on one hand. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. cooperativeness. 1.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. social justice.
commerce. or other machinery. All these need for an. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. 166 . they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. vegetable growing. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. educational and cultural services.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. technical. In our country. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. industrial agricultural production is growing. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. Commerce and other disciplines. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Biology. 3. rural health. professional. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. commerce. physics or mathematics. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. 2.— tube-wells. India is a land of villages. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. In the vocational spectrum. In the matter of language. such as Agriculture. Science.3. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. horticulture. the rural areas have suffered very much. Agriculture is the main occupation. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. and vocations based on dairy-farming. chemistry. fish culture. medical plants. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. technological.
the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . In this way.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. In time. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. can be ensured. and the needs. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. 3. etc. the local resources available. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. social justice.. and 5. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. In this it may be concluded. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3.3. There had been favourable reaction from the students. interests and aptitudes of the students. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States..etc. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . 4. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education.
Teacher and Education in Indian Society. objectives. b.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. J.C.3. New Delhi : 168 . Anmol Publications Pvt. 3. B. (2007). 3. General Educational Spectrum and b. Ltd. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. J. b. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. to imbibe. 3. Calcutta University Commission 2.3. Vocational Sepctrum.K. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.a sense of dignity of labour. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. a. (2001). Dash. Mohanty.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. a. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. a. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.3. habits of hard work and develop . (2008). Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. 2.3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.3. (2005). 3. S.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. we studied the history.
4.4.12 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.188.8.131.52 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. social and 169 .4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4.13 3.8 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.LESSON 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.11 3.10 184.108.40.206.4.4.5 3.4.9 3.1 3.7 3.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4.4.6 3.4.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal. but the lighting of a fire”.2 3. Education contributes to human development.3 3.
it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. you will be able to: 1. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. Home Economics. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom.4. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4.4. Education . It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. particularly 170 . 3. These courses were. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . although we have miles to go. higher education of girls developed immensely. family. For the first time in the history of India. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. While women constituted only 9.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. The relevance of women’s education to social. cultural and political development of the individual.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. There is a close connection between education and development. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2.higher education in particular. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. In the post —independence period. Teaching and Fine Arts. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. During the year 1937. community and nation is universally acknowledged. 3. analyze the women and distance education. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. economic. Dr. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. Nursing. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3.
4. 3. Mumbai. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.0 43.9 27. 3. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.1 31. Even today. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. levels and professions. Yet. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.2 22.1 24. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. in our country. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.D. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. Kodaikanal. In the rest of the country.4. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.N. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.0 16. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. Coimbatore.0 32. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.9 14.T Women University.4. out of 9200 and odd colleges. In 1950-51.2 29. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. The idea of women’s education for equality. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. Mother Teresa Women University.women. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.0 Today.65 lakhs in 1994-95. we have more than 1200 institutions.
4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .47 65.that of boys.46 82.44 35.73 10.1 respectively. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? . GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .27 89. 3.4%) prefer Arts subjects.36 3. 2.54 12.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.56 64.4.34 33. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.53 34.4. 3.83 47.17 52. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.63 Female % 34. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1 and 14.66 66.
what is the need for higher education for her. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. and coeducation may spoil her character. promoted and increased. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. According to a survey. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. Book banks should be established. The major hurdles. They gave up their studies to enter home life. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. particularly.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. financial difficulty of the parents. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. Also. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so.hinders the girls from getting higher education. Thus. 3. etc. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. marriage is a very common I factor. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. In college.4. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. distance of the college or university from home. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. she will only learn fashion. irrelevance of the content of education. curriculum not suited to their requirements. In every third family. 173 . The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education.
3. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. space. 3. Full-time employment. Geographic distance of educational institutions.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Empowerment in a nutshell. is the only tool for realising empowerment. which is the most dynamic factor of development.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. There are constraints of time. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. It also brings about 174 . Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. It enables to study. Distance education is a boon to women. Education.4. and the limitations of the conventional education system. It is a productive investment. resources and socio . because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.economic disabilities faced by women.4. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests.
multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. higher learning. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. for full development of our human resources. education of women is of paramount importance. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. This can be achieved through reflection. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. 3. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. Empowerment is an active. legal awareness and economic independence. The major objectives of women's higher education. Women are partners in development.4. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. education of women must be given priority in national plans.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. empowerment means being assertive. on their own. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated.
2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. 176 . Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . especially so in the developing countries. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. which had been the sole domain of men. The local administration. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. who are eager to take up courses. which is pending for a long time. 3. Scholarships and concessions for women. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. has to be implemented at the earliest. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. But their number is small. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. Better opportunities. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad.4. will encourage them to venture new grounds. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Reservation for women. The educational institutions. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out.
Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. 3.8%). engineering and related technologies (16. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Chief Executive. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.000 women in the country. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. But..9%).1%) and architecture and building (38. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.4. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. talents. Australia. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. Also. According to Lindy Hyam. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. IDP Education.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. capacities etc.3 percent. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. especially in developing countries like African countries. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management.
R. 178 . and Suryalatha.R. S.to the family. 3. community and the nation. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. (2005). R. Mishra. (2000). Kodaikanal.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3.4. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. SNDT Women’s University. individuals and society b. (2008). 4. Coimbatore.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Women Education. Women Education.C. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education.4. 4. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Rao. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. create the right attitude towards life.K. Mother Teresa Women University. Mumbai.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Coimbatore. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. SNDT Women’s University. 3. 2. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. 43% 6. Annakodi. Centre for Women’s Studies. R. a. Mumbai. Rajasthan 5. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. (2007).4. Pattanaikj. and Swain. Women and Education. A. A. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. 3. S. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.
in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.1 3.2 3. whole.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5.5.9 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.4 3.5 3.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5. They should be trained.6 3.5.11 3.7 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.8 3.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.3 3.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.10 3.personality of children in and out of school. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.LESSON 3.
understanding and strong desire for international peace. 3. 3. Lack of physical facilities. Shorter working hours. understand the training teachers for Primary. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. equality and justice. 4.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. national consciousness.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. and national character. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. 5. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. Dearth of new technology of teaching. social and emotional integration.5. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so.5. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. list out the agencies of teachers education 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. 180 . It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. you will be able to: 1. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. know the pre service and in service training facilities. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. international.
students.Ed. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. the primary teacher education.. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. the secondary teacher education. it is called the In-service teacher education. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. levels. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. the centre. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. (NCERT) New Delhi. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . the state Government. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. and M..Ed. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. a Diploma course and a Degree course. Depending on the levels. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. Inadequate training in practical skills. and the collegiate teacher education. it is called the Extension teacher Education. who have not been trained earlier. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. inservice and extension education programmes. etc. Lop-sided curriculum.5. 3.5. 3. At the diploma level.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years .4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. If the student teachers are working teachers. higher secondary teacher education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.Less qualified teacher educators.
