Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

UNIT: 1 – V



Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer



Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56


Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University


67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5



3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education

127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233


5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4


UNIT – I 7 .

8 .

Lesson 4. The need. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Lesson 2. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. In. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. discusses the regional educational development in India. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. 9 . Jainism and their educational implication. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. and Jain system of education. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. Lesson 5.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world.

10 .

1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1.1 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.5 Jain system of education 1.2 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1.1 Charter Act of 1813 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) Educational implications of Buddhist education Buddhist system of Education 1.1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.6 Education during British Era Wood’s Despatch (1854) Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.LESSON 1.1.

education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.9 1. Muslim and British periods. British system of education presented the modern western model. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. That 12 . but English in taste. Indian in blood and colour. 1.1.8 1.1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. 1. India. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Education in India. has a long past history starting in vedic education. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. in morals and in the intellect”.1.3.6. elucidate the education during British Era.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. 1. The history of education passed through Buddhist.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. in opinion. “a class of persons.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.6. you will be able to: 1. describe the Jain system of Education 4.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.1.1. both present and future.1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.1.7 1.1.

Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Teacher as Parents. 14. not en masse by the class method. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Curriculum. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Pupils were taught. 9. It was not merely intellectual. 16. from darkness. individually. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. High Status of Teachers. religious and spiritual. 10. It was also moral. if they thought fit to do so. followed by explanation by the teacher. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. from eternal to immorality 2. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. managed entirely by Brahmans. as it is generally considered to be at present. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Role of Travel in Education. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. 6. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Forests as Centres of Education. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. 13 . There was. Where pupils were many. Education of Moral.knowledge was real. Individual Teaching. 8. 13. No State Control on Education. Free and Accessible. to light. the monitorial plan was followed. generally. 4. Education was a private affair of the people. Method of Instruction. questioning by the pupil. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. 3. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Method of Study. however. 5. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Residential Schools. 11. 12. Immediate Aim Vocational. with grants of land or money. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. and to agriculture and trade. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Religious and Spiritual. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. The immediate aim of education.

They were very cordial and intimate. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . lived a life of celebacy. 1. studied Vedas. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. It was suited to the needs of the society. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. It was freely available to all those who wanted. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . besides preparing for worldly pursuits. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. 2. Wide-Spread Education in Women.1.17. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India.3. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Education was imparted through the. Right thought 3. the student had his head shaved of all hair. disease and death of the human beings.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. dressed himself in yellow clothes. use of intoxicating things. 15 . Right means of livelihood 6. Consequently. the handicapped. watching dances or listening to music. he was qualified to become a monk. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’.1. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Right activity 5. killing of any living being. had the right to receive education. Right speech 4. in which. I take Refuge to Sangh. 1. which included abstaining from theft. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Right memory 8. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education.C. impure conduct. Right contemplation 1. Right knowledge 2. the most significant of which were the following 1. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. every class in society. except the Chandals. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. 2. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. After attaining the age of 20. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. use of cosmetics. partaking of food at prohibited times. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. I take Refuge to Dharma. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms.4. taking things without being offered.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. etc. It was denied only to the ill. medium of Pali. Right endeavour 7.

agriculture. eat food thrice a day. a change is not only total but also perpetual. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. Even at this stage. It comprehended education in writing. approach. Later on. knowledge of reviving the dead. bodily gestures. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. women occupied a position inferior to men. along with education in script writing. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. These are called later Buddhist schools. archery.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. a continuous change creating 16 . animal husbandry. the science of taming and training animals. Initially. of clothes. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. the presence of the monks was essential. 8. medicine. 3. objectives of human life. On this occasion. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. etc. however.. 6. archery. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. arithmetic and religious discussion. As reality is becoming. has no metaphysical value for life. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years.4. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. 1. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. Hence. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. meaning. so long as it successfully does so. military science. cottage industries. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life.3. depth and range. commerce. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. 2. 7. nothing is of any permanent consequence. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. assumptions. Whatever its nature and extent. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. nature. control over sensuous activities. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. geology. wear three items. 4. beg for alms. it is regarded as true”. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. Life is in a flux. handicrafts. 5. therefore. education was impart in art. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. and. aspirations and. changing the goals. be considered the aim of education It. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. After this ritual. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. magic. elephant lore. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. etc. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. etc. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline.

in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. therefore.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Education must. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. such as. whatever works are true and good. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over and peculiar situations.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. goes to Vardhaman. Its chief feature. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. Validity is effective and consequences. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Write Eight fold path .e. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. it is much older than the latter. its pessimistic outlook on life. 1. however. and to give it a shape that it has today. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. However. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed.. i. Jainism insists 17 . 5. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success.1. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable.5. In fact. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’.

b) Not utter falsehood. 3. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. Hence. 1. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. more stress on individual aims. 2. c) Not to steal. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. 3. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. e) To renounce the world. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 4.5. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. They are: a) Not to injure. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 10. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem.1. 7. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. As such. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. rather than the interpretation of the universe. and believe in happiness to all. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. d) To lead a celibate life. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. 2. 5. Development of personality as an individual. b) Right knowledge.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 9. it has a foot in both the words. thought and deed.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. 1. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. 6. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. and is to be redeemed and liberated. 18 . but on both. 8. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. c) Right conduct. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment.

4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 2. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. education must be action based and ideally oriented. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. that would be socially desirable.5. 5. here and now. therefore. 8. education should develop sense of discrimination. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. What are Triratnas ? . Knowledge is through senses and meditation. and should bring happiness to all. 1. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Hence. 3. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. Belief in transmigration of soul. Teaching must develop these faculties. 3. 4.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. 19 . Teaching should be social and tolerant. Jiva is essentially karmic. 2. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. practised and not only aspired for. success and love.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.

The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. science.6. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. 1. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. However. 1953).1. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. with rally and rout. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). North West Province and Punjab. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service.6. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools.6. 1. 1. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. Bombay.1. Madras. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. To set up separate departments of. primary 20 . To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. 2.6. philosophy and literature of Europe. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. and not for life. 1. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”.

1. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). self-respecting and competent. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. The universities dominated the secondary education. 1. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. namely. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. at the primary level.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. Later on. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . secondary education became a step towards university. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. In 1882. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. 1.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937.K.6.6. To ensure qualitative improvement.6.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. • Universal free primary education. • Secondary education. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. At that time M. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was was neglected. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial.At the primary stage (6-11 years). During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. After this stage. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. all children are to have a common curriculum. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. 10.

Right means of livelihood. Right memory. followed by explanation by the teacher. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. 5. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. 2. 23 . 6.1. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 3. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. Right endeavour. It was suited to the needs of the society. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. questioning by the pupil. science and English language. geology. The immediate aim of education. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. b. etc. Right contemplation. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. archery. 1. 4. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools.. During the Buddhist period. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. establishment of universities. The system of education was well-organised. handicrafts. education was impart in art. arithmetic and religious discussion. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. Right knowledge. along with education in script writing. the science of taming and training animals.1. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS of European literature. 4. Right speech. 2. 1. Right thought. 3. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. Right activity. military science. a.

Y. Hence. Development of Educational System in India.C. b. and Nath. History of Indian Education System. (1984). 8.K. a. (2009). J. more stress on individual aims. c. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Right knowledge. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.1. Right faith. Ltd. Development of personality as an individual. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 11. 1882. (2007). J. Improvement of Literature. Sargent report 12.C. 24 .K. Ltd. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Singh. 10. Right conduct. a. 9. 1937 1.7. Aggarwal. b. R. (2005). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Sharma. Y. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science.

2 1.LESSON 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.2.1 University Education Commission 1.8 1.2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.3.4 1.2.9 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.7 National Policy on Education Secondary Education Commission 1.6 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.2. The 25 .1 1.

The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. you will be able to: 1. technical. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. National Board of Teacher Education 10. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. examination system. diversification of courses of studies. expansion of vocational. National Council for Women’s Education 5. 2. standard of teaching. curriculum. New Educational Policy.2. secondary and higher education. girls and women education besides primary.2.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. technological engineering.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. Kothari (1964-66) 8. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. Post-graduate 26 . understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. 1.conditions of the teachers. S.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. explosion of enrolment. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. medical and legal education. There had been vast institutional expansion. 1986 1. 1.2. analyse the progress of education in free India.3. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. vocational education. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2.

A. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. 1. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. Problems of access. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. 1952. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. 1986. 1966. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. 2. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. Government of India. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. The national system of education envisages common educational structure.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. in January 1985. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.2. the New National Policy on Education. 1. research et. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. Finally. the chairman of University Grants commission. Therefore. quality. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. 3. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . Education is the key to our allround development.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels.3. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. The Essence and Role of Education. A meaningfully Partnership. 4.2. utility and financial outlay. quantity. Kothari.S. National System of Education.teaching.3.2. accumulated over the years.3. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. However. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. D. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. material and spiritual. Education for Equality. 1. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar.

the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. 28 . Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. The UNESCO Report. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Thus. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. the minorities and the handicapped. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. attitudes. By working with hands. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools.” Thus. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2. the concepts of work experience. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. It can train practical aptitudes. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. In 1955. According to.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. With adequate planning. The Radhakrishnan Commission. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. Besides." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. As such. “It may be described. the Commission. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. co-ordinations. if he wishes. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. The Education Commission. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity.” The Mudaliar Commission. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. “The aim of these colleges. it will conduce self.

the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. raising the special facilities. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). admission requirements to vocational courses. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. The Central Advisory Board of Education. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission.ot her. Subsequently. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. for quality of life in the rural areas. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. Therefore. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. the semester and credit system.. In addition. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. etc. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. With a view to relating education to the life. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. the. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . the rigid streaming of courses.

The wave of Basic Education. who conceived the System of Basic Education. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions.and the world of work. The Father of Nation. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. technological courses including Agriculture. 1. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. In short. felt that education should be centred around a craft.. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. Commerce. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. aimed at this goal. which are useful to the community. 31 . which offer scientific. preferably spinning and weaving. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum.2. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. manual work resulting in either goods or services. meaningful.defined S UP W as “purposive. meaningful. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. etc. which swept the country for over two decades. giving importance to productivity in the national development.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. According to committee.

The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. 3. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. as far as possible. be that the work involved is: 1. 2. locally available materials and tools. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. 4. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Food 3. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Work practice. Productive 2. Community work and social service. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. 32 . Educative and 3. Culture and recreation 6. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Health and Hygiene 2. Experimentation with materials. Some Hints to Teachers 1. so that it is educational in essence. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. The teachers should make use of. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Clothing 5. tools and techniques and 3. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Shelter 4.

To make education more realistic. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. 6. Merits of the Programme 1. inculcate a faith. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. be allied to the elective chosen by the students.2. slum clearance. Community Service In-1972. the local community should be actively associated.5. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. 1. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. It can become an instrument to build character. Check on educated unemployed 4. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. removal of illiteracy. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. as far as possible. improve discipline. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Productive Work 33 . Education through work The SUPW should. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. etc. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages.

AICTE was set up in year 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. helping the adults-in productive work.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. skills and better future for the children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. should involve itself in the educational effort. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. if not productive. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. in turn. offering first aid. The community. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. traffic control. etc. Define SUPW 34 .

9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. meaningful. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. 1955 4.2. which are useful to the community. 35 . Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 1.2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Radhakrishnan 2. f. 2.2. d. e. manual work resulting in either goods or services. 3. 1952 3. 6. 1. c. b. Write short note on SUPW.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.1. Dr. a.

New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. R.(2005).C. V. New Delhi: A..1. (2007).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Y. B. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. 36 .P. : Sharma. (2005).K. and Nath. Ltd. History of Indian Education System. and Rao. Y.K. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Development of Educational System in India.K.D.P. J. History of Education.2. P. (2007). Rao. Amala. A. Anupama. History and Problems of Indian Education.H. (2009). Publishing Corporation. Singh.

8 1.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4 1.3. there is an official Hindi translation.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3. establishing the structure. democratic republic.3.3. and liberty.369 words in the English language version. 1950.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. Being the supreme law of the country. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. equality. it came into effect on January 26.3. Besides the English version.1 Significance of DPSP 1.3. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. for a total of 117. assuring its citizens of justice.3.3.1 1.9 1.5 1.3. 37 .7 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.6 1.3. procedures. directive principles and duties of citizens. 1949.2 1. containing 395 articles.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.

embodied in Part IV of the constitution. in sessions open to public. 2. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. Through them. spread over a period of 2 years. administrative.3. Two days later. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. 1947. On August 29. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. 1. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. social. understand our Indian constitution. legal and environmental.In the August 14. learn the role of central and state government on education.3. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. The Assembly met. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. 1950.3. After many deliberations and some modifications. for 166 days. economic. 4. According to the constitution. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. 1947. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. with Dr.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. 1. you will be able to: 1. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. 3. political. Dr.3. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. 1. the Drafting Committee was appointed. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. 38 .

old age. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Equal justice and free legal aid. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. No abuse of children. Article 40. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. men and women. That the health and strength of workers. Minimising inequalities in status. 39 . Article 41. in particular. Protecting health of the workers. sickness and disablement. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. The State shall. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. and shall. Right to work. Article 39A. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Condition for dignity of children. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. and in other cases of undeserved want. make effective provision for securing the right to work. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. The State shall endeavour to secure. Article 43. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. for workers. Minimising inequalities of opportunities.government.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Organisation of village panchayat. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Article 42. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. provide free legal aid. on the basis of equal opportunity. Equal pay for both sex. Protecting children from exploitation. Liking wage etc. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.

