Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

UNIT: 1 – V



Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer



Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56


Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University


67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5



3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education

127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233


5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4


UNIT – I 7 .

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Lesson 4. Lesson 5. regional imbalances and variations in different environment.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. discusses the regional educational development in India. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Lesson 2. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Jainism and their educational implication. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. The need. 9 . In. and Jain system of education. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3.

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5.6 Education during British Era 1.1 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 . Buddhist system of Education Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1.2 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1.5 Jain system of education 1.1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.LESSON 1.6.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.

discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1.6. both present and future.9 1. in morals and in the intellect”. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. Education in India. Muslim and British periods.1.3. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. elucidate the education during British Era. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. in opinion. describe the Jain system of Education 4. 1.1.1. India.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings Sargent Report (1944) 1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. “a class of persons. Indian in blood and colour.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. British system of education presented the modern western model.1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. That 12 . education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. 1.1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. has a long past history starting in vedic education. but English in taste. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. The history of education passed through Buddhist.1.1. you will be able to: 1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.7 1. 1.6.8 1.

Pupils were taught. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. with grants of land or money. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. to light. managed entirely by Brahmans. 13 . Role of Travel in Education. generally. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. 14. No State Control on Education. however. Immediate Aim Vocational. individually. religious and spiritual. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. followed by explanation by the teacher. as it is generally considered to be at present. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada.knowledge was real. and to agriculture and trade. Method of Study. 16. It was not merely intellectual. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. 10. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Where pupils were many. There was. The immediate aim of education. from darkness. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Teacher as Parents. 6. Curriculum. questioning by the pupil. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. 11. 5. 9. 13. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. Education of Moral. Method of Instruction. Religious and Spiritual. Individual Teaching. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. 4. from eternal to immorality 2. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Forests as Centres of Education. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Education was a private affair of the people. 3. 12. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. Residential Schools. the monitorial plan was followed. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. 8. It was also moral. High Status of Teachers. not en masse by the class method. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Free and Accessible. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. if they thought fit to do so.

1.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . They were very cordial and intimate. studied Vedas. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. besides preparing for worldly pursuits.17.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Wide-Spread Education in Women. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. 2. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . It was suited to the needs of the society. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. lived a life of celebacy.

4. the most significant of which were the following 1. Right memory 8. 1. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. I take Refuge to Dharma. the student remained in a state of Shramana. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. the handicapped. etc. which included abstaining from theft. in which.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. After attaining the age of 20. Right speech 4. the student had his head shaved of all hair. I take Refuge to Sangh. he was qualified to become a monk. disease and death of the human beings. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Right means of livelihood 6. Right endeavour 7.C. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. taking things without being offered. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. 2. Right contemplation 1. use of intoxicating things. killing of any living being. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period.1. medium of Pali. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. Right activity 5. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. use of cosmetics. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. It was denied only to the ill. partaking of food at prohibited times. Right knowledge 2. had the right to receive education. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Consequently. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Education was imparted through the. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. watching dances or listening to music. 15 . Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Right thought 3. except the Chandals. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. every class in society. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. impure conduct.

it is regarded as true”. Life is in a flux. depth and range. control over sensuous activities. bodily gestures. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. 4. handicrafts. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. 3. Whatever its nature and extent. As reality is becoming. therefore. has no metaphysical value for life. etc. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. the science of taming and training animals. 2. eat food thrice a day. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. elephant lore. Initially.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. however. archery. and.3. nature. 6. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. wear three items. 8. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada.. aspirations and. the presence of the monks was essential. assumptions. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. a change is not only total but also perpetual. 7.4. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. so long as it successfully does so. It comprehended education in writing. be considered the aim of education It. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. knowledge of reviving the dead. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. military science. objectives of human life. Even at this stage. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. These are called later Buddhist schools. Hence. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. cottage industries. Later on. agriculture. commerce. magic. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. approach. arithmetic and religious discussion. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. On this occasion. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. geology. meaning. a continuous change creating 16 . The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. After this ritual. changing the goals. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. along with education in script writing. etc. education was impart in art. beg for alms. etc. animal husbandry. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. nothing is of any permanent consequence. 1. 5. medicine. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. archery. of clothes. women occupied a position inferior to men.

therefore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.1. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. it is much older than the latter. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. i. its pessimistic outlook on life. whatever works are true and good. Its chief feature. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. Write Eight fold path . Education must. and to give it a shape that it has today. Validity is effective and consequences..e. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. 5. In fact. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. However.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. Jainism insists 17 . prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. But the differences it exhibits are equally and peculiar situations. however. goes to Vardhaman. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. such as. 1. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself.

f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. rather than the interpretation of the universe. 8. it has a foot in both the words.1. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. 6. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. and believe in happiness to all.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 1. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. 3. They are: a) Not to injure. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 18 . c) Not to steal. and is to be redeemed and liberated. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. 3. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. As such. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 2. Development of personality as an individual. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Hence. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. d) To lead a celibate life. 5. b) Right knowledge. e) To renounce the world. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. 7. but on both. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. 1. 2. more stress on individual aims. 4. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. 9.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. b) Not utter falsehood. 10. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. c) Right conduct. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. thought and deed. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma.5.

3. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. 8. Hence. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are Triratnas ? . practised and not only aspired for. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . the precious principles of life that bring happiness.5. success and love. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma.4.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories.5. 19 . Knowledge is through senses and meditation. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. that would be socially desirable. Belief in transmigration of soul. education should develop sense of discrimination. 4. 5. 1. Teaching must develop these faculties. 2.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. therefore. 1. and should bring happiness to all. Jiva is essentially karmic. 3. here and now. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world.

with rally and rout.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. primary 20 .1. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. To set up separate departments of. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.6. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. science.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. Bombay.1. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. and not for life. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.6. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. 1. 1. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. philosophy and literature of Europe.6. 1. However. 1. 1953). They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). North West Province and Punjab. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. 2. Madras. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India.6.

He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. 1. secondary education became a step towards university.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools.6. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . at the primary level. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. self-respecting and competent. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. namely. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. Later on. The universities dominated the secondary education.6. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. • Universal free primary education. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially.K. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. • Secondary education. In 1882.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical was neglected. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). At that time M. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). 1. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. 1. To ensure qualitative improvement. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10. After this stage. all children are to have a common curriculum. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities.At the primary stage (6-11 years). The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians.1.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. The objective of education was to provide 22 . During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.

3. archery. along with education in script writing. military science. The system of education was well-organised. 2. etc. b. a. 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Right knowledge.1. Right speech. 1. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. handicrafts. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. arithmetic and religious discussion. Right thought. followed by explanation by the teacher. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. questioning by the pupil. Right memory. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. science and English language. 23 . During the Buddhist period.1. Right activity. 3.. 4. the science of taming and training animals. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. education was impart in art. 2. Right endeavour. It was suited to the needs of the society. geology. Right means of livelihood. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. The immediate aim of education. 5. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. 4. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. Right contemplation. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. 6. establishment of universities. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of of European literature. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools.

C. (2005). Development of Educational System in India.7.C. Y. and Nath. Right knowledge. 11. Development of personality as an individual. Hence. 10. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Right conduct. R. Singh. b. Right faith. a. b. more stress on individual aims. 8. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. 9. 1882. (2009).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Improvement of Literature. Y. Sharma. Ltd.1. 24 . Sargent report 12. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J. (2007).K. Ltd. (1984). a. History of Indian Education System.K. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. c. J. 1937 1. Aggarwal. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.2.6 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.1 1.2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.3.2.LESSON 1.9 1.1 University Education Commission 1.7 1. The 25 . Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.5 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.8 1.2 Kothari Commission 1.3.

2. medical and legal education. explosion of enrolment. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. Kothari (1964-66) 8. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education.3. vocational education. secondary and higher education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. 2. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. S. There had been vast institutional expansion. technological engineering. New Educational Policy. technical. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. examination system. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. National Council for Women’s Education 5. National Board of Teacher Education 10.2. 1. analyse the progress of education in free India. girls and women education besides primary. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1. you will be able to: 1.conditions of the teachers. diversification of courses of studies.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. curriculum.2. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. expansion of vocational. Post-graduate 26 .1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. standard of teaching. 1986 1.

The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. The Essence and Role of Education. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. 4. Education for Equality.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23.3. A meaningfully Partnership. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. Finally. National System of Education. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. accumulated over the years. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. the New National Policy on Education. However. Government of India. Problems of access. A. quality. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. 1. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. 1. Kothari. 1. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. Education is the key to our allround development.2. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission.2. utility and financial outlay.2. 2. 1966. D. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . 1986. 1952. Therefore. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. The national system of education envisages common educational structure.teaching.S. 3.3. material and spiritual. quantity.3. the chairman of University Grants commission. research et.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. in January 1985. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29.

By working with hands.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. The UNESCO Report. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. It can train practical aptitudes. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. the minorities and the handicapped. the concepts of work experience. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. attitudes. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Thus. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. 28 .” Thus.

According to. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. co-ordinations. As such. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations.” The Mudaliar Commission. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. The Radhakrishnan Commission. In 1955. if he wishes." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. it will conduce self. the Commission. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. With adequate planning. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. “It may be described. co-operation and implementation of the scheme.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. “The aim of these colleges.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . The Education Commission. Besides. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started.

” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. for quality of life in the rural areas. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. the. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts.. Subsequently. the rigid streaming of courses. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. In addition. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality.ot her. raising the special facilities. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). the semester and credit system. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . Therefore. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. admission requirements to vocational courses. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. The Central Advisory Board of Education. etc. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. With a view to relating education to the life. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum.

meaningful. In short. The wave of Basic Education. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. 1. meaningful. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. felt that education should be centred around a craft. which swept the country for over two decades. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. etc. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. giving importance to productivity in the national development. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. which are useful to the community. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions.defined S UP W as “purposive. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. According to committee. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. technological courses including Agriculture. The Father of Nation. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. manual work resulting in either goods or services.2.and the world of work. who conceived the System of Basic Education. preferably spinning and weaving. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. 31 . For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. aimed at this goal. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.. Commerce. which offer scientific.

Productive 2. Educative and 3. Shelter 4. tools and techniques and 3. be that the work involved is: 1. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Experimentation with materials. Culture and recreation 6. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. 3. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. locally available materials and tools. Some Hints to Teachers 1. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. 2. 32 . 4. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. as far as possible. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Food 3.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. so that it is educational in essence. Health and Hygiene 2. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Clothing 5. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Community work and social service. Work practice. The teachers should make use of. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised.

be allied to the elective chosen by the students. removal of illiteracy. the local community should be actively associated. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. as far as possible. Check on educated unemployed 4. To make education more realistic. Education through work The SUPW should. 1.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Reduction of gap in work and education 2.5. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. It can become an instrument to build character. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. Merits of the Programme 1. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. improve discipline.2. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Community Service In-1972. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. inculcate a faith. 6. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Productive Work 33 . Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. slum clearance. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. etc.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. should involve itself in the educational effort. Define SUPW 34 . In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. traffic control. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. in turn. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. helping the adults-in productive work. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. The community. if not productive.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. AICTE was set up in year 4. offering first aid. skills and better future for the children.

Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. meaningful. b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1955 4. c. manual work resulting in either goods or services. Dr. 1952 3. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. 35 . Radhakrishnan 2.2. Write short note on SUPW. d. 1. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5.2. e.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. which are useful to the community. 2. 3. 1. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. f. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a.2. 6.

(2007).P. V. Anupama. P.1. Amala..K.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. History and Problems of Indian Education. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.D. Rao. J. (2005). : Sharma.H. History of Indian Education System. Ltd.C.K. (2009). B. History of Education. (2007). Y.(2005). and Nath. R. A. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.K. Y. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi: A. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. and Rao. 36 . Publishing Corporation. Development of Educational System in India.2.P. Singh.

1949.7 1.1 Significance of DPSP 1. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. Besides the English version. it came into effect on January 26.3.8 1.3.3. procedures.3. and liberty. Being the supreme law of the country.6 1.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.2 1.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. 1950.9 1.3.1 1.3. establishing the structure.369 words in the English language version. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. for a total of 117. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.3. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.4 1. democratic republic.3. 37 .3.3. assuring its citizens of justice.3.5 1. there is an official Hindi translation. containing 395 articles. equality. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3.3. directive principles and duties of citizens.

3. you will be able to: 1. The Assembly met. On August 29. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. After many deliberations and some modifications. economic. spread over a period of 2 years. Through them. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented.3. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. 1. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. for 166 days. According to the constitution. in sessions open to public.In the August 14. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. 1. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. 1947 meeting of the Assembly.3. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. understand our Indian constitution. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. Two days later. legal and environmental. 3. Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. 38 . the Drafting Committee was appointed. 4. with Dr. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. 1950. 1947. 1. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 2. social. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights.3. political. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. administrative. 1947. learn the role of central and state government on education.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution.