Expand NCERT 2. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research.5. etc. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . depart ments etc. Also Guidance Bureaux. Evaluation unit. extensio n service. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 .Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education..6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Educational teehnology cells. state Institutes of Educat ion. non-formal. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. Education cells. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. collegiate cells. are established. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Science Education units.
which help breaking isolation from one another . The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. schools and sister institutions.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities .. which should include experience in the primary schools too. audio visual aids. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary.. to improve curricular programmes. and 183 . despite its vast expansion. should be improved on a top priority basis. material conditions relating to libraries. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life.Ed. degree. to offer consultative services. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. and so on.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . to ensure teacher competence. to prescribe conditions for recognition. primary and secondary school teachers. laboratories. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre..Ed.
Modern Techniques of Teaching. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. Modern Methods of Evaluation. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. not came up once again. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Workshops. Agriculture. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. Psychology of Students. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. Meanwhile. methodology and evaluation. Hence. etc.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively.secondary education. though no pre-service training. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. and XII. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. The problem. Induction Courses. whether they should have professional education or. 184 . Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. etc. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. To meet this exigency. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Organisation of Content Courses.
Ed. All B Ed. (Education) and M. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.A.A.. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a... Point out two defects in primary teacher training ..Ed. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Post-Graduates also undergo B.. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.Ed. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.’s are elig ible for M.’s for Ph. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. 3.D.5.Ed. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.Ed.. (Education) are organized by 185 . Ajmer. These facilities are available for regular students. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. M. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Pre-service training is for those. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. in Education. Courses leading to B.Ed. Degree and M.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. training. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.. State Institutes of Education. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.S. For re-orienting the teachers.. Degree. courses and M.
established by tradition and teachers of the past. However. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and B. of conduct—written or unwritten.5.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. (Ed. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. they should be conscientious . Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. (Ed).A.. 186 . 4. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . What is the role of ERIC? .some Faculties of Education of some Universities.List any two code of conduct for teachers? .8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. 5. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession.). 3.A. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 6. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. Hence the employability of M. .
b. 2. Explain code of conduct for teachers.3. 3. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 5. Shorter working hours. a. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. 6. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. However. 2. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. 3. 3. 4. 3. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Bhopal. The necessity is however this. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 187 . a. Discuss the problems of teacher education. a.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. they should be conscientious. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities.5. 4. b. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Ajmer. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Dearth of new technology of teaching.
P. Teacher Education.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. B. Publication Pvt. (2009). New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. (2003). Corporation. A.D.5. Teacher Education.N. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . Tewari. J. (2010).3. Ltd Aggarwal. Mohanty. and Teacher Education.
UNIT – IV 189 .
Since food is the source of nutrients. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. In lesson 1. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. preservation of nutrients. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. objectives. The person’s environment is equally important. If the diet is poor. objectives and role of the physical education. economic and educational developments. objectives. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. In lesson 4. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. consuming the right amounts becomes important. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. communicable diseases and their prevention. nutritional deficiency diseases. 191 . scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. common ailments of children. the focus is on the school health programmes.
A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. It is a miniature society. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1.1. emotional and social.1. physical. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.7 4.1 4.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. mental.1.3 220.127.116.11 4.10 4.9 4.8 4.e.1.2 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. 193 .1.1.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.6 4.11 4.5 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody.1.1.LESSON 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.
To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. 10. you will be able to: 1. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself.1. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 6. e. to his family and to the community at large. To develop healthy health habits among children. To give information regarding health rules. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 8. 4. 11. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. To develop certain skills concerning health. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 4. Instruction. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. 194 . Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. training in first aid and etc. training of teachers and evaluation.1. 7. content of health education. know the need for sex education. 5.g. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases..School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 2. 9. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. 3. list the common ailments of children 3. 4.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. cleanliness and healthful living. understand school health programmes 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. explain the importance of First aid 5. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community.
Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. (x) choice aid use of health services and products.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A.. (v) safety education. typhoid. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp.1. direct lighting. vaccination. is imperative. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. 3. Vaccination for small pox. There should be good drainage facilities. The surroundings of schools should be clean. etc. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. 5. as described below 1. There should be regular water supply. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. ( iii) sanit at io n. The school buildings should be spacious. inoculation against cholera. Arranging better transportation facilities.4. minimizing the travelling distance. proper doors and windows. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . “Play-for-all” programmes.G. excusing late. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. (xl) mental health.. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. cleanliness weeks.C. (xii) smoking education etc. The flooring should not be damp. (ii) communit y healt h. First aid facilities should be made readily available. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. Triple Antigen Vaccination. 2.coming or absence. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. (viii) first aid. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. 4. suitable furniture. B. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. 2. (vi) nutrition education. organisation of school health days. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. B. play festivals. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students.
The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. C. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. D. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. dislocations. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. • Close the schools. • Take nutritious food. etc. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms.. • Keep all rooms clean. isolate and notify. fainting (epileptic fit). burns. 196 . wounds. and other accidents. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. cuts. fractures. drowning. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • When sleeping in groups. • Find out the cases. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. bleeding. if epidemic is wide-spread. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. • Have adequate rest and sleep. poisons. insect stings. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. scalds. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. sports and games in the interest of their health.
Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. So they easily get illnesses. pain in the joints. There are three stages in any communicable disease. water or bodily contact.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. Mention the school health programmes. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. Once these germs get into the body. List out the Health curriculum 3. which are – cold. They are: i) The incubation stage. 4. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. fever. These diseases are called communicable diseases. measles etc..1.1. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. 4. polio. 2. asthma.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. chicken pox. headache. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. tuberculosis. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. backache. cough.
The following are the common communicable diseases. Mumps . Hence liquid diet is recommended. This is caused by cold virus. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. eating food which is not clean. head-ache and cough. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Ear Infections . 198 . etc. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Tonsilitis . Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. The child may have fever. cough and fever. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Children catch cold from persons having cold. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Measles . One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. sugar and water. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. The symptoms include cold. Common Cold .This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief.It is caused by measles virus. Throat is affected.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief.When a child suffers from scabies. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Scabies . Others make the children very weak. Diarrhoea . unhygienic living conditions. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. unhygienic bottle feeding. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. After three or four days of fever. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink.This disease is caused by bacteria. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Hence it is called a killer disease. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Diphtheria . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. Shortly. By scratching he causes secondary infections. The child may also have diarrhoea. Typhoid .This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It begins with fever. face and waist. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. the child is not able to breathe. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. raised pink spots appear on head. 5.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. 199 .• • • • Chicken Pox . the child may die. If proper treatment is not given. separate. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. As the disease progresses. What are communicable diseases? 6. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Expand DPT . Enlist the common ailments of children. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day.
