BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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Jainism and their educational implication. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. 9 . and Jain system of education. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. Lesson 5. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. In. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. The need. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. discusses the regional educational development in India. Lesson 2. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Lesson 4.

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1.1.1.4.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.6.1.1.1.5.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.6 Education during British Era 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.6.LESSON 1.1.5.1.1.5 Jain system of education 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.6.1.4.1.2 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1.3.1.1.6.5.5.1.6.1.3.1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.

“a class of persons. 1. That 12 .7 1.1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.3.6.6. India.1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. in morals and in the intellect”.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.1. 1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. but English in taste. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1.1.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. in opinion. has a long past history starting in vedic education. 1.1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. British system of education presented the modern western model.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.9 1. you will be able to: 1. describe the Jain system of Education 4.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. Muslim and British periods. both present and future.8 1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.1. The history of education passed through Buddhist. Indian in blood and colour. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. Education in India. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. elucidate the education during British Era.

The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. from eternal to immorality 2. to light. 6. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. not en masse by the class method. The immediate aim of education. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Method of Instruction. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. religious and spiritual. Teacher as Parents.knowledge was real. 12. Immediate Aim Vocational. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. 9. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Residential Schools. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. the monitorial plan was followed. 14. however. It was not merely intellectual. High Status of Teachers. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. 10. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. Curriculum. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. No State Control on Education. Pupils were taught. questioning by the pupil. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. and to agriculture and trade. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. with grants of land or money. Religious and Spiritual. 16. 13. 13 . 3. Education of Moral. Education was a private affair of the people. individually. Role of Travel in Education. 11. as it is generally considered to be at present. Individual Teaching. followed by explanation by the teacher. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. from darkness. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 4. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. generally. managed entirely by Brahmans. if they thought fit to do so. Free and Accessible. 5. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Forests as Centres of Education. Method of Study. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. There was. 8. Where pupils were many. It was also moral. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil.

Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 .1. Wide-Spread Education in Women. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.17. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. studied Vedas. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It was suited to the needs of the society.3.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They were very cordial and intimate. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. 1. 2. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. lived a life of celebacy.

4. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. in which. had the right to receive education. I take Refuge to Sangh. use of cosmetics.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. disease and death of the human beings. 15 . the handicapped. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. use of intoxicating things. Right activity 5. he was qualified to become a monk. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. Education was imparted through the. taking things without being offered. Right endeavour 7. the student remained in a state of Shramana. It was denied only to the ill. Right means of livelihood 6. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. the student had his head shaved of all hair. 1. which included abstaining from theft. 2. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Right knowledge 2. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. except the Chandals. the most significant of which were the following 1. Right thought 3. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. killing of any living being. dressed himself in yellow clothes. partaking of food at prohibited times. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. impure conduct. I take Refuge to Dharma. Consequently. every class in society. watching dances or listening to music. medium of Pali.1. Right contemplation 1. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. After attaining the age of 20.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Right memory 8. Right speech 4. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. etc.C. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. he had to perform the Pababja ritual.

Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. 6. arithmetic and religious discussion. 2. 5. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. handicrafts. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. has no metaphysical value for life. assumptions. aspirations and. so long as it successfully does so. the science of taming and training animals. etc. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. depth and range. bodily gestures. wear three items. be considered the aim of education It. changing the goals.. nature. 7. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. Later on. medicine. 1. the presence of the monks was essential. agriculture. knowledge of reviving the dead. On this occasion. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. magic. Whatever its nature and extent. archery. animal husbandry. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. It comprehended education in writing. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. women occupied a position inferior to men. nothing is of any permanent consequence. etc. As reality is becoming. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. cottage industries. of clothes.4. however. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. Even at this stage. military science. education was impart in art. 3. a change is not only total but also perpetual.3. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. After this ritual. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. approach. These are called later Buddhist schools. elephant lore. Initially. etc. eat food thrice a day. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. it is regarded as true”. archery. objectives of human life. beg for alms. and. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. control over sensuous activities. Hence. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. meaning. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. a continuous change creating 16 . 8.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. commerce. Life is in a flux. along with education in script writing. 4. geology. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. therefore.

Validity is effective and consequences. In fact. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Jainism insists 17 .new and peculiar situations.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. However. 1. therefore. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6.e. whatever works are true and good. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. i. however. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. and to give it a shape that it has today. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder.1. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. its pessimistic outlook on life. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. Its chief feature.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education must. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Write Eight fold path . and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching.. such as. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. it is much older than the latter. goes to Vardhaman. 5.

1. Development of personality as an individual. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. As such. 10. 3. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 18 . e) To renounce the world.5. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. it has a foot in both the words. d) To lead a celibate life. 7. b) Not utter falsehood. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. and is to be redeemed and liberated.1. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. more stress on individual aims. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. c) Not to steal. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. 8. 1. 3. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. thought and deed. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. 2. rather than the interpretation of the universe. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. They are: a) Not to injure. and believe in happiness to all. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. 4. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. 5. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. c) Right conduct. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 6. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. but on both. 9. Hence. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. b) Right knowledge.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. 2.

1. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 19 . 5. Hence. 2. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. success and love. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. practised and not only aspired for. 8.4.5. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Belief in transmigration of soul. Teaching should be social and tolerant. education should develop sense of discrimination.5.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. therefore. here and now. education must be action based and ideally oriented. that would be socially desirable. Teaching must develop these faculties. What are Triratnas ? . Knowledge is through senses and meditation. Jiva is essentially karmic. 1. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 2. 3. and should bring happiness to all. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. 3. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? .3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

6. and not for life. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.6. 2. 1. North West Province and Punjab. 1. 1. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians.1. science. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.6. primary 20 .1. 1953). philosophy and literature of Europe. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. with rally and rout.6. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. 1. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. However. Bombay.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. Madras. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. To set up separate departments of. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.

He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested.6. Later on.K. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. 1. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. at the primary level.6. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. To ensure qualitative improvement. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. 1.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. • Secondary education. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. namely. At that time M.education was neglected. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. In 1882. 1. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. secondary education became a step towards university.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 .6. The universities dominated the secondary education. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. self-respecting and competent. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. • Universal free primary education. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life.

all children are to have a common curriculum. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions.At the primary stage (6-11 years).1. 10. After this stage. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? .7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education.

Right means of livelihood. Right thought. handicrafts.1. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. It was suited to the needs of the society. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. military science. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. archery. 3. Right contemplation. During the Buddhist period. arithmetic and religious discussion. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. Right speech. Right memory. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. a. Right endeavour.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The system of education was well-organised. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. etc. science and English language. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. 4. 1. geology. 2. 23 . 6. 3. 2.. 4. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era.education of European literature. The immediate aim of education. the science of taming and training animals. b. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. 1. followed by explanation by the teacher. questioning by the pupil. 5.1. education was impart in art. Right activity. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Right knowledge.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. establishment of universities. along with education in script writing.

Right faith. Development of personality as an individual. 9. (2005). 10. J. b. Ltd.7. 1882. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). a. 1937 1. History of Indian Education System. Hence. J. 24 . R. Sargent report 12. Improvement of Literature. Ltd. more stress on individual aims. Right knowledge. Sharma.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. 11. (2009). Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. b.C. Right conduct. a. and Nath. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. (1984). 8. Singh. c. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.K.C. Development of Educational System in India. Aggarwal. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Y. Y.1.K. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva.

7 1.2.2.1 1.3.2.2.3 Kothari Commission 1.3. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.1 University Education Commission 1.3.3.2.2.4 1.5 1.2.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.LESSON 1.2 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2. The 25 .6 1.2.8 1.2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2.9 1.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.2.

conditions of the teachers. standard of teaching. diversification of courses of studies. analyse the progress of education in free India. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. curriculum. Kothari (1964-66) 8. National Board of Teacher Education 10. There had been vast institutional expansion. examination system. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India.2.3. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. New Educational Policy. 1. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. technical.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. vocational education. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6.2. medical and legal education. 1. girls and women education besides primary. secondary and higher education.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. technological engineering.2.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. 1986 1. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. National Council for Women’s Education 5. 2. you will be able to: 1. S.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. explosion of enrolment. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. expansion of vocational. Post-graduate 26 . Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement.

2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. A. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. material and spiritual. utility and financial outlay. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. in January 1985. quality. the New National Policy on Education. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Kothari.2. 1. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission.2.3. 1966. research et. 1986. The Essence and Role of Education. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 .teaching. Education is the key to our allround development.S. 3. the chairman of University Grants commission. Education for Equality.3. 1. National System of Education. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Finally. 1. 2. accumulated over the years. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. Therefore. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. Government of India.3.2. 1952. 4. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. A meaningfully Partnership. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. However. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. D. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. Problems of access. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. quantity.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education.

Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. It can train practical aptitudes. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. By working with hands. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs.” Thus. the concepts of work experience. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. 28 .2. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. the minorities and the handicapped. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. The UNESCO Report. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. attitudes. Thus. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

if he wishes. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. In 1955. The Education Commission." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. “The aim of these colleges. “It may be described. As such. the Commission. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. The Radhakrishnan Commission. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. co-ordinations.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses.” The Mudaliar Commission. With adequate planning. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. Besides. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. it will conduce self. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. According to. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X.

The Central Advisory Board of Education. In addition. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. etc. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. the semester and credit system. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976..ot her. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. raising the special facilities. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. for quality of life in the rural areas. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. admission requirements to vocational courses. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. Therefore. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. the. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. Subsequently. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. With a view to relating education to the life. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. the rigid streaming of courses.

It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. manual work resulting in either goods or services. meaningful. The wave of Basic Education. which are useful to the community. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. who conceived the System of Basic Education.defined S UP W as “purposive. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. aimed at this goal. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. technological courses including Agriculture. felt that education should be centred around a craft. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. According to committee. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Commerce. 31 .2. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. which swept the country for over two decades. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. meaningful. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”.and the world of work. 1. In short. preferably spinning and weaving. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject.. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. which offer scientific. etc. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. giving importance to productivity in the national development. The Father of Nation.

The teachers should make use of. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. 32 . Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. tools and techniques and 3.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. as far as possible. locally available materials and tools. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Culture and recreation 6. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. be that the work involved is: 1. Community work and social service. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Health and Hygiene 2. Productive 2. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Work practice. Educative and 3. 3. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. 4. Shelter 4. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Clothing 5. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Food 3. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Experimentation with materials. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. 2. so that it is educational in essence.

1. removal of illiteracy. the local community should be actively associated. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. Merits of the Programme 1. Education through work The SUPW should. as far as possible. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood.5. 6. Community Service In-1972.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. be allied to the elective chosen by the students.2. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Productive Work 33 . The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. etc. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. inculcate a faith. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. Check on educated unemployed 4. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. It can become an instrument to build character. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. improve discipline. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. slum clearance. To make education more realistic.

the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. Define SUPW 34 . Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. traffic control. offering first aid. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. The community.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. AICTE was set up in year 4.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. if not productive. skills and better future for the children. helping the adults-in productive work. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. in turn. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. should involve itself in the educational effort. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods.

c. 1955 4. manual work resulting in either goods or services.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. e. 1. meaningful. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.2.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. which are useful to the community.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1.2. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 1952 3. Radhakrishnan 2. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. f. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. 35 . 1. 6. a. Dr. 2. d. 3. b. Write short note on SUPW.2.

36 .(2005).D. P. (2005). (2007).K. (2009). R. Anupama. B. History and Problems of Indian Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Singh. and Nath. History of Indian Education System. and Rao. History of Education. Y.P. Y. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Rao.K.C. New Delhi: A. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. A. Ltd.2.P. Development of Educational System in India. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.1. V.K.. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. : Sharma.H. Publishing Corporation. (2007). Amala. J.

It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. assuring its citizens of justice. and liberty.8 1.3.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. 1950.1 1.3.3. for a total of 117. Being the supreme law of the country. establishing the structure. Besides the English version.5 1. democratic republic.7 1. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.6 1. directive principles and duties of citizens.3. 37 . Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. it came into effect on January 26. procedures. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3.3.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. there is an official Hindi translation.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3.2 1.3.3.3. 1949.9 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.1 Significance of DPSP 1.3. equality.4 1.369 words in the English language version.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. containing 395 articles.3.

the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. the Drafting Committee was appointed. with Dr.3. On August 29. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. Through them. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. in sessions open to public. 2. social. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. economic. 1947.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution.In the August 14.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. legal and environmental. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. Dr. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. The Assembly met. According to the constitution. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4.3. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects.3. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. for 166 days. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. administrative. spread over a period of 2 years. 4. 1. understand our Indian constitution. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. Two days later. 1. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy.3. learn the role of central and state government on education. 3. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 1950. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 38 . Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. political. 1947. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. After many deliberations and some modifications. 1. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

That the health and strength of workers. 39 . Organisation of village panchayat. Article 39A. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. Article 43. Condition for dignity of children. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. and shall. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Article 41. and in other cases of undeserved want. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. old age.government. Protecting children from exploitation. The State shall endeavour to secure. Minimising inequalities in status. Article 40. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. men and women. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. The State shall. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. on the basis of equal opportunity. sickness and disablement. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Equal pay for both sex. Right to work. for workers. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. in particular. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. No abuse of children. Article 42.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Equal justice and free legal aid. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. make effective provision for securing the right to work. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Liking wage etc. Protecting health of the workers. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. provide free legal aid.