The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. and in other cases of undeserved want. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Article 39A. Article 42. provide free legal aid. on the basis of equal opportunity. That the health and strength of workers. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Liking wage etc. and shall. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. sickness and disablement. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Article 40. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. make effective provision for securing the right to work. 39 . within the limits of its economic capacity and development. men and women. Condition for dignity of children. Equal justice and free legal aid. Protecting children from exploitation. Right to work. Equal pay for both sex. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. The State shall endeavour to secure. Protecting health of the workers. The State shall. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. in particular. Article 41. old age. No abuse of children. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Article 43. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Minimising inequalities in status.government. Organisation of village panchayat. for workers.

to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. work. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 48. to all workers. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. by suitable legislation or in any other way. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. (Original Article 45. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Article 44. Note: Subs. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. in particular. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. agricultural. Article 48A. Article 45. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Participation of workers in management of industries. in particular. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. in particular. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. 2002 for “45. and. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. [declared by or under law made by 40 . Article 49. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. See also Article 21A). The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. a living wage. Article 43A. The State shall take steps. Article 47. The State shall endeavour to provide. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Article 46. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. industrial or otherwise.

The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Article 50. may be law determine”. disfigurement. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. 2002. Article 45 . maintain just and honourable relations between nations. Article-21A Right to Education.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. destruction. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002.3. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. 1. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. disposal or export. Promotion of international peace and security. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Parliament] to be of national importance. 2. as the case may be. removal. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Separation of judiciary from executive. from spoliation. Article 51. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.

from justice and all forms of exploitations. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. 7. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. 4. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. and shall protect them. caste. race. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. ii. iii. 6. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. 5. if such person is a minor. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. 2002. and. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. his guardian has given his consent thereto.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. language or any of them”. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. in particular. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. 8. 3. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied.” 42 . (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups.

Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. & 1.9. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. wherever necessary or desirable. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. for its vocabulary. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. The central government determines targets and promotes education. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. 43 . the forms. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. and by drawing. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Educational Reforms From time to time. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language.

private agencies etc. 6. 4. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 .3. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Local bodies and private enterprise. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Production of suitable for children and adults f. So as to encourage education on right lines. etc. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. So that they may work well. 7. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. to achieve the desired ends. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. 5. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. 8. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. All India Council of Medical Science. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. By starting these projects. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education.. The following pilot projects. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. the state governments.

Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. training and statistics. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. reports etc. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. 3. 1. handicapped. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. 9. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. 4.3. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. are published by it. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. education for women. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. 12. research. is the state responsibility. The 45 . Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. books. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. 11. etc. 1. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 10.

Explain Directive principles 2. 46 . Article 46 4. articles in the Directive principles.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Write short notes on a. 1. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . 1. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Article 21A c. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.3. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 45 b.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government.

b. Ambedkar 2. Article 45 . Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. a. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. may be law determine”. The Directive Principles of State Policy.3. a. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. 3. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 2002. Clearing House function 9. Article-21A Right to Education. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article 46 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Development of Hindi Language 6. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. b. 2002. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 1. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. a. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 47 . Article 29 and 30 7. 4. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.5. Dr. Describe the educational role of State Government.

N. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. B. Ghosh. S. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. (2007). New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. (2008).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Education in Emerging Indian Society. 48 . Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2004). Dash. (2009). Bhatia.1. K. S.3. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. L. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. K and Narang C. Why Moral Education 1.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.5 1.2 1.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.6 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.8 1.1 1.3.3. Christianity. Jainism.4.4. Buddhism etc. religious education should be broad based.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1. Students should be 49 .3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4. Islam.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4.4 Moral education 1.

The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. beauty and goodness so that 50 . and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life.D.4.. you will be able to: 1. duty-consciousness.” Education broadens human outlook.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. state meaning and need for moral education 1. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. 1. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. know the position of religious education in our country 3. India' can produce men of character.4. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. "In A multireligious society like ours. According to E. integrity. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. As result of which. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. religious education and the concept of secularism. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon.and dedication.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Thus. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. In the complicated and complex society of today.

In short.4. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. rancour. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. Children attend these organizations. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. As our country is a country of diverse religions. According to Article 19. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism.3. 1. 1947 we achieved our freedom. religion and democracy are same. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. all citizens are free to follow any creed. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. Viewing the defects of religious education. at least occasionally. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. if not regularly.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. it is clear that the State has no religion. Thus.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. castes and creeds.” From the above. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. They thought that any kind of narrow. No religious tax can be imposed on them. realizes God in himself. through religious practices and 51 . According to Article 22. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. 1. Hence. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education.3. As a matter of fact. "In view of the provision in the Constitution.4.

according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. He also learns about social. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. aggressive. If unreleased. It is religious education. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. which help him for the development of his character. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. what is done and what is not done etc. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. temperament etc. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. moral and spiritual values. one fully developed. intellectual and physical faculties of children. As a result of which. when he becomes an adult. for the development of the individual and the society. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. and what is evil. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice.. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. It helps to modify habits attitudes.teachings. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Good education. which can mould.

4. 3. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. which is the basic need of a democratic life. 1. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. If we open the pages of history. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. This should not be allowed to happen. Therefore.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. 53 . 2. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual.3. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. towards the society.

Write Article 22 2. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Life histories of great persons of the world.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. For this. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. stories of moral greatness.5. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. fellow-feeling. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. churches and mosques 7. Gurudwara as. Since all religions have virtues. 11. examples of patriotism. 9. 10.4. therefore. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. they should be discussed in the right earnest. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples.

Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. therefore. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. Non-injury. 4. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 6. 6. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Swadeshi (Patriotism). The content of the curriculum. Asvada (Control of palate). let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 1. Without moral values.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 4. 5. is that which develops moral values. let men see well of one another. 8. Self sacrifice. Satyam (truth). Ahimsa (Non-violence). Patriotism. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 7. 7. Aparigarha (Non.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Fearlessness. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. “Let all be happy and free from disease. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Purity. 5. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. 55 . 8. 2. It they learn what morality is in their early years.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all.4. 2. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. 3. students. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. They will play their role effectively. Cultivation of emotions. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Moral education. 1.4. Service to others. 3.acquisitiveness). It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. in the home. the methods of teaching.

4. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Discipline. 4. 3. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Good manners. Efficiency.9. Good temper. National unity and Spiritual values. Secondary Stage 1. In the school programme. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. 3. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. 56 . The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. 11. Unity of mankind. 10. Integrity. 1. religions may be included in the syllabus. 2. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Asatyam (Non-thieving). Sharivashram (Physical work). discipline. minutes in the morning for group singing.

Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. University Stage 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 4. 2. 57 . In other words. Silent meditation should be encouraged.4. patriotism and self-discipline. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. In this connection. love of humanity. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . 3. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. should form a normal part of school programme.

4. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. a. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 1. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. Discuss the aims of Religious education. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. a. 2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1959 5. For this. In short. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 2. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b.1.4. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. 58 . b. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. the. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Training of Character 3. 4. minutes in the morning for group singing.4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. Sri Prakasa 6 . According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. a. b. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3.

(2007). (2008).H. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. L. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.4. K and Narang C. (2003).P. N. M. New Delhi : Siddiqui. N. J. (2004). Publishing Corporation. (2008). B. Bhatia. 59 . Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.1. New Delhi: A. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. K. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.H. Ltd. Dash. Theory and Principles of Education.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C. P. Pahuja. Anmol Publications Pvt.

5 1.5.5. Although.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.e.. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also. 60 .5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.4 1. disparities between provinces/States.5.5.7 1.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5.9 1.3 1.5.8 1.10 1.2 1.12 1.5.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.6 1.11 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5. i.

Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 7. 4. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. 1. know the education suited to different environments.5. for example. 3. Accordingly. work hard towards this end. 2. energy. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. etc. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.5.5. 1. 6. 1. 61 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5.5. 8. you will be able to: 1. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. understand the regional educational development in India 3. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. roads. This leads to separatist movements.1. waters. They therefore.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. they take appropriate measures.

while others remained educationally backward. 2. and. on the basis of regional development may be formed. 4.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. 3. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. Secularism. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. education as a fundamental human right was recognized.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. Tight security arrangements should be made. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. 62 . some States became educationally far advanced. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. Therefore. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. • Separate States (of course viable States). The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds.5. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. some average. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region.

through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. NIT. Central Universities of Assam. Mizoram. etc. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Funds amounting to Rs.392. the Union Government.480. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. These projects are in various stages of implementation. Silchar. Out of this.14.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. After the attainment of independence.84 crore was released in 2005-06. etc. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Rs.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. academic buildings. remained under developed. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. 63 .81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. Tezpur. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. In the Central sector.. library buildings. 1. and provision of informal education to enable those. However. Nagaland and NEHU. Guwahati. scholarships.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. NERIST. while some States like Bihar. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. Regional Centres of IGNOU. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development.After the Planning Process has originated. books. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice.5. Itanagar. Even in each State. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. approved proposals worth Rs. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. the State Governments. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. since its inception in 1998-99. Jammu and Kashmir.g.

The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Out of this an amount of Rs.501.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.500. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.187. A provision of Rs.5. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. too. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.05 crore and Rs.57 crore and Rs. Moreover. 64 . With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. During 2003-04.261. Government expenditure on education. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.8 per cent in 05).40.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. Tezpur University.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.

North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. Karnataka. pharma. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. engineering and R&D. for which 16 sites.5. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. too. for instance.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Kerala and Gujarat. Tamil Nadu. Moreover. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. English. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. 1. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. To add to the woes. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. Listing the positives. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. too. Medical education. telecom. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). notes the study.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Karnataka. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. too. Andhra Pradesh. The Chandigarh Administration.

the curricular subjects. the needs. Hence it is called as need-based. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. Of course. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed.year. The working hours of educational institutions. In the same manner. the teaching methods. Then education become realistic and idealistic. while the former does not. life-oriented and environment slanted. the interests. the working days: an academic . which a non-tribal person cannot do. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the vocations. The living conditions. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. taking the average in the middle. and so on. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. 66 . there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. the socio-physical conditions. For a learner living in a rural area. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. even actually looking at the watch. in which the learners live. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. when he will not be sure of time.

12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. to suit education to different environments? 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. 1. 2.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.5. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5. 67 . What do you meant by regional imbalance? . 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5.

Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. R.N.H. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Educational Development in India. C. Education Scenario in India. Salim. S. during the British rule.2. a.G.K. New Delhi: Authors press. A. and Nair. S. 60% 1. (2001). 68 . remained undeveloped 3. some of areas which were under the native rulers. (2001). Giridhar. (2008).13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Dubey.5. (2002). some States have become more developed than others b. Education in Developmental Arena.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. school community and mass media. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. 71 . semi literate and illiterates. community development. secularism and democracy through Indian education. National Integration. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place.

2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.7 2.1.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.9 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .5.6 Education for Secularism 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook Main features of Socialism 2.8 2.1.1.LESSON 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY. 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.

2. Abraham Lincoln. colour or wealth.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.1. you will be able to: 1. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. understand the concept of democracy.1.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. there should be made no distinction of caste. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.1. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. This is the political aspect of democracy. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. socialism and secularism 2. 2. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Democracy thus means power of the people. In the matter of admitting students in schools. creed. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. socialistic and secular state.2. 73 .1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. 3) Provision of Manual Work. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. socialism and secularism 2. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. for the people by the people”.

5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. debates.1.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. it soon spread all over the world. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. may be planned. 12) Visits to Legislatures. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. declamation contest etc. 2. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. 74 . There are different brands of socialism. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. 11) Student Parliament. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Democracy means 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life..

service and cooperation. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling.5. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. but on the path of non-violence.1. free from exploitation. 2. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. oppression and disparity. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 2) Socialism aims at equality. the wealthy and the poor. 2.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. Under it. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.5. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. the employer and the employee are all on the same level.1.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. the prince and the peasant. none high”. 75 . 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 7) Special facilities for girls.

moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.” In every political and educational corner. secularism is being propagated. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 76 . "which seeks the development of physical. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. “India is a secular-country. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary.1. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. Everyone says.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. 11) State schools.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. According to Holydake. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Write any two main features of socialism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

“A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. liberty.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is.1. During the recent past. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated.1. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. Moral values have to be imbibed. 77 . there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. 9) It stress free inquiry. 2) It permits freedom of religion. A large number of people is uneducated. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. 2. That is why. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. should be independent of religion.6. Equality. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas.6. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. people started believing in regionalism.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. There is need of making the people open minded. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. education etc. In this type of prevailing situations. people have narrow mindedness. the belief that the state morals. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. “Webster further says. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. trifles over petty religious matters are caused.opposed to religious education. 5) It implies tolerance. 8) It believes in co-existence. 3) It permits freedom of worship. fraternity. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life.