etc. bruises. cuts. 200 . dislocation. and films. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. sprains. Sex is popular. 3. 2. drowning. bleeding. scorpion stings. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. fainting. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. films and jokes. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. so-called sex books and periodicals. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. Sprains . swelling. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. It has its rightful place in education too.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. snakebites.4. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. It is both biological and psychological. Wounds .1. wounds.g. 4. exciting and body-oriented. man-woman behaviours. and Community Work and Social Service.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. fiction.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. 4. Drowning . head injury.1. it is a subject of art.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. eye injury. sprains.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. 5. simple fractures. In such cases. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. Cuts and Bruises . Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1.
the religious organisations. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. in their ignorance. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. celibacy are age. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. The values of life. the school. Hence. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. In today's liberal and interactive society. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. In secondary schools. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. health. 2. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child.old values. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. Should the boys and girls.. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. sex education is being recommended in schools. B. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. The home. but preserve them from disaster and disease. they would be treading the path of sure doom. try experimenting with their bodies. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. 3.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems.
and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. the school health programmes. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. communicable diseases and their prevention. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. What are the major components of Sex Education. first aid and sex education.1. Teacher education institutions are. C. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. common ailments of children. when the courses are already overloaded. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. hence. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. there will no crisis in its implementation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. 202 . Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. offering sex education as a part of their curricula.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 18.104.22.168 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Mention the food nutrients 2. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 209 .
Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . If you look at the definition carefully. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.2. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. Let us talk about each of these aspects. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.2. minerals. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s .4. 210 .6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods.
A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress).g. sex.2. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . paratha and poori. A balanced diet is specific firstly. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. activity level and physiological stress.sedentary. it is also specific to a given activity level . The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. construction labourer). A normal individual consumes a variety of foods.6. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately.g. There is no point. People in the east of our country prefer rice. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. Preferences/customs are also important. In other words. In the case of adults. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. moderate or heavy work. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. the social and religious practices of that region.one in the morning and the other at night. for example. These are: region where the person resides and income. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. dosa are typical of the south. Even within given States there is considerable variation. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). 4. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). Those in the west also tend to eat rice.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness.
Even among flesh foods. One person may be fond of milk products. Among the social factors. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. Including these 212 . you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. while another may hate them. If you think of your own religious group. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. One must. Judicious selection of food is. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. for example. however. vegetables and fruits. income plays a vital role. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. as important for the rich as for the poor. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Having more money. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. however. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. however. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. customs. As you read this discussion. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. However. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. In addition to these. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. taboos related to food may play an important role. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. These determine the acceptability of foods. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets.planning the diet. fat and sugar tend to increase. As income increases. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. nuts and dry fruits.
don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. Define balanced diet. but they should be thrown away. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. green leaves.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. fruits. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. eggs . plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. List out any two healthy food habits. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. 8. if the teachers have good food habits. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. mouth. etc. over-eating or under. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.eating is hazardous. meat. 213 . 17. 8) Walk a while after eating. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. For this.
Explain food nutrients 4. preservation of nutrients. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. Discuss good food habits. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Night blindness. 4. e. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Keratomalacia 3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Bitot’s spots. good nutrition is essential for good health. b. Corneal xerosis.2. In fact. Beri Beri 4. Conjuctival xerosis.4.2.2. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. c. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. a. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 .8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Vitamin D 5. d. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. When the diet is inadequate.
plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 4.M. A Text Book of Foods. S. 8. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. (2008). b.2. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . (2008). a. Hands. Food and Nutrition Education. Health and Nutrition Education. (2005). Food should be consumed after eating well.6. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. (2009). a . mouth. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. (2004). Nutrition Science. 7. Chopra. R. Food and Nutrition Education.C. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. P. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 .N. b. Sri Lakshmi B. R. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Nutrition and Dietetics. minerals. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
22.214.171.124.1 4.3.12 4.4 4.3.2 4.3.3 Impact on Education 4.3 4.7 4.10 4.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.8 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.5 4.3.6. 216 .13 4.3.LESSON 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.11 4.3.9 126.96.36.199 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.188.8.131.52.3.
“It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. understand the importance of small family norm 5. Whenever we talk of sex education.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. you will be able to: 1. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education.3. therefore. describe the impact of population growth on social.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. Population Education.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. his family. 217 . correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. population characteristics. 4. aims at providing the younger generation. and the consequences of these processes. objectives and need for population education 2. It is not sex education. 4. economic and educational development 3. It is a much wider co ncept. There is some difference. the stress is. state the meaning. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. family planning and sex education etc.3.3. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. characteristics and changes for himself. the causes of population change. community.4. his societ y and the world.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. the nation and the world. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .3.4. the family.3. Define Population Education 2. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. the society. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.
health and happiness of its citizens. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. the family programmes are also handicapped. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. economic and educational development of the country.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. With the larger families. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. When the family is small. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. 219 . Every second two thousand children are being born. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. 4. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare.6.3.3. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. Family is considered as a social unit. 4. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. which will not be possible without population control.
The gulf between them is widening further. unemployment. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. toilets.e. teacher index. 220 . Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index.. in buses and trains. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. pollution of the environment. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. 4. in parks and other places of public gatherings.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. organization index and material index. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. in cinema halls and theatres. In developing countries.3. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower.6. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. lack of proper health care. i. 4. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets.6. heavy intern I migration etc. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. and so on.3.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. facility for drinking water. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. Swollen cities. Many students herded in a small room.
bar graphs etc.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. family planning etc. reproduction. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. and laboratory equipments.3. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Hindi and English. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. Social Studies Statistics on population education. less budget for education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. can be studied in science and health education. 221 . Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. essays.. even text books would be in short supply. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. thus. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. can be taken up. Regional Language. There would be poor library facilities. blank verses etc. There would be very few audiovisual aids. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. less space facilities.
5. Children with the help of parents. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 7. 9. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. They may arrange them as per average density of population.3. causes of deaths etc. Children may compare two families.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 14. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 13. 10. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 8. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 11. Bihar. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. West Bengal. deaths. 4.4. Brazil. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. 15. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. China. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Uttar Pradesh. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. United States of America. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 12. 2. Canada. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. area and average density of population. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 3.
Comparing life in various respects in two families. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. 16.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. values and role children etc. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. we have no right to stop 223 . preferences for sex. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. age at marriage. The question. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. 17. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village.3. 18. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”.be opened in their schools. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people.
India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. 4.. however.to emphasize family planning services.were implemented 224 . the total fertility rate decreased from 6. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. on an overall basis. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. The Family Welfare Program. More than 45 years ago. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. and the child survival components of the news: program. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. continued . Since the program's inception.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. which education can only do. “He who is responsible for population growth.3.4-6. at varying places in different regions. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.their entry into the world”. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. especially the expansion of child immunization services .4 births per woman in mid-1990s.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children.
the community appears willing to pay for services. men. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. At these meetings. Moreover. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. and the World Conference on Women. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. a focus on health promotion. Therefore. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. and nominal fees for services. expansion of services to unmarried women. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. Local programs vary in their approaches. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs.earlier than the safe motherhood components. In October 1997. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . In April 1996. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. reliance on local women as community health workers. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program.