[declared by or under law made by 40 . Note: Subs. Article 49. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. The State shall endeavour to provide. Article 43A. and. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Article 44. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. work. to all workers. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. Uniform civil code for the citizens. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. by suitable legislation or in any other way. agricultural. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Article 46. in particular. Article 47. The State shall take steps. See also Article 21A). Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. (Original Article 45. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Article 48A. in particular. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. industrial or otherwise. in particular. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Article 45. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. a living wage.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. 2002 for “45. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Article 48. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Participation of workers in management of industries.

Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. 2. as the case may be. disposal or export. destruction. Article 51. 2002. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. Article 45 . Promotion of international peace and security. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 50. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Separation of judiciary from executive. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. removal.Parliament] to be of national importance. disfigurement. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Article-21A Right to Education.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. from spoliation. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. 1. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. may be law determine”.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution.

caste. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. and. iii. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. in particular. from justice and all forms of exploitations. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. his guardian has given his consent thereto. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. 6.” 42 .Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. 8. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. 2002. language or any of them”. 7. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. race. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. and shall protect them. ii. 5. 3. if such person is a minor. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. 4. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes.

9. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the forms.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. & 1. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. The central government determines targets and promotes education. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. 43 . These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. and by drawing. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Educational Reforms From time to time. Article 351 gives importance to 6. wherever necessary or desirable. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. 2. for its vocabulary. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country.

which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. The following pilot projects. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. private agencies etc. 8. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. 4. to achieve the desired ends. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society.. 6. etc. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. 5. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. 7. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. So that they may work well. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. the state governments. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. All India Council of Medical Science. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Local bodies and private enterprise. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. So as to encourage education on right lines. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Production of suitable for children and adults f. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. By starting these projects.3. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 .

3. etc. 3. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. handicapped. 1. education for women. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. 4. research. 11. 9. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. are published by it. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. training and statistics. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. is the state responsibility. reports etc. 10. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. books. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Material concerning nation-wide interests. The 45 . Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. 12. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. 1.

Article 46 4. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. 1. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Write short notes on a.3. 1. 46 . Article 45 b. 5.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. articles in the Directive principles. Article 21A c. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Explain Directive principles 2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 47 . The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article-21A Right to Education. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Article 46 5. a. b. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 2002. 1. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 2002. Article 45 . for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. b. Dr. Ambedkar 2. Article 29 and 30 7. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Clearing House function 9. Development of Hindi Language 6.5. a. 4. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. The Directive Principles of State Policy.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.3. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Describe the educational role of State Government. 3. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. may be law determine”.

Dash. L. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. N. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. S. K and Narang C. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. B.1. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.3. S. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ghosh. Education in Emerging Indian Society. 48 . Bhatia.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. (2004). Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2009). (2007). (2008). K.

3.4.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1. religious education should be broad based.2 1.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4.4. Jainism.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4.4.4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.4.3.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.4.5 1. Buddhism etc.3.4.4 Moral education 1.8 1.4.7 1. Students should be 49 . Christianity. Islam.1 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.6 1.4.

In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. As result of which. Thus. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon.. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. According to E. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. understand the relationship between religion and education 2.D. 1. you will be able to: 1. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. duty-consciousness.4. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. "In A multireligious society like ours.” Education broadens human outlook.4. know the position of religious education in our country 3. In the complicated and complex society of today. integrity.and dedication. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. beauty and goodness so that 50 . it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. India' can produce men of character. state meaning and need for moral education 1.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. religious education and the concept of secularism.

This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. Hence. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. No religious tax can be imposed on them. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values.3. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. According to Article 22. Thus. As a matter of fact.4. it is clear that the State has no religion. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. through religious practices and 51 .1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. religion and democracy are same. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. all citizens are free to follow any creed. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. According to Article 19. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. 1947 we achieved our freedom. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. They thought that any kind of narrow. rancour. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. Children attend these organizations. at least occasionally. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. 1.3. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. 1. realizes God in himself. if not regularly.” From the above. As our country is a country of diverse religions. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. castes and creeds. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. Viewing the defects of religious education. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy.4. In short.

It helps to modify habits attitudes. He also learns about social.. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. which can mould. intellectual and physical faculties of children.teachings. It is religious education. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. when he becomes an adult. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. moral and spiritual values. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). and what is evil. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. Good education. temperament etc. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. As a result of which. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. aggressive. what is done and what is not done etc. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. one fully developed. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. for the development of the individual and the society. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. If unreleased. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. which help him for the development of his character.

we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. 53 .4. which is the basic need of a democratic life. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way.3. Therefore. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. 2. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. This should not be allowed to happen. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. If we open the pages of history.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. 1. towards the society. 3. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4.

churches and mosques 7. examples of patriotism. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. 11. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Gurudwara as. Since all religions have virtues. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Write Article 22 2. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school.4. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 9. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. fellow-feeling. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. stories of moral greatness. Life histories of great persons of the world.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . 10. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. For this. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.5. therefore. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1.

Aparigarha (Non. 8. Cultivation of emotions.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 1. 7. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 6. It they learn what morality is in their early years. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 8. They will play their role effectively. Non-injury. 6.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 5. Fearlessness. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 7. Asvada (Control of palate). 2. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. 3.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 3. Self sacrifice. Service to others. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. the methods of teaching. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Swadeshi (Patriotism). Patriotism. Satyam (truth). they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). 2. 4. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. Purity.4. 1.4. therefore. 5. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Without moral values. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Moral education. Ahimsa (Non-violence). is that which develops moral values. 55 . Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. let men see well of one another. 4. students.acquisitiveness). “Let all be happy and free from disease. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. in the home. The content of the curriculum.

religions may be included in the syllabus. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Discipline. In the school programme. 10. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. 11. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Asatyam (Non-thieving). National unity and Spiritual values. discipline. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Good temper. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. 56 . The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Secondary Stage 1. Efficiency.9. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Integrity. 4. loyalty and self-sacrifice. The School Assembly should be held for a few. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. 1.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. 3. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. 3. 2. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Sharivashram (Physical work). Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction.4. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. minutes in the morning for group singing. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Unity of mankind. Good manners.

5. 4. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year .4. patriotism and self-discipline. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. Silent meditation should be encouraged. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. 2. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. In other words. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. should form a normal part of school programme. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 57 . 3. In this connection. University Stage 1. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. love of humanity.

Sri Prakasa 6 . Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. a. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Discuss the aims of Religious education. 1959 5.4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. 2. a. minutes in the morning for group singing. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. For this. In short. b. b.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. the. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. a. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also.4. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. 58 . To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times.4. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Training of Character 3. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. 4. 2. 1. The School Assembly should be held for a few.1. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully.

(2008). Pahuja. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Siddiqui. M. N.P. 59 . P. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. J. B. K and Narang C. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. N. Anmol Publications Pvt.H. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Dash. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.1. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Bhatia.H. (2004).4. (2003). K. Ltd. (2007). (2008).C.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi: A. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. L. Theory and Principles of Education.

5.5.5. i.1 1. 60 .2 1.7 1.9 1.10 1.5.6 1.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.3 1.5.12 1.5.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.e.4 1. Although.5.5.11 1.5. disparities between provinces/States.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country..8 1.5.5 1.

understand the regional educational development in India 3. they take appropriate measures. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region.5.1. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 6. They therefore. 1.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. 3. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. 5. This leads to separatist movements. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 7. Accordingly.5. you will be able to: 1. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. know the education suited to different environments. roads. etc.5. 1. energy. 61 . Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 4. work hard towards this end. 1. 8. for example. waters. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region.5. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.

The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. and.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. on the basis of regional development may be formed. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. 3. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . some average. while others remained educationally backward. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. • Separate States (of course viable States).6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. some States became educationally far advanced. 4. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. 62 . Tight security arrangements should be made. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. Secularism. Therefore. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided.5. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. 2. There are many reasons for this during the British rule.

the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. Nagaland and NEHU. Guwahati. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. Jammu and Kashmir. etc. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. remained under developed. Mizoram. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Itanagar.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. while some States like Bihar. library buildings. academic buildings.14. since its inception in 1998-99. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. the State Governments. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. 1.84 crore was released in 2005-06. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development.After the Planning Process has originated. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. After the attainment of independence. Out of this. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. the Union Government.g. Funds amounting to Rs.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. and provision of informal education to enable those. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. Silchar. However.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Tezpur. Regional Centres of IGNOU. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.. books.392. These projects are in various stages of implementation. Central Universities of Assam.480.5.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. Rs. NERIST. NIT. Even in each State. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. approved proposals worth Rs. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. scholarships. In the Central sector. 63 . etc.

it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.5. 64 . NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).40. Out of this an amount of Rs. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. Government expenditure on education. Tezpur University.05 crore and Rs.501. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. too.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.261.8 per cent in 05).57 crore and Rs. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.500. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. A provision of Rs. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. During 2003-04.187. Moreover. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west).

Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. too. Listing the positives. pharma. engineering and R&D. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . Andhra Pradesh. Medical education. 1. The Chandigarh Administration. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. English. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. Karnataka. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Tamil Nadu. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. Moreover. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. too. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. health services and welfare of the citizen population. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South.5. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Karnataka. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Kerala and Gujarat. notes the study. too. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). To add to the woes. for which 16 sites. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. for instance. telecom.

a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. For a learner living in a rural area. 66 . and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Of course. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. the needs. The working hours of educational institutions. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. the vocations. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. the working days: an academic .year. even actually looking at the watch. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. Then education become realistic and idealistic. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. in which the learners live. the interests. taking the average in the middle. the teaching methods. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. In the same manner. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. The living conditions. the curricular subjects. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. which a non-tribal person cannot do. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. while the former does not. Hence it is called as need-based. the socio-physical conditions. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. and so on. life-oriented and environment slanted. when he will not be sure of time.

10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. 2.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.5. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. 1. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. to suit education to different environments? 1. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. 67 .5.

5. (2008). remained undeveloped 3. New Delhi: Authors press. Education in Developmental Arena. A. C. Education Scenario in India. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. 60% 1. Educational Development in India.H.K. R. Giridhar. (2001). New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.2. some States have become more developed than others b. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. during the British rule.N. and Nair. Salim. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 68 . S. S. (2002). Dubey.G. (2001). a. some of areas which were under the native rulers.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. 71 . National Integration. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. school community and mass media. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. semi literate and illiterates. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. community development. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people.

4 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.6.2 2.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.5.9 2.6 Education for Secularism 2.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.3 2.1.1.6.LESSON 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.1.7 2.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.8 2.1.1 2.6.5.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .

The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. socialism and secularism 2.2.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. for the people by the people”. 2. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. creed. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. Democracy thus means power of the people. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. socialism and secularism 2. there should be made no distinction of caste. This is the political aspect of democracy.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality.1. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow.1. understand the concept of democracy.1. 73 . The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. socialistic and secular state. colour or wealth.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. 3) Provision of Manual Work. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Abraham Lincoln. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. 2. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. you will be able to: 1. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic.1.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. 74 . 8) Opportunities for Social Service. 2. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Democracy means 2. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. debates. it soon spread all over the world. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. may be planned. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. declamation contest etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. There are different brands of socialism. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at.1. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 12) Visits to Legislatures.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century.. 11) Student Parliament.

2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. service and cooperation. oppression and disparity.5.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. Under it. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low.5. the prince and the peasant.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 2.1. the employer and the employee are all on the same level.1. free from exploitation. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. the wealthy and the poor. 2. but on the path of non-violence. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 7) Special facilities for girls. none high”. 75 .

the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Everyone says. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. "which seeks the development of physical. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. “India is a secular-country.1. 76 . Write any two main features of socialism.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. secularism is being propagated. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders.” In every political and educational corner. 5. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. According to Holydake. 2. 11) State schools.

the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. 9) It stress free inquiry. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. fraternity. In this type of prevailing situations. 3) It permits freedom of worship. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. 5) It implies tolerance. 2. education etc. “Webster further says. There is need of making the people open minded. people have narrow mindedness. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights.6. That is why. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. liberty. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 8) It believes in co-existence.1. A large number of people is uneducated. 2) It permits freedom of religion. During the recent past.1. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. the belief that the state morals. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. People have different religions and they have different beliefs.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. 77 . That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. Equality. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. Moral values have to be imbibed. people started believing in regionalism. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. should be independent of religion.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values.6. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas.opposed to religious education. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations.

tours and trips may be organized. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. In the celebration of each such function. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. 1) Moral Education. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved.6. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. that the central string of all religions is one. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. Religious Education. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. While doing so. 2. In the hands of such teachers. The very sight of the building. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. There should be some internal checking of the material being. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. students belonging to different religions should be associated. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. Patiala. The students may be taken to different centers of religions.1. education. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. No doubt. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow.presented by the students in the gathering. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 .