The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. work. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. to all workers. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. 2002 for “45. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. in suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. industrial or otherwise. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Article 48A. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. and. a living wage. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. in particular. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. agricultural. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Note: Subs. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. The State shall take steps. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. See also Article 21A). Article 47. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 45. (Original Article 45. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Participation of workers in management of industries. The State shall endeavour to provide. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. in particular. [declared by or under law made by 40 . Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Article 43A. Article 44. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Article 48. Article 46. by suitable legislation or in any other way. Article 49.

Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. disposal or export. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. disfigurement. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.3. destruction. may be law determine”. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. Article 50. Promotion of international peace and security. Article 45 . Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. 2002. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Article 51. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. from spoliation. Separation of judiciary from executive. removal. Article-21A Right to Education. as the case may be. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. 1.Parliament] to be of national importance.

admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. and. 6. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. caste. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 5. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. 2002. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. iii. if such person is a minor. 8. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people.” 42 . Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. and shall protect them. in particular. from justice and all forms of exploitations. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. race. 7. ii. his guardian has given his consent thereto. 3. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. language or any of them”. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. 4. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not.

3. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Article 351 gives importance to 6. 43 . & 1. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. and by drawing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. the forms.9. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. The central government determines targets and promotes education. wherever necessary or desirable. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. for its vocabulary. Educational Reforms From time to time.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Provision for Education for minorities is given in .

Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Local bodies and private enterprise. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. 5. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. So that they may work well. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states.. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. to achieve the desired ends. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. The following pilot projects. etc. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. 7. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. All India Council of Medical Science. 6.3. private agencies etc. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. By starting these projects. Production of suitable for children and adults f. 4. 8. the state governments. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. So as to encourage education on right lines.

4.3. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. reports etc. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. are published by it. 1.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. 12. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. training and statistics. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. handicapped. 10. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. research. 1. education for women. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. The 45 . Material concerning nation-wide interests. 3. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. is the state responsibility. books. 11. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. etc. 9.

3. Explain Directive principles 2. 46 . Article 45 b. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 5. Article 46 4. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Article 21A c. articles in the Directive principles. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Write short notes on a.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. 1. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.3.

Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. may be law determine”. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Article-21A Right to Education. Article 46 5. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Ambedkar 2. Describe the educational role of State Government.5. Development of Hindi Language 6. Clearing House function 9. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. a. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 2002. a. Article 45 . Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 47 . 2002. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 4. Dr. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. b.3. Article 29 and 30 7. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. b. The Directive Principles of State Policy. 1. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. a. 3.

1. (2009). (2007). New Delhi: Shipra Publications. L. Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2004). K and Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Dash. K. Education in Emerging Indian Society. 48 .3. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. B. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ghosh. Bhatia. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. S.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. (2008). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. N. S.

3 Precautions while introducing 1.2 1. Jainism.5 1.4.2 Aims of Religious Education Buddhism etc.4.4. Students should be 49 .4 Moral education 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.1 Why Moral Education What Constitutes Moral Education 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.6 1.4.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1. Christianity.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4.8 1.4. Islam. religious education should be broad based. 1.

2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.and dedication.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. 1. duty-consciousness. you will be able to: 1. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline.” Education broadens human outlook. integrity. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. As result of which. state meaning and need for moral education 1. India' can produce men of character. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. "In A multireligious society like ours. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. Thus. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. According to E.D. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. religious education and the concept of secularism. beauty and goodness so that 50 .. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. know the position of religious education in our country 3. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion.4.4. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. In the complicated and complex society of today.

2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. Hence. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. through religious practices and 51 . 1947 we achieved our freedom. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. Children attend these organizations. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately.4.4. In short. rancour.3. Thus. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. castes and creeds. all citizens are free to follow any creed. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. No religious tax can be imposed on them. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. According to Article 19. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. if not regularly. According to Article 22. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. Viewing the defects of religious education. religion and democracy are same. 1. it is clear that the State has no religion.” From the above. 1. As our country is a country of diverse religions. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education.3. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. As a matter of fact. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. realizes God in himself.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. They thought that any kind of narrow. at least occasionally.

moral and spiritual values. aggressive. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. As a result of which. for the development of the individual and the society. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. He also learns about social. and what is evil. which can mould.. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. one fully developed. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. what is done and what is not done etc. If unreleased. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). intellectual and physical faculties of children. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance.teachings. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. Good education. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. It is religious education. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. temperament etc. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. which help him for the development of his character. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. It helps to modify habits attitudes. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. when he becomes an adult. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way.

In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. 53 . Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. Therefore. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. If we open the pages of history. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. which is the basic need of a democratic life. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. This should not be allowed to happen. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. towards the society. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and.4. 1. 2.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”.3. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. 3. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument.

The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Life histories of great persons of the world. stories of moral greatness. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. examples of patriotism. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Since all religions have virtues.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . therefore. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Gurudwara as. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. churches and mosques 7. 11. Write Article 22 2. 9. For this. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5. fellow-feeling. 10. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.

3. 1. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Aparigarha (Non. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 5. 2. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Ahimsa (Non-violence). 2. 1. 4. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society.4. therefore. Without moral values.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Purity. 4. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. the methods of teaching. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. 6.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Self sacrifice. students. 55 . Asvada (Control of palate). 5. 7. They will play their role effectively. 7. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. The content of the curriculum. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. Non-injury. is that which develops moral values. It they learn what morality is in their early years. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. in the home. 8. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). let men see well of one another. Moral education. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. 8.acquisitiveness). Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. “Let all be happy and free from disease. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”.4.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Patriotism. 6. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 3. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Cultivation of emotions. Service to others. Satyam (truth). Fearlessness.

two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship.9. 2. Integrity. Efficiency. loyalty and self-sacrifice. 3. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. National unity and Spiritual values. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Sharivashram (Physical work). The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. In the school programme. 4. discipline. minutes in the morning for group singing. religions may be included in the syllabus. The School Assembly should be held for a few. 10. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Discipline. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction.4. Asatyam (Non-thieving). The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Unity of mankind. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Good temper. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . 56 . Secondary Stage 1. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. 11. 3. Good manners.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. 1.

This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. In this connection. University Stage 1. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. 2. Silent meditation should be encouraged. 5. patriotism and self-discipline. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. 3. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. 5. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. should form a normal part of school programme. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 4.4. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. love of humanity. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. In other words. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 57 .

Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. 4. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.4. a. For this. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. 1. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. Training of Character 3. a. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. 58 . b. b. minutes in the morning for group singing. 1959 5.4. Discuss the aims of Religious education. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. 2. a.4. Sri Prakasa 6 . According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. The School Assembly should be held for a few.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. the. 2.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. 1. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. In short.1. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3.

N.P. L.4. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. P. Theory and Principles of Education. (2008).1. Dash. Publishing Corporation. N. Anmol Publications Pvt. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.H. (2007). 59 . Pahuja. B. Bhatia. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.H. K. (2003). (2004). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2008). M. New Delhi : Siddiqui. Ltd. New Delhi: A. K and Narang C. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.C. INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5..10 1.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.2 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.8 1.5.5 1.11 1.1 1.12 1. i.5.e.3 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5.5.5. 60 .6 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. disparities between provinces/States. Although.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.4 1.

know the education suited to different environments. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 61 . Neglect of the region by the Central Government. 1.5.1. for example. 2. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. energy. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. 1. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. etc. they take appropriate measures. roads. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. you will be able to: 1. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 3.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. 6. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.5. They therefore. 8.5. Accordingly. work hard towards this end. 7. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. understand the regional educational development in India 3. 4. waters.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. 1. This leads to separatist movements.5. 5.

on the basis of regional development may be formed. Secularism.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. while others remained educationally backward. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . • Separate States (of course viable States). 4. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. 3. 62 . Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. and. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. Therefore. some average. 2. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. Tight security arrangements should be made. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions.5. some States became educationally far advanced.

approved proposals worth Rs. 1. remained under developed. Regional Centres of IGNOU. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Tezpur. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Funds amounting to Rs. However. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. the Union Government. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. Guwahati. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. scholarships.84 crore was released in 2005-06.5.480. NIT. etc. 63 . The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. These projects are in various stages of implementation. In the Central sector. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. Mizoram..After the Planning Process has originated. since its inception in 1998-99. Out of this. academic buildings. while some States like Bihar. the State Governments. books. After the attainment of independence. Nagaland and NEHU. and provision of informal education to enable those.g.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. NERIST. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. etc. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. Silchar. Central Universities of Assam. Even in each State. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.392. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments.14. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Rs. Jammu and Kashmir.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. library buildings. Itanagar. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums.

In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). During 2003-04. Government expenditure on education. Moreover.05 crore and Rs.40. 64 . Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. too.500.261. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.5.187. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west).1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.57 crore and Rs. Out of this an amount of Rs.8 per cent in 05). the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. A provision of Rs. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Tezpur University. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.501.

notes the study. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. 1. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Listing the positives. Kerala and Gujarat. Karnataka. Moreover. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. for instance.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. To add to the woes. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. Andhra Pradesh. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. pharma. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. too. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. health services and welfare of the citizen population. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18).5. Tamil Nadu. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. telecom. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . too. English. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. for which 16 sites. engineering and R&D. too. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Medical education. Karnataka. The Chandigarh Administration.

even actually looking at the watch. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. taking the average in the middle. the curricular subjects. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. while the former does not. For a learner living in a rural area. the working days: an academic . which a non-tribal person cannot do. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. and so on. life-oriented and environment slanted. when he will not be sure of time. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. the socio-physical conditions. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. In the same manner. 66 . Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. Then education become realistic and idealistic. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. The living conditions. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. in which the learners live. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. the vocations. Hence it is called as need-based. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. the teaching methods.year. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. Of course. the needs. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. the interests. The working hours of educational institutions.

Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. 67 . Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. 2. 1. to suit education to different environments? 1. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.5. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.

Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Salim. Educational Development in India. (2001). Giridhar. and Nair. Education in Developmental Arena. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Education Scenario in India.5. S. remained undeveloped 3.N. during the British rule. 68 . S.H. (2002). New Delhi: Authors press. 60% 1. C. Dubey. some States have become more developed than others b.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. some of areas which were under the native rulers.K.2. A. (2008). New Delhi: Anmol Publications. a. R.G. (2001).

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. community development. National Integration. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. secularism and democracy through Indian education. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. 71 . International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. semi literate and illiterates. school community and mass media. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system.

1.3 2.2 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.5.LESSON 2.7 Main features of Socialism 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.4 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY. 2.1 2.9 Education for Secularism 2.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.

This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. 73 .4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. 2. socialism and secularism 2. for the people by the people”. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. Abraham Lincoln. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. you will be able to: 1. In the matter of admitting students in schools.1. Democracy thus means power of the people. colour or wealth. socialistic and secular state. This is the political aspect of democracy.1. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. there should be made no distinction of caste. 2. The students may be associated with the management of the school.1. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission.2. socialism and secularism 2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.1. 3) Provision of Manual Work. creed. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. understand the concept of democracy. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group.

Democracy means 2. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. declamation contest etc. 74 . 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. There are different brands of socialism. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. 8) Opportunities for Social Service.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. it soon spread all over the world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 2. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work..1. may be planned. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. debates. 11) Student Parliament. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 12) Visits to Legislatures.

7) Special facilities for girls. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 2. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 75 .2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. the wealthy and the poor.1. but on the path of non-violence. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books.1. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. the prince and the peasant. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. oppression and disparity. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. service and cooperation. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. free from exploitation. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. Under it. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low.5.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 2.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society.5. none high”. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.

the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 76 .” In every political and educational corner. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. "which seeks the development of physical. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. According to Holydake. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. secularism is being propagated. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. Write any two main features of socialism. 11) State schools. 2. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. 5. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. “India is a secular-country.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. Everyone says. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’.1. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children.

2) It permits freedom of religion. fraternity. In this type of prevailing situations. 2. the belief that the state morals. people have narrow mindedness. should be independent of religion. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. liberty. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. 3) It permits freedom of worship. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. During the recent past. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. There is need of making the people open minded. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity.6. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. 5) It implies tolerance. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. education etc.6. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. 77 . Moral values have to be imbibed. 8) It believes in co-existence. people started believing in regionalism. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines.1.1. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. 9) It stress free inquiry.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. That is why. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. A large number of people is uneducated.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations.opposed to religious education.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. “Webster further says. Equality.