4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. involving the community. economic and educational development 4. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual.3. What are the goals of RCH? 4. 1997). family.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.emphasizing the needs of the client. 226 . Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. Its main purposes are to create awareness. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. community. Describe the impact of population growth on social.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. nation and the world. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.3.
” 2. less space facilities. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. the causes of population change. characteristics and changes for himself. United States of America. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. area and average density of population. a. less budget for education. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. his society and the world. 5. 6. b. and the consequences of these processes. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. a. 7. his family. Brazil. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. a. 4. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population.3. Canada. bar graphs.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 227 . population characteristics. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. b. 3. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. China.
228 . N. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Ltd. (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2002). T. Reddy. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Bhende. Udaiveer. J. Changing attitudes to Education in India.3. V.4. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Centre for Women’s Studies. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. (2004). Kantikar. (2005). Ltd. A. Principles of Population Studies. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. (1992). Jayapoorni. Modern Problems of Education. Coimbatore.K.
4.9 4.8.2 4.4 Lead up games 184.108.40.206.7 4.2 Major games 220.127.116.11.4.6 4.4 4.11 18.104.22.168.1 Minor games 4.4.5 22.214.171.124.1 126.96.36.199 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.8.LESSON 4.10 4.3 Indigenous games 4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.3 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .
“It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education.4. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. moral fitness and emotional fitness. mental alertness. as it should 230 . will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. social fitness. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country.4. classify the different types of games. which forms its most valuable assets. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities.4. 4. full records of physical activities should be maintained. leadership and balance in defect. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. perseverance. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. the youth of the country. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. 4. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. team spirit.4. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. The concept of physical education has been made broader.
team spirit. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Every individual is a part of society. They are inseparably united together. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. leadership. obedience to rules. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. To be more precise. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. They go hand in hand.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Therefore. The educational efforts at home. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice.
4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. mo ral.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. pleasing manners. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action.” The Secondary Education Commission. Physical exercises. H. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. ment al. Just like Education. C.4.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. Buck has observed that 232 . Regarding the significance of physical education. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical.” Montaigue writes. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. nor body but the whole man. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. Rousseau states. game and sports. a sound health. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. 4. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.
5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.” 4.a properly directed physical education should result in health. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. flexibility and power. etc. we must exercise the whole human being. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. endurance. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. coordinative abilities. Froebel says. elegance.” In brief. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. happiness. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.4. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. resourcefulness and smartness. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. “If we wish to develop the whole being. 233 . speed. strength. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. efficiency and character.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. initiative.
its adherents and its enemies. including all racial groups and historical ages. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. these fundamental things have always been present. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. in greater or lesser degree. poetry and painting. 234 (i) (ii) . systems of government. Every age has its artists. should help in the spiritual development of the student.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. they may form gangs. While wars. plagues and famines. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt.
sacrifice. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. obedience. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour.\ to develop perseverance. B. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. etc. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 235 . to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. respect for rules. 2. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. bravery and interest in games and sports. self. to develop tolerance. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Write any two importance of Physical Education.
2. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Posture screening should be done. 13. 14. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Be in the uniform. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 3. 16. 6. Haag. 4. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Usually parents. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. 9. 4. . 12. students. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Act as a leader.H. Be well-prepared. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 236 1. 15. 11. Emergency care procedures should be followed.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. injuries among pupils should be made. and. defects. 5. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. and readmission after they have recovered. Keep the field ready for the activities.4. Be self-confident.4. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Be sportive. 8. 7.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Inform health principles. 10. Be punctual. is essential. Always keep the whistle ready.4.
The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. Moreover. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the play. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. Such inst incts as imitation. 4. Lead up games. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.8. 4. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. frolic and jo y.4. 237 . 3. Indigenous games.4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. 1. 4. chasing. less equipment and less expense. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. their development is handicapped. As such they are well enjoyed by children. 2. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.
They are played for a shorter duration. Kabaddy etc. Except a few games. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. The dimension of the posts and nets. zig zag relay. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. dribbling. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. These games require varied skills such as running. the number of players and substitutes. On lawns. Basket Ball. on sea-shore. Ball Badminton. While many of them are played in the open playfields. pitching.4. catching. Hockey. Throwing. wherever the kids assemble. Volley Ball. driving. Soft Ball. finding the partner. Jump the stick clay and so on. Cricket. the play equipment. the games can be modified according to convenience. Shuttle Badminton. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. They are rules approved by the International Associations. heading. Tennikoit. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. stopping. 4. Tennis. hitting. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Jumping. For each game the rules are many. muffling. skipping. benefit in playing minor games. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. on hard courts. 238 . boosting. under ball pass Relay. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. some of them are played indoors. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Hopping. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. over ball pass Relay. couple tag. women take part most of the games. on mountain tops and on river beds.. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. with implements or without implements. snatching the kerchief.8. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. trapping. Dodging. Khokho.With a very few rules. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. bowling etc. spiking.
Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.8. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. 4.8. they are in existence.4. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. Kho-kho.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Games may be classified as 6.4. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. They have an abundant social value. these games being popular. birth. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. festivals connected with religion and public functions. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. An example for indigenous game is 8. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. 7. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. All the fundamental tactics.4. While observing the players in action. List out some major games. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. death. On occasions like marriage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . and . For example. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game.
b. d. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Minor and Major 240 . the role of physical education teachers and types of games. to secure physical health b. to develop physical stamina.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. a. b. Posture screening should be done. 2.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. 5. 3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. a. 4.4.4. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. b. 4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 2. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. c. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. a. a. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. 3. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. 4. aims and objectives and need of physical education. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.4. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.4. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities.
4. (2008). Tennis. G.K. Khokho 8. Basket Ball. Khokho. Soft Ball. (2008). J. Krishna murthy. Health. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Cricket. Aggarwal. 4.C. (2009). Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Hockey. Handbook of Physical Education. Volley Ball. 241 .6. Mohanty. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Ltd. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Shuttle Badminton. Foot-ball. (2005). J. Tennikoit.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Kabaddy 7. Physical Education and Sports. Ball Badminton.
5.5.9 4.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment . Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.6 4.5.LESSON 4.3 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .11 4.1 Natural Environment 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 188.8.131.52 4.4 4.1 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.8 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 4.2 4.5.5.
To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. you will able to: 1. Skills. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4.5. aesthetic and educational factors.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. political. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. 2. Awareness. education about the environment and education through the environment.5. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. 5. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. social. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems.5. economic. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Broadly. 4. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 3. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. Essential knowledge about the Environment. population explosion and resource depletion could be. Participation. it covers the following elements: 1. Details are given below: I. 243 . 2. list out the types of environment 3. Attitude.educat ion for the environment. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. Evaluation Ability. Knowledge. 4. The best place to start such learning is school. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. 4.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. 6. 3. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.
B. D. F. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. heat sink and wind flow in cities. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. • Biological magnification E. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. a. Oxidants Other pollutants. 2. 244 . Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C.