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Define Secularism 9. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. No doubt. The word “Seculum” means 7. 2. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10.1. The term secularism was first used by 8. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions.

The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 5. 3. George Jacob Holydake 80 . the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. This present age 7. a. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Abraham Lincoln. 2. 6. creed. The students may be associated with the management of the school. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. for the people and the people”. a. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. there should be made no distinction of caste. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. 4. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society.1. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. b. d. Socialism aims at equality. colour or wealth. b. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. c. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Provision of Manual Work.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. 4. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. Tuition free education b. 3.1. In the matter of admitting students in schools. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Socialism aims at social justice. Since socialism stands for equality. Respect of Individual Personality. 5. Power of the people 2. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. a. Equal Opportunities for Admission.

Bhatia. Theory and Principles of Education. should be independent of religion. (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education. b. (2008). N. New Delhi : Pahuja. Dash. 10. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2007). J.8.1.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Mohanty. It treats all religions on an equal footing. L. (2004). Ltd. K. P. K and Narang C. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. 81 . a. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. Ltd. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. education etc. (2003). B. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. a. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. b. the belief that the state morals.” 9. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. N. Anmol Publications Pvt. It permits freedom of religion.

2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.1 2.2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .8 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.2.2.2.2.LESSON 2.2.6.7 2.6.3 2.2.5.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.5.9 2.2.2.10 2.2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.4 2.

emotional. a r e 1. skills.2. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. It involves physical. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. 2. aims and objectives of the school. 83 . therefore. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. 3. application.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. moral.an instructor of school children. social and moral aspects. as persons. as workers. as learners. you will be able to: 1. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. development. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. as citizens.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. A teacher is first and foremost. 2. The developmental roles of children. understandings. as it is t he aim o f modern education. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. mental.2. who are placed in his custody. 2.generation to another. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. and 4. social. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values.

Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. emotionally. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. socially. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. economically effective. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. 2. experiences and acceptance. Teacher as a Citizen Next. He is to become an active member. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. inquisitive. 2. motivated. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. morally. The students live. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. 1. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. a part of their day in 84 . member of his community at the outset. intellectually. and aesthetically to become. culturally confident. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. mental. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers.2. The following are some of such roles described in brief. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. social and emotional health.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. He has to look after their physical. mentally. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. morally. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence.All education should lead to better behavioural development. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. 3. physically fit for socially efficient. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations.

4.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. creeds. faiths.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. solve them. They will be spending with their parents. and most of hours. 2. photographic clubs. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Dr. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. languages and religions. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. activities of the society into which he is born. List out the role of teachers towards community development . India is a land of many castes. It 85 . there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. science club.the school being under the custody of teachers. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. fine art associations.2. Unless. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly.

Re-orientation of the Curriculum. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. The only process is the process of education. should be emphasised. Radhakrishnan. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man.is. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. the study of language and literature. stand up straight. national anthem and other national songs. Nehruji has explained this as. and make into one strong national unit. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme.” Regarding the role of education. b. It should broaden the outlook. the citizens of the Republic of India.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. Let us. At the primary stage the importance of stories. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that .” 2. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. therefore. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. social studies. with straight backs and look up at the skies.2. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. folklore and teaching of social studies. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. ‘We should not become parochial. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. poems. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. Sampurnanand remarked. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 .5. c. narrow-minded provincial. this integration of the Indian people. 1. a.

National Days—January 26. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. 8. militar y training like the NCC. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. 9. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. 10. 5. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. 3. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. educational excursions. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. debates. 6. t he st udent s and t he community. dramatics and youth festivals. symposia. tours. sports. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. 87 . 4. and picnics.different social sciences. Co-Curricular Activities. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Reverence of National Flag. Student Camps. Uniform for School Children. Celebrations of National Days. languages and literature. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Textbooks. ACC. Taking Pledge. 7. Singing of National Anthem. Scouts and Guides. 2. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies.

For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. School Projects. ii. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. iv. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. ways of thinking and doing things. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. v. Recognition of Institutions. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. 16. Admissions to schools. 12. Admissions.11. 14. language. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. region or religion. Open-Air Dramas. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. flora and fauna. 13. 88 . iii. colour.2. 2. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 15. Students Exchange and Tours. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Educational and Travel Documentaries.5. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics.

Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . camps. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . ix.2. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. Community dinners. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Define National Integration 3. irrespective of national boundaries.vi. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. viii. 2. cultures and races on equal bases. vii. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes.

Organising of debates and.as important as that of a national citizenship. the international level. C. often in connection with anniversaries. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. 5. 3. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. of his body and mind. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. 6. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live.2. Therefore. Strong has observed. (c) fairly tales.6. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. 4.” 2. This. (b) stories of children of other lands.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1.6. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Dr. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies.2.e. Teachers 90 . patriotism is not enough.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.F. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. In a very real sense..friendships between children of different countries. Radhakrishnan states. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. that war. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. therefore. 2. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. and the healthy development. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. if it happens.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. 2. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs.

Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Impartial in their Treatment. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. a German. Russian. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. an Englishman. They should not be propagandists.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Indian and American. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew.” Well Informed About World Situations.

there is wide spread frustration among all people. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves.2. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. Defects of the educational System . The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. and help the students to over . Chronic Poverty . Devaluation of Values . If this is done.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. the education function can be carried. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. leading to. which results in agitation and aggression language. Wide Spread Frustration . 5. majority of people are. 3. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. 2.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . understand and indiscipline: 1. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.2. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. 4.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. It does not prepare students for life. As the school is but a miniature society.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.Another major.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly.

It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination.democratic nature.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. 5. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. 93 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . love. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. 3.2. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. 4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. co-operation. community development. sympathy and good will among the nations. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. etc. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. fellow feeling. 2. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 2.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. art galleries. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Museums. periodicals. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.3. In fact. Crow and Crow write. “All the citizens of the community. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. To make them achieve their aim. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. led to the printing of books. Define community. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. During the course of time. Hence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders.V. He taught his students orally. Emphasising this thing. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Now internet is being used. 2. Then came newspapers. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. are increasingly used in education. Moreover. the invention of the printing press.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. books. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times.

the place of importance. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. the teacher still occupies. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. rather than on picture. for the teacher through school broadcasts. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. It is also an important source of entertainment. Students listen various talks. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. Various talks. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. Reynolds. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. languages.G. It enlightens public opinion. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Thus.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. A lot of work by way of pre. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. social studies. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and.3. In the emphasis is on sound. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded.6. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. current affairs and other areas. politics. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. dram appreciation. Important happening inventions. 101 . Thus. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. It stimulates curiosity and interests. In collaboration with the experts. art. Effective means of presenting music. 2.classroom teachers. “Listening participation” in current history. 2. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. music. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching.telecast. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication.

at recreational centers. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. 4. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. development of lessons. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. informal and non-formal education. Participation of local teachers and pupils. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. 5. audibility and presentability. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. 102 . Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. at play. at any place. School concerts.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. At present. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. travel talks. mathematics. plays. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. 3. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. projects or creative activities. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Making learning an open system. at drawing room. Before presenting the programme. Team-teaching demonstrations. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. fol classical music. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. style. speech. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4.4.6 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4.4.4.2 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.4.8 2.4.4.4 Limitations of formal education 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .3.4.4.1 2.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.3.7 2.4.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.4.4.4.4.LESSON 2.4.4.3.3.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.5 2.

4. 5. Education. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. 8. you will be able to: 1. the most important agency of formal education.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan.4. 2.2. 9. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. 6. 2.4. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 4. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. open university. the learner are acquainted.3. it was mostly.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. open school. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. compare formal and non formal system of education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 110 . starting and ending at -a particular age. the family. 3. imparted at the residence of the teacher. In ancient time in India. School is. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 2. the mass media et. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. his mental alertness. Education organised by some agency. 3. 2.. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. say the Government or the private enterprise. Education associated with a degree or certificate.4. the community. 7. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. 4. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. the temple. To realize this objective of education. 2.

Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. Higher Education: Higher education. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. depending on the jurisdiction.4. In general. Concepts of proportion. as well as vocational education and training. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation.4.2. 2. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.a secondary education. third stage. or academic degrees. capacity. also called tertiary. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Some education systems have separate middle schools. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Through early formal education. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them.3. such as a high school or secondary school. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.3. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. the elements of language are first learned. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. diplomas. or post secondary education. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. structured education. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 .

Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. late beginners etc. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.3. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. 2.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped.which will help for nation's development. 2.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . Write any two characteristics of formal education? . What are levels of formal educational system? . children with disabilities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. is an important agency of formal education. Agencies can be classified as 2.4. and remote dwellers. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. 3.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.

This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. systematic. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. Open university. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. to help themselves. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns.. it is a more effective tool for rural development. place of instruction. until 1970 it had not been defined. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.learning client take some learning objectives. Adiseshiah.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. planned. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. open learning. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. adding up to a true learning society. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. staffed. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. “Non-formal education should 113 . It is functional. It unlocks the doors of development plans. one could say that non-formal education is an active. admissions. it has its own valid claim to reality.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. i. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.e. Thus. systematic. However. Therefore. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. curriculum. continuing education and on the job oriented education.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. Non-formal education includes adult education. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. It is deliberate. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education.formal education. financially supported life formal education. It is much more responsive to needs and change. adults as well as children. According to Malcolm A. etc. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems.

To develop in the student. Lawrence. Process of sharing.” 2.be marketable and vocationalised. 5.e. the Ideas of citizenship.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.4. admissions. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.learning pattern. Preparation for future needs. age.4. place of education.S. 7. 2. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. It should lay emphasis on the self. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. curriculum.renewal. To help industrial workers to better their skills. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. 2. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 3. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. socialism. exploring. i.4. evaluation etc. Flexibility in various aspects of education. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. national integration. self. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.” According to H. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. co-curricular activities. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. 114 . 4.4. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. 6. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. international understanding.S. Part-time education. modes of teaching. Covering life span of an individual.

6. 3. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. Technical.4. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 10. To offer Secondary.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society.4. working adults. Universalisation of primary education. 7. Eradication of adult literacy. • 2. school dropouts. 2. 4.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. in villages and those who live in towns. 5. 8. Meeting the omissions of formal education. 9. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 2. Senior Secondary. 115 .4. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. 5. 4. publication and information dissemination. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 3.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances.4.

It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. self-employment iii.full time to learners – can be home. Therefore. public libraries. 3.4. farm. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. etc. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs.4. effective in modern societal context. Institutions for formal education. etc. To increase knowledge and 2. others are formal and informal. centres of correspondence education. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. 2. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. if organised in isolation.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. training centres in factories. 4. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. open space. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. To make if. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. 2. factory. All-round development i. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. Radio and television. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . Again. library..4.2. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. To better qualifications.

. 6. Correspondence lesson. Define non formal education. 7. radio. Give examples of non formal education? . Teaching to face teaching. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning.V. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Lecturing T. List out any two aims of non formal education. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Written tests. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. . Face Contact programmes. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. institution. 117 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

The school. the college and the university come under this category. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. b. 4. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. 2. 5.” 6. 4. Formal and Non Formal 2. 3. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. systematic. a.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. b. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Primary level. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. 2. 7. a.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Higher Secondary level and University level. 2. adults as well as children.4. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Explain the different levels of formal system of education.4.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Open University.2. Pre-school level. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Secondary level. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. 118 . Open School. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. School 3.

Bhatia. Mohanty. N. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2003). (2004). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). Ltd. Ltd.C. New Delhi : 119 . (2005). N. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2007). Dash. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.4.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. B. Gupta. K and Narang C. K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008). Pahuja. J. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. Theory and Principles of Education. P. S. Education in Emerging India. L.2.

5.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.4.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.3.3.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5.2 2.5.3 Objectives of Open University 2.4.4.7 2.4.5.4 Open University 2.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.4 Need for Open University 2.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.5.3.6 2.5.5.5.5.5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.5.5 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.4.1 2.LESSON 2.3.5.5.

It is a continuous process. labourers and half educated individuals. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. industries. continuing education is a boon.2. Any person.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. It is a lifelong process. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education.5.5. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. However.3. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. For them. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.5. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. give the meaning.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. Under these circumstances. farmers. This knowledge may be in political field.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.5. you will be able to: 1. economic field or such other fields. know the need and objectives of open university. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . 2. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. Thus. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. 2. characteristics of open university 4.

Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. After the achievement of independence. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. On the other hand. For them too continuing education is essential. Persons engaged in health services. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Cinema.directly related to his job. Block Development Officers. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education.3. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . Throughout the country. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education.5.V. cultured and progressive. 2. Radio and T. T. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. On the other hand. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Thus. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. are also contributing their might for the purpose. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas.literate person. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Doctors. Radio. deteriorating to his character and personality. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs.V.

4. 2. (16) liking.3. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (8) psychology of adults. Of course. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons.V.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. 2. 6. 5. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (15) music.5. (17) modern international and national events. (7) folk songs. Inspite of the great efforts. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. 7. 123 . (4) the fundamentals of economics. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases..3. (6) folk stories. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. especially women.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. habits of people of other lands. (1) ancient history. (14) information about bringing up young children. 2. we have not been able to achieve our targets. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. These books are not very useful. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. and Radio. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (10) first aid. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (2) basic religious matters.5. (13) psychology of child behaviour. 3.