Religious Education. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education.1. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. 2. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. In the hands of such teachers.presented by the students in the gathering. Patiala. 1) Moral Education.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. education. The very sight of the building. students belonging to different religions should be associated. In the celebration of each such function. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other.6. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. While doing so. No doubt. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. There should be some internal checking of the material being. that the central string of all religions is one. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. tours and trips may be organized.

The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. No doubt. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. The word “Seculum” means 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. Define Secularism 9. The term secularism was first used by 8. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. 2. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.1.

4. Socialism aims at social justice. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. 3. a. 5. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.1. there should be made no distinction of caste. Socialism aims at equality. Respect of Individual Personality. 6. creed.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. b. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. for the people and the people”.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. colour or wealth. 4. a. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Equal Opportunities for Admission.1. 3. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Provision of Manual Work. 2. This present age 7. Power of the people 2. 5. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. George Jacob Holydake 80 . How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Since socialism stands for equality. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. b. Tuition free education b. c. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. Abraham Lincoln. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. d. a. In the matter of admitting students in schools.

(2003). Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt. L. Bhatia. 10.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. K and Narang C. New Delhi : Pahuja. P. 81 . It permits freedom of religion.8. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. N. a. N.C. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. K. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. b. Dash. (2005). education etc. (2007). School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Ltd.” 9. Mohanty. the belief that the state morals. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Theory and Principles of Education. (2008). should be independent of religion. b. B. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Modern Trends in Indian Education. J. J.1. a. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2004). According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 2.4 2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.8 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2.2.3 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2.1 International understanding in the school 2.1 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.LESSON 2.

moral. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values.generation to another. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. 83 . you will be able to: 1. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. 2. as learners. It involves physical. The developmental roles of children. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils.2. social and moral aspects. and 4. a r e 1. instructor of school children. 2. social. who are placed in his custody. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. aims and objectives of the school. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. as it is t he aim o f modern education. 2. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. A teacher is first and foremost. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. emotional. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. understandings. therefore. as workers. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. 3.2. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. mental. skills. as citizens. application. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. as persons.

a part of their day in 84 . 1. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. He has to look after their physical. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. 2. motivated. and aesthetically to become. intellectually. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. The following are some of such roles described in brief. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. physically fit for socially efficient. morally. teacher has to play the role of a citizen.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. He is to become an active member.All education should lead to better behavioural development. mentally. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. 2. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. mental. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. inquisitive. emotionally. member of his community at the outset. 3. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. The students live.2. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. culturally confident. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. economically effective. social and emotional health. Teacher as a Citizen Next. morally. experiences and acceptance. socially.

the school being under the custody of teachers. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. and most of hours. activities of the society into which he is born. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. Dr. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning.2. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. photographic clubs. List out the role of teachers towards community development . fine art associations. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. creeds. science club. faiths. India is a land of many castes. 4. languages and religions. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. 2. Unless. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. solve them.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. They will be spending with their parents. It 85 .

It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. Sampurnanand remarked. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. ‘We should not become parochial. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. with straight backs and look up at the skies. folklore and teaching of social studies. Nehruji has explained this as. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that .emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. this integration of the Indian people.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. social studies. stand up straight. At the primary stage the importance of stories.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. b. poems. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. Let us. The only process is the process of maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. c. a. It should broaden the outlook. Radhakrishnan. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. should be emphasised. narrow-minded provincial. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . therefore.2. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. 1.” Regarding the role of education. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. national anthem and other national songs. the citizens of the Republic of India. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. and make into one strong national unit.” 2. the study of language and literature. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis.5.

Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. National Days—January 26. 4. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. militar y training like the NCC. ACC. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. 9. Textbooks. Taking Pledge. Co-Curricular Activities. tours. debates. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. dramatics and youth festivals. Reverence of National Flag. 87 . culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. and picnics. Uniform for School Children. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. t he st udent s and t he community. Celebrations of National Days. languages and literature. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. sports. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. 2. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Scouts and Guides.different social sciences. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. 5. 8. 10. Student Camps. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. symposia. 7. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Singing of National Anthem. 3. educational excursions. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. 6. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country.

School Projects. Students Exchange and Tours. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. v. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Open-Air Dramas. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . ii. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. 13. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. colour. Recognition of Institutions. 88 . Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. language. Admissions to schools. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places.2. Admissions. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. 2. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner.11. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. flora and fauna. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. region or religion. 12. 16. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa.5. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. iv. ways of thinking and doing things. Educational and Travel Documentaries. iii. 15. 14. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery.

vii. 2. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Community dinners. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. ix. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . viii. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. cultures and races on equal bases. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . irrespective of national boundaries.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Define National Integration 3.

2.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. often in connection with anniversaries..2. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.F. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. if it happens. patriotism is not enough. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. (b) stories of children of other lands. 4. (c) fairly tales. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the important as that of a national citizenship. 6. Radhakrishnan states. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. therefore. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . and the healthy development. Organising of debates and. 5. Dr. of his body and mind. 3.e.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.6.friendships between children of different countries.2. This.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. the international level. Teachers 90 . exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. C. Strong has observed. Therefore. 2. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. In a very real sense. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.” 2. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. that war.6.

an Englishman.” Well Informed About World Situations. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Russian. Impartial in their Treatment. a German. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. They should not be propagandists. Indian and American. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other.

factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. 4. Wide Spread Frustration . Soon after they leave their educational institutions. majority of people are. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students.Another major. Chronic Poverty . It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 .2. 5. 3. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. understand and indiscipline: 1. As the school is but a miniature society. and help the students to over . out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. Devaluation of Values . 2. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. Defects of the educational System . they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. there is wide spread frustration among all people. It does not prepare students for life.2. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. leading to. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. which results in agitation and aggression language. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. If this is done. the education function can be carried.

Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. co-operation. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. 2.2. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. love.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. 3. fellow feeling. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. sympathy and good will among the nations. 2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. 93 .2.democratic nature. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . 4. community development.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System


Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.


STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency Functions and role of schools in the society Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency Radio as an agency of education Television as an agency of education Press as a medium of education Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.

9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.

16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together. MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.




1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society


2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.


libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. To make them achieve their aim.3. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. periodicals. Then came newspapers. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . led to the printing of books. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He taught his students orally. Now internet is being used. art galleries. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. the invention of the printing press. books. Hence. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. Moreover. 2.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. During the course of time. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. In fact. Define community. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. Emphasising this thing.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Crow and Crow write. are increasingly used in education. “All the citizens of the community.V. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Museums. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher.

can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Important happening inventions. Thus. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. 2. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. languages. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. 101 . discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. dram appreciation. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Reynolds.G. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion.3. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. 2. In collaboration with the experts. rather than on picture. politics. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Effective means of presenting music. In the emphasis is on sound. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well.classroom teachers. the place of importance. Various talks. Students listen various talks. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. Thus. It stimulates curiosity and interests. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching.6. music. “Listening participation” in current history. current affairs and other areas. It is also an important source of entertainment. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. the teacher still occupies. social studies. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. for the teacher through school broadcasts. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers.telecast. It enlightens public opinion. art. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. A lot of work by way of pre.

The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. fol classical music. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. development of lessons. Team-teaching demonstrations. at drawing room. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. travel talks. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. 4. speech. mathematics. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. 5. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. School concerts. at recreational centers. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. Before presenting the programme. at any place. At present. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. plays. projects or creative activities. Participation of local teachers and pupils. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. style. Making learning an open system. informal and non-formal education. 3. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. 102 . at play. audibility and presentability.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.


Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.


For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.


Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.

2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.

Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4.3.6 2.4.5 2.3.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4 Non formal educational system Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.4.LESSON 2.2 Levels of formal education system Advantages of formal education 2.4.4 Limitations of formal education Characteristics of formal education 2.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .1 2.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.8 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.2 Agencies of Non formal education 2.

9. 7. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. you will be able to: 1.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. say the Government or the private enterprise. School is. the community. Education associated with a degree or certificate. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. 6.4. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. starting and ending at -a particular age.4. 2. it was mostly. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. the mass media et. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. his mental alertness. 4. 2. 2. 8. 3. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education.2.3. 4. the most important agency of formal education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. 110 . To realize this objective of education.. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. the learner are acquainted. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. the family. the temple. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. open university. Education. compare formal and non formal system of education. 2. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. 2.4. imparted at the residence of the teacher. In ancient time in India. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. Education organised by some agency.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. open school. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. 5.4.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness.

Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. capacity.a secondary education. third stage. diplomas. Concepts of proportion. such as a high school or secondary school. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.2. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. 2. and relations are formed and developed through normal play.3. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. as well as vocational education and training. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.4.3. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Some education systems have separate middle schools. structured education. depending on the jurisdiction. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. or post secondary education. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing .2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education.4. Higher Education: Higher education. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. the elements of language are first learned. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. In general. or academic degrees. also called tertiary. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Through early formal education.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation.

3. 3.4. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. 4. 2. 2. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. What are levels of formal educational system? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.which will help for nation's development. Agencies can be classified as 2. and remote dwellers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. is an important agency of formal education.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. children with disabilities.4. Write any two characteristics of formal education? .4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. late beginners etc.

e. It unlocks the doors of development plans. It is deliberate.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work.formal education. According to Malcolm A.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Non-formal education includes adult education. one could say that non-formal education is an active. Thus.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. systematic. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. until 1970 it had not been defined. to help themselves.. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. Therefore. Adiseshiah. adults as well as children. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. financially supported life formal education. admissions. i.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. place of instruction. staffed. systematic.learning client take some learning objectives.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. etc. it is a more effective tool for rural development. open learning.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. planned. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. adding up to a true learning society.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. continuing education and on the job oriented education. “Non-formal education should 113 . it has its own valid claim to reality. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. curriculum. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. It is functional. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. However. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. It is much more responsive to needs and change. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. Open university.

be marketable and vocationalised.renewal.S. Lawrence.4. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. Process of sharing. 2. 114 . Part-time education. socialism. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. Preparation for future needs. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things.learning pattern. co-curricular activities. international understanding.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.4. exploring.4. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter.” 2. admissions. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.4. curriculum. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. To develop in the student.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. national integration. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. 6. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Flexibility in various aspects of education. 4. the Ideas of citizenship. 5.e. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. place of education. To help industrial workers to better their skills. Covering life span of an individual. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. i. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills.” According to H. self. age.S. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. evaluation etc. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. 7. 3. modes of teaching. 2. It should lay emphasis on the self.

• To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To offer Secondary. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. Senior Secondary.4.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. in villages and those who live in towns. 4. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 2. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. Technical. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Eradication of adult literacy. 5. working adults. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. 9. 3. 5. 6. 115 . • 2. 8. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 7.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives.4. 10.4. Universalisation of primary education.4. 2. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. school dropouts. publication and information dissemination. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 4. 3. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn.

5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. Therefore. training centres in factories. 2. centres of correspondence education.4..2. Again. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. Radio and television. farm. To increase knowledge and 2. etc.4. effective in modern societal context. others are formal and informal. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. Institutions for formal education. To make if. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . open space. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. To better qualifications. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. All-round development i. 4. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. if organised in isolation. library. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. 2.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1.4. self-employment iii. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . etc. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. public libraries. 3.full time to learners – can be home. factory. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute.

Give examples of non formal education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Teaching to face teaching. Written tests. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Lecturing T. radio. Correspondence lesson. List out any two aims of non formal education. 7. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. . Define non formal education. Face Contact programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. . Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. institution. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. 6.V. 117 .

educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss.4. the college and the university come under this category. The school. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. 4. 3.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Primary level.4. systematic. Open School. 2. Pre-school level. 5. a. b. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. b. adults as well as children. 2. a.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Secondary level. 7. Formal and Non Formal 2. Higher Secondary level and University level. 2. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.2. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society.” 6.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. School 3. 118 .4. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. 4. Open University.

K. (2004). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ltd. (2003). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Pahuja.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2008). New Delhi : 119 .2. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Dash.4. (2005). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.C. P. Ltd. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2008). (2007). S. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Mohanty. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N. L. K and Narang C. J. N. Gupta. Bhatia. Education in Emerging India. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J. B. Anmol Publications Pvt.

5.LESSON 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.3.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.4.1 2.4.6 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System Agencies of continuing education Need for Open University 2.5.5 2.5.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.2 2.5.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.3 Objectives of Open University 2.5.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.4.4 Open University Characteristic features of open University 2.

it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. For them. industries. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. 2. give the meaning. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy.5. It is a continuous process. you will be able to: 1. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.5. However.5.2. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.3. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. labourers and half educated individuals. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. know the need and objectives of open university. It is a lifelong process. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. continuing education is a boon. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. Thus. characteristics of open university 4. farmers. Under these circumstances. This knowledge may be in political field. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies.5.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. economic field or such other fields. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. 2.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. Any person. 2.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture.

A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Cinema. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. T.5. Thus. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. After the achievement of independence. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. are also contributing their might for the purpose.3. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 .directly related to his job. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. 2. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further.V. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. On the other hand. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans.V.literate person. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Throughout the country. deteriorating to his character and personality. cultured and progressive. Block Development Officers. Doctors. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. On the other hand. Persons engaged in health services. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. Radio. if he gets opportunity to develop them. For them too continuing education is essential. Radio and T.