The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. There should be some internal checking of the material being. No doubt. While doing so.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. 2. students belonging to different religions should be associated. that the central string of all religions is one. Patiala. In the celebration of each such function. education. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.presented by the students in the gathering. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. In the hands of such teachers. 1) Moral Education. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures.1.6. Religious Education. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. The very sight of the building. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. tours and trips may be organized.

Define Secularism 9. 2. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 LET US SUM UP 79 .personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. No doubt. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The word “Seculum” means 7. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. The term secularism was first used by 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.

Provision of Manual Work. 4. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. 3. creed.1. The students may be associated with the management of the school. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. 5. b. This present age 7. a. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. In the matter of admitting students in schools. George Jacob Holydake 80 .9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 3. b. there should be made no distinction of caste. c. Since socialism stands for equality. 6. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Abraham Lincoln. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Socialism aims at social justice. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Equal Opportunities for Admission. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. Power of the people 2. for the people and the people”.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. a. a. 5. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. d.1. 4. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. Socialism aims at equality.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. colour or wealth. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Tuition free education b. Respect of Individual Personality. 2.

(2005). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. N. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K. Ltd.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Mohanty. b. It permits freedom of religion. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. should be independent of religion. L. Theory and Principles of Education. It treats all religions on an equal footing. J. (2007).C. B. New Delhi : Pahuja. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Anmol Publications Pvt. K and Narang C. (2003). (2004).1. Modern Trends in Indian Education. a.” 9. (2008). P. the belief that the state morals. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.8. Bhatia. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Dash. Ltd. 10. a. J. b. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N. 81 . education etc.

2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.LESSON 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.10 2.2 2.2.1 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.9 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.4 2.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.

understandings. 2.generation to another.2. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. as persons.2. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. 2. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. as workers. social and moral aspects. a r e 1. 3. The developmental roles of children. as citizens. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. emotional. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. as learners. who are placed in his custody. 2. social. aims and objectives of the school. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. as it is t he aim o f modern education. and 4. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. 83 . A teacher is first and foremost. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. mental. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. development. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it instructor of school children.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. application. It involves physical. skills. therefore. moral. you will be able to: 1.

of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. economically effective. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. culturally confident. 2. emotionally. social and emotional health. morally. 3. He is to become an active member.All education should lead to better behavioural development. intellectually. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. motivated. physically fit for socially efficient. The students live. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. mental. inquisitive.2. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. morally. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. member of his community at the outset. a part of their day in 84 . mentally. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. Teacher as a Citizen Next. 2. 1. and aesthetically to become. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. socially. The following are some of such roles described in brief.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. experiences and acceptance. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. He has to look after their physical. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs.

faiths. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. activities of the society into which he is born. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.the school being under the custody of teachers. They will be spending with their parents. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2. Dr. photographic clubs. It 85 . games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. and most of hours. science club. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. solve them. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. 2. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. India is a land of many castes. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Unless. fine art associations. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. languages and religions. List out the role of teachers towards community development . creeds.

“National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. It should broaden the outlook. ‘We should not become parochial. 1. The only process is the process of education. folklore and teaching of social studies.” Regarding the role of education. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. should be emphasised. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. At the primary stage the importance of stories. Nehruji has explained this as. with straight backs and look up at the skies. the citizens of the Republic of India. stand up and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things.” 2. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. a. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. national anthem and other national songs. Sampurnanand remarked. social studies. c. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . Let us. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. poems. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. and make into one strong national unit.2. narrow-minded provincial. Radhakrishnan. Re-orientation of the Curriculum.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. therefore.5. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . this integration of the Indian people. the study of language and literature. b.

Uniform for School Children. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. languages and literature. Textbooks. Taking Pledge. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. 9. ACC. educational excursions. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. 10. Co-Curricular Activities. and picnics. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen.different social sciences. Singing of National Anthem. 8. 87 . It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. t he st udent s and t he community. 3. 2. tours. sports. Student Camps. Reverence of National Flag. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. debates. National Days—January 26. Scouts and Guides. 5. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Celebrations of National Days. 7. symposia. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. militar y training like the NCC. 4. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. dramatics and youth festivals. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. 6. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country.

They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. v. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Open-Air Dramas. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics.11. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. 14. iv. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. flora and fauna. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. colour. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Admissions. ways of thinking and doing things. School Projects. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 15. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged.5. Students Exchange and Tours. 12. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Admissions to schools.2. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. language. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. 13. region or religion. 2. iii. ii. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. 16. Recognition of Institutions. Educational and Travel Documentaries. 88 .

It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. viii.2. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. cultures and races on equal bases. Define National Integration 3. vii.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. irrespective of national boundaries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. camps. Community dinners. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. 2. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes.

lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. the international level. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. 5. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. In a very real sense. 4. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. 6.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.” 2. and the healthy development. (b) stories of children of other lands.F.2. often in connection with anniversaries. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.6.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.2.. Dr. Organising of debates and. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. 2. Therefore. 3. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”.6. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1.e. Radhakrishnan states.friendships between children of different countries. therefore. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. of his body and mind. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. patriotism is not enough. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. This. C. that war. Teachers 90 . if it happens. (c) fairly tales. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership important as that of a national citizenship. Strong has observed. 2.

Russian.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. They should not be propagandists. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Indian and American. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. an Englishman.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Impartial in their Treatment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. a German.

If this is done. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. the education function can be carried. there is wide spread frustration among all people.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. Chronic Poverty . 4. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. 2.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only.2. Defects of the educational System . understand and indiscipline: 1. which results in agitation and aggression language. As the school is but a miniature society. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. 5. Wide Spread Frustration . they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. It does not prepare students for life. 3. Devaluation of Values . and help the students to over .2.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. majority of people are. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .Another major. leading to. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly.

5. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. love. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. fellow feeling. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.democratic nature. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . 2. co-operation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.2. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being.2. community development. sympathy and good will among the nations. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. etc.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 93 . It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System


Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.


STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency Functions and role of schools in the society Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency Radio as an agency of education Television as an agency of education Press as a medium of education Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.

9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.

16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together. MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.




1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society


2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.


In fact.V. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. are increasingly used in education. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. “All the citizens of the community.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. periodicals. art galleries. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Museums. Moreover. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. books. Crow and Crow write. 2. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Hence. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. During the course of time. Then came newspapers. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Emphasising this thing. Now internet is being used. the invention of the printing press. led to the printing of books. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. To make them achieve their aim. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 .3. He taught his students orally. Define community.

In collaboration with the experts. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Important happening inventions. Thus. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. politics. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. 2. It stimulates curiosity and interests. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. social studies. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Many gaps are to be filled up by them.6. “Listening participation” in current history. Effective means of presenting music. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Thus. dram appreciation. languages. 2. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning.telecast. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. A lot of work by way of pre. Students listen various talks. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them.classroom teachers.3. rather than on picture. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. It enlightens public opinion.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. the teacher still occupies. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. music. 101 . Reynolds. for the teacher through school broadcasts. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. the place of importance. current affairs and other areas. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. In the emphasis is on sound. It is also an important source of entertainment. Various talks. art.G.

At present. at play. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. plays. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. at recreational centers. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. travel talks. School concerts. at drawing room. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. 4. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. 5. Before presenting the programme. Making learning an open system. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Participation of local teachers and pupils. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. fol classical music. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. informal and non-formal education. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. development of lessons. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. at any place. mathematics. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. Team-teaching demonstrations. style. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. 102 . Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. projects or creative activities. speech. 3. audibility and presentability. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.


Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.


For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.


Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.

2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.

Dhiman, O. P. (2007). Non formal educational system 2.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.7 Limitations of formal education 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.LESSON 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.5 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.3.1 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.8 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 . FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.4.

his moral excellence and his social adjustment. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. 3. 2. To realize this objective of education. compare formal and non formal system of education.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner.. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 2. the temple. 4. it was mostly.4. Education associated with a degree or certificate. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. 4. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 2. 6. say the Government or the private enterprise. starting and ending at -a particular age. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. 5. 3. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.3. the community.4. you will be able to: 1. 2. School is. open school. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and.2. imparted at the residence of the teacher. the most important agency of formal education. 8. the learner are acquainted. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. Education organised by some agency. open university. 110 . In ancient time in India. Education.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. the mass media et. 7.4. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. the family. 9. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.4. his mental alertness.

Concepts of proportion. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. structured education.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. or academic degrees. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. such as a high school or secondary school.a secondary education. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Through early formal education. as well as vocational education and training. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. capacity. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . or post secondary education. diplomas.3. the elements of language are first learned.2. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. also called tertiary. and relations are formed and developed through normal play.3. Some education systems have separate middle schools.4.4. depending on the jurisdiction. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Higher Education: Higher education. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. In general. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . 2. third stage.

which will help for nation's development. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Agencies can be classified as 2. 2. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. 3. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 .3.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . What are levels of formal educational system? . Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. is an important agency of formal education. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. 2. children with disabilities.4.4. late beginners etc. and remote dwellers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. etc.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. systematic. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. adults as well as children. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Therefore. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system.. It is much more responsive to needs and change. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. However. planned. until 1970 it had not been defined. Non-formal education includes adult education.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. Adiseshiah.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work.learning client take some learning objectives. i. one could say that non-formal education is an active. “Non-formal education should 113 . work and the opportunity to put learning to use.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. it is a more effective tool for rural development.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. place of instruction. According to Malcolm A. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.e.formal education. curriculum. admissions. It is deliberate.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. adding up to a true learning society. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. financially supported life formal education. Open university. continuing education and on the job oriented education. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. Thus. open learning. systematic. It is functional.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. staffed. It unlocks the doors of development plans. to help themselves. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. it has its own valid claim to reality.

Part-time education. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status.learning pattern. modes of teaching. Preparation for future needs.” According to H. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. 6. the Ideas of citizenship. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs.4. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. evaluation etc. self.4. national integration.S. 5. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. admissions. 7. co-curricular activities. 3. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. 2. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.4.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. socialism. exploring. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. Covering life span of an individual. To develop in the student. It should lay emphasis on the self.4. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages marketable and vocationalised. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. Flexibility in various aspects of education. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. To help industrial workers to better their skills.e.S. Process of sharing. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. international understanding. age. curriculum. 4. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. i.renewal. place of education. 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Lawrence.” 2. 114 .

To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 2. working adults. To offer Secondary.4. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. 9. in villages and those who live in towns. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. school dropouts. 3. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn.4. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 4. • 2. Eradication of adult literacy. 3. 6. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. 10. 5. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. publication and information dissemination. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. 5.4. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Senior Secondary. 115 .4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 8. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Technical. 2. Universalisation of primary education. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 4. 7. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live.4.

This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs.full time to learners – can be home. library. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. self-employment iii. training centres in factories. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . Again. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.2.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. To make if. To better qualifications. open space. centres of correspondence education. farm. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . 3. Radio and television. etc.4. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals.. others are formal and informal.4. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. 2. if organised in isolation. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education.4. effective in modern societal context. To increase knowledge and 2. 2. public libraries. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. Institutions for formal education. factory. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. All-round development i. 4. Therefore.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. etc. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.

Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Face Contact programmes. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two aims of non formal education. radio. . Lecturing T. Define non formal education.V. . 7. 117 . institution. Give examples of non formal education? . Correspondence lesson. 6.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Written tests. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Teaching to face teaching. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.

School 3. systematic. 118 .” 6. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Secondary level. b. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Formal and Non Formal 2.4. 2. 3. 7.2. The school. the college and the university come under this category. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. a. Pre-school level.4. 4. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Open University. 5. adults as well as children. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. b.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. 4.4. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Open School. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. Higher Secondary level and University level. 2.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Primary level. a.

J. (2003). Gupta. N.2.C. (2008). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Pahuja. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : 119 . Ltd. (2007). Education in Emerging India. J. N. K and Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education. P. (2008). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. B. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. L. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.4. K. (2004). (2005). S. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Anmol Publications Pvt.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Ltd. Dash. Bhatia. Mohanty.

5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.4 Open University 2.5.4 Need for Open University 2.5.1 2.2 2.3 Objectives of Open University 2.5.LESSON 2.5 Characteristic features of open University Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.6 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5.4.

their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. For them. It is a continuous process. you will be able to: 1. economic field or such other fields. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies.5. It is a lifelong process. 2. Under these circumstances. know the need and objectives of open university. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3.2.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. Any person. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. continuing education is a boon.3.5.5. industries. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. give the meaning. Thus. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. However. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . farmers. This knowledge may be in political field.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.5. 2. characteristics of open university 4. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. 2. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. labourers and half educated individuals.

For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. if he gets opportunity to develop them. are also contributing their might for the purpose. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. deteriorating to his character and personality. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Cinema. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. On the other hand. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature.V. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. cultured and progressive. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Block Development Officers. Radio. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Persons engaged in health services.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation.literate person. 2. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Radio and T. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Thus.3. After the achievement of independence. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education.5. On the other hand. For them too continuing education is essential. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Doctors. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . Throughout the country.V.directly related to his job. T.