4.5. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y.5. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. attendance restrict ion. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. 2. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. lack of time etc.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. NLM was launched in the year 2. of educational opportunities.

It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. its education is not class room based but home based.4. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. 2. d. Which was the first open university in India? . Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . 5. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. 3. but 125 .2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. c. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. IGNOU was established in the year 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. 2. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. No one is too old or too late to learn. Education is not a once for-all process. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a.unobserved. b. it makes use of educational techno logy. e. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. 4. the higher the degree of openness. and in teaching.

126 . He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. 5. Mo re o ver. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. or who realised too late that they need it. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. supplementing the existing provision. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. 2. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. it a ims at wider and hig her. 4.5.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 2. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 2. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. cho ice o f co ur ses. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 6. 4. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 2. 3. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities.5. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”.who did not get it.4.4. 3. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n .

2.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Laboratory works. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Every day. 6. Tutor Comments. Correspondence tuition. In the present day world. List out any four methods of Open University? . semi – literates. 1.5. 127 . you have learnt the concept. 5.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.4. school drop outs. a state or nation.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y.2.5. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 2. Self instructional materials. 8. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 4. a society. 8. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . Therefore. 3. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual.

3. a. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 2. b. Television Lessons. 4. agricultural and industrial workers. aspirants for continuing education.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. 2.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. which may include house wives. (4) the fundamentals of economics. a. youth. 7.5. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. 1988.5. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 8. 128 . (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening.ambitious learners. a. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. Broad casting lectures c. unskilled workers and other professionals. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. cho ic e o f co u r ses. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 6. b. d. Explain the objectives. its education is not class room based but home based. (2) basic religious matters. 9. need and characteristics of Open University. 8. 7. (1) ancient history. 1985. P r int med ia b.

.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Modern Problems of Education. (2001). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. S. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. (2004). Udaiveer. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K and Narang C. New Delhi: Rajat Publication.2. (2007). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.5. 129 .S. L. (2004). Recent trends in Non Formal Education. K. Reddy. R. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.K.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. which may claim the attention of those concerned. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. All which is the need of the hour. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. 133 . the education of women. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. Training teachers for all levels of education. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. its causes and remedial measures. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. examination. Examination reform. In Lesson 2. and teacher education. wastage and stagnation.

134 .

2 EFA – How? 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.1. 135 .1.2 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1 3.8 3.6 3.1.1.5 3.3.LESSON 3.7 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1 EFA – For whom? 3.3 New initiatives.1.1.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1.1.1.4 3.1.3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.

know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). may be political. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. understands the country. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. social. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. therefore. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.3. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. Continuing Education (CE) 1. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. 3.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. (EOI) 2. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). 2.1. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly.1. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. On the other hand.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. economic or cultural. Eradication of Illiteracy. “The State shall 136 . directed that. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). you will be able to: 1. education received added importance and significance. Therefore.

the national Government under. Universalization of Enrolment. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Universalization of Retention.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. It enables the parents to send their children to School. 137 . the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Therefore. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Continuing Education (CE). The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. After the attainment of independence. Three Stages for Universalization. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. rights and responsibilities. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves.endeavour to provide. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. 3. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Even then we have not yet achieved the target.

Therefore. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. 3. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India.1.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. 138 . We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. 1995 (for upper primary stage). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. later to 1988. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. 1990. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. This target had to be revised to 1970. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. educational enterprise.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write Article 45. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. UNESCO Bulletin states. present and future. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. then to 1976. It is safe to assure.

Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Education of Girls. nutrition education and sports and games. rural areas. 6. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. sex. 139 . their social economic status and occupations. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. Jams and Jellies. 5. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 12. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. their enrolment and retention. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. The Social Education. By undertaking survey. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. Apart from primary education. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. creed. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. problem of literacy. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). slum areas. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. 11.1. 3.3. Emphasis must be given on health education. NAEP. Education of the Impaired. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Disabled. etc. and Women’s education programme should be improved. 3. 9. 8. adolescent and adult. 10. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. FELF. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Early childhood education should be streamlined. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2.

Wastage and Stagnation.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.3 NEW INITIATIVES. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.e. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Expand MLL and SSA . 4. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.3. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.1.1. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4.

The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.first stage of education. Personal Factors . Social Factors . it is considered as wastage.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. Familial Factors . School Factors .

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. . 7. Define Wastage. 142 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. .

They are described hereunder :1.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. school or society.The following factors.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . rural or urban 3. relating to home. Personal Factors . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. Societal Factors . a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. School Factors .5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.1. Family Factors . in his home. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.3.

mid-day meals.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. 144 . stationary. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. Define Stagnation? 9. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . etc. uniforms. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Universalization of Retention 2. a. “The State shall endeavour to provide. 4.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 145 . directed that.. Hartog Committee. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. 2. 4. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. 6.3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. Universalization of Provision b. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community.” 3. b. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. therefore.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 3.1. improvement of curriculum. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. Universalization of Enrolment c. a. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. a. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 3.1. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Minimum Levels of Learning b.1. 3. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.

Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Hemchand. Social Factors 8.7. T. Problems of Elementary Education. Sharma. S. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. 9. Personal Factor b. Crescent Publishing Corporation.K. (2008). 3.1. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers.K. (2001). (2007). introduce graded curriculum.N. School Factors d. Familial Factors c. b.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. improve examination system. a. New Delhi: 146 . a.

5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.LESSON 3.5.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2.5.4 Question banks 3.1 Problems of examination 3.5.4.2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2.2.2.3.7 Let us sum up 147 .4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2.5.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.4.2.5.2 3.2.2.4.7 Open book examination 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2.2.2.5.5.2.3.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.1 3.2 Grade System 3.6.5 New evaluation procedures 3.2.2.2.

2. you will be able to: 1.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .2. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . 3.2.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.8 3. but on the other. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. 3. 4.2.2.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2.3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. 3. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.2. Besides. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. 3. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. suggest the new evaluation procedures.9 3.

2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. The following steps should be taken up.. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. 3. etc. They develop secondary sex characteristics. etc. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each.2. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. roadside Romeoism. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions.3. They may cause problems relating to discipline. If the students are in sufficient number. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. hostel facilities. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. which the educational authorities have to face. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. waiting rooms for girl students. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. etc. schools for them wherever necessary. 149 . 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances.

The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them.2.2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. public administrators and statesmen.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. appointment of paper-setters. the examination system has an important role to play. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. assessment and Finance. public interested in education. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. Instruction. 150 . It is considered as a major sub-system. teachers. conduct of internal examinations.

introducing objective-based testing. establishing reliability. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. examiners. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness.printing and distribution of question papers. etc. etc. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. etc. tabulators. etc.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. 3. etc. training of examiners. validity and practicability.2. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. values. invigilators. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. scrutinizers.4. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. announcement of results.

6) With reference to scoring procedure. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education.. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. takes the place of comprehensive learning. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. may also discredit them. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. halo-effect. 7) In connection with the question papers. do not appeal to the students and parents. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. Vagaries in making. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. Rote memorisation. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. 2) From the angle of content of education. stereotyped questions. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. 3.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc.. Subjects.4. lack of objectivity etc. 152 .3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. it s a common experience that subjectivity. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. 3) With respect to method of teaching.2.. which they are expected to study.

List any two merits of examination. etc. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. re-numbering of answer scripts. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. . Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations.a part of internal assessment. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Spot valuation.develop true love for education. revaluation. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. 4. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. 153 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. may be introduced.. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools.

therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. he is given extra credit points.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. When a person chooses to work extra. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests.3. It is complicated. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. skills are given importance.2.5. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. Their interests.2. The students can take any course offered in any department. The new scheme of assessment. In this system. 3.2. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. attitudes.5. In actual practice. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Every paper is treated equal. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .

courses can have weightages defined. In the new system. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. While designing syllabus. This system reduces comparison of marks. Groupism is encouraged. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 .2. or as a 4 credit course.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120.poor.good. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. These weightages are called credits. 3.5. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits.discipline. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. poor. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. only the total credits to be earned is specified. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. An example is a seminar. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. v.

there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. However. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.2. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. 156 . Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 3.5. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.2. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. 3.5.2.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.5. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. 3. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.

Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. List any four new evaluation procedures. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. However. In the hierarchy.3. There are no proper procedures for selection. recruitment.2. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. Therefore. 6.5.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . . 3. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

being realised as two different functions. taking up the follow-up programmes. staff. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. 3. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. Academic inspection. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. inspecting the class-room teaching. laboratory equipment. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. finding out the adequacy of. complaints and compliments. wherever necessary. submitting of the inspection reports. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. 158 . of late. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. When they are fully realised. whether the syllabus has been covered. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. etc. in a sense. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. library books.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. school buildings. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. playgrounds. in contrast. They are. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. qualifications. requirements. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties.6. books are followed. etc.qualified personnel.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. interpersonal relationships and so on.2. finding out whether the prescribed text. 1.. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning.. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. disciplinary problems. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work.

recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. In the case of departmental candidates. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. once in five years. aptitude. courses. 159 . or. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. at least. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. course in either educational. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well..2. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. modern. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo.Ed. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. Insistence on specialisation in the B.Ed. their professional knowledge. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose.. In the light of these conceptualisation. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. 3. M. Similarly.

b. d. 3. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. b. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. 160 .2. 2. c. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 3. 3.2. 3. 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. b. 4. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. assessment and Finance. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Grade System. Instruction. a. Administration. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. examination reforms and supervision and inspection.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5.

2. b.a part of internal assessment. Open book examinations. S. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. a. a. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. History and Problems of Education in India. Problems of Education in India. 3. c. (2005). 5. Vaidya. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. (2004). Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. b. (2002).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. K. Multiple sets of question paper. b. R and Sharma. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. a. New 161 . Question banks. K. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. 7.4. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Educational Reforms.

3.4 3.3 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2 3.3.10 3. 3.9 3.5 3. identify the needs of rural India and social.8 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3.3.3.7 3.6 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3.3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.LESSON 3.3.3.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. analyze the general and vocational spectra. you will be able to: 1. 5.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3. 3. 2. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3. 162 . 4.3.1 3.

10 years of general Secondary Education. in Andhra Pradesh.e. Similar is the case with some other States. The. 2. 8 years of general education. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination.. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. Commission emphasised to continue. University Education. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course.specialisation programmes 3. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education.. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines.g. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges..3. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses .e. The Calcutta Madras. etc. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. e. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 .3. Consequent on the recommendations. the Banaras Sanskrit College. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. i. and 3 years of First Degree Course.

so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. to imbibe. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage.confidence in students. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. historical. 5) to help for the social. social. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 3.a sense of dignity of labour. 5. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self.3. b. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. However. 6. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. cultural and economic development of the country. 7. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . educational channels. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. who desire to change from one stream to another. 8. and. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. to prepare. 10. economical and political. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. is also a plus point . Provision for transfer of credits to students. habits of hard work and develop .

because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. The General Educational Spectrum. social justice. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students.. Psychologically. and that required to enter the tertiary level. and. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. to develop national character. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. 3. at the other.3. international understanding. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. Sociologically it is undesirable. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. Philosophically it is not the conception. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. democratic living. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. on one hand. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. cooperativeness. etc. cultural and' religious tolerance.national integration.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. 1. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies.

adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. horticulture. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. Science. 3. rural health. commerce. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. physics or mathematics. Biology. technological. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. professional. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. 166 . Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. In the vocational spectrum. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. and vocations based on dairy-farming. industrial agricultural production is growing. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage.3. medical plants. Commerce and other disciplines. such as Agriculture. fish culture. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. All these need for an. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. commerce. chemistry. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. Agriculture is the main occupation. educational and cultural services. In the matter of language. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. 2. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. or other machinery. technical. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. In our country. vegetable growing.— tube-wells. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. the rural areas have suffered very much. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. India is a land of villages. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward.

interests and aptitudes of the students. 4. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States.etc. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. There had been favourable reaction from the students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. In this way. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . social justice. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. the local resources available. can be ensured. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3.. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream.3. In this it may be concluded. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. In time. and the needs. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. and 5. 3.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India.

b. S. Dash.3. Mohanty. J. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. 3. b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. we studied the history. to imbibe. objectives. N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.a sense of dignity of labour. Calcutta University Commission 2.3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. J. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2005).3. (2007). to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Vocational Sepctrum. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. habits of hard work and develop . General Educational Spectrum and b. (2001). (2008).8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.K.3. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. 3.C. 3. a. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.3. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 2. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. a. a. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. 3. B. New Delhi : 168 .

4.4.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.4.12 3.4.6 3.4.8 3.4. social and 169 . Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.7 3.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.11 3.2 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”.10 3.9 3.4.4.4.13 3.1 3.LESSON 3. Education contributes to human development.5 3.4.3 3.4.4.4.

Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. These courses were. economic. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. 3. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. although we have miles to go. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. analyze the women and distance education. Dr.4. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. Nursing. Home Economics. higher education of girls developed immensely. particularly 170 . A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity.higher education in particular. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. While women constituted only 9. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. community and nation is universally acknowledged. The relevance of women’s education to social. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. For the first time in the history of India. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. During the year 1937. In the post —independence period. you will be able to: 1. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. There is a close connection between education and development.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. Teaching and Fine Arts. Education . known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .4.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. family. 3. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. cultural and political development of the individual. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom.

3. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.0 43. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . The idea of women’s education for equality.women. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.N. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. Mother Teresa Women University.2 22. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. out of 9200 and odd colleges. in our country. we have more than 1200 institutions. In the rest of the country. 3. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Coimbatore.65 lakhs in 1994-95. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. levels and professions. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.0 16.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.9 27. Even today. In 1950-51.4. Mumbai. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. Kodaikanal. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.0 32. Yet.4. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.2 29.1 24. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.D. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.T Women University. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.4.0 Today.1 31.9 14.

1 respectively.44 35. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.73 10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.that of boys.63 Female % 34. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.17 52. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.56 64.54 12.34 33.36 3.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .53 34.4%) prefer Arts subjects. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.47 65. 3.4.46 82. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. 3.4.66 66.83 47.27 89. 2.1 and 14.4.

Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. and coeducation may spoil her character. irrelevance of the content of education. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. particularly. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. In every third family. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. promoted and increased. 3. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. The major hurdles. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. what is the need for higher education for her. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. Book banks should be established. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. distance of the college or university from home. In college. etc. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law.4. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. 173 . curriculum not suited to their requirements. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. Also. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. she will only learn fashion. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. They gave up their studies to enter home life. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities.hinders the girls from getting higher education. According to a survey. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. marriage is a very common I factor. financial difficulty of the parents. Thus.

It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. and the limitations of the conventional education system. 3. which is the most dynamic factor of development. 3. There are constraints of time. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. It is a productive investment. Education.4.economic disabilities faced by women. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. It also brings about 174 .Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. space. Full-time employment. is the only tool for realising empowerment. It enables to study. resources and socio . because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Distance education is a boon to women. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life.4. Empowerment in a nutshell. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. Geographic distance of educational institutions. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.

Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. The major objectives of women's higher education. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. for full development of our human resources. Women are partners in development. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated.4. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . higher learning. legal awareness and economic independence. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. This can be achieved through reflection. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. Empowerment is an active. on their own. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. education of women is of paramount importance. empowerment means being assertive. 3. education of women must be given priority in national plans.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment.

176 .2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. Scholarships and concessions for women.4. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. But their number is small.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. 3. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. who are eager to take up courses. will encourage them to venture new grounds. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. has to be implemented at the earliest. The local administration. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. which is pending for a long time. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. The educational institutions. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. especially so in the developing countries. which had been the sole domain of men. Reservation for women. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Better opportunities. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad.

Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . talents.1%) and architecture and building (38. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. According to Lindy Hyam. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100.000 women in the country. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management.8%).She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities.9%). Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Australia. IDP Education. Also. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. Chief Executive. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.4.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. 3.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. engineering and related technologies (16.. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. especially in developing countries like African countries. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. capacities etc. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.3 percent. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. But. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.

“Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. 178 . New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. A.4. individuals and society b. 4. (2000). (2008).C. Women Education. Coimbatore.4. a. S. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. R. S. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Rao. Mother Teresa Women University. 3. and Suryalatha. Mishra.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. 3. R. Coimbatore. Women and Education.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. and Swain. Annakodi.K. R. Centre for Women’s Studies. SNDT Women’s University. Mumbai.R. Rajasthan 5. 2. community and the nation. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Kodaikanal. create the right attitude towards life. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Pattanaikj. SNDT Women’s University. Women Education.to the family. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. (2007). 3.4. A. 43% 6. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. Mumbai. (2005).

12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.8 3.7 3.5.5.personality of children in and out of school. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.11 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.LESSON 3.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5 3.9 3.5.2 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5.1 3. whole.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.5.6 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5. They should be trained.4 3.3 3.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 . As is the case with others pursuing different arts.10 3.

2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. know the pre service and in service training facilities. understand the training teachers for Primary. 3. equality and justice. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. national consciousness. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. and national character. social and emotional integration. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2.5. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. international. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 3. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. you will be able to: 1.5. Shorter working hours.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. understanding and strong desire for international peace. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. 180 . Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. 4. Lack of physical facilities. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. 5. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.

2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . higher secondary teacher education. who have not been trained earlier. the state Government. 3. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. and M. Lop-sided curriculum. the centre. it is called the Extension teacher Education.5. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. At the diploma level.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. (NCERT) New Delhi. etc.. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools.Less qualified teacher educators.Ed. a Diploma course and a Degree course. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. Depending on the levels. Inadequate training in practical skills. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. levels.Ed. the secondary teacher education. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. it is called the In-service teacher education.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. If the student teachers are working teachers.5. the primary teacher education. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. inservice and extension education programmes. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. 3. students. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. and the collegiate teacher education..

Science Education units..5. Education cells. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. depart ments etc. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. are established. extensio n service. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . collegiate cells.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Expand NCERT 2. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Educational teehnology cells. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . state Institutes of Educat ion. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. non-formal. Also Guidance Bureaux. etc. Evaluation unit.

Ed. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B..• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. audio visual aids. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. despite its vast expansion. to ensure teacher competence. which should include experience in the primary schools too. laboratories.. which help breaking isolation from one another . • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . and 183 . to improve curricular programmes. schools and sister institutions. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. to offer consultative services. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. material conditions relating to libraries. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. to prescribe conditions for recognition.. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. should be improved on a top priority basis. and so on.Ed.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . degree. primary and secondary school teachers.

ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Agriculture. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. Hence. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. etc. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. etc. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Workshops. Modern Techniques of Teaching. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Meanwhile. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Organisation of Content Courses. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. Modern Methods of Evaluation.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. though no pre-service training. Induction Courses. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. To meet this exigency. not came up once again. The problem. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. and XII. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. whether they should have professional education or.secondary education. Psychology of Students. methodology and evaluation. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. 184 . the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen.

and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. (Education) are organized by 185 . For re-orienting the teachers. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. 3. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.S. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.’s for Ph... for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. M. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. All B Ed.Ed. in Education. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.5.A.. Degree.Ed. (Education) and M. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.A..Ed. Courses leading to B.. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . Pre-service training is for those.’s are elig ible for M. training. Degree and M. These facilities are available for regular students.Ed. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.Ed. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B..7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.D. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Post-Graduates also undergo B. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. courses and M..Ed. Ajmer. State Institutes of Education. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.A.. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. of conduct—written or unwritten. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. 5. 4.). (Ed). Hence the employability of M. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.A. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . 3. 186 .. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. (Ed. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. However. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. What is the role of ERIC? .some Faculties of Education of some Universities. . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . they should be conscientious . and B. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. established by tradition and teachers of the past.5.

Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. 4. 2. Ajmer. b. 3.5. Shorter working hours. a. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. they should be conscientious. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. National Council of Educational Research and Training. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 4. 3.5.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. Dearth of new technology of teaching. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. 5. However.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time.5. 2. 3. Bhopal. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. The necessity is however this.3. a. 3. a. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Explain code of conduct for teachers. b. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 6. 187 . Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities.

New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. B. and Teacher Education. Ltd Aggarwal. Tewari. A. Mohanty. Publication Pvt. Teacher Education.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda.D. (2003).N. Corporation.5. (2009). New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . Teacher Education. (2010). J. P.3.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. In lesson 1. the focus is on the school health programmes. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. nutritional deficiency diseases. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. consuming the right amounts becomes important. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. Since food is the source of nutrients. economic and educational developments. objectives. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. 191 . The person’s environment is equally important. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. In lesson 4. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. objectives. common ailments of children. If the diet is poor. objectives and role of the physical education. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. communicable diseases and their prevention. preservation of nutrients.

192 .

3 4.1 4.1. 193 . for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. physical.1.7 4.9 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody.11 4.1.1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1.1.1.6 4. mental.4 4.1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.2 4. It is a miniature society. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.8 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1.10 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.LESSON 4. emotional and social.5 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.e.

to his family and to the community at large. To develop certain skills concerning health. 2. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. list the common ailments of children 3. training of teachers and evaluation. 8. 6. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. 9. 3. know the need for sex education.1. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. To develop healthy health habits among children. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. content of health education. 4. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. explain the importance of First aid 5. 5..School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student.g. 7. training in first aid and etc. 4. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. e. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 10.1.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. understand school health programmes 2. 194 . you will be able to: 1. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To give information regarding health rules. 11. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 4. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. Instruction. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. cleanliness and healthful living.

The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. The surroundings of schools should be clean. inoculation against cholera. proper doors and windows. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. (vi) nutrition education. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. “Play-for-all” programmes. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games..G. is imperative. as described below 1. There should be regular water supply. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. ( iii) sanit at io n. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. vaccination. (viii) first aid. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs.. The flooring should not be damp. 5. excusing late. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. direct lighting. Arranging better transportation facilities. The school buildings should be spacious. cleanliness weeks. 3. B. 2. Triple Antigen Vaccination. play festivals. organisation of school health days. Vaccination for small pox. First aid facilities should be made readily available. etc.C. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. minimizing the travelling distance. suitable furniture. (xl) mental health. (ii) communit y healt h. 2. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. typhoid.coming or absence.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. (xii) smoking education etc. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. (v) safety education. There should be good drainage facilities. B.1. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided.4. 4.

isolate and notify. fractures. • Keep all rooms clean. • Take nutritious food. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • When sleeping in groups. bleeding.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. C. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. fainting (epileptic fit). The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. scalds.. etc. dislocations. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. cuts. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. • Have adequate rest and sleep. 196 . They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. and other accidents. sports and games in the interest of their health. poisons. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. drowning. wounds. D. • Find out the cases. burns. • Close the schools. if epidemic is wide-spread. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. insect stings. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. backache. So they easily get illnesses. There are three stages in any communicable disease. 4. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. asthma. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage.1.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. which are – cold. 4. They are: i) The incubation stage. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. tuberculosis.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. headache. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. fever. water or bodily contact.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. List out the Health curriculum 3. Mention the school health programmes. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. These diseases are called communicable diseases.1. pain in the joints. Once these germs get into the body. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. chicken pox. cough. 2. measles etc. polio. They have less resistence to diseases than adults.

One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. unhygienic bottle feeding. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. cough and fever. Some suffer cold due to allergy. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort.When a child suffers from scabies. This is caused by cold virus.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. The following are the common communicable diseases. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. sugar and water. Important salts and water are lost in this process. eating food which is not clean. unhygienic living conditions. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Hence liquid diet is recommended. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Measles .is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Diarrhoea . Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. After three or four days of fever. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Children catch cold from persons having cold. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Ear Infections . The child may have fever. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. 198 . Hence it is called a killer disease. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. The symptoms include cold. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Scabies .It is caused by measles virus. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Mumps . Tonsilitis . Others make the children very weak.This disease is caused by bacteria. head-ache and cough. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Throat is affected. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. etc. Common Cold .

Expand DPT . 199 . The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. the child is not able to breathe. The child may also have diarrhoea. face and waist. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. As the disease progresses. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. Diphtheria . What are communicable diseases? 6. Shortly. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. 5. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. the child may die. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. If proper treatment is not given. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable.• • • • Chicken Pox . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. raised pink spots appear on head. separate. Typhoid . It begins with fever. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. By scratching he causes secondary infections.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Enlist the common ailments of children.

Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. 4. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. it is a subject of art. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. Cuts and Bruises . man-woman behaviours. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. swelling. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. Sex is popular. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. Wounds .1.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. wounds. 4. Sprains .It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. 2. fainting. cuts.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. snakebites. eye injury. sprains. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. and films. 200 . head injury.1. fiction.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. so-called sex books and periodicals. simple fractures. drowning. 5. etc. 3. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. It has its rightful place in education too. bleeding.4.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. scorpion stings. bruises. dislocation. In such cases. and Community Work and Social Service. It is both biological and psychological.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. sprains. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. films and jokes. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. Drowning .g. exciting and body-oriented.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e.

This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. in their ignorance. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. celibacy are age. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. Hence. health. sex education is being recommended in schools. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. they would be treading the path of sure doom.old values. the school. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. In today's liberal and interactive society. The values of life. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. The home. 2. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. 3.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. In secondary schools. Should the boys and girls. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies..co-operatively to give sex education to the young. but preserve them from disaster and disease. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. the religious organisations. B. try experimenting with their bodies. And here is where some protests would be inevitable.

9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there will no crisis in its implementation. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. C. 4. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. 202 . Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. communicable diseases and their prevention. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. first aid and sex education.1. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. hence. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. common ailments of children. What are the major components of Sex Education. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. the school health programmes. when the courses are already overloaded.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. Teacher education institutions are.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 209 . What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Mention the food nutrients 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Rickets is the deficiency of 5.

Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. 210 . Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied.2. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .2. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. If you look at the definition carefully. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. Let us talk about each of these aspects. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. minerals. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected.4.

This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. construction labourer). Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.sedentary. In other words. Preferences/customs are also important. Even within given States there is considerable variation. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. sex. People in the east of our country prefer rice. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. In the case of adults. dosa are typical of the south.g. moderate or heavy work. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. the social and religious practices of that region. 4. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. activity level and physiological stress.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. it is also specific to a given activity level . in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. paratha and poori. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. There is no point.2. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . These are: region where the person resides and income. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires.6. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable.g. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . for example.one in the morning and the other at night. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. A balanced diet is specific firstly. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress).

for example. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. as important for the rich as for the poor. Judicious selection of food is. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. customs. Among the social factors. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. nuts and dry fruits. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. fat and sugar tend to increase. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. In addition to these. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. Having more money. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. however.planning the diet. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. These determine the acceptability of foods. however. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. However. taboos related to food may play an important role. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. income plays a vital role. however. One must. One person may be fond of milk products. vegetables and fruits. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. If you think of your own religious group. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. while another may hate them. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. Even among flesh foods. As you read this discussion. As income increases. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. Including these 212 . you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese.

over-eating or under. 8) Walk a while after eating. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. 17. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. mouth. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. eggs . don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect.eating is hazardous. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 8. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. For this. List out any two healthy food habits. etc. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . green leaves. fruits. but they should be thrown away. Define balanced diet. meat. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. if the teachers have good food habits. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 213 .

8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. When the diet is inadequate.4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. preservation of nutrients.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. c.2. e. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. In fact. Corneal xerosis. Conjuctival xerosis. Explain food nutrients 4. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. 4. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Night blindness. b. d. Keratomalacia 3. 4. Vitamin D 5. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer.2. good nutrition is essential for good health. Discuss good food habits. Beri Beri 4. a. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Bitot’s spots. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease.2.

C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. Food and Nutrition Education. a .11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.6. Chopra. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. (2004). R. 7. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. minerals.C. Food should be consumed after eating well. b. 8. Food and Nutrition Education. A Text Book of Foods. mouth. (2009).2. P. (2008). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. Hands. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . b. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. a. R. S. Nutrition Science. 4. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra.M. Nutrition and Dietetics. Health and Nutrition Education. Sri Lakshmi B. (2005). (2008).N. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.

3 4.3.6.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3.8 4.1 4.11 4.3.3.3.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.3. 216 .12 4.5 4.3.7 4.10 4.3.3.3.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.2 4.3.3.6.3.4 4.3.3 Impact on Education 4.13 4.6.3.9 4.LESSON 4.

community. you will be able to: 1. 217 .” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. the stress is. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. aims at providing the younger generation. There is some difference. economic and educational development 3. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. objectives and need for population education 2.3. understand the importance of small family norm 5. Population Education. family planning and sex education etc.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control.3. It is a much wider co ncept. population characteristics.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. his family. 4. characteristics and changes for himself.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. and the consequences of these processes. Whenever we talk of sex education. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.3. state the meaning. It is not sex education. therefore. his societ y and the world. 4. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. the causes of population change.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood.4. describe the impact of population growth on social.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. the nation and the world.3. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. the family.4. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Population Education 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the society. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 4.

The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. 4. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. which will not be possible without population control. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. 219 . economic and educational development of the country. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. When the family is small.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development.6.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. 4. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. With the larger families.3. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress.3. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. the family programmes are also handicapped. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. health and happiness of its citizens. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. Every second two thousand children are being born. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Family is considered as a social unit. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it.

lack of proper health care.6. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. unemployment. 220 .The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. 4.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. in cinema halls and theatres. and so on. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. teacher index. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. facility for drinking water.. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. organization index and material index.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. Swollen cities.6. toilets. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’.3. i. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. heavy intern I migration etc. In developing countries. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. The gulf between them is widening further. in parks and other places of public gatherings. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. in buses and trains. 4. pollution of the environment.3. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index.e. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. Many students herded in a small room.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. blank verses etc. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. essays. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. reproduction. 221 . all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. even text books would be in short supply. can be taken up. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Hindi and English.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There would be very few audiovisual aids. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. thus. can be studied in science and health education.. There would be poor library facilities. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. and laboratory equipments. family planning etc. less space facilities. bar graphs etc. Regional Language. less budget for education. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories.3. Social Studies Statistics on population education. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects.

Children may compare two families. China. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. 4. Uttar Pradesh. 11. They may arrange them as per average density of population. 7. Bihar. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 2. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. West Bengal. United States of America. 10. 8. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Brazil. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 15. 12.3. 3.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Children with the help of parents. deaths. 14. area and average density of population. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data).4. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 9. 5. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 13. Canada. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. causes of deaths etc.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. we have no right to stop 223 . These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. age at marriage. 17. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. values and role children etc. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. 18. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. preferences for sex. Comparing life in various respects in two families. 16. The question. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised.be opened in their schools.3.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish.

at varying places in different regions. Since the program's inception. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).3.their entry into the world”. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. More than 45 years ago. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. The Family Welfare Program. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. and the child survival components of the news: program.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3.to emphasize family planning services. which education can only do. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.were implemented 224 .4-6. fertility levels have declined throughout the country.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . however. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. “He who is responsible for population growth.. continued . on an overall basis.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. 4. especially the expansion of child immunization services . need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.

and nominal fees for services. At these meetings. expansion of services to unmarried women. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. Local programs vary in their approaches. In April 1996. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. reliance on local women as community health workers. Moreover. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. In October 1997. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. men. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. a focus on health promotion. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. Therefore. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. and the World Conference on Women.earlier than the safe motherhood components. the community appears willing to pay for services. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs.

11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. family. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. 226 . 1997).3. Its main purposes are to create awareness.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. 4.emphasizing the needs of the client. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. What are the goals of RCH? 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. involving the community. Describe the impact of population growth on social. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. economic and educational development 4. community. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. nation and the world.

Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. 3. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. population characteristics.” 2. b. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. area and average density of population. less space facilities. 227 . 5. b. Brazil. a. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Canada. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. his society and the world.4. the causes of population change. and the consequences of these processes. a. his family. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. 4. United States of America. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. bar graphs.3. 6. 7. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. characteristics and changes for himself. less budget for education. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. a. China.

A. 228 .14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. (2002). Centre for Women’s Studies. Modern Trends in Indian Education. N. (1992). Udaiveer. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Reddy. (2004). Kantikar. Ltd. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Changing attitudes to Education in India.4. Bhende. Principles of Population Studies. T. J. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Coimbatore. Jayapoorni.3. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.K. (2005). V. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Modern Problems of Education. (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.

4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4 Lead up games 4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.4.4.4.4.4.10 4.11 19.4.6 4.4.4 4.8.2 Major games 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.4.LESSON 4.8.5 4.3 Indigenous games 4.3 4.4.1 4.8.4.4.8.4.2 4.4.4.9 4.7 4.1 Minor games 4.

4. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. which forms its most valuable assets. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. the youth of the country. 4.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. as it should 230 .4. full records of physical activities should be maintained. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. The concept of physical education has been made broader.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. mental alertness. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. moral fitness and emotional fitness. classify the different types of games. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. you will be able to: 1. perseverance. team spirit. leadership and balance in defect. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. social fitness. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected.4. 4.4.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. understand the importance of Physical Education 4.

mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. The educational efforts at home. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. team spirit. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Therefore. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. To be more precise. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. obedience to rules. leadership. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 .contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. They are inseparably united together. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. They go hand in hand. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Every individual is a part of society.

” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. a sound health.” The Secondary Education Commission. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. Rousseau states. mo ral. pleasing manners. C. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. Buck has observed that 232 . Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side.” Montaigue writes. game and sports. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. Just like Education. Physical exercises. ment al. H. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. 4.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. nor body but the whole man. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical.4.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. Regarding the significance of physical education. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.

Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. speed. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. resourcefulness and smartness.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. strength.” 4. efficiency and character. 233 .These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility.” In brief. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. etc. happiness. we must exercise the whole human being. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. coordinative abilities. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. initiative. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Froebel says. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. “If we wish to develop the whole being.a properly directed physical education should result in health. flexibility and power. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments.4. elegance. endurance.

plagues and famines. these fundamental things have always been present. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. including all racial groups and historical ages. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. While wars. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. 234 (i) (ii) . Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. systems of government. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. its adherents and its enemies.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. they may form gangs. in greater or lesser degree. poetry and painting. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Every age has its artists. If no opportunity is provided to the students.

\ to develop perseverance. to develop tolerance. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. respect for rules. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. self. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. 3. etc. Write any two importance of Physical Education. 2.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly.sacrifice. B. bravery and interest in games and sports. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. 235 . obedience.

3. 4. Keep the field ready for the activities. 12. 6. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 13. Be sportive. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health.4.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J.4. 10. and. 16.4. 2. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 11.H.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Usually parents. injuries among pupils should be made. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. 15. is essential. 5. 7. . Inform health principles. Act as a leader. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. students. 9. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. 236 1. Be in the uniform. defects. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Posture screening should be done. Be punctual. 8. and readmission after they have recovered. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 4. Always keep the whistle ready. Be well-prepared. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 14. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Be self-confident. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Haag. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases.

4. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. As such they are well enjoyed by children.8. the play. 4.4.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. 237 . Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Lead up games. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. 2. Indigenous games. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. frolic and jo y. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. chasing. less equipment and less expense. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. their development is handicapped. Moreover. Such inst incts as imitation. 1. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4.

under ball pass Relay. boosting. skipping. Cricket. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Hockey. finding the partner. snatching the kerchief. They are played for a shorter duration.4. The dimension of the posts and nets. heading. on hard courts. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Shuttle Badminton. trapping.8. Volley Ball. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. on mountain tops and on river beds. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games.With a very few rules. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Throwing. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. with implements or without implements. These games require varied skills such as running. driving. on sea-shore. On lawns. over ball pass Relay. catching. Except a few games. Jump the stick clay and so on. Jumping. stopping. hitting. spiking. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. While many of them are played in the open playfields. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Tennikoit. For each game the rules are many. Ball Badminton. bowling etc. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. 4. 238 . wherever the kids assemble. Tennis. dribbling.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Basket Ball. Khokho. Kabaddy etc. Hopping. benefit in playing minor games. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. the number of players and substitutes. the games can be modified according to convenience. couple tag. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest.. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. pitching. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Soft Ball. some of them are played indoors. the play equipment. zig zag relay. women take part most of the games. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Dodging. muffling.

4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. For example. and . Kho-kho.8. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4.4. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.8. festivals connected with religion and public functions. Games may be classified as 6. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. 7. they are in existence. these games being popular. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.4. All the fundamental tactics. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. birth. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. They have an abundant social value. death. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 4. List out some major games. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. While observing the players in action. An example for indigenous game is 8. On occasions like marriage.

4. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. to develop physical stamina.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 3. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities.4. to secure physical health b. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Posture screening should be done. 4. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 2. a. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Minor and Major 240 . c. d. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 5. 4. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. 2. a. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.4. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. aims and objectives and need of physical education. b. a.4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. b. Briefly discuss the different types of games. a. b. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 3. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.

J. J.4. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Soft Ball. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Volley Ball. (2005). Krishna murthy. Cricket. J. Ltd. (2009). Mohanty. Health.6. Hockey. Basket Ball.C. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. 4. Khokho 8. (2008). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Physical Education and Sports. Modern Trends in Indian Education. 241 . G.K. Aggarwal. (2008). Tennis. Foot-ball. Kabaddy 7. Khokho.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Shuttle Badminton. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Tennikoit. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Ball Badminton. Handbook of Physical Education.

5.5.5.5.6 4.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.11 4.LESSON 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4 4.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.5.9 4.5.5.10 4.1 Natural Environment 4.8 4.5.5.3 4.5.5.5.2 Manmade Environment 4.1 4.5.2 4.7 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.

it covers the following elements: 1. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. 2. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Details are given below: I. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Essential knowledge about the Environment. Knowledge. political.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Broadly.5. economic. 6.5. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. Attitude. 4. 3.educat ion for the environment. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Awareness. Skills. list out the types of environment 3. you will able to: 1. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. 243 . population explosion and resource depletion could be. 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. 3. aesthetic and educational factors. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. The best place to start such learning is school. Evaluation Ability. 5.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. 2. education about the environment and education through the environment. social.5. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Participation.

their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. F. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. • Biological magnification E. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. D. a. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen.B. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. heat sink and wind flow in cities. 244 . Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. 2. Oxidants Other pollutants.

economic. Intrauterine device iii. Persuasion: i. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. III. B. Birth control through education b. Control of population growth a. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Abortion iv. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. 3. 2.3. 2. Family planning ii. The pill ii. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Sterilisation. The human ecosystem II. Use of medical science i. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Socio-economic measures. c. 4. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material.

2. Define Environmental Education. 246 . e) Recycling. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. (UNESCO. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 3. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1983). List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Air pollution abatement ii.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Water pollution abatement. 3.