It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. 2. (14) information about bringing up young children.3. (7) folk songs. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (16) liking. (15) music. (10) first aid. Inspite of the great efforts. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (2) basic religious matters. we have not been able to achieve our targets.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.5. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. habits of people of other lands. and Radio. (17) modern international and national events. (1) ancient history. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (8) psychology of adults. (13) psychology of child behaviour. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons.V. 4. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. Of course. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. especially women. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. 6. 5. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 123 . (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (6) folk stories. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme.3. 7. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as.. 3. These books are not very useful.5. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. 2. 2.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1.

restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . NLM was launched in the year 2. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. of educational opportunities. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.5. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. 2.5. attendance restrict ion. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e .4. lack of time etc.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

2. IGNOU was established in the year 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. 5. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. 3. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. c. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world.4. but 125 . e. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. Which was the first open university in India? .unobserved. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. its education is not class room based but home based. No one is too old or too late to learn. and in teaching. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. the higher the degree of openness. 4. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. it makes use of educational techno logy. d. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . Education is not a once for-all process. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 2. b.5.

T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 5. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc.5. 2. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. Mo re o ver. cho ice o f co ur ses. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. supplementing the existing provision. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 3. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. who were deprived of t he same earlier. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n.5. 6. 126 . t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 4. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. it a ims at wider and hig her.4. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. 2. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n.who did not get it. 4. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 2. 3. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 2. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”.4. or who realised too late that they need it.

4.2. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University.5. a society. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. 7. List out any four methods of Open University? . They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. you have learnt the concept. Laboratory works. Every day. 5. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.4. Self instructional materials. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. In the present day world. Correspondence tuition. 8. 8. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. semi – literates. 127 . a state or nation. Tutor Comments. 6. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. school drop outs. 2. t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. 1. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? .5. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n .

6. a. Broad casting lectures c. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 8.ambitious learners.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. 128 . 9. need and characteristics of Open University. 1985. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. 4. (4) the fundamentals of economics. d.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. Explain the objectives. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 2. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n.5. aspirants for continuing education. which may include house wives. 2. 3. b.5. b. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 7. (2) basic religious matters. P r int med ia b. its education is not class room based but home based. unskilled workers and other professionals. a. (1) ancient history. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. agricultural and industrial workers. 7. 8. 1988. youth. a. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. cho ic e o f co u r ses. Television Lessons.

Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Reddy. (2007). Ltd.S. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.2. (2004). Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. S. (2004). Modern Problems of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 129 . K and Narang C.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2001). K. R. Udaiveer.5.K.. L.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

which may claim the attention of those concerned. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. its causes and remedial measures. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Training teachers for all levels of education. examination. the education of women.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. In Lesson 2. and teacher education. wastage and stagnation. 133 . Examination reform. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. All which is the need of the hour.

134 .

1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.1.3 New initiatives.1.1 3.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all EFA – How? 3.1.6 3.1.1.LESSON 3.5 3.4 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1 EFA – For whom? 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.7 3.1. 135 .1.8 3.3.

understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. economic or cultural. you will be able to: 1.1. directed that. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. understands the country. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. On the other hand. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. 2. 3. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. “The State shall 136 .1. social. may be political.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. (EOI) 2. Eradication of Illiteracy. Continuing Education (CE) 1.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. Therefore. therefore. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. education received added importance and significance. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures.

” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . After the enrolment of the students in school is over. the national Government under. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. 137 . Universalization of Retention. Due to the adoption of democratic system. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Therefore. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration.endeavour to provide. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. After the attainment of independence. 3. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Three Stages for Universalization. rights and responsibilities. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Universalization of Enrolment. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Continuing Education (CE). Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. It enables the parents to send their children to School. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.

While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. later to 1988. Write Article 45. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. Therefore. This target had to be revised to 1970. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development.3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need.1. 1990. educational enterprise. 138 . then to 1976. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. 1995 (for upper primary stage). present and future. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. It is safe to assure. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. UNESCO Bulletin states. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. 3. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education.

3. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. 5. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. 11. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. 3. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. problem of literacy. etc. FELF. the art of preparing fruit-juice. 139 . The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. 10. 9.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. and Women’s education programme should be improved. NAEP. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). By undertaking survey. adolescent and adult. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. slum areas. Apart from primary education. their social economic status and occupations. To implement the programme of education for all UEE.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Disabled. Early childhood education should be streamlined. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. 8. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. 6. Jams and Jellies. Education of the Impaired. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. creed. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL).1. their enrolment and retention. Emphasis must be given on health education. Education of Girls. rural areas. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. sex. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all.3. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. 12. nutrition education and sports and games. The Social Education.

SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. 3.3 NEW INITIATIVES.1.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. 4. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.1. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Expand MLL and SSA . If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.3. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.e. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Wastage and Stagnation.

The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.first stage of education. School Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. Personal Factors . it is considered as wastage. Social Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . Familial Factors .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.

occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Define Wastage. 142 . . 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage.

relating to home.3.The following factors.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. School Factors .1. Personal Factors . Societal Factors . They are described hereunder :1.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. school or society.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. in his home. rural or urban 3. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. Family Factors . a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. Define Stagnation? 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. uniforms. etc. mid-day meals. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. stationary. 144 . —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education.

directed that. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. 3.1. a. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. 6. Universalization of Retention 2.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.3. a. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. a. improvement of curriculum. Universalization of Enrolment c. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Hartog Committee. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. 4. Universalization of Provision b. 4.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. therefore. 145 . 2. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. 3. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. “The State shall endeavour to provide.. 3.1. b.1.” 3. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.

Personal Factor b. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. a. (2008). S. Sharma. improve examination system. Social Factors 8. 9. New Delhi: 146 . Familial Factors c.K.7. Crescent Publishing Corporation. (2001).N.K. S. a. b. 3. Hemchand. introduce graded curriculum. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.1. (2007). Problems of Elementary Education.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. School Factors d. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. T. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers.

2.5.4.LESSON Disadvantages of Co-education 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.1 Problems of examination 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2.1 Let us sum up 147 .2 Advantages of Co-education The problem of reform of Examination 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.5.7 Open book examination 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination Inspection and Supervision Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.5 New evaluation procedures Question banks 3.2 Grade System 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.

Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.2. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Besides. 4. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.8 3.9 3. 3.2.2. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. but on the other. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. 3.2.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. 3. you will be able to: 1.2. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.2. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. suggest the new evaluation procedures.3. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.3. 3.2.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.

separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened.3.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. If the students are in sufficient number. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. They may cause problems relating to discipline. waiting rooms for girl students. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours..2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. etc. etc. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. roadside Romeoism. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. which the educational authorities have to face. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. The following steps should be taken up. schools for them wherever necessary. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. hostel facilities.2. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. etc. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. 3. They develop secondary sex characteristics. 149 .

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.2. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. public interested in education. 150 . 3. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. It is considered as a major sub-system. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.2. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. the examination system has an important role to play. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. teachers.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. Instruction.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.4. appointment of paper-setters. conduct of internal examinations. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. assessment and Finance. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. public administrators and statesmen.

The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. examiners. etc.printing and distribution of question papers. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. 3. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation.4. etc. validity and practicability. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. invigilators. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted.2. tabulators. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. scrutinizers. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. etc.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. announcement of results. training of examiners. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. introducing objective-based testing. etc. values. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. establishing reliability. etc.

The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. halo-effect. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. 3. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. Subjects. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public.4. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. 7) In connection with the question papers. Rote memorisation. 152 . instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. Vagaries in making.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. stereotyped questions. 2) From the angle of content of education. it s a common experience that subjectivity. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education.. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. not meant to be assessed in the examinations... 6) With reference to scoring procedure. may also discredit them.2. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. do not appeal to the students and parents. takes the place of comprehensive learning. 3) With respect to method of teaching. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. lack of objectivity etc. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. which they are expected to study.

Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. 4. may be introduced. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. revaluation. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .develop true love for education. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. re-numbering of answer scripts. .a part of internal assessment. 153 . (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. etc. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Spot valuation. List any two merits of examination. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination..Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t.

2. It is complicated. skills are given importance. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3.2.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. The students can take any course offered in any department.3.2. he is given extra credit points. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. In actual practice.5. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. attitudes. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. 3. Every paper is treated equal. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. In this system. The new scheme of assessment. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . Their interests. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.5. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. When a person chooses to work extra. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. Advantages More autonomy is given to students.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970.

3. These weightages are called credits.5. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. An example is a seminar. Groupism is encouraged.discipline. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. only the total credits to be earned is specified. While designing syllabus. courses can have weightages defined. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course.poor. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. v.2. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. This system reduces comparison of marks. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. poor. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. or as a 4 credit course.good. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. In the new system.

Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. 156 . and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.2.2. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.5. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment.2.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. 3. 3.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. 3. However.5. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.5.

2. 6. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.3.2. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. In the hierarchy. However. List any four new evaluation procedures. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Therefore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. There are no proper procedures for selection. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . 3.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. . recruitment.

It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. laboratory equipment. being realised as two different functions. in a sense. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner.qualified personnel. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. school buildings. qualifications. wherever necessary. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. 3. When they are fully realised. Academic inspection. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. submitting of the inspection reports. They are. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. 1. playgrounds. library books.6. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. etc. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. in contrast. requirements. of late. etc. staff. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. finding out the adequacy of.. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools.. taking up the follow-up programmes. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. inspecting the class-room teaching. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. 158 . books are followed.2. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. whether the syllabus has been covered.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. complaints and compliments. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. finding out whether the prescribed text. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. disciplinary problems. interpersonal relationships and so on. assisting the schools in their qualitative development.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected.

who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them.Ed. Similarly.Ed. courses. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. course in either educational.. once in five years. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. 3. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. aptitude. 159 . administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. M. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Insistence on specialisation in the B. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. modern. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. In the case of departmental candidates. their professional knowledge. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions.. or.2. In the light of these conceptualisation. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. at least.

a. b. 2. c.2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. d. 3. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. 3. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 3. Grade System. 4. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. assessment and Finance. b.2. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 3. Administration.2. 160 . 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. Instruction. b. a. a. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. examination reforms and supervision and inspection.

Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma.2. Educational Reforms. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Open book examinations. 7. a. (2002). Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. (2005). Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. b. a. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Multiple sets of question paper. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. New 161 . c. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . a. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. b.4. K. Problems of Education in India. 5. R and Sharma. Vaidya.a part of internal assessment. 3. K. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. (2004). Question banks. b. S. History and Problems of Education in India.

3.6 3.8 3.10 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. 3. 3.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3.2 3.7 3.9 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.LESSON 5.4 3.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3.1 3. 162 .3. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. 2.3 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5 3. identify the needs of rural India and social. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3.

and 3 years of First Degree Course.e. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education.e. e. 2. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. in Andhra Pradesh. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857..3. i. University Education. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. 10 years of general Secondary Education. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines.specialisation programmes 3. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course.3. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. 8 years of general education. Consequent on the recommendations. etc. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education.. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1..g. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Commission emphasised to continue. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. The Calcutta Madras. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. The. Similar is the case with some other States. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education.. the Banaras Sanskrit College. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 .

b. is also a plus point . general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. to prepare. 7. Provision for transfer of credits to students. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 6. 8. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. However. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. 10. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . historical. 5. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. who desire to change from one stream to another. educational channels. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. economical and political. habits of hard work and develop .a sense of dignity of labour. 3. cultural and economic development of the country. social. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . 5) to help for the social.confidence in students.3. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. and. to imbibe.

cultural and' religious tolerance. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. Here the choice of subjects is provided for.3. cooperativeness.. etc. Sociologically it is undesirable. 3. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. The General Educational Spectrum. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. 1. and that required to enter the tertiary level. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. on one hand. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world.national integration. at the other.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. democratic living. and. international understanding. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. to develop national character. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. Psychologically. social justice. Philosophically it is not the conception.

professional. physics or mathematics. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. commerce. India is a land of villages. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. horticulture. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Biology. Science. technological. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. All these need for an. 3. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. the rural areas have suffered very much. Commerce and other disciplines. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Agriculture is the main occupation. In the vocational spectrum. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. 166 . and vocations based on dairy-farming. In the matter of language. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. technical. medical plants.— tube-wells. fish culture. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. rural health. such as Agriculture. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. vegetable growing. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. educational and cultural services. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. In our country. or other machinery.3. industrial agricultural production is growing. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training.—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. chemistry. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. commerce. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially.

Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. etc.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. 4. 3. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . the local resources available. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. can be ensured.3. In this way. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. There had been favourable reaction from the students.. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. In this it may be concluded. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . and 5.etc. social justice. interests and aptitudes of the students. In time. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. and the needs. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

habits of hard work and develop . objectives. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal.a sense of dignity of labour.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. Dash. (2001). we studied the history.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. a. Calcutta University Commission 2. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. a. a. 3. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Ltd. B. J. (2005). S. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. b.3. Mohanty. 3.K.3. N. 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.C.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Vocational Sepctrum. b. J. (2008). Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. 3.3.3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 2. New Delhi : 168 . to imbibe. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. General Educational Spectrum and b. 3.4.10 3.4.8 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail. Education contributes to human development.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.LESSON 3. social and 169 .4.4.13 3.4.3 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.9 3.12 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.6 3.7 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.