A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (1) ancient history. 123 .. 2. 2. (15) music. (14) information about bringing up young children. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. Of course. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. 7.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (17) modern international and national events. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. habits of people of other lands. (13) psychology of child behaviour. (8) psychology of adults. 4. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life.5. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as.3. These books are not very useful. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (10) first aid. Inspite of the great efforts.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1.5. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. especially women. (4) the fundamentals of economics. we have not been able to achieve our targets. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. and Radio. 3. (2) basic religious matters. 6.3.V. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. 2. (6) folk stories.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. (7) folk songs. 5. (16) liking. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation.

attendance restrict ion. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. 2. NLM was launched in the year 2. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background.4. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. lack of time etc.5. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. of educational opportunities. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e .

” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. it makes use of educational techno logy. and in teaching. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Education is not a once for-all process. Which was the first open university in India? . IGNOU was established in the year 6. b. No one is too old or too late to learn.unobserved. d. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. the higher the degree of openness. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. 2. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. 4. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education.5. 5. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. 2.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. its education is not class room based but home based. c.4. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. but 125 . e. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . 3.

6. 2. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 3. 5. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.who did not get it. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. supplementing the existing provision. 2.5.5. 2. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. who were deprived of t he same earlier. cho ice o f co ur ses. it a ims at wider and hig her. or who realised too late that they need it.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n.4. Mo re o ver. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 4. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. 3. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. 2. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 126 . 4.4. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies.

B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. a state or nation. 127 . In the present day world. Tutor Comments. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Therefore. 4. a society. Laboratory works.2.5. 5. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 1.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. school drop t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. Self instructional materials. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. you have learnt the concept. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. 8. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Every day. semi – literates. 6. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. List out any four methods of Open University? .5. 2. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Correspondence tuition.4. 7. 2. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living.

5. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. 8. a. need and characteristics of Open University. 4.5. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. Explain the objectives. (2) basic religious matters. 9. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 3. youth.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1988. 128 . b. 1985. 6. aspirants for continuing education. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. (1) ancient history. 2. its education is not class room based but home based. 7. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. unskilled workers and other professionals.ambitious learners. which may include house wives. agricultural and industrial workers. b.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. cho ic e o f co u r ses. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. Broad casting lectures c. P r int med ia b. a. 7. Television Lessons. (4) the fundamentals of economics. d. 2. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 8. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. a.

Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. S. K and Narang C.K. Modern Problems of Education. Ltd. L.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi: Rajat Publication.. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.S. K.2.5. Reddy. (2001). R. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. 129 . (2004). Udaiveer. (2007). Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2004).

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. 133 . Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. which may claim the attention of those concerned. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. wastage and stagnation. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. its causes and remedial measures. All which is the need of the hour. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Examination reform. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. Training teachers for all levels of education.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. examination. and teacher education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. In Lesson 2. the education of women.

134 .

8 3.LESSON 3.5 3.3.3 New initiatives.7 3.6 EFA – How? 3.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.2 3. 135 . They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1 3.1.1 EFA – For whom? INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.4 3.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.3.1.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1.1.

Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. 3. On the other hand. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. economic or cultural. may be political. education received added importance and significance.1. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. understands the country. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country.1. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. you will be able to: 1. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. Continuing Education (CE) 1. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. 2. Eradication of Illiteracy. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. therefore. social.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. directed that. Therefore. “The State shall 136 . “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. (EOI) 2. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures.3. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy.

the national Government under. It enables the parents to send their children to School. Due to the adoption of democratic system. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. After the attainment of independence. Therefore. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. 3. rights and responsibilities.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Universalization of Retention. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Continuing Education (CE). the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. 137 . This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Universalization of Enrolment. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls .endeavour to provide. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. Three Stages for Universalization. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year.

educational enterprise. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2.1. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. then to 1976. Write Article 45. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. Therefore. 3. 1995 (for upper primary stage). So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. 1990. present and future. 138 . for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. later to 1988. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools.3. It is safe to assure. UNESCO Bulletin states. This target had to be revised to 1970. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence.

Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. In order to make the programme of education for all community.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. the art of preparing fruit-juice. and Women’s education programme should be improved. FELF. creed. By undertaking survey. their social economic status and occupations. 139 . 6. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. Apart from primary education. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 8. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. 3. The Social Education. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education.3. 10. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. slum areas. nutrition education and sports and games. 5. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. rural areas. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. Early childhood education should be streamlined. problem of literacy. adolescent and adult. 3. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate.1. Education of Girls. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. 11. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. Emphasis must be given on health education. 9. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). Education of the Impaired. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. Jams and Jellies. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. sex. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). NAEP. their enrolment and retention. Disabled. 12. etc.

SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Expand MLL and SSA .1. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. 4. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. 3. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Wastage and Stagnation. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.1.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3.e.

Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. it is considered as wastage.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Social Factors . Familial Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. Personal Factors .first stage of education. School Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .

. Define Wastage. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 142 .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. . can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

The following factors. They are described hereunder :1. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. School Factors .5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. in his home. rural or urban 3.1. Family Factors .3.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . Societal Factors . school or society.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. Personal Factors . relating to home. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.

List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . 144 . etc. stationary. mid-day meals. Define Stagnation? 9. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. uniforms. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.

1. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. 3. 3.” 3. Universalization of Enrolment c. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA.1. a. improvement of curriculum. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Hartog Committee.3. 6. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. 145 . Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. 2. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.1. therefore. 3. a. 4. directed that. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. b. 4. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA.. “The State shall endeavour to provide. a. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. Universalization of Provision b. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Universalization of Retention 2.

Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Crescent Publishing Corporation. (2008). a. improve examination system. introduce graded curriculum. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Personal Factor b. Familial Factors c. Problems of Elementary Education.1. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. School Factors d. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 3. Social Factors 8.K. Sharma.N. (2001). T. 9. S. New Delhi: 146 .9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2007). b. a.7.K. Hemchand. Let us sum up 147 .1 3.4.7 Open book examination 3.5.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation New evaluation procedures 3.5.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.5.2 Grade System 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.5.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education Advantages of Co-education Multiple sets of question paper 3.4 Question banks 3.2.1 Problems of examination Choice Based Credit System 3.

it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. Besides. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. but on the other. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. 3. you will be able to: 1. 3. suggest the new evaluation procedures.3.2. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.2.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2.2.2. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. 3.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. 3. 4.8 3.3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.9 3.2.2. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.

2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. The following steps should be taken up. etc. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. 3. schools for them wherever necessary. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. etc. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. If the students are in sufficient number.2. which the educational authorities have to face. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes.3. etc. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. hostel facilities. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 149 . by providing free education and liberal scholarships. They develop secondary sex characteristics. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. They may cause problems relating to discipline.. waiting rooms for girl students. roadside Romeoism. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement.

teachers.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. public interested in education. public administrators and statesmen.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. It is considered as a major sub-system. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. appointment of paper-setters. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. 150 . 3. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. the examination system has an important role to play. conduct of internal examinations. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. Instruction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. assessment and Finance.2.2. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.4. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. With the mass growth of educational enterprise.

validity and practicability. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction.printing and distribution of question papers. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. tabulators. 3. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively.4. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. etc. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. etc. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. examiners. scrutinizers. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. etc.2. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. values. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. invigilators. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . etc. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. introducing objective-based testing. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. announcement of results.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. establishing reliability. training of examiners. etc.

ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Vagaries in making. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation.. do not appeal to the students and parents. 7) In connection with the question papers. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education.. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public.. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. Rote memorisation. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. stereotyped questions. Subjects. 2) From the angle of content of education. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. halo-effect. may also discredit them. 3) With respect to method of teaching. it can be said that they become examination-oriented.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. takes the place of comprehensive learning.2. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. which they are expected to study.4. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. it s a common experience that subjectivity. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. 152 . lack of objectivity etc. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. 3. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils.

Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. 4.a part of internal assessment. may be introduced. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools.. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. revaluation. Spot valuation. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. re-numbering of answer scripts. etc. 153 . Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon.develop true love for education. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. List any two merits of examination.

Which has 2 credits is like a half paper.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. In this system.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. attitudes. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. Every paper is treated equal. In actual practice.5. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures.2. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination.2. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. The new scheme of assessment. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. skills are given importance.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. Advantages More autonomy is given to students.2. It is complicated. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. Their interests.3. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . The students can take any course offered in any department. 3. When a person chooses to work extra. he is given extra credit points.5. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .

These weightages are called credits. An example is a seminar. instead of specifying number of paper/courses.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. Groupism is encouraged. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. courses can have weightages defined. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v.discipline. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. In the new system. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. poor. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. This system reduces comparison of marks.good. 3. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . only the total credits to be earned is specified.poor.5. v. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits.2. or as a 4 credit course. While designing syllabus. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.

It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. 3.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. 3. 3.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.5. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. the need for re-evaluation should not arise.5. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.5. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. 156 .2. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.2. However.2. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.

and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. List any four new evaluation procedures. In the hierarchy. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • .5. There are no proper procedures for selection. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. 6.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. However. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions.2.2. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . 3. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. recruitment. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. . Therefore.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.

There has been dearth of properly trained and well. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. They are. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. qualifications. being realised as two different functions. Academic inspection. requirements. whether the syllabus has been covered. When they are fully realised. complaints and compliments.. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. books are followed. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. 3. staff. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. in a sense. playgrounds. inspecting the class-room teaching. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now.qualified personnel. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. of late..1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. etc. 1. interpersonal relationships and so on. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. etc. school buildings. finding out whether the prescribed text. submitting of the inspection reports. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected.6. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. in contrast. library books. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. taking up the follow-up programmes. finding out the adequacy of. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. disciplinary problems. 158 . looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. wherever necessary. laboratory equipment.2.

Similarly. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection.Ed. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. modern. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. their professional knowledge. once in five years. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. In the light of these conceptualisation. 3. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection.2.. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. M. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. 159 . In the case of departmental candidates. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. Insistence on specialisation in the B. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. or. courses.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. course in either educational. at least. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors..Ed. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. aptitude.

It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 3. 3.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Instruction. examination reforms and supervision and inspection.2. 4. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. c. 2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. a. 3. Grade System. Administration. b. a. 5. 3.2. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. assessment and Finance.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. d. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. 160 .2. a. b. 3. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom.

Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. a. R and Sharma. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. History and Problems of Education in India. S. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. (2004). and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.4. Problems of Education in India. b. Question banks. 7. K. c. Vaidya. (2002). 5. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.a part of internal assessment. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. b. Educational Reforms. (2005). a. Multiple sets of question paper. K. New 161 . Open book examinations. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline.2. b. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. a. 3. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .

2 3.3. 5.9 3.3.6 3.3 3.3.10 3. you will be able to: 1. identify the needs of rural India and social.3.4 3.7 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.8 3. 3. 4.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 3.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.5 3. 162 .3.3.3.LESSON 3.3. 2.3. 3.3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.

Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. 8 years of general education.e. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination.. i. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta.3. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage.3. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission..g.. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. and 3 years of First Degree Course. e. The Calcutta Madras. The. in Andhra Pradesh.specialisation programmes 3. 2. Consequent on the recommendations. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. 10 years of general Secondary Education.. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. the Banaras Sanskrit College. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . Similar is the case with some other States. Commission emphasised to continue. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. etc.e. University Education. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.

to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. and. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. educational channels. who desire to change from one stream to another. historical. 10. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. 5. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . cultural and economic development of the country. 7. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. b. Provision for transfer of credits to students. 8. is also a plus point . to prepare.confidence in students. 6. 5) to help for the that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. to imbibe.a sense of dignity of labour. However. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. economical and political. social. habits of hard work and develop . general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 3.

Psychologically. democratic living. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. The General Educational Spectrum. Philosophically it is not the conception. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies.3. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students.. cooperativeness. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. 3. on one hand. international understanding. 1. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. at the other. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. etc. and. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. to develop national character. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. and that required to enter the tertiary level.national integration. social justice. Sociologically it is undesirable. cultural and' religious tolerance.

it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. such as Agriculture. horticulture. fish culture.3. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. and vocations based on dairy-farming. 2. In our country. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. educational and cultural services. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. 3. the rural areas have suffered very much. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. or other machinery. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. Agriculture is the main occupation. technological. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. India is a land of villages. rural health. chemistry. All these need for an. vegetable growing. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. In the matter of language. medical plants. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Science.—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. industrial agricultural production is growing. physics or mathematics. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. In the vocational spectrum. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. commerce. technical. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. commerce.— tube-wells.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. 166 . semi-skilled and unskilled levels. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. Biology. Commerce and other disciplines.

Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There had been favourable reaction from the students..3. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. 4. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. 3. can be ensured. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. In time. social justice. In this way. In this it may be concluded.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. the local resources available.etc.. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. etc. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. and 5. interests and aptitudes of the students. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. and the needs. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely .

Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. Dash. S. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Calcutta University Commission 2. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Vocational Sepctrum. a. Ltd.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Mohanty.a sense of dignity of labour. to imbibe.3. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. habits of hard work and develop . New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. N. Anmol Publications Pvt. we studied the history. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.C. (2005). B. (2001). a. objectives. 2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. (2008). a. (2007). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. b.K. General Educational Spectrum and b. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. 3. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.3. J. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. Modern Trends in Indian Education. 3.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. b.3. New Delhi : 168 . to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. J. 3.

13 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.8 3.4.11 3.7 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.6 3.4.9 but the lighting of a fire”. Education contributes to human development.4.4. social and 169 .4.10 3.4.12 3.LESSON 3.3 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.1 3.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.2 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4.4.

Nursing. economic. During the year 1937. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. These courses were. Teaching and Fine Arts. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. particularly 170 .4. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. Home Economics. For the first time in the history of India. In the post —independence period. although we have miles to go. 3. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. you will be able to: 1. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. analyze the women and distance education.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .4. Dr. Education . community and nation is universally acknowledged. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. 3.higher education in particular. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. higher education of girls developed immensely. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. The relevance of women’s education to social. There is a close connection between education and development. family. cultural and political development of the individual. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. While women constituted only 9.

participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.0 Today. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.4. The idea of women’s education for equality.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. out of 9200 and odd colleges. Yet. Even today. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.2 22. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. In 1950-51. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.2 29. 3.1 31.N. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.9 14.D. Mumbai. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. 3. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.4.T Women University.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . Kodaikanal. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.9 27. levels and professions. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).65 lakhs in 1994-95.0 43. Coimbatore.4. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.women. in our country.1 24.0 32. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. Mother Teresa Women University. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. In the rest of the country.0 16. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. we have more than 1200 institutions.

4.53 34. 2.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.1 respectively.36 3.4%) prefer Arts subjects. 3.4.17 52. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .83 47.27 89.63 Female % 34.34 33. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .66 66. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.46 82.54 12.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.73 10.56 64. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? . GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.44 35. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.47 65.1 and 14. 3.that of boys.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.

Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. what is the need for higher education for her. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. Also. and coeducation may spoil her character. The major hurdles. marriage is a very common I factor. In every third family. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. distance of the college or university from home. financial difficulty of the parents. she will only learn fashion. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. particularly. Book banks should be established. They gave up their studies to enter home life. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are.hinders the girls from getting higher education. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. curriculum not suited to their requirements. etc. 173 . The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. According to a survey. irrelevance of the content of education. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. Thus. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. 3.4. promoted and increased. In college. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education.

Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Full-time employment.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. resources and socio . space.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Empowerment in a nutshell. is the only tool for realising empowerment. and the limitations of the conventional education system.4. There are constraints of time. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women.economic disabilities faced by women. It also brings about 174 . Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.4. It is a productive investment. 3. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Education. 3. Distance education is a boon to women. Geographic distance of educational institutions. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. It enables to study. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.

which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. empowerment means being assertive. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. 3. on their own. for full development of our human resources. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. The major objectives of women's higher education. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. education of women is of paramount importance. education of women must be given priority in national plans. Women are partners in development. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . higher learning. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. This can be achieved through reflection. legal awareness and economic independence. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence.4. Empowerment is an active.

4.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . But their number is small. Scholarships and concessions for women. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. The educational institutions. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. who are eager to take up courses. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. The local administration. which is pending for a long time. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. 176 . will encourage them to venture new grounds. has to be implemented at the earliest. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. 3. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. Better opportunities.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. Reservation for women. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. which had been the sole domain of men. especially so in the developing countries.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions.

and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Australia. Chief Executive.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. especially in developing countries like African countries. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. engineering and related technologies (16. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? .9%).She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments..11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.8%). the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. But. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management.1%) and architecture and building (38. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. IDP Education. capacities etc.4.000 women in the country.3 percent. talents. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Also. According to Lindy Hyam. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.

impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3.4. 3. 3. R. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. (2008). R. Mumbai.R. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Annakodi. Rajasthan 5. community and the nation.4. Mishra. A. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Women and Education. S. create the right attitude towards life. 2. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. 4. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication.K. (2005).C. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. (2000). and Suryalatha. 43% 6. Mother Teresa Women University. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. SNDT Women’s University. a.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. S. R. SNDT Women’s University. Kodaikanal. and Swain. Mumbai. Rao. Pattanaikj. A. Centre for Women’s Studies. Women Education. Coimbatore. 4. Women Education. individuals and society b.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. 3. (2007). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. 178 .to the family. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Coimbatore.

personality of children in and out of school. whole. 3.4 3.5 3.1 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.3 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.9 3.10 3.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 . There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.6 3.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.2 3.LESSON 3. They should be trained.5.11 3.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5.

All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. 4. know the pre service and in service training facilities. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. equality and justice. international.5. Lack of physical facilities. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. 5. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. social and emotional integration. 180 . enumerate the code of conduct for teachers.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. 3. and national character.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. understanding and strong desire for international peace. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction.5. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. Shorter working hours. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. 3.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. you will be able to: 1. national consciousness. Dearth of new technology of teaching. understand the training teachers for Primary.

students.Less qualified teacher educators. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. it is called the Extension teacher Education. the primary teacher education.. 3. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. (NCERT) New Delhi. Depending on the levels. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. the centre. it is called the In-service teacher education.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. the secondary teacher education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Inadequate training in practical skills.5. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . If the student teachers are working teachers.Ed. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. and M. the state Government.. Lop-sided curriculum. levels. and the collegiate teacher education. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. At the diploma level. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. a Diploma course and a Degree course.Ed. etc. inservice and extension education programmes. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. 3.5. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. higher secondary teacher education. who have not been trained earlier. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education.

3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . depart ments etc. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . Educational teehnology cells. Expand NCERT 2. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . etc. state Institutes of Educat ion. collegiate cells. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research.. non-formal. Education cells. Evaluation unit.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Also Guidance Bureaux. are established. extensio n service.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Science Education units. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training.

Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. which help breaking isolation from one another . The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. schools and sister institutions. to ensure teacher competence.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training .Ed. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . audio visual aids. despite its vast expansion. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre.. to prescribe conditions for recognition.Ed.. should be improved on a top priority basis. material conditions relating to libraries. and 183 . laboratories. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. which should include experience in the primary schools too. degree. primary and secondary school teachers. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. to improve curricular programmes. and so on. to offer consultative services. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and .. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life.

which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. Modern Techniques of Teaching. To meet this exigency.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Agriculture. etc. Induction Courses. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Meanwhile. whether they should have professional education or. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. 184 . Workshops. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. Modern Methods of Evaluation. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. not came up once again. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Psychology of Students. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. Hence.secondary education. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. methodology and evaluation. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. The problem.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. and XII. though no pre-service training. etc. Organisation of Content Courses.

Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.Ed. For re-orienting the teachers.S...Ed.. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.Ed. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.’s for Ph.Ed. in Education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. All B Ed. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. 3.D.Ed. M. These facilities are available for regular students. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.A. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.5. State Institutes of Education..Ed. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. training.. (Education) and M. Ajmer. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. courses and M.A. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. Degree. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.. Post-Graduates also undergo B. Courses leading to B. (Education) are organized by 185 . Point out two defects in primary teacher training .. Pre-service training is for those. Degree and M.’s are elig ible for M.

What is the role of ERIC? .A. 6.. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned.A. (Ed).5. 3. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. they should be conscientious . of conduct—written or unwritten. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned.. 4. 5.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. 186 . (Ed. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. and B. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . However. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .). Hence the employability of M. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. . Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. established by tradition and teachers of the past.List any two code of conduct for teachers? .

National Council of Educational Research and Training. 3. 2. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. b. 3. a. 2.5. Ajmer. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. The necessity is however this. Shorter working hours. 4. Bhopal. 5.3. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. a. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. 187 .9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 3. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. b. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. However. 4. 6. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. a.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Dearth of new technology of teaching. they should be conscientious. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Explain code of conduct for teachers.5. 3.5.

5.D. P.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. B. Ltd Aggarwal. (2003). New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. and Teacher Education. Teacher Education. (2009). Corporation. Mohanty.N. Teacher Education. Tewari.3. A. (2010). Publication Pvt. J. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

In lesson 1. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. our attention shifts to physical education – its need.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. preservation of nutrients. common ailments of children. In lesson 4. communicable diseases and their prevention. Since food is the source of nutrients. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. objectives. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. the focus is on the school health programmes. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. economic and educational developments. 191 . The person’s environment is equally important. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. objectives and role of the physical education. If the diet is poor. objectives. consuming the right amounts becomes important. nutritional deficiency diseases.

192 .

mental.4 4.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1.2 4.1.9 4.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.1.1. It is a miniature society. physical.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1.7 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.LESSON 4.5 4.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.8 4.10 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1. 193 . It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.6 4.11 4.3 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.e. emotional and social.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.

training in first aid and etc. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 2. 4. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. to his family and to the community at large. To give information regarding health rules. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. you will be able to: 1. To develop healthy health habits among children. 6.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 7. 8. 3. explain the importance of First aid 5. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. list the common ailments of children 3.g.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. understand school health programmes 2. 5. 4. content of health education. know the need for sex education. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. cleanliness and healthful living. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself.. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. 11. 9. 10.1. e. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases.1. Instruction. 4. training of teachers and evaluation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To develop certain skills concerning health. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 194 .

1. There should be regular water supply.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. minimizing the travelling distance. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. The flooring should not be damp.coming or absence. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. etc. (ii) communit y healt h. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. 4. B. 3. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. suitable furniture. There should be good drainage facilities. (viii) first aid. (vi) nutrition education. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . (x) choice aid use of health services and products.C. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. inoculation against cholera. as described below 1. (xl) mental health. B. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. cleanliness weeks. 2. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1.. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. vaccination. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. Vaccination for small pox. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. The school buildings should be spacious. (v) safety education. typhoid. is imperative. Triple Antigen Vaccination. The surroundings of schools should be clean. Arranging better transportation facilities. 2. First aid facilities should be made readily available. proper doors and windows. “Play-for-all” programmes. play festivals. organisation of school health days. 5.4. direct lighting. (xii) smoking education etc. ( iii) sanit at io n.G. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled.. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. excusing late.

scalds. sports and games in the interest of their health. • Close the schools. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. insect stings. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. if epidemic is wide-spread. etc. 196 . alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. C. • Find out the cases. burns. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. D. isolate and notify. • Take nutritious food. drowning. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. poisons.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • Have adequate rest and sleep. fainting (epileptic fit). and other accidents. wounds. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. fractures. • When sleeping in groups. cuts. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. dislocations.. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. • Keep all rooms clean. bleeding.

fever.1. They have less resistence to diseases than adults.. which are – cold. 4. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. asthma.1. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. headache. tuberculosis. chicken pox. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. Once these germs get into the body. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. backache. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. Mention the school health programmes. polio. cough. So they easily get illnesses. These diseases are called communicable diseases.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. List out the Health curriculum 3. pain in the joints. measles etc. water or bodily contact. 2. They are: i) The incubation stage. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . There are three stages in any communicable disease.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school.

eating food which is not clean. Important salts and water are lost in this process.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Others make the children very weak. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Measles .It is caused by measles virus. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Tonsilitis . After three or four days of fever. Scabies . head-ache and cough. etc. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief.This disease is caused by bacteria. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. sugar and water. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Hence it is called a killer disease. unhygienic bottle feeding. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. This is caused by cold virus. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Diarrhoea . Common Cold . there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. unhygienic living conditions. cough and fever.When a child suffers from scabies. The following are the common communicable diseases. Hence liquid diet is recommended. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Some suffer cold due to allergy. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. The symptoms include cold. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. The child may have fever. 198 . Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Throat is affected. Mumps . Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Ear Infections .

The child may also have diarrhoea. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. raised pink spots appear on head.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. face and waist. the child is not able to breathe. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. separate. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Typhoid .This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. Expand DPT . The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. As the disease progresses. Enlist the common ailments of children. What are communicable diseases? 6. Diphtheria .Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. 199 . If proper treatment is not given. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. By scratching he causes secondary infections. 5. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Shortly. the child may die.• • • • Chicken Pox . It begins with fever.

Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Wounds . Cuts and Bruises . dislocation. man-woman behaviours. 2. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. It is both biological and psychological. swelling.g. sprains.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. 200 . and Community Work and Social Service.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. 5. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. cuts.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. it is a subject of art.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. simple fractures. 4. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. eye injury. Sex is popular. and films. fiction.4. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. snakebites. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. In such cases. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. fainting.1. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. wounds.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. films and jokes. so-called sex books and periodicals. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in.1. sprains. head injury. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. Drowning . scorpion stings. It has its rightful place in education too. 4. etc. bleeding. bruises. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. Sprains . exciting and body-oriented. drowning. 3.

Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . And here is where some protests would be inevitable. sex education is being recommended in schools. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. In today's liberal and interactive society. the school. 3. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught.old values. The home. they would be treading the path of sure doom. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. 2. In secondary schools. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. try experimenting with their bodies. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. The values of life. the religious organisations. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. health. but preserve them from disaster and disease. B. There is another reason for making children aware of their to give sex education to the young.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. celibacy are age. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. Hence. in their ignorance. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives.. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. Should the boys and girls.

It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. 202 . As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. communicable diseases and their prevention. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. hence. when the courses are already overloaded. common ailments of children. first aid and sex education. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. there will no crisis in its implementation. offering sex education as a part of their curricula.1. Teacher education institutions are. 4. the school health programmes. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. C. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the major components of Sex Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.



SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.


STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.


4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:


Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.


Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy


Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Mention the food nutrients 2. 209 .

U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s .5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned.2. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Let us talk about each of these aspects. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied.2. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. If you look at the definition carefully. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .4. minerals. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. 210 . This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied.

A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately.6. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables.g. paratha and poori. construction labourer). Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 .Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced in the morning and the other at night. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. In other words. the social and religious practices of that region. In the case of adults. it is also specific to a given activity level . A balanced diet is specific firstly. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. dosa are typical of the south. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. Preferences/customs are also important. These are: region where the person resides and income.g. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. sex.2. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . activity level and physiological stress. People in the east of our country prefer rice. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). There is no point. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). 4. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. moderate or heavy work. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. Even within given States there is considerable variation.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. Those in the west also tend to eat rice.sedentary. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. for example. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods.

however. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Among the social factors. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. Having more money. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting.planning the diet. income plays a vital role. nuts and dry fruits. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. If you think of your own religious group. One must. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. however. as important for the rich as for the poor. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. for example. Judicious selection of food is. These determine the acceptability of foods. customs. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. however. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. Even among flesh foods. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. while another may hate them. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. vegetables and fruits. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. As income increases. As you read this discussion. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. Including these 212 . They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. In addition to these. One person may be fond of milk products. fat and sugar tend to increase. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. taboos related to food may play an important role. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. However. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked.

plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . fruits. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. eggs . 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. List out any two healthy food habits. Define balanced diet. For this.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 8. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables.eating is hazardous. green leaves. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. 8) Walk a while after eating. but they should be thrown away. etc. 213 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 17.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. mouth. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. over-eating or under. if the teachers have good food habits. meat.

Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Bitot’s spots. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Night blindness.2. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. 4. Conjuctival xerosis. When the diet is inadequate. Explain food nutrients 4. Discuss good food habits. Keratomalacia 3. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. d. 4.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Beri Beri 4. a. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. e.4. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. In fact. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3.2. c. preservation of nutrients. Vitamin D 5.2. b. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Corneal xerosis. good nutrition is essential for good health.

C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. R. Food and Nutrition Education. Food and Nutrition Education.2. Hands. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra.N. (2005). A Text Book of Foods. b. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. Food should be consumed after eating well. minerals. Nutrition and Dietetics. (2009). P. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. (2008).6.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. Chopra. 4. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 8. Nutrition Science. mouth. R. a . S.C. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . Sri Lakshmi B. a. 7.M. b. Health and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. (2008). vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. (2004).

3.11 4.13 4.7 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.9 4.3 4.3.5 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.1 4.3.2 Impact on Education 4.12 4.3. 216 .3.1 Impact on social development 4.LESSON 4.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings. 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.

adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. characteristics and changes for himself. his family. the causes of population change.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. the stress is. It is a much wider co ncept. Population Education. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. It is not sex education. aims at providing the younger generation. objectives and need for population education 2.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. population characteristics.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. you will be able to: 1. therefore. 217 . family planning and sex education etc. his societ y and the world. understand the importance of small family norm 5. state the meaning. and the consequences of these processes. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. 4. There is some difference. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. describe the impact of population growth on social. economic and educational development 3. Whenever we talk of sex education. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. 4.3.3. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.4. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. community. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population.

the society. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. the nation and the world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.3. List out any two objectives of Population Education.4. Define Population Education 2. the family. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 4.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual.

the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion.3. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. When the family is small. Family is considered as a social unit. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development.6. which will not be possible without population control. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. health and happiness of its citizens. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. 219 . the family programmes are also handicapped. economic and educational development of the country. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. 4. 4. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. With the larger families. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. Every second two thousand children are being born.3.

Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. In developing countries. heavy intern I migration etc. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. The gulf between them is widening further.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. Swollen cities. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio.6. toilets. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. in parks and other places of public gatherings. in cinema halls and theatres. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. teacher index. 4.e. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. organization index and material index. Many students herded in a small room. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. in buses and trains.3.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious.3.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils.6. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. unemployment. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. lack of proper health care. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. 4. pollution of the environment. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. facility for drinking water. i.. and so on. 220 .

4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects.3. even text books would be in short supply. can be taken up. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. and laboratory equipments. 221 .3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. can be studied in science and health education. Social Studies Statistics on population education. less budget for education. There would be poor library facilities. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. family planning etc. bar graphs etc. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. There would be very few audiovisual aids.. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. essays. reproduction. Regional Language. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hindi and English. thus. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. there will be lacuna in many other spheres.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. less space facilities. blank verses etc.

13. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Bihar. 4.3. 3. 11. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. China. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Brazil. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Children may compare two families. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Children with the help of parents. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 15. 14. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 8. 5. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. causes of deaths etc. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Uttar Pradesh. 10. deaths. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. area and average density of population. 9. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. United States of America. 2. 12. Canada. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. 7.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1.4. West Bengal. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school.

one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. Comparing life in various respects in two families. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. 18. we have no right to stop 223 . automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. age at marriage. values and role children etc. The question. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. opened in their schools. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people.3. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. 16. preferences for sex. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish.

India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. the total fertility rate decreased from 6.were implemented 224 . fertility levels have declined throughout the country.4-6. More than 45 years ago. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. continued . especially the expansion of child immunization services . In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. Since the program's inception. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. however. which education can only do. and the child survival components of the news: program.. “He who is responsible for population growth. The Family Welfare emphasize family planning services. should be overcome at the intellectual levels.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. 4.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.3. at varying places in different regions. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.their entry into the world”. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. on an overall basis.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.

The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. a focus on health promotion. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. reliance on local women as community health workers. In April 1996. At these meetings. Moreover. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. men. expansion of services to unmarried women. Local programs vary in their approaches. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better.earlier than the safe motherhood components. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. and nominal fees for services. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. the community appears willing to pay for services. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. In October 1997. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. and the World Conference on Women. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. Therefore.

4. 226 . nation and the world.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. Its main purposes are to create awareness.emphasizing the needs of the client. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual.3. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. community. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. family. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. Describe the impact of population growth on social. What are the goals of RCH? 4. 3. 1997). Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. economic and educational development 4. involving the community.

a. Canada. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. 3. Brazil. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. b. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. his family. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. area and average density of population. b. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. China. characteristics and changes for himself. a. the causes of population change.” 2. bar graphs. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. United States of America. 4.3. 5. a.4. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. his society and the world. less budget for education. population characteristics. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. less space facilities. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 227 . 7. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. and the consequences of these processes.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 6.

Centre for Women’s Studies. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. T. Ltd. (1992). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2002).14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. J. Modern Trends in Indian Education.K. (2004). “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Jayapoorni. Ltd.3. Reddy. Kantikar. (2005). Coimbatore. Bhende. N. A. 228 . New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Principles of Population Studies. Changing attitudes to Education in India.4. V. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Udaiveer. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. (2005). Modern Problems of Education.

8.4 Lead up games Minor games 4.3 4.9 4.LESSON 4.4.1 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4 4.4.5 4.4.6 4.3 Indigenous games 4.4.2 4.7 19.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.2 Major games 4.

Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. leadership and balance in defect. mental alertness.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. perseverance. the youth of the country. The concept of physical education has been made broader. classify the different types of games. as it should 230 . which forms its most valuable assets. full records of physical activities should be maintained. you will be able to: 1. state the meaning of Physical Education 2.4.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. moral fitness and emotional fitness. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. team spirit. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. 4. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness.4. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.4. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. social fitness.4.

g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . leadership. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Therefore. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. They are inseparably united together. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. team spirit. They go hand in hand. The educational efforts at home.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Every individual is a part of society. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. obedience to rules. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. To be more precise. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific.

though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. a sound health. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. mo ral.4. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. pleasing manners. game and sports. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. Rousseau states. Regarding the significance of physical education. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. 4. Just like Education.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers.” The Secondary Education Commission.” Montaigue writes. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. Buck has observed that 232 . “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. ment al. C. nor body but the whole man. Physical exercises. H. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action.

“Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively.” In brief. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. endurance. 233 . “If we wish to develop the whole being. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. happiness. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. elegance. etc. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. flexibility and power.4. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. coordinative abilities. initiative. strength. efficiency and character.a properly directed physical education should result in health. resourcefulness and smartness. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. Froebel says.” 4. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. speed. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. we must exercise the whole human being.

systems of government. Tournaments foster this sentiment. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. 234 (i) (ii) . these fundamental things have always been present. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Every age has its artists. including all racial groups and historical ages. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. its adherents and its enemies. they may form gangs. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. poetry and painting. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. plagues and famines. While wars. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. should help in the spiritual development of the student. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. in greater or lesser degree. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer.

Write any two importance of Physical Education.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. bravery and interest in games and sports. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.\ to develop perseverance. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. B. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. self. obedience. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . to develop tolerance. respect for rules. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc.sacrifice. 235 . List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education.

Posture screening should be done. Usually parents. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 4. Be sportive. Be well-prepared. 15. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases.4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 12. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Be punctual. Haag. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. students. 13. 11.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there.4. Act as a leader. Keep the field ready for the activities. and readmission after they have recovered. 14.H. 10. 4. 9. 8. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 5. Inform health principles. Be in the uniform. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 236 1. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. is essential. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. 7. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. defects. 6.4. injuries among pupils should be made. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. . and. Always keep the whistle ready. 16. 3. Be self-confident. 2.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Such inst incts as imitation. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. As such they are well enjoyed by children. 4. 2.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. Indigenous games. 4. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. frolic and jo y. less equipment and less expense.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. 237 . Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.4. Moreover. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. 4. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten.4.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Lead up games. 3. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. 1.8. chasing. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. the play. their development is handicapped. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. driving. Soft Ball.. muffling. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Tennis. with implements or without implements. Jumping. the games can be modified according to convenience. Hockey. skipping. bowling etc. zig zag relay. Cricket.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. couple tag. benefit in playing minor games. boosting. the play equipment. some of them are played indoors. The dimension of the posts and nets. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. On lawns. They are played for a shorter duration. Dodging. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. They are rules approved by the International Associations.8.With a very few rules. women take part most of the games. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. on sea-shore. wherever the kids assemble. under ball pass Relay. 238 . For each game the rules are many. Except a few games. dribbling. heading. Basket Ball. catching. Jump the stick clay and so on. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. These games require varied skills such as running. Kabaddy etc. Throwing. stopping. pitching. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Hopping.4. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. snatching the kerchief. over ball pass Relay. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Khokho. spiking. While many of them are played in the open playfields. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. hitting. the number of players and substitutes. trapping. Volley Ball. Ball Badminton. 4. finding the partner. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Shuttle Badminton. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. on mountain tops and on river beds. Tennikoit. on hard courts.

these games being popular. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 .3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. death. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. 7. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. An example for indigenous game is 8. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. festivals connected with religion and public functions. Kho-kho. All the fundamental tactics.8.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. While observing the players in action. List out some major games. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. birth.4. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game.4. Games may be classified as 6. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. They have an abundant social value.4. On occasions like marriage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. For example. and . These games find their places in the high school activity programmes.8. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. they are in existence. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.

Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education.4. 4. b.4. 4. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. a.4. Minor and Major 240 .10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. d.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. 5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. aims and objectives and need of physical education. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. b. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. to secure physical health b. a. 2.4. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 3. 2. Briefly discuss the different types of games. a. b. 4. to develop physical stamina. 4. Posture screening should be done. c. physically and emotionally fit and alert. a. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.

J. Aggarwal. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2005).12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. 4. Kabaddy 7. 241 . Health. Mohanty.C. Soft Ball. Ball Badminton. Khokho 8. (2009). Krishna murthy. Tennikoit. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Foot-ball. Basket Ball. Handbook of Physical Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Volley Ball. Modern Trends in Indian Education. G. Shuttle Badminton.6. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Tennis. Khokho. Hockey. Physical Education and Sports. Cricket. (2008). J.K.4. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. (2008). Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Ltd. J.

The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.6 4.5.8 4.3 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.2 4.1 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.10 4.4 4.7 4.5.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.5.LESSON 4.1 Natural Environment 4.

Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. list out the types of environment 3. 4. Details are given below: I. 243 . To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. 4. Attitude. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Broadly. Awareness. population explosion and resource depletion could be. Participation. aesthetic and educational factors. you will able to: 1. The best place to start such learning is school. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. 2. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.5.5. political. social. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. education about the environment and education through the environment.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Essential knowledge about the Environment.educat ion for the environment. 5. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. Skills. it covers the following elements: 1. 2. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution.5. 3. 4. Knowledge. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. 6. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Evaluation Ability. economic.

their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. F. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. 244 . mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C.B. a. • Biological magnification E. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. D. heat sink and wind flow in cities. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. 2. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Oxidants Other pollutants. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen.

Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Birth control through education b. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. 4. The human ecosystem II. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. economic. 2. III. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Sterilisation.3. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. c. Family planning ii. Persuasion: i. B. The pill ii. Socio-economic measures. 2. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Abortion iv. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. 3. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Control of population growth a. Intrauterine device iii. Use of medical science i. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 .

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1983). Define Environmental Education. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. 246 . 3. (UNESCO. Air pollution abatement ii. Water pollution abatement.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. e) Recycling. 2.

This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. -other.5. These are biotic components. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. includes the plants. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. They interact with each.5. He modifies according”. way is called environmental or ecological factor.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . a.other components of the environment. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. 4. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. Biological environment The biological environment.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.5. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. fax agricultural apparatus.5. telex. to his needs. A change in one brings about a change in the other. KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. Any constituent or condition of the environment. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. b. animals and other organisms (biotic).

need for bio-diversity. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion.. are the topics which may be taught in History. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. of civilizations. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. over exploitation of ground water. industrial pollut io n. noise pollution. food chain and food-web. nuclear warfare. noise control. relation between population and pollution. role of trees in building economy. wars and hazards of war. ozone depletion. use of medicinal plants. windmills. ozone layer deplet ion. etc. industrial survey. evolution. (ii) Air pollution. extinction of species. solar cookers. balance of nature. maintaining the ecological diversity. History The rise and fall. effects. need for conservation. preserving the watersheds. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. preventing siltation of dams. acid rain. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . explosion deforestation. sources of pollut ion. social studies. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. natural way of controlling pests. mineral survey. etc. reasons. trees reducing noise pollution. air pollutants from industries. change in climate may be added. supplying timber for various uses. excellent recreation sites. greenhouse effect. importance of nitrogen cycle. biogas plants. Physics Topics like conservation of energy.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. population. sources. t heir role in preventing pollution. nuclear energy. desertification 248 . Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. alternate sources of energy. water scarcity. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. effects o f CFC. use of pesticides. river systems.

Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 12. 10. 2. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Organising conferences.may be inc ded in Geography. 14. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. aims and scope. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 11.5. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 4. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. group discussions and seminars. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Providing. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 5.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 6. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 8. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. animal and plants. 13. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 9. 3. Peepal and Tulsi. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 7. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 4. 249 . Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan.

If it is done. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. especially plastics. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. World Environmental falls on 250 . so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Never put any left over chemicals. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Reuse carrier bags. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. used oils down the drain. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Use public transport wherever it is possible. it will cause pollution. 6. all these can cause serious pollution. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. or form a car pool for everyday travel. 5.Send their waste oil. Don’t burn any waste. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy.

To discuss the approach to problems or topics. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. viz. dest roying nat ural habitats. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. To provide materials needed for practical work. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. developing desirable attitudes. The groups may exchange. Att itudes of balance towards nature.4. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. Harmony with the nature . Conservation of natural resources. orderliness and beauty).). To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. loss of bio-diversity. (cleanliness. values and habits. To arrange visits or expeditions. nuclear wars. diversity and stability. concern for others). The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection.. Social responsibilit y (common good. To arrange for visiting speakers. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. rather than conquest and mastery. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry.5. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. potable water. depletion of ozone. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. To provide reference materials for children’s use. etc. and 251 .mat erials. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . etc. Concern for species. CFCs. deforestation.

10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.5. preserving natural cycles. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.5.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. 4.5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. 8. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 252 .Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. 4. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.

New Delhi : Sharma. Environmental Education. To provide materials needed for practical work. a. Y. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Kuldeep. (2007). a. new problems from science and technology. a. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Providing. sources of pollution. water scarcity. b. acid rain. To provide reference materials for children’s use.2. ozone layer deplet ion. b. 3. Ltd. 5. Organising conferences. June 5 7. relat ion between population and pollution. 8. Publications Pvt. 4. Modern Problems of Education. air pollutants from industries. concern for others). Ltd. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. (1997). group discussions and seminars. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. importance of nitrogen cycle. population. S. (ii) Air pollution. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. (2004).\ 4. Social responsibilit y (common good. New Delhi : Authors Press. explosion deforestation.5. Anmol Publications Pvt.K. 6. Awareness. b. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . Rapid population growth. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. sources.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Environmental Education. (2007). Nanda. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Education for values. reasons. over exploitation of ground water.K. a. Knowledge. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. T. Environment and Human Rights..K. greenhouse effect.K. b. S. Udaiveer. effects.

254 .




Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.



STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism Idealism and aims of Education Idealism and Curriculum Idealism and methods of teaching Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism Naturalism and aims of Education Naturalism and Curriculum Naturalism and methods of teaching Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

259 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to

” 5.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. Education must contribute to development of culture.our life. man is essentially a moral being. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. The universe is regarded as a thought process. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. the emancipation of spirit. should be universal in nature. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind.1. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. It is self-realisation. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. enrichment and transmission of culture. Universal Education.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. moral. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Therefore. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. According to Rusk'. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is.3. Education according to idealism. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. in fact. Spiritual Development.

He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. For this no particular method has been suggested. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. so subjects like Religion.” He is thus. Philosophy. According to Frobel. Science. According to idealism. An idealist teacher is a philosopher.” 5. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . 4. The plant can grow. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality.1. Learning through reading. Herbert advocated instruction method. the school is a garden. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. affecting (feeling).3. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all.the spiritual qualities of mankind. Learning through discussion.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. However. an indispensable necessity. So cognition (knowing). 3. So health. a spiritual guide for the child. Ethics. He sets the environment in which education takes place. friend and guide. hygiene. Learning through imitation. Mathematics etc. subjects like Languages.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. Learning through lecturing. should be there. 5. and collation (striving) should find due place. For intellectual development. 5. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. no doubt. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. It considers teacher as. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. 2. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. Learning through questioning. He carries the child from darkness to light. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant.1. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. So he should embody. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. History. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage.3. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked.

whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. In the words of Ross.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. 2. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. text books. 5. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. Perfection of Human Machine.perfection and beauty. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. Ross explains.1. time tables. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. curricula. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. 5. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century.4.1. formal lessons or examinations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.preservation. "Education should make 263 • .

subjects like history. 4. Botany etc Language. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Arithmetic. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Biology.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. There is no place for religious and moral education. Therefore. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts.1. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Education should. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Zoology. In all. Literature. is based on the nature of the child. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Naturalistic curriculum. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. 264 . Chemistry. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. “Education finds its purpose. • 5. Art etc are subsidiary subjects.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. education should develop the child into Joyous. therefore.4. useful and mature child. Education also aims at helping the individual t. It is based on the psychology of the child. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. rational harmoniously balanced. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. It emphasises physical and health education 5. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. It stresses basic sciences. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose.

1. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Learning by doing. he should be taught by experience alone.4. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy.1.5. Heuristic method. 2. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. a provider of an ideal environment. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. the stage. 3. Learning through experience.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Dalton Plan. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Rousseau says. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. It discards all rigid. Here the emphasis is on the individual method.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. In the . 5. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation.1. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Learning through observation.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development.

History.5. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience.1. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. All Round Development of an Individual. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. The aim of educational development. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. 5. Vocational and 266 . It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Sciences. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Physical training. Geography. Social Efficiency.absolutism of idealism. Agriculture. 5. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Social Science. of human personality is in terms of his physical. intellectual. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Subjects. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Personal Social Adjustment. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. diversified and flexible. is true. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Continuous Growth. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages.5.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. social and moral aspects. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons.1.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Methods of teaching should not be fixed.Technical Education. activities and experience should be integrated properly. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. a teacher occupies an important position. a senior partner and a sincere guide. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism.5.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. He has to be active.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. The subjects. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. He must be trained. alert and resourceful.1. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Learning by Doing.1. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. 5. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.” 5. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity.5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. should find proper place. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely.

4. Chemistry. 5. 3. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things.1. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing.1. liberal. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. practical. 5.5. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Astrology. Psychology. Biology. Population Education. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism.6. 2. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. 5. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Sex Education. Geography are unnecessary 268 .6. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. 2. Biography Philosophy. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Crafts. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Art.1. Mathematics. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. The basic tenets of realism are 1. intellectual. History. literary or humanistic education. It favours child-centered.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Literature. specific.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Study of Subjects like Language. scientific and psychological education. 3. 4. rich and happy. Music and Dance. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Education is preparation for a complete living.

4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.1. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. easily and pleasantly.6. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.1.6. certainly and clearly.5.

Learning through experience b. Geography. Sciences. Learning through discussion. Self preservation & Self expression 4. d. c. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. 5. 5. 5. Universal Education 2. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. naturalism.1. e. Learning through questioning.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Education according to pragmatism. a. Rousseau 5. Languages. Social Science. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Agriculture. Learning through lecturing. Self Realisation b. a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Child centered c. Tours / Excursion e. b. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Learning through imitation.1.1. Demonstration and Observation 270 . 3. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. in this lesson. Vocational and Technical Education. History. has no end other than growth.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. a. Learning through reading. 6. pragmatism and realism. Physical training. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2.5. & curriculum. Experimentation d.

Ltd. Narang C. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. (2007). Publishing corporation. P. New Delhi : Bhatia.5. (2004). N. Theory and Principles of Education. K. (2007).P. of Pathak.H. (2003).1. Anmol Publications Pvt. Foundations of Education. 271 . R. P. New Delhi : A. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education.P. Pahuja.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. O. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. L.

2.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.3 Methods of teaching 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda Curriculum 5.1 Aims of Education Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji Methods of teaching 272 . 5.2.4 Views about teacher Views about teacher EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2.2 Curriculum 5.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.3.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.

3.2. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. Tagore was a poet.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.5.2.6 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. 5. you will able to: 1. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. mind and spirit. Gandhiji was primarily a social. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.8 5. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. 2. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. 273 .4 Role of the teacher 5.5. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.2. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. content and methods.7 5.2. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.2. an artist.2.2.2. economic and political reconstruction in our country. 5. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.

Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour.2. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. nor the gross animals body. 5. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. 'Man is neither mere intellect. It really provides opportunity for character building. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. In the words of Gandhiji. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. "I attach more. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side.3.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.supporting. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. righteousness. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. mind and soul of children He further observed. through life and for life." Dignity of Labour. it is education of life. 274 . importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. strength of mind. self-restraint and service of humanity. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. His scheme of education is life centred. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education.

Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Drawing and Hindustani. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. gardening. 5.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving.Training for Leadership. wood work. Individual and Social Aims. According to Gandhi. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. General Sciences. leather work have been suggested. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Only good individual forms a better society. metal work. the realization of the ultimate reality. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. Art.2.3. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Mother-tongue.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . development of the whole all were directed: towards. Music. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. "Development of the moral character. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders.

Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Basic education is other wise known as 4.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. men of 276 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.3. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. proficient. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.trained.

faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Education must be child centered. 3. He also advocates freedom for the child. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. That is why. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education.2.3. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. 5. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.knowledge.

• Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. He believed in the oneness of humanity. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. • Ideal of citizenship.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .3.” Like all other ideals.2.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. • Education should involve manual work. Gandhi in 1937. • Cult of non-violence. He was a true patriot. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. 5. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. 5.2.K.2. He was deadly against untouchability. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. he was a true Vedantist 5.

Tagore said. sentiment. wider in range. 279 . International understanding. stronger in power than ever before. It should help. deeper in. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully.Language and Literature . Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. them solve problems of day to day life. the more dedicated and devoted. (vi) Philosophy. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Civics. Dance. It should help the learner have good physique. could help in forging unity among all." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. etc. Music. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Religion and Psychology. Therefore. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in.2. complete manhood could be attained. That way only.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Geography. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. "Mankind must realise a unity. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Botany. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination.4. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Purposeful and Meaningful Education. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Zoology.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Chemistry. he said. International Understanding.

The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. In 1921. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.2." 5.4. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. Activity Method Heuristic Method.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service.” He further says.4.2. 5. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. 280 .3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.4. 5. Tagore rightly says. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.2. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.

Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore.g. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. It is open to all irrespective of country. race. 10. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 9. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. 281 .Shanthiniketan has open spaces.