5.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. a. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. Biological environment The biological environment.5.other components of the environment. to his needs. b. They interact with each.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. way is called environmental or ecological factor.5.5.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. includes the plants. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. He modifies according”. 4. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. fax agricultural apparatus. animals and other organisms (biotic).5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. A change in one brings about a change in the other. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. -other.5. These are biotic components.4. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4.5. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. telex. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. Any constituent or condition of the environment.

use of medicinal plants. desertification 248 . of civilizations. etc. greenhouse effect. need for conservation. sources. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. social studies. (ii) Air pollution. natural way of controlling pests. noise pollution. change in climate may be added. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. sources of pollut ion. relation between population and pollution. wars and hazards of war. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . nuclear warfare. effects. are the topics which may be taught in History. reasons. industrial pollut io n. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. supplying timber for various uses. air pollutants from industries. acid rain. food chain and food-web. alternate sources of energy. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. ozone depletion. water scarcity. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. biogas plants. evolution. role of trees in building economy. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. mineral survey. extinction of species.. explosion deforestation. use of pesticides. etc. excellent recreation sites. History The rise and fall. maintaining the ecological diversity. windmills. importance of nitrogen cycle. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. preserving the watersheds. balance of nature. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. over exploitation of ground water. population. industrial survey. need for bio-diversity. river systems. noise control. t heir role in preventing pollution. solar cookers. effects o f CFC. preventing siltation of dams. trees reducing noise pollution. ozone layer deplet ion. nuclear energy.

11. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 10. 249 . Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. 5. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. animal and plants. 9. 7. Peepal and Tulsi. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 12. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Providing. 3. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. 4. group discussions and seminars. aims and scope. 6. Organising conferences. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs.may be inc ded in Geography. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant.5. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 14. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 2. 4.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 8. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 13. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology.

Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Never put any left over chemicals. World Environmental falls on 250 .Send their waste oil. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Don’t burn any waste. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. especially plastics. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. it will cause pollution. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. 5. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. used oils down the drain. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. all these can cause serious pollution. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. If it is done. Reuse carrier bags. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. 6.

loss of bio-diversity. dest roying nat ural habitats. Harmony with the nature . To initiate and develop discussion and debate. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. To provide reference materials for children’s use. To provide materials needed for practical work. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. etc.). CFCs. To arrange for visiting speakers. Concern for species. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. deforestation. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Conservation of natural resources. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. depletion of ozone. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. values and habits. viz. developing desirable attitudes.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information.4. rather than conquest and mastery.mat erials. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. potable water. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources.5. concern for others). Social responsibilit y (common good. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. Att itudes of balance towards nature. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. (cleanliness. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. etc. The groups may exchange. To arrange visits or expeditions. and 251 . orderliness and beauty). diversity and stability. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature.. nuclear wars.

preserving natural cycles.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.5. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.5. 4. 8. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. 252 . 4. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.5. 4.

2. Environment and Human Rights.5. S. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. June 5 7. Ltd. 8. a. Awareness. New Delhi : Authors Press. b. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Modern Problems of Education. (1997). Kuldeep. Nanda. Publications Pvt. (2007). 6.K. b. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Environmental Education. Providing. water scarcity. 4. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Y. ozone layer deplet ion. Environmental Education.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. sources. Anmol Publications Pvt. Rapid population growth.K. sources of pollution. T. concern for others). acid rain. explosion deforestation. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . Social responsibilit y (common good. reasons. air pollutants from industries.K. b. Education for values. To provide materials needed for practical work. Udaiveer. importance of nitrogen cycle. greenhouse effect. Organising conferences. S. group discussions and seminars. population. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. relat ion between population and pollution..\ 4. 5. a. New Delhi : Sharma. effects. b. a. (2007). To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. a. 3. over exploitation of ground water. new problems from science and technology. Knowledge. (2004). Ltd. (ii) Air pollution.K.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. the emancipation of spirit.” 5.3. Education must contribute to development of culture. should be universal in nature. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. man is essentially a moral being. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. enrichment and transmission of culture. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. Therefore. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. Universal Education. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum.1. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. Spiritual Development." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. The universe is regarded as a thought process. It is self-realisation. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. inviolable and hence holy life” In short.our life. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. According to Rusk'. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. Education according to idealism. promote and transmit it to rising generation. moral. in fact. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind.

3. Learning through imitation. a spiritual guide for the child. He carries the child from darkness to light.1.3. So cognition (knowing). class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. Learning through reading. 2. an indispensable necessity. hygiene. friend and guide. affecting (feeling). games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. The plant can grow. should be there. Philosophy. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. So health. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. According to Frobel. So he should embody. subjects like Languages. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. Learning through questioning. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all.3. Science. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. 5.” He is thus. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. 4.1. He sets the environment in which education takes place. Learning through lecturing. Learning through discussion. For this no particular method has been suggested. It considers teacher as. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. and collation (striving) should find due place. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . An idealist teacher is a philosopher. no doubt. According to idealism. History. Mathematics etc. Herbert advocated instruction method.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher.” 5. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. the school is a garden. For intellectual development.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. 5. so subjects like Religion. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Ethics. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. However. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education.the spiritual qualities of mankind.

1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. In the words of Ross.perfection and beauty.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. Ross explains. formal lessons or examinations. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.1. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century.4. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. "Education should make 263 • . text books. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.preservation. curricula. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. Perfection of Human Machine. 2.1. time tables. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

rational harmoniously balanced. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. • 5. subjects like history. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. It is based on the psychology of the child.4. Literature. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. 264 . • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. It stresses basic sciences.1. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Biology. Chemistry. therefore. Zoology. It emphasises physical and health education 5. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. education should develop the child into Joyous. Naturalistic curriculum. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Therefore. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. There is no place for religious and moral education. In all. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Arithmetic.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. 4. is based on the nature of the child. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. “Education finds its purpose. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. useful and mature child. Education should.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Botany etc Language.

Here the emphasis is on the individual method. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. 2. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method.4. It discards all rigid. Learning through observation. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. 3. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Rousseau says. the stage. In the . a provider of an ideal environment. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. 5. Learning through experience. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development.4.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.1. he should be taught by experience alone.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a supplier of materials and opportunities. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Learning by doing.1.5.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Dalton Plan. 4. Heuristic method.1. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. 5.

Sciences. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Geography. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. 5. The aim of educational development. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Subjects. is true. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Social Efficiency. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses.5. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Agriculture. Social Science. social and moral aspects. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. 5.1. intellectual. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Personal Social Adjustment. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment.1. Vocational and 266 . Physical training. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices.5. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. History. The individual has not only to adjust himself. All Round Development of an Individual.absolutism of idealism. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. diversified and flexible. Continuous Growth. Continuous reconstruction of Experience.

5. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Learning by Doing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. should find proper place.” 5. alert and resourceful. 5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. a teacher occupies an important position. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. a senior partner and a sincere guide. activities and experience should be integrated properly.Technical Education.1. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. He has to be active.1. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. The subjects. He must be trained.

Music and Dance. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Education is preparation for a complete living. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Sex Education. The basic tenets of realism are 1. literary or humanistic education. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. rich and happy. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics.1. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Chemistry. It favours child-centered. 3. Psychology. intellectual. Geography are unnecessary 268 . The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Art. Biography Philosophy. 2. Crafts. Study of Subjects like Language. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Literature. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. practical.5.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. 4. History.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education.6.6. Population Education.1.1. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. 5.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. 5. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. scientific and psychological education. Biology. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. specific. 5. Mathematics. liberal. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 4. 2. Astrology. 3. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable.

6.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. certainly and clearly.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.6.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .1. easily and pleasantly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.

whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. in this lesson. Physical training. Tours / Excursion e. d. Learning through questioning. Demonstration and Observation 270 . History. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. a. Self Realisation b. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Learning through reading. Learning through imitation. Learning through experience b. pragmatism and realism. b. a. Vocational and Technical Education. Education according to pragmatism.5. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Social Science. Sciences. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. 6.1.7 LET US SUM UP We have.1. Experimentation d. a. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Languages. 3. 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Child centered c. Agriculture. c. 5. e. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Universal Education 2. Learning through lecturing. & curriculum. naturalism.1. has no end other than growth. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. 5. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Geography. Rousseau 5. Learning through discussion.

New Delhi : A. L. (2004). Theory and Principles of Education.H. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. O. Ltd. K. (2007). P. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. (2007). Narang C. Publishing corporation. New Delhi : Bhatia. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Pahuja.5. of Pathak. Anmol Publications Pvt. 271 . P. N.1.P. (2003).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. R.P. Foundations of Education.

2.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2.5.2 Curriculum 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2.2.2.3.2.4.5.2 5.2.2.3 Methods of teaching 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.4.2 Curriculum 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2.4 Views about teacher 5.2.4 Views about teacher 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.3.LESSON 5.2.5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.3. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.1 Aims of Education 5.4.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.4.2.2.2.2.1 5.4.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2.3.3.2.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.3.

His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.2.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.2. 5. economic and political reconstruction in our country. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.2. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.5. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.7 5.2. mind and spirit. 273 .8 5. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. 3. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Gandhiji was primarily a social. you will able to: 1. an artist. 5.6 5. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. 2. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2. content and methods. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. Tagore was a poet.2.4 Role of the teacher 5. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.5. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.2.

mind and soul of children He further observed.2. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. through life and for life. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. In the words of Gandhiji. it is education of life. 5. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. His scheme of education is life centred. 'Man is neither mere intellect. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. strength of mind. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body.supporting. righteousness. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education." Dignity of Labour. It really provides opportunity for character building. self-restraint and service of humanity. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. 274 .3.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. This can be matched with any modern concept of education.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. nor the gross animals body. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. "I attach more. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote.

General Sciences. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. According to Gandhi. Only good individual forms a better society. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 .Training for Leadership. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Drawing and Hindustani. the realization of the ultimate reality. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. metal work. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . 5.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. Art.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. Music. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. "Development of the moral character.3. gardening.2. development of the whole all were directed: towards. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. Mother-tongue. Individual and Social Aims.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. leather work have been suggested. wood work.

It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.2. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Basic education is other wise known as 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. men of 276 . all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. proficient.3.3.trained.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.2. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He also advocates freedom for the child.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. That is why. 3. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.3. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.2. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.knowledge. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Education must be child centered.

4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.K. He was deadly against untouchability. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. Gandhi in 1937. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5.2.4.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.” Like all other ideals. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. • Education should involve manual work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.3.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. He believed in the oneness of humanity. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.2. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. • Cult of non-violence. 5. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. • Ideal of citizenship. he was a true Vedantist 5. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. He was a true patriot. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.2. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.

complete manhood could be attained." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. That way only. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. It should help the learner have good physique. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. 279 . the more dedicated and devoted. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in.4. Civics. Zoology.2. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. stronger in power than ever before. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. "Mankind must realise a unity. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. wider in range. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. (vi) Philosophy. Therefore. deeper in. he said. Religion and Psychology. Chemistry. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Music. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Geography. Dance. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. International Understanding. could help in forging unity among all. International understanding. them solve problems of day to day life.Language and Literature . Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. etc. Tagore said. sentiment. It should help. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Botany.

It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. 280 .3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. 5. Tagore rightly says. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.4. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.” He further says. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. In 1921.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service.2." 5. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. 5. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. Activity Method Heuristic Method.2.4.2. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.4.

Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. 281 . Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. race. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. 9. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12.g. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. It is open to all irrespective of country. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1.

1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. work and deeds come out of it. Concept of Education. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Education for Self-reliance. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only.2. Book learning. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education.5. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. 4. The whole beauty of life is linked with it." He was against the theoretical type of education. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. According to him. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him.5. Education should make a person self-reliant. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. 3.2. Freedom. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Education for Self-realization. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. 2. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . man making. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual.” 5. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Purity of thought. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Education for strong Moral Character.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says.

The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. A physically strong person is the need of the society. 5. Thirdly he wished that games. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one.5. 5. Discussion Method.2. Of course.2. philosopher and guide to the students He. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Religion. 6.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. 283 .5.the learners on different students in the discussion. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Philosophy and Theology. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things.2. And above all. Every individual should be trained for concentration.5. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . 5. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. The teacher should be the facilitator. Swami. That will serve the purpose of education fully. engineering and technical subjects. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Education for Physical Development. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.5. Secondly he wanted Science.

In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. Their educational ideas. 12. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 284 . legs. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. 2. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people.2. 5. We have seen that Tagore.6 LET US SUM UP We have. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. in this lesson.Substantiate your answer. of course. ears and eyes. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. Gandhiji as a Idealist. 5. 3. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. and pragmatist . Write short notes on Basic education.2. naturalist.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore.

Heuristic Method. a. Activity Method d. Basic education. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Discussion Method 285 . Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. metal work. gardening. c. d.2. 10. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Debate and Discussion Method. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 5. Explain Vishwabharathi. Technique of Correlation 6.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. e. 11. Activity Method b. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Self-Study b. Ideal of citizenship. Education should involve manual work. a. Teaching while Walking b. Meditation and concentration c. 1937 7. 9. a. 5. Learning by Doing c. f. a. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 5. Cult of non-violence. 3. b. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. 2.4. 8. Self realization. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. leather work have been suggested. Nai Talim 4. c. wood work.