III. Persuasion: i. Abortion iv. economic. Sterilisation. Family planning ii. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . 4. c. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Birth control through education b. Use of medical science i. The pill ii. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical.3. Intrauterine device iii. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. The human ecosystem II. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. 2. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. B. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Socio-economic measures. 2. 3. Control of population growth a.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Water pollution abatement. Air pollution abatement ii. Define Environmental Education. e) Recycling. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. 2. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. (UNESCO.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 246 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1983). 3.
animals and other organisms (biotic). to his needs. way is called environmental or ecological factor. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.4. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. -other. They interact with each. These are biotic components. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. Any constituent or condition of the environment. fax agricultural apparatus.5. includes the plants.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. b.other components of the environment.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. He modifies according”. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. A change in one brings about a change in the other. Biological environment The biological environment. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.5.5.5. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. 4. a. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. telex.5.5.
relation between population and pollution. greenhouse effect. industrial survey. preserving the watersheds. are the topics which may be taught in History. t heir role in preventing pollution. etc. balance of nature. sources of pollut ion. air pollutants from industries. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. History The rise and fall. etc. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. biogas plants. importance of nitrogen cycle. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. river systems. preventing siltation of dams. explosion deforestation. reasons.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. windmills. over exploitation of ground water. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . desertification 248 . role of trees in building economy. natural way of controlling pests. change in climate may be added. excellent recreation sites. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. solar cookers. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. ozone depletion. supplying timber for various uses. sources. noise pollution. noise control. water scarcity. maintaining the ecological diversity. nuclear energy. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. extinction of species. alternate sources of energy. acid rain. nuclear warfare. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. effects. trees reducing noise pollution. food chain and food-web. use of pesticides. social studies. industrial pollut io n. effects o f CFC. mineral survey. use of medicinal plants. ozone layer deplet ion.. evolution. need for bio-diversity. need for conservation. population. (ii) Air pollution. wars and hazards of war. of civilizations.
aims and scope. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 5. Organising conferences. 12. 249 .7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals.5. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 11. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. 4. 9. 6. group discussions and seminars. 3. 10. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes.may be inc ded in Geography. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 14. 4. animal and plants. 2. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Providing. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 7. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Peepal and Tulsi. 13. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 8.
Use public transport wherever it is possible. all these can cause serious pollution. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Reuse carrier bags. World Environmental falls on 250 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. If it is done. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. 5. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. used oils down the drain. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Send their waste oil. it will cause pollution. especially plastics. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Don’t burn any waste. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Never put any left over chemicals. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. or form a car pool for everyday travel. 6.
developing desirable attitudes. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . Social responsibilit y (common good. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. values and habits. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. Concern for species. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. viz. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. Harmony with the nature . deforestation. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Att itudes of balance towards nature. diversity and stability. nuclear wars. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. and 251 . and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. To arrange visits or expeditions.mat erials. To provide materials needed for practical work. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. CFCs. orderliness and beauty).4. etc. To arrange for visiting speakers. etc. concern for others). depletion of ozone. dest roying nat ural habitats. potable water. rather than conquest and mastery. Conservation of natural resources. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. To provide reference materials for children’s use. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes..). (cleanliness. The groups may exchange. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. loss of bio-diversity.5. prevention of irretrievable loss of species.
Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.5. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. 4.5. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. preserving natural cycles.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. 8. 4.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 252 . It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.
effects. air pollutants from industries. (2007). (2004). sources. b. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Education for values. Udaiveer. group discussions and seminars. 6. Environment and Human Rights. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . new problems from science and technology. importance of nitrogen cycle. reasons.K. (1997). specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. greenhouse effect. b. a. water scarcity. a.2.. explosion deforestation. a. Kuldeep. Ltd. Organising conferences. relat ion between population and pollution. Awareness. 8. S. Environmental Education. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. T. 3. Publications Pvt. concern for others). (ii) Air pollution. New Delhi : Authors Press. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications.5.\ 4. Providing. New Delhi : Sharma. (2007). Rapid population growth. To provide reference materials for children’s use. population. Modern Problems of Education. Ltd. 4.K.K. Nanda. Social responsibilit y (common good. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. June 5 7. Knowledge. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. over exploitation of ground water. Environmental Education. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. ozone layer deplet ion. To provide materials needed for practical work. a. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Y. S.K. acid rain. sources of pollution. b. 5.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Anmol Publications Pvt. b.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 18.104.22.168 Idealism and aims of Education 22.214.171.124 Idealism and Curriculum 126.96.36.199 Idealism and methods of teaching 188.8.131.52 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and aims of Education 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and Curriculum 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and methods of teaching 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 126.96.36.199 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
188.8.131.52 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 184.108.40.206 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
" Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage.” 5.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. The universe is regarded as a thought process. Spiritual Development. Therefore. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. the emancipation of spirit. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 .” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. promote and transmit it to rising generation. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind.1. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. It is self-realisation. in fact. Education according to idealism.3. man is essentially a moral being. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. enrichment and transmission of culture.our life. Universal Education. moral. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Education must contribute to development of culture. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. According to Rusk'. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. should be universal in nature. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe.
3. So cognition (knowing). The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. 5. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Learning through imitation. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Ethics. So health.” He is thus. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . Learning through questioning. Mathematics etc. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. friend and guide. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. the school is a garden. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. It considers teacher as.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. 5. and collation (striving) should find due place.the spiritual qualities of mankind. Learning through discussion.1. so subjects like Religion.3. History. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. Philosophy. He carries the child from darkness to light. According to idealism. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. The plant can grow. a spiritual guide for the child. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. Science. For this no particular method has been suggested. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. subjects like Languages.1. should be there. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. no doubt. For intellectual development. Learning through reading. an indispensable necessity. He sets the environment in which education takes place. Herbert advocated instruction method. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. Learning through lecturing. 4. So he should embody. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. 2. According to Frobel.3. affecting (feeling).” 5. hygiene. However. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man.
“The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.perfection and beauty. formal lessons or examinations.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. Perfection of Human Machine. 2.1. time tables. In the words of Ross. text books. Ross explains. 5. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. "Education should make 263 • .1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. curricula.preservation. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.
useful and mature child. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. education should develop the child into Joyous.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. In all. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. There is no place for religious and moral education. Therefore. It is based on the psychology of the child. Arithmetic. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. • 5. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Naturalistic curriculum. Literature. Education also aims at helping the individual t. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Biology. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. 4. his interests and inborn tendencies 2.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. It stresses basic sciences. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. rational harmoniously balanced. Botany etc Language. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Chemistry. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. 264 . Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. geography should also be included in the curriculum. “Education finds its purpose.1. is based on the nature of the child. therefore. Punishment is given by nature in its own way.4.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Education should. Zoology. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. subjects like history.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. It discards all rigid. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Learning through experience.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Dalton Plan. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. a provider of an ideal environment. Learning by doing. In the . 5. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. the stage. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.5. Learning through observation. Rousseau says.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology.1. 3. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.4. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.1.4. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation.1. 4. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. he should be taught by experience alone. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. 2. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Heuristic method. 5. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method.