The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. Education . Home Economics. 3. Nursing. While women constituted only 9. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. There is a close connection between education and development. higher education of girls developed immensely. economic. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. family. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. The relevance of women’s education to social. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. For the first time in the history of India. During the year 1937. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. community and nation is universally acknowledged. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. particularly 170 . 3.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . you will be able to: 1.4. cultural and political development of the individual. Dr. although we have miles to go. In the post —independence period. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. These courses were.higher education in particular. Teaching and Fine Arts. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century.4. analyze the women and distance education.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far.

2 22. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.women.1 24. levels and professions. we have more than 1200 institutions.4. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. Coimbatore.9 14.0 Today. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.N. Kodaikanal. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.4.0 32. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. in our country.0 43. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.T Women University.4. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . In 1950-51. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.2 29. out of 9200 and odd colleges. Mumbai.D. 3.9 27. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. The idea of women’s education for equality.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. 3. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). In the rest of the country. Mother Teresa Women University. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.0 16.65 lakhs in 1994-95.1 31. Even today. Yet.

34 33. 3.56 64.4%) prefer Arts subjects.4.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .53 34.36 3.27 89.4. 3. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.1 respectively. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1 and 14. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .66 66. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .46 82.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.that of boys. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.83 47.73 10.44 35.4.63 Female % 34.17 52. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.54 12. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.47 65.

In every third family. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. distance of the college or university from home. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. she will only learn fashion. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. In college. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. 173 . Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. marriage is a very common I factor. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. 3. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Thus. Book banks should be established. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. irrelevance of the content of education. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. Also. and coeducation may spoil her character. particularly.4. what is the need for higher education for her. etc. curriculum not suited to their requirements. financial difficulty of the parents. According to a survey. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas.hinders the girls from getting higher education. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. The major hurdles. They gave up their studies to enter home life. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. promoted and increased.

economic disabilities faced by women. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. 3. Distance education is a boon to women. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Geographic distance of educational institutions. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.4.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Empowerment in a nutshell. It enables to study. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. resources and socio . It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. There are constraints of time. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. space. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. It also brings about 174 .Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. is the only tool for realising empowerment. 3. and the limitations of the conventional education system. It is a productive investment. Education. Full-time employment.4.

9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. Empowerment is an active. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. This can be achieved through reflection. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. on their own. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. empowerment means being assertive. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. legal awareness and economic independence. higher learning. 3. education of women is of paramount importance. education of women must be given priority in national plans. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. for full development of our human resources. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment.4. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. The major objectives of women's higher education. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. Women are partners in development.

which had been the sole domain of men. has to be implemented at the earliest. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Scholarships and concessions for women. will encourage them to venture new grounds.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. Better opportunities. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. especially so in the developing countries. Reservation for women. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. The local administration. which is pending for a long time. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. 176 .GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. 3. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. But their number is small. who are eager to take up courses.4. The educational institutions.

there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. especially in developing countries like African countries. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. 3. But. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. talents. Australia. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities.1%) and architecture and building (38. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? .She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. IDP Education. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Also. Chief Executive.8%). Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.4.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. engineering and related technologies (16.9%). International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. capacities etc.000 women in the country. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . According to Lindy Hyam. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability.3 percent.

14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. (2000).R. Coimbatore. Women and Education. Annakodi.C. and Swain. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. 4.4. R. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Centre for Women’s Studies. SNDT Women’s University. 178 . impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. R. Mishra. SNDT Women’s University. S. Kodaikanal. Rao.K. 4. 2. (2008). Mother Teresa Women University. 3. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. create the right attitude towards life. Mumbai. Mumbai. Pattanaikj. 3. A. Women Education. individuals and society b. a. Rajasthan 5.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. S. 3. (2007).12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Women Education. community and the nation. R. A. 43% 6.4. Coimbatore. (2005). and the family.

5.5 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .9 3.3 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.LESSON 3.5.7 3.5. whole.6 3.4 3.5. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.personality of children in and out of school.1 3.5.11 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.10 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. They should be trained. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.

5. 3. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Dearth of new technology of teaching. social and emotional integration.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.5. 3. understand the training teachers for Primary. national consciousness. understanding and strong desire for international peace.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. 5. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. 4. you will be able to: 1. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. Shorter working hours. 180 . Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. and national character. international.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. know the pre service and in service training facilities. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. Lack of physical facilities. equality and justice.

. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years.Ed. the state Government. If the student teachers are working teachers. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. etc. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. the centre. At the diploma level. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. it is called the In-service teacher education. Inadequate training in practical skills.Ed. 3. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors.5. 3.. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. inservice and extension education programmes.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. higher secondary teacher education. Lop-sided curriculum. the primary teacher education. and the collegiate teacher education. it is called the Extension teacher Education. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service.Less qualified teacher educators. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. a Diploma course and a Degree course. levels. (NCERT) New Delhi. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. and M. students.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. who have not been trained earlier. the secondary teacher education.5. Depending on the levels. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education.

etc. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs .Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Education cells. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. extensio n service. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Science Education units. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Also Guidance Bureaux. non-formal. collegiate cells. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Evaluation unit.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. state Institutes of Educat ion. 3. are established. Educational teehnology cells. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose .. depart ments etc.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Expand NCERT 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

Ed. and 183 . for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. to prescribe conditions for recognition. which should include experience in the primary schools too. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. to ensure teacher competence. should be improved on a top priority basis. schools and sister institutions. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. and so on. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. degree.Ed. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed .• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . despite its vast expansion. audio visual aids. primary and secondary school teachers.. to improve curricular programmes. to offer consultative services. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. which help breaking isolation from one another . laboratories. material conditions relating to degree levels to break its isolation from the universities ... every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240.

Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. etc.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. etc. Psychology of Students. Hence. Agriculture. Meanwhile. not came up once again. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. methodology and evaluation. To meet this exigency. and XII. Induction Courses. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. though no pre-service training. The problem. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. Modern Methods of Evaluation. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Modern Techniques of Teaching. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering.secondary education. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Organisation of Content Courses. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Workshops. whether they should have professional education or. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. 184 .

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.. Courses leading to B.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. Degree.A. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.Ed.Ed. Ajmer. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.. Degree and M. Pre-service training is for those.’s are elig ible for M. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. For re-orienting the teachers. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .A.Ed. Post-Graduates also undergo B. (Education) are organized by 185 .Ed. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. (Education) and M. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.’s for Ph.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Ed... Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.Ed. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.D. M. training. State Institutes of Education.5. courses and M.S.. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. These facilities are available for regular students. 3. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. in Education. All B Ed.. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.

Hence the employability of M. 186 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. they should be conscientious .List any two code of conduct for teachers? . 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. 3. 6. (Ed). 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.A. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. established by tradition and teachers of the past. However. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . (Ed. 5.). . code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them..A. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 4. What is the role of ERIC? . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. of conduct—written or unwritten. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . and B. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a..8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.5.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.

Bhopal. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Discuss the problems of teacher education.3. 5. a. 4. 2. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. 3. a.5. Explain code of conduct for teachers. National Council of Educational Research and Training. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. b. Ajmer. 3. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 187 . 3.5. Shorter working hours.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 4. 3. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. However.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 6. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. they should be conscientious. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. a. 2. The necessity is however this. b.5.

Teacher Education. and Teacher Education. Publication Pvt. (2010). Corporation.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. Mohanty. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Tewari. P. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . (2009). A. Ltd Aggarwal. B. Teacher Education.3. J.D. (2003).N.5.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

If the diet is poor. In lesson 4. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. nutritional deficiency diseases.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. economic and educational developments. objectives and role of the physical education. 191 . our attention shifts to physical education – its need. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. In lesson 1. The person’s environment is equally important. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. communicable diseases and their prevention. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. Since food is the source of nutrients. preservation of nutrients. the focus is on the school health programmes. objectives. common ailments of children. objectives.

192 .

for giving health education to the children under its custody.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.e.1.1 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.3 4.7 4.8 4.4 4.1.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. It is a miniature society.1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1.1.6 4.1. 193 . emotional and social. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1.9 4. mental.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1.2 4.11 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.5 4.10 4. physical.1.LESSON 4.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1.

To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 6. you will be able to: 1. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. content of health education.. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. know the need for sex education. understand school health programmes 2. 194 . explain the importance of First aid 5. 8. 4. To develop healthy health habits among children. to his family and to the community at large. 10. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. training in first aid and etc. To develop certain skills concerning health.1. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5. training of teachers and evaluation. To give information regarding health rules. 7. cleanliness and healthful living. 3.1. 2. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. e. Instruction. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. list the common ailments of children 3.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 11. 4.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student.g. 9.

(xii) smoking education etc. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. vaccination. excusing late. There should be regular water supply. 2. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students.C. minimizing the travelling distance.G. proper doors and windows. 3. play festivals. direct lighting.. “Play-for-all” programmes. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes.. The flooring should not be damp. organisation of school health days. etc. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. as described below 1. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. (v) safety education. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. inoculation against cholera. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. 5. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. ( iii) sanit at io n. The school buildings should be spacious. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. (xl) mental health.1. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. The surroundings of schools should be clean. suitable furniture.coming or absence. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. B. First aid facilities should be made readily available. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. cleanliness weeks. Arranging better transportation facilities. B. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. Vaccination for small pox.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. (viii) first aid. There should be good drainage facilities. Triple Antigen Vaccination. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. 4. 2. (ii) communit y healt h. (vi) nutrition education. typhoid. is imperative. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 .4.

alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. 196 .• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons.. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. • Take nutritious food. and other accidents. fractures. if epidemic is wide-spread. isolate and notify. bleeding. etc. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. • Close the schools. insect stings. D. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. drowning. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. sports and games in the interest of their health. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. C. scalds. dislocations. • Find out the cases. • When sleeping in groups. • Keep all rooms clean. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. cuts. poisons. • Have adequate rest and sleep. fainting (epileptic fit). • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. wounds. burns. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes.

So they easily get illnesses. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. tuberculosis. There are three stages in any communicable disease.. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. headache. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. cough. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. fever. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. asthma.1. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. polio.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Once these germs get into the body.1. These diseases are called communicable diseases. pain in the joints. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. water or bodily contact. 4. They are: i) The incubation stage.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. which are – cold. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . backache. List out the Health curriculum 3. chicken pox. measles etc. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. 4. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the school health programmes. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. They have less resistence to diseases than adults.

Diarrhoea . cough and fever. The following are the common communicable diseases. Tonsilitis . Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. unhygienic living conditions. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. sugar and water. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands.It is caused by measles virus. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. The symptoms include cold. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. After three or four days of fever. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Mumps . There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Scabies . The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. 198 .This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Hence liquid diet is recommended. head-ache and cough. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Hence it is called a killer disease.When a child suffers from scabies. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Common Cold . nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Measles . In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. etc. Important salts and water are lost in this process. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Others make the children very weak. eating food which is not clean. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Ear Infections .is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. The child may have fever.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. unhygienic bottle feeding.This disease is caused by bacteria. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Throat is affected. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. This is caused by cold virus. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness.

Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Typhoid . Diphtheria . The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. What are communicable diseases? 6. The child may also have diarrhoea.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. raised pink spots appear on head. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. separate. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. As the disease progresses. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. Enlist the common ailments of children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. By scratching he causes secondary infections. It begins with fever. Shortly. face and waist.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Expand DPT . The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. the child may die.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. 199 . If proper treatment is not given. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. the child is not able to breathe.• • • • Chicken Pox .

fainting. sprains. cuts.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. 3.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. In such cases. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. bleeding. Drowning .g. scorpion stings. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. simple fractures. It has its rightful place in education too. Wounds . Sex is but an integral part of human personality. etc. exciting and body-oriented.1. eye injury.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. dislocation. Sex is popular. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. man-woman behaviours.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. sprains. Sprains . 2. swelling. Cuts and Bruises . bruises. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. 4. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. 200 .” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1.4.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. and films.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. snakebites. and Community Work and Social Service. 5. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. films and jokes. it is a subject of art. It is both biological and psychological.1. head injury. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. wounds. drowning. 4. fiction. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. so-called sex books and periodicals.

they would be treading the path of sure doom. Sex education has the major components as follows: to give sex education to the young. in their ignorance. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge.old values. B. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. the religious organisations.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. health. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. The home. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . celibacy are age. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. the school. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. 2. In today's liberal and interactive society. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. The values of life. sex education is being recommended in schools.. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. 3. In secondary schools. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. Hence. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. but preserve them from disaster and disease. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Should the boys and girls. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. try experimenting with their bodies.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. the school health programmes. first aid and sex education. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. when the courses are already overloaded. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. 4. C. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. common ailments of children. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education.1. Teacher education institutions are. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. hence. communicable diseases and their prevention. there will no crisis in its implementation. What are the major components of Sex Education. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. 202 .