Pahuja. Theory and Principles of Education. C. K and Narang C. P. Publishing Corporation. N. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. J. 286 . New Delhi : Aggarwal. (2002). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : A.2.H.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. (2004). (2007). P. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Anmol Publications Pvt. O. Foundations of Education. K. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. on Bhatia.P. (2003). B. L.5. N. (2007). Ltd. Dhiman.

3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3.4 5.3.3 5.3.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.3.3.3.6 5.2 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.11 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.LESSON 5.7 5.5 5.9 5.1 5. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.8 5.3. In this lesson.10 5.3.

In the words of Kerney and Cook. it is identical wit h socializat ion. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. Since the demands.3. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . While education is a process. In the former sense. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. the desert area. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. In it.S. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. you will be able to: 1. Curriculum is intimately related to education..2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. there is a large number of communities. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. curriculum signifies situations for learning. 5.under the direction of the school. Both the processes are integrated. living in the hilly area. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. in the U. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. in the form of new experience. A g o o d curricu lu m. the plateau area and 288 . is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences.3.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. the plain area. maintained or eliminated. 5. While education is learning.A. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. state the meaning of curriculum 2. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used.3. Then in a big country like India. new behaviour may be acquired. in Russia or in Japan. is a means to the process. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. From the latter point of view. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. in fact . curriculum. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. present behaviour may be modified.

the learning capacity of children. according to modern trends in the educational process. therefore.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. studying therein. and 289 . However. differs from individual to individual. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. irrespective of their needs and environment. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. From a slave-country we became secular. democratic and socialistic country. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. it is. environment. 5. In fact . if it is to educate the whole of the personality. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. Again. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils.3. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. Besides craft. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. It must differ from locality and from society to society. too. customs and needs. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft.

etc. social. etc. Goals of Secondary Education. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. Goals of Primary Education. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. National Integration. 290 . unsatisfactory. aims. e. They are visionary goals e. 5. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. emotional. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. etc. uninspiring and unscientific. moral.. They may be ultimate or proximate. in instructional objectives.g. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. tangible. individual or Social and so on. 3. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and.. of classroom. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. Self Realisation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. e.g.g. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . specific. they depend on the political. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. unambiguous and functional.3. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. They speak of perfect goals. which may or may not be attained. 1. Vocational Efficiency. remote or immediate. aesthetic and spiritual development. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. eg.. They speak of immediate purposes of education. general or specific.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. They are achievable. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3.. So it is inadequate. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. Application Objective. social. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 4. Knowledge Objective.. The word “Curere” means 2. 2. Understanding Objective.

Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others.5. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. but it includes the totality of experiences. educationists. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. needs. The interests. on the playing fields.3. Raymont rightly says. capacities. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. abilities. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. Crow and Crow remarks. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. According to Crow and Crow. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other.” 291 . The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. heavy fire.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. in the class rooms.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. finding them very interesting and captivating.

mental. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. time in a useful manner. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. Due to these variations and differences. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. capacities and abilities. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. aptitudes. tendencies. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. They often waste it or rather kill it. urges. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. moral.

administrative programme need be planned. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. Similarly. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. To ensure success of the process.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. development of professional capability at all levels. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. 293 . analysis and concretise the curricular elements. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. 3. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. phased preparation.curricular. organized. 2. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. Relation with Life c. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.3. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. laboratory. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. 5. workshop. 5. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. Child Centred Education b. library. 12. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. principles of curriculum construction. 1937 19. a. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments.3. 18. in the class room. Run. 17. 11. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. 10. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.

S.S. 295 . Teacher and Education in Indian Society. P. (2007). N.K. Innovations in Education.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Curriculum and Instruction. and Sarita Kumari. New Delhi : Isha Books. (2001). Lakshmi. New Delhi : Authorspress. (2007).5. S. D. Bhalla. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Curriculum Development. (2007). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava.3.

7.6.4.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.4.4.9 5.2 5.7.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.8 5.10 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.5 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.LESSON 5.4.1 5.4.4.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4 5.6.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.7.4.4.3 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.7.4.

know the importance of science education.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. in the economic reconstruction of society. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons.4. 3. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. honesty. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. you will be able to: 1. explain the concept of scientific attitude. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings.4. open-mindedness. newer and newer industries started growing. We mean curiosity. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology.during the second half of this century. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. 4.4. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. tolerance for the opinions of others. 5. 297 .1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. Gradually. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. 5. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. superstition or emotion.5. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.

teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Schemes of teaching science. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 3. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 5. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. 2. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. 3. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Central science workshop.4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 4. as well as of the society.So that.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. 6. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 7. Promotion of science clubs. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 5. seminars and symposiums. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 6.4. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 5. 5. Love for truth enhances. Devotion towards nature increases. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Thinking and memory develops. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Through newspapers. Principles are formulated. 2. Through examinations. 4. Organisation of science fairs. Selection for science education. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. After such experience and training.

Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. Training of science teachers. They ask many questions about the objects they see. 5. objectivity. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.needs and conditions. essential that teachers. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. For laboratory and workshop techniques. After presenting the problem. It is.6. should provide opportunities to. They experience natural phenomenon. therefore. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative.4. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . sex or religion. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. each child to “enquiry skill building”. In the inquiry approach. Write any two advantages of Science Education. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. They encounter many social events as they grow. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. Enquiry teaching is. 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. 5.

Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. Appreciating pupils ideas.4.books. Evidence. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.4. 4. . Social sciences. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . stern pursuit of accurate data. to ask questions and experience things. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. 3. 2.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. 5. Giving less directions. . offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. 5. 3. Adopting creative models of teaching.6. commands or orders. if they like. It requires consistent thinking. 5. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. test. 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 300 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Herma Wouk. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences.

There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. it must be encouraged. neighbourhood.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. therefore should be unbiased and objective. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. (Vaidya 2007). The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. These include open mindedness. 5. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. For instance. and emphasized during the learning process . The students observation. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . school and society at large.(Smith 2008). The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude.4. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. of vast resources running waste. friends. to develop among the learners. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. practiced. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. To achieve this we should understand what it means. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. critical thinking and suspended judgments. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.7. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. keen observation. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits.

Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. intuition or wishful thinking”. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. he studies all aspects of it. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. In considering a situation or a problem. 2007). He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. 5. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. 302 . think and work it”. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences.7. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. or superstitions.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education.4. (Das. rumor. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. The intention to respect another’s point of view. understanding and logic.

3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.7. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.7. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.4. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. but to begin only after careful planning.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. • 5. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. 5. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.4.

4. 304 .8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. 5. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. 5. it must be encourages.

(2000). New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Reflections on Scientific attitude. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Vaidya. 2. The intention to respect another’s point of view. D. 5.4. (2006). Wide reading b. (2008). A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. a.S. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. 3. Rao. S. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students.4. Love for truth enhances. Adopting creative models of teaching.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.B (2008).4. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. b. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. a. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Yadav. N. b. 5. Study of superstitions d. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. M. objectivity. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. a. 305 . b.5. 16. a.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. 4. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Proper example of the teacher c. Planning of activities 5.

5.5. areas of institutional planning. objectives and characteristics.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5. you will be able to: 1.3 5. 306 .5.5.LESSON 5.5.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5 5.11 5.2 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.5.9 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.4 5.5. actively.5.8 5.7 5.1 5.5.6 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2.10 5. state the concept.5. 5.5.5.5.

teachers and students is not lost sight of. and each student are regarded as separate entities.5. 5. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. executive as well as public. which become the bases for further planning at the district. each teacher. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. • to make planning development-oriented. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . • to involve teachers and school administrators. and every student in the process of educational planning.3.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. every teacher. and supplement planning from above.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. and. Institution should be regarded as the unit. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. 5. every parent. State and national levels from below. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. in the task of educational planning. • To make institutional planning more successful.5. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution.

5.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. approved after making necessary modifications. it becomes the basis for school inspection.curricular Activities. Classwork. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. which will be discussed in the general. Co-curricular activities. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.• implemented. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. etc. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. council and. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs.5. Syllabus. 5. and Personnel services. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. Examinations. 308 . (2) Co. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes.

Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2. Conducting of educational. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching.No. Equipping of laboratory and library. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. etc. Fair distribution of syllabi. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Courts. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Preparation of instructional material. Editing the school magazine. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. 3. Organising play-for-all programmes. etc. etc. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Improving the internal assessment. Organisation of Students’ Association. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Running science clubs. Organisation of class-room libraries. Improving the subject competence of teachers. charts and apparatus. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Celebrating of national and international festivals. 1. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Preparation of models. Organisation of cultural and literary activities.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Organisation of Pupils. scientific and historical excursions. hobby-centres.

headmasters associations.5. administrator-administrator. pupils. administrator-supervisor. co-operation. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. teacher-teacher. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. teacher-managing body. involving mainly human materials.5. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. parent-teacher associations. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships.” The human relationships in. students’ associations. teacher-pupil. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. teacherinspector. which are divided as the in. pupil310 .group and out-group relationships are as given below i. and —pupil-pupil. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. teachers. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. ii. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. understanding. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. administrator-pupil. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. etc. teacher-State. science teachers’ associations. Administrator-State. and solidarity. parents.

311 . It covers personnel and material management. pupil-inspector. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. superintendence. control. pupil-parent. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. teacher-community leader. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. organisation. social sciences and other disciplines. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. It is also being modernized to become a technique. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. organisation and management. etc. V. now-a-days.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. teacher-parent. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. Good. to carry out.5. administrator. To administer means to manage. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. supervision and superintendence. and to serve.State. According to C. to attend. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. to accomplish. supervision. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. pupil-community leader. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. pupil-non-official functionaries.

4. 13.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. If it is more. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. Liasion with the Public .Management should be efficient and economical 312 . Rapport between the Management and Employees .There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. Cost-Benefit Analysis . 7. 3. 6. Motiviation . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 9. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. Democratic Management . 8. Better Human Relationships . Those.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. Socio-Scientific Approach . He should be an artist in human relationships. Leadership .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. This is the latest democratic trend in management. it is not worth-while. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. Economic Management . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established.Any good management will always have good public relations. 10. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. The relationship should change from master. 11. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. Worker Participation .The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Decision Making .The manager should have leadership traits. 5. Communication . 12. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. If the cost benefit ratio is less. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. low. who occupy the managerial positions.Of all the approaches.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . 2.

Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work.These two are. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance .5. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. and cooperative performance should be ensured. 313 . Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. enrichment of curricula. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to improve the quality of education it provides. 5. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.too. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.5.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. 19. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. improvement of teaching methods.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. 14. 18. objective. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.g.

Teacher and Education in Indian Society. In group and Out group 5. a. Educational Administration. H. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Co-curricular activities.5. Examinations. NUEPA. Tarachand and Prakash. (2001). 4. 314 .K. Instruction. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. a. R. a. Communication 5.5. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House.5. b. Decision Making b.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. 2. (2003). S. a. Syllabus. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Motiviation d.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. it becomes the basis for school inspection. APH Publishing Corporation.M. c. d. b. and Personnel services. Leadership c. Fundamental of Educational Management. b. e. Classwork. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. (1995). f. Singh.

Examination reforms. wastage and Stagnation 3. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . physical education and environmental education 5. Communicable diseases . social Impact 3.Religious and Modern Education 1.3 Directive Principles .1 Inculcation of Socialism.Pre-service and In-services facilities.1 Gurukula system of education.1 School Health Programme. School.I. Balanced diet.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.1 Primary Education : Education for all.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. Preservation of nutrients. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.5 Regional Educational Development in India .2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .Preventive measures. Code of conduct for teachers. Inspection and Supervision 3.CORE PAPER . Common ailments of Children. Realized the problems of school education. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. nutritional requirement. higher education. 2.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.teachers should have : 1.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Community and Mass Media 2.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. First Aid. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.3 Educational Influences of Home.2 Nutritional deficiencies. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. 4.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Economic 315 . Sex-education 4.4 India's Secular Policy . population education. 1. women education and teacher education in India. Healthy Food Habit 4. New evaluation procedures.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.Article 45 . Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Education by Christian Missionaries 1.

3 Curriculum Construction: Principles .5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. and Mohanty R. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. Mishra. Delhi : University Publications 2. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.Aim. Prof.R.S.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Sharma. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.K. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. 5. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.4. Ghanta R.K. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. and Sharma R. Taneja V. Pandy V.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. T. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Naturalism and Pragmatism . B. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. (2004) Problems of Education in India. Hemchand. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. 7. Mahatma Gandhi. Saraswathi T. 316 . (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Ram S. and Human Development. Curriculum and national goals .K. REFERENCE 1. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.4 4.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Realism. curriculum and teacher's role 5.N. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.C. R.1 Idealism. (1999) Culture. Socialization.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. and Dash B. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. New Delhi: NCERT 3. (2005) Foundations of Education. Kalan Paper Packs 10.N.K. Tagore 5.

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