The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. is true. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Social Science. Subjects. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Continuous Growth. All Round Development of an Individual. 5. intellectual. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order.5. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based.absolutism of idealism. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Personal Social Adjustment. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Geography. Sciences.1.1. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. diversified and flexible. History. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Agriculture. Social Efficiency. 5. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Vocational and 266 . Physical training. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. of human personality is in terms of his physical. The aim of educational development. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning.5. social and moral aspects. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism.
Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.” 5. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. The subjects. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. should find proper place. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. alert and resourceful.1.1.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He has to be active. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. a teacher occupies an important position.Technical Education.5. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy.5. a senior partner and a sincere guide. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Learning by Doing. 5.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. He must be trained.
6. 5. Music and Dance.1. Chemistry. Geography are unnecessary 268 . 4. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. 3. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. The basic tenets of realism are 1. practical. It favours child-centered. 3. Mathematics. Literature. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. 5. 5. Astrology. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Art. Population Education. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Psychology. literary or humanistic education. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life.5. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Crafts. liberal.6. rich and happy. Sex Education.1. Biography Philosophy. Biology. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. intellectual. 2. 4. scientific and psychological education. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Education is preparation for a complete living. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. History.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education.1.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Study of Subjects like Language. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. specific. 2. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind.
1.1. easily and pleasantly.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. certainly and clearly. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .6.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
& curriculum. Learning through lecturing.1.1. 5. Geography. Learning through reading. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. 3. Social Science. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. in this lesson. a. 5. History. Experimentation d. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Learning through experience b. Learning through imitation. pragmatism and realism. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. d. Learning through discussion. Rousseau 5. c. Sciences. Education according to pragmatism. 6. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. has no end other than growth. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Agriculture.1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Universal Education 2. Self preservation & Self expression 4. naturalism. b. a. Languages. 5. a. Child centered c.5. Demonstration and Observation 270 .8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Tours / Excursion e.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Self Realisation b. Learning through questioning. Physical training. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. e. Vocational and Technical Education. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim.
Foundations of Education.1. L. Publishing corporation.5. K. (2007). (2004). Theory and Principles of Education. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 271 . P. (2007). Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. Narang C. R. New Delhi : A.P. New Delhi : Bhatia. N. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Ltd.P.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. P.H. of Pathak. (2003). O. Pahuja. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Anmol Publications Pvt.
5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.4.3 Methods of teaching 272 .3.2.4.LESSON 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 220.127.116.11.2.3.1 Aims of Education 5.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 18.104.22.168.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 22.214.171.124 Curriculum 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 126.96.36.199 Views about teacher 5.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.4.1 5.3 Methods of teaching 5.2 Curriculum 188.8.131.52.2.2.3 Methods of Teaching 184.108.40.206.4 Views about teacher 220.127.116.11 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.3.2.2 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.1 Aims of Education 5.1 Aims of Education 5.
2. 5.2. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.2. 5.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.7 5. 273 . “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.2.4 Role of the teacher 5. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.2. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.5. an artist.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.8 5. Tagore was a poet. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. mind and spirit. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. 2.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. Gandhiji was primarily a social. economic and political reconstruction in our country. you will able to: 1.2. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.6 5. content and methods.2. 3.2. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.
His scheme of education is life centred. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education.3. In the words of Gandhiji. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. nor the gross animals body. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. it is education of life. righteousness. mind and soul of children He further observed." Dignity of Labour. 274 .” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. through life and for life. self-restraint and service of humanity. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. It really provides opportunity for character building.2.supporting. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. 'Man is neither mere intellect. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. 5. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. strength of mind. "I attach more.intellectual and physical faculties of the children.
Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. the realization of the ultimate reality. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. metal work. Music. leather work have been suggested.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development .2. Drawing and Hindustani. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. General Sciences. According to Gandhi. wood work.3. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . "Development of the moral character. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Art.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. Only good individual forms a better society. Mother-tongue.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered.Training for Leadership. gardening. 5. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Individual and Social Aims. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue.
What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.3. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Basic education is other wise known as 4.trained. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.2.2. men of 276 . expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. proficient.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.
Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Education must be child centered. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. He also advocates freedom for the child. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. That is why. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.2. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education.3. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 5. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.knowledge. 3.
• Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. • Ideal of citizenship. he was a true Vedantist 5.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. He believed in the oneness of humanity.” Like all other ideals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. 5.2. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He was a true patriot. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.18.104.22.168. • Cult of non-violence.K. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. • Education should involve manual work.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. He was deadly against untouchability. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. Gandhi in 1937. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.
wider in range.Language and Literature . To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. complete manhood could be attained. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. (vi) Philosophy. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Music." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Botany. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. sentiment. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Geography. Chemistry. International understanding.4. It should help. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. etc. Dance. 279 . Tagore said. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. deeper in.2. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. International Understanding. Religion and Psychology. Zoology. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. stronger in power than ever before. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Civics. "Mankind must realise a unity. Therefore. them solve problems of day to day life. the more dedicated and devoted. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. That way only. could help in forging unity among all.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. he said. It should help the learner have good physique.
Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.4." 5. In 1921. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.2.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.” He further says. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. Activity Method Heuristic Method. Tagore rightly says.2. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. 5.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. 5.2.4. 280 . “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”.4.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.
Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. 10. 281 .Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4.g. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. race. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. It is open to all irrespective of country. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. 9. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.
4. Education for strong Moral Character. Purity of thought. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Education should make a person self-reliant. man making.2. 2. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life." He was against the theoretical type of education. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. Education for Self-realization. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him.5. work and deeds come out of it. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Book learning. Concept of Education.” 5. 3. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. character forming and assimilation of ideas. He believed in to learning or selflearning. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking.5. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. According to him.2. Freedom. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Education for Self-reliance. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all.
The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. And above all. Thirdly he wished that games.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Philosophy and Theology. Discussion Method. Education for Physical Development.5. philosopher and guide to the students He. 283 .the learners on different students in the discussion. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses.2. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Religion.2. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. 5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. That will serve the purpose of education fully. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.5. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. Of course. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Every individual should be trained for concentration. 5. The teacher should be the facilitator. Secondly he wanted Science. Swami. 6. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. 5. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. A physically strong person is the need of the society.2. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth.5. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. engineering and technical subjects. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.
naturalist. of course. in this lesson. We have seen that Tagore. and pragmatist . 2. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. 5. ears and eyes.2. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. 284 . The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. 3. legs. Write short notes on Basic education. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. 12.6 LET US SUM UP We have.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. 5. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. Their educational ideas.Substantiate your answer. Gandhiji as a Idealist.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life.
a. c. 5. Basic education. Debate and Discussion Method. 1937 7. 11. Heuristic Method. 3. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. c. e. f. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.2. 2. 5. d. leather work have been suggested. Meditation and concentration c. a.4. Technique of Correlation 6. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. metal work. wood work. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. 9. b. Self realization. Ideal of citizenship. 5. Discussion Method 285 . Nai Talim 4. Teaching while Walking b. 8. a. 10. Activity Method d. Education should involve manual work. a.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. gardening. Activity Method b. Self-Study b. Cult of non-violence. Explain Vishwabharathi. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Learning by Doing c.