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.



SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.


STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.


4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:


Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.


Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy


What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. 209 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Mention the food nutrients 2. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . But how do we select these foods? The major aim. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. minerals.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s .6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.2. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned.4. If you look at the definition carefully. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Let us talk about each of these aspects. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s.2. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. 210 .

In the case of adults. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. it is also specific to a given activity level . moderate or heavy work.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati.sedentary. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and in the morning and the other at night. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). These are: region where the person resides and income. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately.g. 4. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. Even within given States there is considerable variation. A balanced diet is specific firstly. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. the social and religious practices of that region. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . There is no point. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. People in the east of our country prefer rice. Preferences/customs are also important. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. dosa are typical of the south. sex.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier.6. construction labourer).g. activity level and physiological stress. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . In other words. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. paratha and poori. for example. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety.2. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress).

A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. One person may be fond of milk products. customs. nuts and dry fruits. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. One must. while another may hate them. Even among flesh foods. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. In addition to these. income plays a vital role. vegetables and fruits. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. for example. These determine the acceptability of foods. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. Judicious selection of food is. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. however. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. as important for the rich as for the poor. However. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. taboos related to food may play an important role. As you read this discussion. however.planning the diet. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. As income increases. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. Including these 212 . however. Having more money. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. If you think of your own religious group. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. Among the social factors. fat and sugar tend to increase.

7) One should eat what is needed to live . meat. if the teachers have good food habits. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. over-eating or under. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. Define balanced diet. 17. but they should be thrown away. 8. List out any two healthy food habits. green leaves. For this. mouth. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. 213 . plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. fruits. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. etc. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food.eating is hazardous. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 8) Walk a while after eating. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. eggs .

good nutrition is essential for good health. Night blindness. a.2.2. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. When the diet is inadequate. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Bitot’s spots. d. Discuss good food habits.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. preservation of nutrients. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. 4. Keratomalacia 3. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Corneal xerosis. Beri Beri 4. c. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.4. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Explain food nutrients 4. b. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. e. Conjuctival xerosis.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4.2. Vitamin D 5. In fact.

2. Chopra. Nutrition Science. Food and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . (2004). a. A Text Book of Foods. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. P. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. (2008). Food and Nutrition Education. b. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.6. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . (2009). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. (2008). 7.C. minerals. Sri Lakshmi B. R. Food should be consumed after eating well. Health and Nutrition Education. 8. (2005).N. S.M. Hands. mouth. b. R. a . A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. 4. Nutrition and Dietetics. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. 4.13 4.3 Impact on Education 4.3.7 4.12 4.5 4. 216 .3.8 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4 4.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth Impact on social development 4.LESSON 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.1 4.3.11 4.9 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.2 4.3.

and the consequences of these processes. It is not sex education. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. describe the impact of population growth on social. There is some difference.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. his societ y and the world. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. Whenever we talk of sex education. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. population characteristics. objectives and need for population education 2.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning.3. characteristics and changes for himself. 4. understand the importance of small family norm 5. the stress is. Population Education. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. economic and educational development 3. community. you will be able to: 1. aims at providing the younger generation. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. his family. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. state the meaning.3. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as.4. therefore. It is a much wider co ncept. family planning and sex education etc. 4. 217 .” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. the causes of population change.

5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 4. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the nation and the world.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the family.3.4. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Define Population Education 2. the society. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. List out any two objectives of Population Education.

social welfare schemes can be implemented well. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. health and happiness of its citizens. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it.6. the family programmes are also handicapped. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. 219 . 4. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom.3. 4. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. When the family is small. which will not be possible without population control. With the larger families. economic and educational development of the country. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. Every second two thousand children are being born. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Family is considered as a social unit.3. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare.

4.. i.6. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils.e. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. 220 .3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. in buses and trains. toilets.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. teacher index. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. Swollen cities. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. unemployment.6. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. heavy intern I migration etc. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. 4. In developing countries. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. in parks and other places of public gatherings. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. lack of proper health care. and so on. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. in cinema halls and theatres. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. pollution of the environment. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too.3. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. organization index and material index. facility for drinking water. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. The gulf between them is widening further. Many students herded in a small room.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets.3.

A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories.3. family planning etc. essays. blank verses etc. even text books would be in short supply. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. less space facilities.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. There would be poor library facilities. There would be very few audiovisual aids. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. can be taken up. less budget for education. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. can be studied in science and health education. bar graphs etc. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. Regional Language. reproduction. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. thus. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4.. Social Studies Statistics on population education. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. and laboratory equipments.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Hindi and English. 221 .

5. area and average density of population. Canada. 8. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data).3. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved.4. 15. Bihar. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 14. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. China. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. deaths. 2. Children with the help of parents. 12. United States of America. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 3. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Children may compare two families. 9. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Brazil. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. 10. Uttar Pradesh. 11. 4. causes of deaths etc. West Bengal. 7. 13. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union.

preferences for sex. we have no right to stop 223 .be opened in their schools. Comparing life in various respects in two families. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. 16.3. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. 18. The question. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. 17. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. values and role children etc. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. age at marriage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families.

on an overall basis. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. and the child survival components of the news: program.were implemented 224 . India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .to emphasize family planning services. “He who is responsible for population growth. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. at varying places in different regions. The Family Welfare Program. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. 4.3. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. continued . The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). For Medical Termination of Pregnancy..10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. which education can only do. Since the program's inception. especially the expansion of child immunization services .their entry into the world”. however. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. More than 45 years ago. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.4-6.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children.

earlier than the safe motherhood components. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. In April 1996. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. expansion of services to unmarried women. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . Moreover. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. In October 1997. men. and the World Conference on Women. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. reliance on local women as community health workers. and nominal fees for services. Local programs vary in their approaches. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Therefore. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. the community appears willing to pay for services. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. a focus on health promotion. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. At these meetings. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995.

nation and the world. 1997). Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3.emphasizing the needs of the client. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. Its main purposes are to create awareness. 3. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. family. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. economic and educational development 4. Describe the impact of population growth on social. community. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. 4. 226 . involving the community. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training.3. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. What are the goals of RCH? 4.

Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. 7. 227 .3. the causes of population change. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. bar graphs. 4. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. characteristics and changes for himself. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. and the consequences of these processes. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. a.4. Brazil. b. China. his society and the world. a. 5. 3. population characteristics.” 2.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. United States of America. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. his family. a. Canada. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. less budget for education. area and average density of population. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. 6. b. less space facilities.

(2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education. T. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Udaiveer. V. J. Principles of Population Studies. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Ltd. A. Coimbatore.3. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2002). Jayapoorni. Ltd. Kantikar. (2004). Reddy. (1992).K. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Bhende.4. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 228 . (2005). Modern Problems of Education. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. N. Centre for Women’s Studies.

2 Major games 4.7 4.6 4.4.3 Indigenous games 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .8.2 4.8.11 19.4.5 4.4 Lead up games 4.4.1 Minor games 4.10 4.4.LESSON 4.9 4.4.

mental alertness.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. which forms its most valuable assets. leadership and balance in defect. 4. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected.4. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. classify the different types of games. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. you will be able to: 1. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. as it should 230 .4. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. perseverance. moral fitness and emotional fitness. The concept of physical education has been made broader.4. the youth of the country. social fitness. full records of physical activities should be maintained. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. team spirit. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. 4. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.

g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. The educational efforts at home. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. They go hand in hand. obedience to rules. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. They are inseparably united together.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. leadership. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Therefore. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. team spirit. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Every individual is a part of society. To be more precise. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term.

recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. game and sports. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. H. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. 4.” Montaigue writes. a sound health. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical.4. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.” The Secondary Education Commission. C.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. nor body but the whole man. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. pleasing manners. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. Rousseau states. Regarding the significance of physical education. Buck has observed that 232 . “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. Just like Education. Physical exercises. ment al. mo ral.

Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development.” 4. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.” In brief. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. strength. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. resourcefulness and smartness. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 233 . flexibility and power. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. coordinative abilities. we must exercise the whole human being.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. happiness. Froebel says.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. speed. “If we wish to develop the whole being. endurance.a properly directed physical education should result in health. elegance. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. etc. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively.4. efficiency and character. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. initiative.

234 (i) (ii) . because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Tournaments foster this sentiment. these fundamental things have always been present. they may form gangs. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. poetry and painting. systems of government. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Every age has its artists. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. in greater or lesser degree.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. While wars. plagues and famines.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. its adherents and its enemies. If no opportunity is provided to the students. including all racial groups and historical ages.

etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 235 . to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. bravery and interest in games and sports. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. B.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements.sacrifice. 3. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. obedience. Write any two importance of Physical Education. self. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly.\ to develop perseverance. 2. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. respect for rules. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. to develop tolerance.

6. 12.4.H. Be in the uniform. Keep the field ready for the activities. 15. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 4. and readmission after they have recovered. 9. 236 1. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Be self-confident. Usually parents. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. 8. 7. students. is essential. Haag. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. 3. Emergency care procedures should be followed. injuries among pupils should be made. Be well-prepared. 16. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Always keep the whistle ready. 5. 14.4. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Be sportive. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. defects. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. 10. Inform health principles.4. 2. Be punctual. 4.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Posture screening should be done. Act as a leader. . Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. 11. 13. and.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J.

Such inst incts as imitation. Indigenous games.8. less equipment and less expense. frolic and jo y. Moreover. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. the play. 2. 4. 237 . Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Lead up games. 1.4.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy.4. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. As such they are well enjoyed by children. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. their development is handicapped. 4. 4. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 3. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. chasing. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character.

Throwing. They are rules approved by the International Associations.8. While many of them are played in the open playfields.4. 238 . 4. Cricket. Kabaddy etc. under ball pass Relay. benefit in playing minor games. the play equipment. snatching the kerchief. with implements or without implements. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. zig zag relay. couple tag. spiking. Except a few games.With a very few rules. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. the games can be modified according to convenience. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. some of them are played indoors. stopping. Jump the stick clay and so on. on hard courts. dribbling. Hopping. Tennis. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. pitching. driving. They are played for a shorter duration. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Basket Ball. Jumping. wherever the kids assemble. Khokho. on mountain tops and on river beds. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. finding the partner. On lawns. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. For each game the rules are many. Tennikoit. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Dodging. hitting. boosting. on sea-shore. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. muffling. over ball pass Relay. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. These games require varied skills such as running. catching. Shuttle Badminton. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. Hockey. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. trapping.. heading. Soft Ball. skipping.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Ball Badminton. the number of players and substitutes. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Volley Ball. The dimension of the posts and nets. women take part most of the games. bowling etc.

List out some major games. birth. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. festivals connected with religion and public functions. They have an abundant social value. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial.4. While observing the players in action. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. death. An example for indigenous game is 8. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. On occasions like marriage. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. these games being popular. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game.8.8. Games may be classified as 6. Kho-kho.4. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. All the fundamental tactics. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. they are in existence. For example.4. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. 4. and . Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one.

It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. b. a. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.4. 2. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.4. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. aims and objectives and need of physical education. a. a. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. b. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. a. 4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. to develop physical stamina.4. 4. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. b.4. 4. d. 4. Briefly discuss the different types of games. 2. to secure physical health b. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. Posture screening should be done. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. c. 3.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. 5. Minor and Major 240 . The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities.

(2008). Krishna murthy. (2009). (2008). J. Mohanty. Shuttle Badminton. Handbook of Physical Education.6. Tennikoit. Tennis. Ball Badminton.4. J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Khokho. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Basket Ball. Foot-ball. Soft Ball. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Aggarwal. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Health. J. Hockey. Cricket.K. Ltd. 241 . Kabaddy 7.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Volley Ball. 4. G. (2005). Physical Education and Sports. Khokho 8.C.

5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution. 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.8 4.10 4.5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.6 4.LESSON 4.7 4.9 4.1 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.5.3 4.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .1 Natural Environment 4.5.

5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. social. 4. 6. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. 243 . aesthetic and educational factors. Awareness. economic. Skills. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. 3. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. you will able to: 1. 2. Attitude. 4. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. population explosion and resource depletion could be. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. role of teacher in environmental conservation. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. 2.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. education about the environment and education through the environment. 5. Broadly.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast.5. Knowledge. Details are given below: I. 3. The best place to start such learning is school. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Essential knowledge about the Environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. political. Participation. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. list out the types of environment 3. 4.educat ion for the environment. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. it covers the following elements: 1.5. Evaluation Ability.

D. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Oxidants Other pollutants. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. heat sink and wind flow in cities. a. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. 244 . 2. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. F. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. • Biological magnification E. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle.B.

Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. III. Abortion iv. economic. Family planning ii. 4. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Intrauterine device iii. Birth control through education b. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Sterilisation. 3. The human ecosystem II. 2. B. Use of medical science i. 2. c. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Socio-economic measures. The pill ii. Persuasion: i. Control of population growth a. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A.3.

1983). 3. Water pollution abatement. 2. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. e) Recycling. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Air pollution abatement ii.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Define Environmental Education. 3. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. (UNESCO. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 246 .

Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. animals and other organisms (biotic). to his needs. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. a.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. telex. 4. Biological environment The biological environment. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.4. -other.5.5. fax agricultural apparatus. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.other components of the environment. way is called environmental or ecological factor. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.5. A change in one brings about a change in the other. He modifies according”. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . b. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.5. Any constituent or condition of the environment. They interact with each.5. These are biotic components. includes the plants. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism.5.

trees reducing noise pollution. preserving the watersheds. importance of nitrogen cycle. social studies. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. History The rise and fall. ozone depletion. extinction of species. need for conservation. industrial survey. explosion deforestation. nuclear warfare. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. (ii) Air pollution. use of medicinal plants. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . industrial pollut io n. role of trees in building economy. effects o f CFC. of civilizations. alternate sources of energy. use of pesticides. sources of pollut ion. acid rain. nuclear energy. excellent recreation sites. ozone layer deplet ion. effects. desertification 248 . etc. air pollutants from industries. biogas plants.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. etc. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. wars and hazards of war. change in climate may be added. supplying timber for various uses. evolution. sources. noise pollution. relation between population and pollution. preventing siltation of dams. maintaining the ecological diversity. need for bio-diversity. water scarcity. river systems. noise control. natural way of controlling pests. food chain and food-web. windmills. greenhouse effect. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. population. over exploitation of ground water. are the topics which may be taught in History. reasons. t heir role in preventing pollution. mineral survey. balance of nature. solar cookers. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees..

aims and scope. 9. 5. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 8. Organising conferences. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 11. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 2. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Peepal and Tulsi. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. 6. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. animal and plants. Providing. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology.may be inc ded in Geography. 249 .5.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 7. group discussions and seminars. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 10. 3. 12. 14. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 4. 4. 13. Developing awareness about environmental issues.

all these can cause serious pollution. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Reuse carrier bags. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. used oils down the drain. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. or form a car pool for everyday travel. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. 6. If it is done. Never put any left over chemicals. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. World Environmental falls on 250 . Don’t burn any waste.Send their waste oil. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. especially plastics. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. 5. it will cause pollution. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem..). Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. deforestation. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. To provide materials needed for practical work. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. etc. orderliness and beauty). Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere.4. CFCs. diversity and stability. Conservation of natural resources. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. depletion of ozone. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. dest roying nat ural habitats.5. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry.mat erials. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. To arrange visits or expeditions. (cleanliness. and 251 . concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. Concern for species. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. The groups may exchange. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. To arrange for visiting speakers. Harmony with the nature . To provide reference materials for children’s use. potable water. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. etc. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Att itudes of balance towards nature. nuclear wars. rather than conquest and mastery. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Social responsibilit y (common good. loss of bio-diversity. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . values and habits. concern for others). viz. developing desirable attitudes.

preserving natural cycles. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.5. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. 4.5. 4. 8. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. 252 .11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.

concern for others). b. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . explosion deforestation. Modern Problems of Education. Providing. Kuldeep. 4. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. 3. a. S. New Delhi : Sharma.. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. June 5 7. Udaiveer. (2007).K. effects. Education for values. group discussions and seminars. T. Anmol Publications Pvt.K. importance of nitrogen cycle. To provide reference materials for children’s use. a.2. New Delhi : Authors Press. (ii) Air pollution. Social responsibilit y (common good. (2007). 5. Nanda. air pollutants from industries. S. Environmental Education. population. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. greenhouse effect. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. acid rain. Environment and Human Rights. relat ion between population and pollution. a. b. water scarcity. Environmental Education. new problems from science and technology. Publications Pvt.K. (1997). Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. 8. sources. ozone layer deplet ion.K. Ltd. 6. Organising conferences. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion.5. over exploitation of ground water. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Rapid population growth. Knowledge. Awareness. Ltd. a. Y. To provide materials needed for practical work. sources of pollution. b. b.\ 4.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. (2004). reasons.

254 .




Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.



STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism Idealism and aims of Education Idealism and Curriculum Idealism and methods of teaching Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism Naturalism and aims of Education Naturalism and Curriculum Naturalism and methods of teaching Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

259 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to

“The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. According to Rusk'. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve.1. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. Universal Education. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. Education must contribute to development of culture. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. It is self-realisation. promote and transmit it to rising generation. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. the emancipation of spirit. Therefore. The universe is regarded as a thought process. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Spiritual Development.” 5. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality.our life. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. should be universal in nature. Education according to idealism. in fact. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism.3. enrichment and transmission of culture. moral. man is essentially a moral being. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm.

4. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. hygiene. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. He sets the environment in which education takes place. For intellectual development. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. subjects like Languages. 5. For this no particular method has been suggested. According to idealism. The plant can grow. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. Mathematics etc. Science. Learning through lecturing. History. an indispensable necessity. However.” 5. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. affecting (feeling).” He is thus. It considers teacher as.3. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. a spiritual guide for the child. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. So health. Ethics. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man.the spiritual qualities of mankind. Learning through questioning. so subjects like Religion.1. friend and guide.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . 2. and collation (striving) should find due place.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only.3. So he should embody. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. Learning through imitation. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. So cognition (knowing). should be there. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. 5. 3. He carries the child from darkness to light. Herbert advocated instruction method. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. According to Frobel.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. Learning through discussion. the school is a garden. Learning through reading. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. Philosophy. no doubt.1.

“The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. Perfection of Human Machine. time tables.1. 2. 5.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. formal lessons or examinations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Ross explains. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. curricula. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.preservation. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. text books.1. "Education should make 263 • . In the words of Ross. 5. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.perfection and beauty.

It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. In all. therefore. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. 264 . There is no place for religious and moral education. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society.4.1. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Zoology. subjects like history. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. is based on the nature of the child. It stresses basic sciences. 4.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. • 5. It is based on the psychology of the child. useful and mature child. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Education should. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. rational harmoniously balanced. Therefore. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Biology. Arithmetic. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. education should develop the child into Joyous.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Literature. Botany etc Language.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Naturalistic curriculum. Chemistry. “Education finds its purpose. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality.

5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Dalton Plan. a provider of an ideal environment. Heuristic method. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Learning through observation. 3. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. In the . Naturalism has made very significant contribution.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.1.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 .5. Learning by doing.4. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. 5. he should be taught by experience alone. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Rousseau says.1. 4. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists.4.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Learning through experience. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. the stage. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. It discards all rigid. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. 2. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .

The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Continuous Growth. History.absolutism of idealism. diversified and flexible. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Social Science. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. 5. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. is true. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life.1. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Continuous reconstruction of Experience.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Vocational and 266 . All Round Development of an Individual. The aim of educational development. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Social Efficiency. The individual has not only to adjust himself. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. 5.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Geography. Agriculture.5. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared.5. Subjects.1. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Sciences. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. intellectual. Physical training. social and moral aspects. Personal Social Adjustment.

4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education.5. He has to be active.Technical Education. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1.1. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. He must be trained. Learning by Doing. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. activities and experience should be integrated properly. 5. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. The subjects. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. a senior partner and a sincere guide. should find proper place. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” 5. a teacher occupies an important position. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. alert and resourceful. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .

Population Education. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. It favours child-centered. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things.1. liberal. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Literature. Biography Philosophy. Art. practical. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. History. 2. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Music and Dance.1. Education is preparation for a complete living. scientific and psychological education. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind.5. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Chemistry. Astrology. 2. Crafts. Psychology.6. The basic tenets of realism are 1. 5. 3. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. 4. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects.1.6. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. literary or humanistic education. 4. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Study of Subjects like Language. 5. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. intellectual. rich and happy.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Mathematics. Biology. Sex Education. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. 3. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. specific. 5.

certainly and clearly.1.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. easily and pleasantly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.5. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.

Physical training. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Child centered c.1. 3. a. Languages. Learning through imitation. 5. pragmatism and realism.1.5. in this lesson. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. & curriculum. d.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Agriculture. Learning through lecturing. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Universal Education 2. Self preservation & Self expression 4. 6. Learning through discussion. Geography. Self Realisation b. b. c.7 LET US SUM UP We have. has no end other than growth. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. 5. 5. naturalism. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Sciences. Social Science. Demonstration and Observation 270 .1. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. a. History. Education according to pragmatism. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Experimentation d. Tours / Excursion e. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. a. Learning through experience b. Learning through questioning. Vocational and Technical Education. Rousseau 5. Learning through reading. e.

Theory and Principles of Education.P. (2007). New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.P. L. 271 . Foundations of Education. R.1. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. O. (2004). Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. Ltd. N. New Delhi : Bhatia. Pahuja.H. P. Publishing corporation. (2007).5.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. of Pathak. (2003). Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. K. P. New Delhi : A.

2.2.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.3 Methods of teaching 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.3.3 Methods of Teaching 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .2. Idealist and Pragmatist EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.4 Views about teacher Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2.2 Curriculum 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda Curriculum 5.LESSON Views about teacher 5.4. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE Educational Philosophy of Tagore Aims of Education

273 . an artist.2.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. Gandhiji was primarily a social.5.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. you will able to: 1. 5.4 Role of the teacher 5.2. mind and spirit.2. content and methods. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.2. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. 2.5.8 5.2. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.2. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.7 5. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. Tagore was a poet.2. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.6 5. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. 5. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.2.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. economic and political reconstruction in our country.

” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. self-restraint and service of humanity. nor the gross animals body." Dignity of Labour. 'Man is neither mere intellect. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. In the words of Gandhiji. mind and soul of children He further observed. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect.2. His scheme of education is life centred. 5. 274 . importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. it is education of life. "I attach more. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. righteousness. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. through life and for life. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side.supporting. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality.3. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. strength of mind. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. It really provides opportunity for character building.

Music. Only good individual forms a better society. Mother-tongue. Drawing and Hindustani.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . "Development of the moral character.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. General Sciences. Art. wood work. Individual and Social Aims. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. 5. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched.Training for Leadership. the realization of the ultimate reality. leather work have been suggested.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue.3. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. According to Gandhi. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. gardening. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. metal work.2. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies.

2. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Basic education is other wise known as 4. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. men of 276 . Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.trained. proficient.2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.

Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says.2. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations.knowledge. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. 5. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. He also advocates freedom for the child. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Education must be child centered. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. That is why. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education.

K. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. 5. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. • Education should involve manual work.” Like all other ideals. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. • Ideal of citizenship. He was a true patriot. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. 5. he was a true Vedantist 5.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.2. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Gandhi in 1937. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. • Cult of non-violence. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.4.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. He believed in the oneness of humanity. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. He was deadly against untouchability.

Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. stronger in power than ever before. the more dedicated and devoted. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. could help in forging unity among all. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. complete manhood could be attained. It should help the learner have good physique." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Dance. It should help. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Geography. Music. International understanding. sentiment. Religion and Psychology. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education.2. Therefore. (vi) Philosophy. Botany. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Civics. Chemistry. etc. deeper in. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. International Understanding. Tagore said. wider in range. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality.4. them solve problems of day to day life. Zoology. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. "Mankind must realise a unity. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner.Language and Literature . 279 . Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. he said. That way only. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study .

“He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. In 1921. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.2. Tagore rightly says.4. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. 280 . It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.2.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. Activity Method Heuristic Method.2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.4. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.” He further says. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. Only a good learner can be a good teacher." 5.4.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. 5. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. 5.

Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. race. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. 9. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. It is open to all irrespective of country. 281 . Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6.g. 10. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5.

4. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. man making. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace.2. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Education for Self-realization. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. According to him. work and deeds come out of it. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life.5. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Education should make a person self-reliant. 3. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself.” 5. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Purity of thought. Book learning. character forming and assimilation of ideas.2. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.5.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Freedom. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. Education for Self-reliance. 2. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education for strong Moral Character. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all." He was against the theoretical type of education. Concept of Education. The whole beauty of life is linked with it.

Education should help in the physical development of an individual. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. philosopher and guide to the students He. 5. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.5. Secondly he wanted Science.5. Education for Physical Development.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Thirdly he wished that games. The teacher should be the facilitator. 6. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. 283 . 5. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. That will serve the purpose of education fully. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.2. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . And above all.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Discussion Method. engineering and technical subjects.2. Every individual should be trained for concentration.the learners on different students in the discussion. A physically strong person is the need of the society.5. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.5. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Philosophy and Theology. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Swami.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Of course.2. 5. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Religion. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.

” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore.Substantiate your answer. naturalist. Their educational ideas. Gandhiji as a Idealist.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.6 LET US SUM UP We have. 2. of course. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. in this lesson.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. and pragmatist . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. We have seen that Tagore. 5. Write short notes on Basic education.2. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims.2. 5. 12. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. 3. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. legs. ears and eyes. 284 . What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher.