9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. N.H. J. Ltd. Pahuja. New Delhi : A. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. L. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Foundations of Education. K and Narang C. N. on Bhatia. 286 . C. New Delhi : Aggarwal.5. K. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.P. O. Theory and Principles of Education. Publishing Corporation. Dhiman. (2002).2. (2007). P. (2003). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2007). (2004). P. B. Anmol Publications Pvt.
3.7 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.9 5.1 5.8 22.214.171.124 5.3. In this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.2 5.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.10 5.5 126.96.36.199 5.11 5.3.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.LESSON 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.4 5.
in the form of new experience. in Russia or in Japan. new behaviour may be acquired. In the words of Kerney and Cook. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. A g o o d curricu lu m. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. In the former sense. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4..3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. 5. curriculum signifies situations for learning. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s .4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. Curriculum is intimately related to education. it is identical wit h socializat ion.3. 5. living in the hilly area. the plain area. curriculum also offers a wide contrast.A.S. the plateau area and 288 .3. in the U. you will be able to: 1. Then in a big country like India. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. While education is learning. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”.under the direction of the school. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Both the processes are integrated. the desert area. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. there is a large number of communities. While education is a process. state the meaning of curriculum 2. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. In it. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences.3. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. is a means to the process. From the latter point of view. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. present behaviour may be modified. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. maintained or eliminated. curriculum.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. in fact . Since the demands.
aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. Again. In fact . A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. environment. Besides craft. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education.3. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. therefore. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. differs from individual to individual. democratic and socialistic country. irrespective of their needs and environment. it is. 5. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. However.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. It must differ from locality and from society to society. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. and 289 . From a slave-country we became secular. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. the learning capacity of children. according to modern trends in the educational process. customs and needs. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. studying therein. too. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment.
Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. specific. They are visionary goals e. etc. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. general or specific. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. aims. 4. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation.3.. They are achievable. Goals of Secondary Education. e. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.. Knowledge Objective.g. Goals of Primary Education. uninspiring and unscientific. So it is inadequate. moral. social. etc. 3. National Integration. individual or Social and so on. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. tangible. They may be ultimate or proximate. e. they depend on the political. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. social. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education.g. They speak of perfect goals.. unambiguous and functional.. which may or may not be attained. 290 . remote or immediate. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. in instructional objectives.. Understanding Objective.g.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. unsatisfactory. The word “Curere” means 2. 2. aesthetic and spiritual development. 5. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made .6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. They speak of immediate purposes of education. Self Realisation. emotional. eg. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. etc. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. of classroom. Application Objective. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. Vocational Efficiency.
“The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. abilities.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. The interests. but it includes the totality of experiences. Crow and Crow remarks. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. heavy fire. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced.” 291 . on the playing fields.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. in the class rooms. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects.3. educationists. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. The old and prevalent curriculum is under.5. needs. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. Raymont rightly says. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. capacities. finding them very interesting and captivating. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. According to Crow and Crow.
urges. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. Due to these variations and differences. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. moral. capacities and abilities. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. aptitudes. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. mental. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. time in a useful manner. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. tendencies. They often waste it or rather kill it. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum.
H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. Similarly.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. 2. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. 3. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. To ensure success of the process. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. phased preparation. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. administrative programme need be planned. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. organized. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. development of professional capability at all levels.curricular. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. 293 . In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework.
5. a. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . 10. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. Run. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Relation with Life c.3. 18.3. 1937 19. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee.3. Child Centred Education b.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. principles of curriculum construction. in the class room. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. 11.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. 17. workshop. laboratory. 12. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. library.
New Delhi : Isha Books. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Curriculum Development. Innovations in Education. P. Curriculum and Instruction. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society.S. S.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. D. Lakshmi. and Sarita Kumari. (2007). (2007).5. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. New Delhi : Authorspress. (2007). N. 295 . S.3. Bhalla.K.
8 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 188.8.131.52.4 5.4.7 Scientific Attitude 5.LESSON 184.108.40.206.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.3 220.127.116.11 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 18.104.22.168 5.10 22.214.171.124 Importance of developing scientific attitude 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 Developing scientific outlook 5.2 184.108.40.206 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.7.1 5.4.
we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons.4. you will be able to: 1. open-mindedness. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. We mean curiosity.4. Gradually. 3. in the economic reconstruction of society. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. newer and newer industries started growing.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations.5. 297 . which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. know the importance of science education.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. 5. tolerance for the opinions of others.4. 2. 4. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. honesty.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology.during the second half of this century. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. explain the concept of scientific attitude. superstition or emotion. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . 5. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.
5. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. as well as of the society. 3. Principles are formulated. 6.4. Love for truth enhances. 5. seminars and symposiums. Devotion towards nature increases. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 4. 7. Through examinations. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Selection for science education. stipends and appreciations in various ways. 5. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs.4. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. 2. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. 4. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Thinking and memory develops. After such experience and training. 2.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. 3. Through newspapers. Schemes of teaching science. Central science workshop. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 6. Promotion of science clubs. Organisation of science fairs. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 5.So that.
a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . Training of science teachers.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon.6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. which is essential for developing scientific outlook.needs and conditions. sex or religion. should provide opportunities to. They encounter many social events as they grow.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. 5.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. It is.4. In the inquiry approach. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. 5. They ask many questions about the objects they see. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. essential that teachers. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. 7. Write any two advantages of Science Education. They experience natural phenomenon. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. After presenting the problem. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. Enquiry teaching is. objectivity. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. For laboratory and workshop techniques. each child to “enquiry skill building”. therefore. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste.
.books.6. 300 . stern pursuit of accurate data. 2. It requires consistent thinking. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook.4. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. 4. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? .Herma Wouk. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Appreciating pupils ideas. 5. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. to ask questions and experience things. Evidence. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. if they like. Giving less directions.4. Adopting creative models of teaching. 5.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. 6.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. commands or orders. test. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. 5. Social sciences.
open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. (Vaidya 2007). Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. 5. The students observation. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science.4. therefore should be unbiased and objective. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. and emphasized during the learning process . The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions.7. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. of vast resources running waste. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. critical thinking and suspended judgments. neighbourhood. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. To achieve this we should understand what it means. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. to develop among the learners. practiced. These include open mindedness. school and society at large. it must be encouraged. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. friends. keen observation.(Smith 2008). For instance.