A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Discussion Method 285 . Cult of non-violence. leather work have been suggested. a. 5. gardening. Technique of Correlation 6. Explain Vishwabharathi. Activity Method d. 1937 7. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Heuristic Method.4. Meditation and concentration c.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Debate and Discussion Method. a. d. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. c. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. e. Education should involve manual work. 11. wood work. a.2. Activity Method b. 5. Teaching while Walking b. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Learning by Doing c. 3. 5. f. b. 8. Self-Study b. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. a. Basic education. Ideal of citizenship. 10. c. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. 9. 2. metal work. Nai Talim 4. Self realization.

(2002). (2003). Theory and Principles of Education. K. (2004).H. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Foundations of Education. N. on Bhatia. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N. P. 286 . C. B.5. Dhiman. (2007). Pahuja. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. J. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : Aggarwal. L.P.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. Ltd. O. P. Publishing Corporation. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.2. K and Narang C. New Delhi : A. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.

9 5.10 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible. 5.3.2 5.3.6 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.5 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .8 5.3. In this lesson.7 5. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.4 5.LESSON 5.3 5.

enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. A g o o d curricu lu m. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”.S. curriculum signifies situations for learning. One is the individual process and the other is the social process.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. Curriculum is intimately related to education. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. you will be able to: 1.3. Then in a big country like India. in the U. While education is learning. in fact . the plain area. curriculum. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. state the meaning of curriculum 2.A. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. In it. Both the processes are integrated. From the latter point of view.under the direction of the school. there is a large number of communities. the desert area. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. present behaviour may be modified.3. in Russia or in Japan. 5. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. the plateau area and 288 . In the words of Kerney and Cook. is a means to the process. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. in the form of new experience. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes.. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. 5. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . Since the demands. it is identical wit h socializat ion. maintained or eliminated. While education is a process. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. living in the hilly area.3. new behaviour may be acquired. In the former sense.

the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. it is.3. In fact .coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. differs from individual to individual. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. irrespective of their needs and environment. Again. according to modern trends in the educational process. customs and needs. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. 5. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. It must differ from locality and from society to society.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. therefore. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. Besides craft. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. and 289 . physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. However. too. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. democratic and socialistic country. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. the learning capacity of children. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. From a slave-country we became secular. studying therein. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. environment. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations.

They are achievable through better organisation of educational process.g. They are visionary goals e. 3. The word “Curere” means 2. Understanding Objective.3. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. in instructional objectives.. 1. general or specific. etc. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. which may or may not be attained. They speak of immediate purposes of education. aesthetic and spiritual development. e. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. They speak of perfect goals. uninspiring and unscientific. 5. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. moral. tangible. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . aims. they depend on the political. eg. 4. They may be ultimate or proximate. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. etc.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. of classroom..g. etc.g. specific. National Integration. emotional. individual or Social and so on. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception.. remote or immediate. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. unsatisfactory. So it is inadequate.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. unambiguous and functional. They are achievable. Goals of Secondary Education.. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Application Objective. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. Goals of Primary Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Self Realisation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. Vocational Efficiency. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. 290 . and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. social. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. Knowledge Objective. 2. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. social. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. e.

capacities. in the class rooms. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other.” 291 . “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. heavy fire.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. but it includes the totality of experiences. Raymont rightly says. needs. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. Crow and Crow remarks. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children.5. on the playing fields. finding them very interesting and captivating. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. According to Crow and Crow. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit.3. The interests. abilities. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. educationists. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization.

The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. They often waste it or rather kill it. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. tendencies. capacities and abilities. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. urges. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. mental. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. time in a useful manner.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. Due to these variations and differences. aptitudes. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. moral. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 .

To ensure success of the process. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. organized. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. Similarly. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. 2. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. 3. administrative programme need be planned. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. 293 .: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. development of professional capability at all levels. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials.curricular. phased preparation.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum.3. Run. Relation with Life c.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . principles of curriculum construction. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. 5. 5. in the class room.3. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d.3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. laboratory. Child Centred Education b. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. workshop. 18. a. 1937 19. 11. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. library. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 12. 10. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. 17.

3. D. (2007). Curriculum and Instruction.K. Curriculum Development.5. N. S. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. P. (2007). 295 . Innovations in Education. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. (2001).S. New Delhi : Isha Books. New Delhi : Authorspress. Lakshmi. S. and Sarita Kumari. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2007). Bhalla.

7 Scientific Attitude 5.6.3 5.4 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4.10 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.5 5.4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.8 5.LESSON 5.4.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.9 5.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.1 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.2 5.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.

Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. honesty.4. in the economic reconstruction of society. tolerance for the opinions of others.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. know the importance of science education. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. you will be able to: 1. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.4. 297 . importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not.during the second half of this century. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . open-mindedness. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. superstition or emotion. 3. Gradually. 5. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. 4. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. explain the concept of scientific attitude. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. We mean curiosity. newer and newer industries started growing. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. 2.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology.4.5. 5.

5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. stipends and appreciations in various ways. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. 6. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. 3. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children.So that. as well as of the society. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. After such experience and training. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 5. 4. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Organisation of science fairs. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Promotion of science clubs. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Through newspapers. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. 5. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 6.4. seminars and symposiums. Love for truth enhances. Devotion towards nature increases. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 5. Schemes of teaching science. Selection for science education. Thinking and memory develops. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 2. 3. Central science workshop. 2.4. Principles are formulated. Through examinations. 4. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 5. 7.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1.

Enquiry teaching is.needs and conditions.6. Training of science teachers. It is. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. each child to “enquiry skill building”. should provide opportunities to. Write any two advantages of Science Education. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. They encounter many social events as they grow. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . For laboratory and workshop techniques. essential that teachers. They ask many questions about the objects they see. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. therefore. which is essential for developing scientific outlook.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature.4. They experience natural phenomenon. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. In the inquiry approach. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs.4. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. 5. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. 7. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. objectivity. sex or religion. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. After presenting the problem. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. 5. to ask questions and experience things. 5. 300 .books. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Evidence. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Giving less directions. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Appreciating pupils ideas. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. . commands or orders. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. It requires consistent thinking. Adopting creative models of teaching. 2.4. if they like. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. Social sciences. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 4. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. .4. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. 5. 6. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. test. 3.6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. stern pursuit of accurate data.Herma Wouk.

The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. to develop among the learners. 5. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. The students observation. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. it must be encouraged. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. To achieve this we should understand what it means.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. critical thinking and suspended judgments. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. These include open mindedness. school and society at large. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning.4.7. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way.(Smith 2008). For instance. therefore should be unbiased and objective. (Vaidya 2007). practiced. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. of vast resources running waste. keen observation. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. neighbourhood. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. friends. and emphasized during the learning process .

they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences.7. understanding and logic. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. (Das. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. The intention to respect another’s point of view. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions.4.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. 2007). The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. he studies all aspects of it. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. intuition or wishful thinking”. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. rumor. 302 . Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. or superstitions. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. In considering a situation or a problem. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. 5. think and work it”.

but to begin only after careful planning. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. 5.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.4. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.4. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.7.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.7. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. • 5. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .

• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory.4. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. it must be encourages. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. 5. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. 304 . 5. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience.

A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Adopting creative models of teaching. 3. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.4. N. a.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. b. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. (2000). 16. b. M. (2006). New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. 5. 305 . the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. b. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Love for truth enhances. 4. Wide reading b.4.5. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. objectivity. a.4. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. a.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Discuss the importance of science education 14. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Planning of activities 5. S. D. Study of superstitions d. 5. a. (2008).S. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Reflections on Scientific attitude. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. 2. Vaidya. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Proper example of the teacher c. Rao.B (2008). Yadav. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop.

5.5.4 5.5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5. you will be able to: 1. actively. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. 5. state the concept.3 5.7 5.8 5.5. 306 .5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5. 5.10 5.5.2 5.5 5.5.LESSON 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. objectives and characteristics.1 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. areas of institutional planning.5.5.11 5.5.9 5.

discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. and supplement planning from above. 5.5. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. in the task of educational planning.5. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. • to involve teachers and school administrators. 5. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. which become the bases for further planning at the district. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. teachers and students is not lost sight of. every teacher. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. every parent. executive as well as public. and each student are regarded as separate entities. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. • to make planning development-oriented. and.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. each teacher. and every student in the process of educational planning. Institution should be regarded as the unit. State and national levels from below. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. • To make institutional planning more successful. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 .3.

Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. Classwork. etc. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. Co-curricular activities. Examinations. council and. (2) Co. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as.5.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. 308 . There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs.curricular Activities.• implemented. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. and Personnel services. which will be discussed in the general. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. it becomes the basis for school inspection. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. 5. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. approved after making necessary modifications. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. Syllabus.5. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction.

2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. etc. charts and apparatus. Organisation of Students’ Association. 2. etc. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Organisation of class-room libraries. etc. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Improving the internal assessment. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Preparation of audio-visual aids.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. etc. Conducting of educational. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. hobby-centres. etc. Equipping of laboratory and library. Organisation of Pupils. Organising play-for-all programmes. Preparation of instructional material. 3. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Running science clubs. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Fair distribution of syllabi. Courts. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Editing the school magazine. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Preparation of models.No. scientific and historical excursions.

the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. administrator-administrator. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. administrator-supervisor. etc. co-operation. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. teacher-teacher. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. which are divided as the in. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. students’ associations. pupils. teacher-managing body. teachers. teacherinspector. and out-group relationships are as given below i. and —pupil-pupil. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace.5. administrator-pupil. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. ii. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. science teachers’ associations. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.” The human relationships in. and solidarity.5. Administrator-State. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. pupil310 . parent-teacher associations. teacher-pupil. involving mainly human materials. understanding. teacher-State. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. headmasters associations.

teacher-community leader. pupil-non-official functionaries. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. organisation. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. pupil-inspector. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. control.State. It covers personnel and material management. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. pupil-parent. It is also being modernized to become a technique. superintendence. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. 311 . supervision. now-a-days. According to C. etc. to carry out. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. supervision and superintendence. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. teacher-parent. pupil-community leader. To administer means to manage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. administrator. V. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. organisation and management.5. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. and to serve. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. to attend. social sciences and other disciplines. to accomplish. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. Good.

The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. without this the efficacy will be handicapped.Of all the approaches. Communication .The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Motiviation . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. If it is more. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. low. 11. 8.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. Better Human Relationships . it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. 3. Economic Management . 13. Worker Participation . 12.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. Rapport between the Management and Employees .Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. Leadership . Socio-Scientific Approach . 2. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 6.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. He should be an artist in human relationships. The relationship should change from master.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. This is the latest democratic trend in management. Democratic Management .Any good management will always have good public relations.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. Those.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. Decision Making . It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. 5. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . 4. it is not worth-while. Cost-Benefit Analysis . 7. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . 10. who occupy the managerial positions. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .The manager should have leadership traits. 9. Liasion with the Public . If the cost benefit ratio is less.

characteristics and areas of institutional planning. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. 19. enrichment of curricula.5. and cooperative performance should be ensured. objective. 18. 5. improvement of teaching methods. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. 14. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.too. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. 5. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept.5. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. to improve the quality of education it provides.These two are.g. 313 .

H. Educational Administration. NUEPA. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.5. Syllabus. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. R. Tarachand and Prakash. d. Classwork. and Personnel services. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Motiviation d.5. 314 . e.K. (2003). b. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. a.M. Communication 5. b. (2001). APH Publishing Corporation. Leadership c.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Fundamental of Educational Management. Instruction. a. c. Decision Making b.5. Singh. (1995). Co-curricular activities. a. f. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Examinations. b. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. In group and Out group 5. S. 2. a. it becomes the basis for school inspection. 4.

Healthy Food Habit 4. women education and teacher education in India. Economic 315 . School.3 Directive Principles . Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .1 Primary Education : Education for all.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. population education. social Impact 3. wastage and Stagnation 3.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.Preventive measures.5 Regional Educational Development in India .3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. Communicable diseases . Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.teachers should have : 1. Examination reforms. Code of conduct for teachers.1 Gurukula system of education. Buddhist and Jain system of education.CORE PAPER .Pre-service and In-services facilities.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . 4. Sex-education 4.4 India's Secular Policy . UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. higher education.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Realized the problems of school education.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. physical education and environmental education 5. Preservation of nutrients.Article 45 . 1.2 Nutritional deficiencies. 2.1 Inculcation of Socialism.Religious and Modern Education 1. New evaluation procedures. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Inspection and Supervision 3. nutritional requirement. Common ailments of Children.I.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Balanced diet. First Aid. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.1 School Health Programme. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.3 Educational Influences of Home. Community and Mass Media 2.

N.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Taneja V. B.Aim. Hemchand. R. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. REFERENCE 1.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Mishra. and Sharma R. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Ghanta R.K. (2004) Problems of Education in India. (1999) Culture. Socialization.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. 7.N. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. Ram S. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. and Human Development.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. Realism. (2005) Foundations of Education. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. and Mohanty R.K.K. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Sharma. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Mahatma Gandhi. and Dash B. T.S.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.1 Idealism. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. 316 .4 4. Saraswathi T. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Naturalism and Pragmatism . (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.K.R.4.C. Delhi : University Publications 2. 5.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Curriculum and national goals . Prof. Tagore 5. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Pandy V.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.