(Das. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. intuition or wishful thinking”. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. 2007). The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. rumor. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. he studies all aspects of it. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. understanding and logic. 5. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. In considering a situation or a problem. or superstitions. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.4. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. think and work it”.7. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. 302 . Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes.
7. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.7. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.4. • 5.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.4. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. but to begin only after careful planning. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. 5. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.
Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. 304 . Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.4. 5. it must be encourages.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.
A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. N. a. 305 . 5.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Yadav. Vaidya. (2006). M.4. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. Wide reading b. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. a. Study of superstitions d. b. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Rao. b. 5. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. 4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop.5. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. 3. Discuss the importance of science education 14. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. 2. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students.4. a. Love for truth enhances.B (2008). (2008).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. (2000). a. Proper example of the teacher c.4. D. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 16. S. Adopting creative models of teaching.S. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. b. Planning of activities 5. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Reflections on Scientific attitude. objectivity. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.
220.127.116.11. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.2 5. 5.10 5.7 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. 306 .5. actively.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.4 5.5. areas of institutional planning.8 5.5.11 5.6 5. 2. objectives and characteristics.1 5.5 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5. you will be able to: 1.LESSON 5.9 5.3 5.5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5. state the concept.5.5.
3. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. which become the bases for further planning at the district. executive as well as public. • to make planning development-oriented. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. • to involve teachers and school administrators. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. 5. Institution should be regarded as the unit. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. in the task of educational planning. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. and every student in the process of educational planning. each teacher. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly.5. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. teachers and students is not lost sight of. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. and each student are regarded as separate entities. 5. and supplement planning from above. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. and. every teacher. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. • To make institutional planning more successful. every parent. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans.5. State and national levels from below. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 .
Examinations.curricular Activities.5. which will be discussed in the general. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. Classwork. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. it becomes the basis for school inspection. 308 . etc. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. Co-curricular activities.• implemented. council and. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. 5. (2) Co.5. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. and Personnel services. approved after making necessary modifications. Syllabus.
Improving the subject competence of teachers. Preparation of models. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. charts and apparatus. etc. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Improving the internal assessment. Fair distribution of syllabi. hobby-centres. etc. Organisation of Self-Government Days.No. Celebrating of national and international festivals. scientific and historical excursions. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. etc. Organisation of Students’ Association. Conducting of educational. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1. Organisation of Pupils. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Equipping of laboratory and library. Courts. etc.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. etc. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Running science clubs. Editing the school magazine. Preparation of instructional material. 2. 3. Organisation of class-room libraries. Organising play-for-all programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. teachers. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. Administrator-State. and —pupil-pupil. headmasters associations. etc. science teachers’ associations. and solidarity. teacher-managing body. administrator-supervisor. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. teacher-pupil. administrator-pupil. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. pupil310 . The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. teacher-State. parents. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries.” The human relationships in. students’ associations.5.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. involving mainly human materials. ii. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. co-operation. parent-teacher associations. which are divided as the in. administrator-administrator. understanding. pupils. teacher-teacher. teacherinspector. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships.5.
It is also being modernized to become a technique. to carry out. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. social sciences and other disciplines. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. teacher-community leader. now-a-days. pupil-non-official functionaries. control. V. pupil-inspector. It relates to administration of a single educational institution.State. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. supervision.5. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. etc. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to accomplish. Good. organisation and management. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. 311 . and to serve. According to C. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. superintendence. supervision and superintendence. teacher-parent. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. To administer means to manage. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. administrator. It covers personnel and material management. organisation. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. pupil-community leader. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. pupil-parent. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. to attend.
He should be an artist in human relationships. 13. 8. 7. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. 12. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. If it is more. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. Worker Participation .sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. Democratic Management . the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. Motiviation .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. Cost-Benefit Analysis . 2. 4.Management should be efficient and economical 312 .lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . 6. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. Rapport between the Management and Employees .The manager should take his subordinates into confidence.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. Socio-Scientific Approach .This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. 10.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. Those. it is not worth-while. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 5. low. Liasion with the Public . If the cost benefit ratio is less. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. 11.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. who occupy the managerial positions.Any good management will always have good public relations. Decision Making . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. Economic Management .The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. This is the latest democratic trend in management. 3.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. The relationship should change from master. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. Better Human Relationships . Leadership . Communication . 9.The manager should have leadership traits.Of all the approaches.
g.5. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. to improve the quality of education it provides. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. 5. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. 5. objective. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education.too. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. improvement of teaching methods. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. enrichment of curricula.These two are. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. and cooperative performance should be ensured. 19. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 313 . Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions.5. 18. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. 14. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Motiviation d. Leadership c. Fundamental of Educational Management. R. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. c. b. (1995). Communication 5. d. APH Publishing Corporation.5. a. it becomes the basis for school inspection. a. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Decision Making b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. In group and Out group 5. S. H.5. Syllabus. b. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Examinations. a. 2. Instruction. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. (2003). Co-curricular activities. and Personnel services. Tarachand and Prakash.5. b. 314 . NUEPA. Educational Administration.K. Singh. (2001). a. Classwork. 4.M. e. f.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.
CORE PAPER . New evaluation procedures. nutritional requirement.I. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Inspection and Supervision 3.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. 1. wastage and Stagnation 3. Balanced diet. 4.1 School Health Programme. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. Realized the problems of school education. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Code of conduct for teachers.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.4 India's Secular Policy .1 Inculcation of Socialism. Buddhist and Jain system of education. social Impact 3. Examination reforms.3 Educational Influences of Home.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . 2. Communicable diseases .3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.Religious and Modern Education 1. Community and Mass Media 2.teachers should have : 1. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. women education and teacher education in India.Pre-service and In-services facilities. population education.Preventive measures. Economic 315 . Education by Christian Missionaries 1. Preservation of nutrients.3 Directive Principles .2 Secondary Education : Co-education. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .1 Gurukula system of education.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.Article 45 . Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. Sex-education 4. physical education and environmental education 5. Common ailments of Children.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . higher education.1 Primary Education : Education for all. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. Healthy Food Habit 4.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. First Aid. School.5 Regional Educational Development in India .2 Nutritional deficiencies.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.
(2008) Problems of Teacher Education. New Delhi: NCERT 3.K. 316 . Tagore 5. (2004) Problems of Education in India.S. and Mohanty R. (2005) Foundations of Education. Kalan Paper Packs 10. and Dash B. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. Mishra. Naturalism and Pragmatism . Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.Aim. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. Mahatma Gandhi.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5.R. Hemchand. Socialization. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. 5. Realism.C.1 Idealism. 7. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Pandy V.K. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Taneja V.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. and Sharma R.N. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. (1999) Culture. Saraswathi T. curriculum and teacher's role 5. B.K. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.4. Sharma. T.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Curriculum and national goals . Ram S.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.K. REFERENCE 1. and Human Development. Prof.N. Ghanta R. R. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Delhi : University Publications 2. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.4 4.
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