” 5." He was against the theoretical type of education.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Education should make a person self-reliant. Book learning. Freedom.2. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. According to him. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. 4. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education for Self-realization. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Education for Self-reliance. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only.5.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. work and deeds come out of it. 3. Concept of Education. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man.5. character forming and assimilation of ideas. 2. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Education for strong Moral Character. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. man making.2. Purity of thought. He believed in to learning or selflearning. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only.

5.2.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta.2. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Of course. 6. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses.2. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. 5. And above all. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Secondly he wanted Science. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Discussion Method. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Religion.5. That will serve the purpose of education fully. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. Education for Physical Development. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. A physically strong person is the need of the society. philosopher and guide to the students He.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. The teacher should be the facilitator.5. Philosophy and Theology. 283 . 5. Thirdly he wished that games.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend.the learners on different students in the discussion.5. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. 5. Swami. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. engineering and technical subjects. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one.

What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. 12. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. Write short notes on Basic education. 284 . Their educational ideas. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. legs. 2. naturalist. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. 5. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. 3. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.6 LET US SUM UP We have. and pragmatist .2. Gandhiji as a Idealist. of course. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. We have seen that Tagore. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature.2. ears and eyes.Substantiate your answer. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. in this lesson.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people.

Discussion Method 285 . a. Basic education. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. f.4. 5. 2. e. Meditation and concentration c. a. Education should involve manual work. 1937 7. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. 9. 3. Learning by Doing c. Explain Vishwabharathi. c. Activity Method d. Cult of non-violence. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Activity Method b.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Self realization. wood work. a. 8. leather work have been suggested. Teaching while Walking b. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. gardening. a. Nai Talim 4. b. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Ideal of citizenship. Debate and Discussion Method. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. d. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. 5. Heuristic Method. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Technique of Correlation 6. metal work. 11.2. 5. c. 10. Self-Study b.

2. Publishing Corporation. K and Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education. J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2007). K. (2004). B.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. (2003). L. 286 . New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. P. (2007).P. Dhiman. on Bhatia. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. P. New Delhi : A. Foundations of Education. C. Pahuja. Ltd. N.5. (2002).H. O. Anmol Publications Pvt. N. New Delhi : Aggarwal.

3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.8 5.4 5.5 5.10 5.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.2 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3 5.3.6 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.LESSON 5.11 5.7 5.3.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.3.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.1 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.3.3. In this lesson.3.9 5.

under the direction of the school. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. In the words of Kerney and Cook. Then in a big country like India. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. it is identical wit h socializat ion. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. From the latter point of view. state the meaning of curriculum 2.S. 5. in the form of new experience. A g o o d curricu lu m.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. living in the hilly area. in the U. new behaviour may be acquired. the desert area. Curriculum is intimately related to education. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3.3. In the former sense. in Russia or in Japan. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. the plain area. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. is a means to the process. Since the demands. While education is learning.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. the plateau area and 288 . Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan.. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. you will be able to: 1. present behaviour may be modified.3. Both the processes are integrated. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. While education is a process. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. maintained or eliminated. in fact . there is a large number of communities.A. curriculum. In it. curriculum signifies situations for learning. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. 5.

too. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. It must differ from locality and from society to society. Besides craft. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. Again. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. differs from individual to individual.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. democratic and socialistic country. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. according to modern trends in the educational process. the learning capacity of children. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. irrespective of their needs and environment. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. studying therein. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. environment. customs and needs. From a slave-country we became secular. In fact . it is. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. 5. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. therefore. and 289 . However. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr.3.

uninspiring and unscientific. National Integration. 1. 2. they depend on the political. unambiguous and functional. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. e. in instructional objectives. Application Objective. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education.g. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . Self Realisation.g. The word “Curere” means 2. They may be ultimate or proximate. social.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Goals of Secondary Education. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. tangible. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. moral. unsatisfactory. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. emotional.. etc. 4. general or specific. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. 5. 290 . of classroom.. remote or immediate. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. specific. which may or may not be attained. etc.. 3. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation.. aims.g. aesthetic and spiritual development. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. Understanding Objective. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. social. So it is inadequate. individual or Social and so on. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. Goals of Primary Education. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. Knowledge Objective. They are visionary goals e. They speak of immediate purposes of education. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands.3. etc. e. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. They are achievable. eg. Vocational Efficiency. They speak of perfect goals. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed.

Crow and Crow remarks. According to Crow and Crow. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. needs. but it includes the totality of experiences.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. finding them very interesting and captivating. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. The interests. Raymont rightly says. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. educationists. on the playing fields. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. abilities. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. capacities.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. heavy fire. in the class rooms. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children.5. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects.3.” 291 .

The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. moral. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. mental. They often waste it or rather kill it. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 .” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. capacities and abilities. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. urges. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. time in a useful manner.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. tendencies. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. Due to these variations and differences. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. aptitudes.

analysis and concretise the curricular elements. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. development of professional capability at all levels. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. 2. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. 3. Similarly. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. phased preparation. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. To ensure success of the process. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”.curricular. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. 293 . administrative programme need be planned. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. organized.

10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Child Centred Education b. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. 18. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. 12. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Run. 5. 5.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. a. laboratory. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. library.3. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. 10. principles of curriculum construction.3. Relation with Life c. in the class room.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 11. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. workshop. 17.3. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 1937 19. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.

New Delhi : Isha Books. (2007). (2007). (2001).K.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2007). N. D. 295 . and Sarita Kumari.S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. P. Bhalla. Curriculum and Instruction. Curriculum Development.5. S. S. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. New Delhi : Authorspress. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. Lakshmi. Innovations in Education.3.

4.4.LESSON 5.1 5.4 5.7.8 5.4.3 5.6.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.9 5.6.10 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude Importance of developing scientific attitude Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.5 5.

It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. 2. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. newer and newer industries started growing. 3.5. explain the concept of scientific attitude. 297 . understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.during the second half of this century.4. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. honesty. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. know the importance of science education. 5.4. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. Gradually.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. We mean curiosity. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. you will be able to: 1. in the economic reconstruction of society. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. superstition or emotion. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . tolerance for the opinions of others.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. open-mindedness. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.4. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. 5. 4.

Through newspapers. 7. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Through examinations. Selection for science education. 6. Thinking and memory develops. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. 3. Central science workshop. stipends and appreciations in various ways. After such experience and training. as well as of the society. Promotion of science clubs. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 4. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Devotion towards nature increases.4. 2. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 6. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 5. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 5. 5.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Organisation of science fairs. 5.4. Love for truth enhances. 4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 2. 3. Schemes of teaching science. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Principles are formulated. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life.So that. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. seminars and symposiums.

Write any two advantages of Science Education.4. should provide opportunities to. 7. They ask many questions about the objects they see. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. Enquiry teaching is. 5.6. They experience natural phenomenon. For laboratory and workshop techniques. Training of science teachers.needs and conditions.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. sex or religion. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. each child to “enquiry skill building”. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. After presenting the problem. objectivity. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. It is.4. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. essential that teachers. 5. therefore. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. In the inquiry approach. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. They encounter many social events as they grow.

4. stern pursuit of accurate data. It requires consistent thinking. 5. Giving less directions.4. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.books. Adopting creative models of teaching. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . commands or orders. . 6. . Social sciences. 2. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. 3. if they like. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to ask questions and experience things. 5. 3. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Herma Wouk.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. Appreciating pupils ideas. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Evidence. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. test. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. 300 . Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. 5.6.4.

therefore should be unbiased and objective. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.4. These include open mindedness. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. to develop among the learners. friends. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . of vast resources running waste. critical thinking and suspended judgments.7. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. For instance. 5. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. keen observation. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. (Vaidya 2007). To achieve this we should understand what it means. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. neighbourhood. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. school and society at large. practiced. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. The students observation. and emphasized during the learning process . The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth.(Smith 2008).1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. it must be encouraged.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately.

the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. he studies all aspects of it.4. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. understanding and logic. The intention to respect another’s point of view. 302 . understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. or superstitions. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. think and work it”. In considering a situation or a problem. intuition or wishful thinking”. (Das. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales.7. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. 2007). Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. 5. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. rumor.

An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.4.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .4. but to begin only after careful planning. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil.7. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. • 5. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. 5. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.7. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.

Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. practiced and emphasized during the learning process.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. 304 . 5. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. it must be encourages. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

(2008). The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.B (2008). A text book on Science Teaching in Schools.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. 16. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. N. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. M. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Wide reading b. 3. b. a. Love for truth enhances. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Reflections on Scientific attitude. a.5. 4. b.4. Adopting creative models of teaching. (2000). New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. 5. Proper example of the teacher c. Study of superstitions d.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Yadav. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.4. Discuss the importance of science education 14. 305 . S. objectivity.S. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. Vaidya. a. Rao. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. 2. D. a. b. 5. (2006).4. Planning of activities 5.

5 5.6 5. areas of institutional planning. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.10 5.5.5. objectives and characteristics.5.7 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. state the concept.5.8 5. actively.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.5.1 5.5.4 5.5. you will be able to: 1.5.11 5. 306 .2 5. 2. 5.5.5.LESSON 5.5.3 5.9 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.

every teacher. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. • to make planning development-oriented. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. State and national levels from below. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. every parent. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator.5. and each student are regarded as separate entities. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. each teacher. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. and. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. Institution should be regarded as the unit. and supplement planning from above. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. which become the bases for further planning at the district. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level.5. in the task of educational planning. 5. and every student in the process of educational planning. • To make institutional planning more successful. teachers and students is not lost sight of.3. • to involve teachers and school administrators.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. executive as well as public. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. 5. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.

• implemented. and Personnel services.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes.curricular Activities.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. it becomes the basis for school inspection. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. 5. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. approved after making necessary modifications. Examinations. Co-curricular activities. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. 308 . Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. Classwork.5. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. council and.5. etc. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. Syllabus. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. (2) Co. which will be discussed in the general.

Organisation of Pupils. Organisation of class-room libraries. charts and apparatus. Conducting of educational. Improving the internal assessment. scientific and historical excursions. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Organising play-for-all programmes.No. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Preparation of instructional material. etc. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Preparation of models. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. Organisation of Students’ Association. Celebrating of national and international festivals. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. Fair distribution of syllabi. hobby-centres. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Improving the subject competence of teachers. etc. etc. Courts. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Editing the school magazine. Equipping of laboratory and library.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. 2. Running science clubs. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Undertaking remedial instruction services.

teacher-nonofficial functionaries. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. and —pupil-pupil. teachers.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. pupil310 . which are divided as the in. teacherinspector.5. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations.” The human relationships in. teacher-pupil. headmasters associations. co-operation. understanding. administrator-administrator. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. students’ associations. involving mainly human materials. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. teacher-State. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. teacher-teacher. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. administrator-supervisor. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. teacher-managing body. and solidarity. Administrator-State. ii. parent-teacher associations. parents. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing and out-group relationships are as given below i.5. pupils. science teachers’ associations. etc. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. administrator-pupil. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning.

As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration.State.5. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. It covers personnel and material management. teacher-parent. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. to attend. pupil-non-official functionaries. pupil-community leader. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. etc. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. pupil-parent. Good. to carry out. now-a-days. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. To administer means to manage. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. supervision and superintendence. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. social sciences and other disciplines. administrator. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. control. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. organisation and management. It is also being modernized to become a technique. and to serve. organisation. teacher-community leader. supervision." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. superintendence. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. 311 . pupil-inspector. to accomplish. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. V. According to C.

Cost-Benefit Analysis . the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. Economic Management . Communication . If it is more. Socio-Scientific Approach .This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. This is the latest democratic trend in management.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. 2. Better Human Relationships . it is not worth-while. 4. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. Leadership . Decision Making . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. 6. 10. 3.Of all the approaches. Motiviation . If the cost benefit ratio is less. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. 13. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. 5. low.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. without this the efficacy will be handicapped.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Worker Participation . Democratic Management . The relationship should change from master. Liasion with the Public .Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. He should be an artist in human relationships.Any good management will always have good public relations. Those. 9. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. 12.Management should be efficient and economical 312 .The manager should have leadership traits.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. who occupy the managerial positions.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. Rapport between the Management and Employees . 11. 8. 7.

5. 5. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. to improve the quality of education it provides. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. 19.too. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.g. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. improvement of teaching methods. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. enrichment of curricula. objective.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. 313 . reduction of wastage and stagnation etc.5. 14. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. and cooperative performance should be ensured.These two are. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. 18. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance .

APH Publishing Corporation. Communication 5. 314 . b. and Personnel services. S. 2. R. d. b. Motiviation d. Tarachand and Prakash. Examinations. a.M. Leadership c.5. b.5. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3.K. Fundamental of Educational Management. Syllabus. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Co-curricular activities. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. f. (1995). New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Decision Making b. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (2001). (2003). Singh. In group and Out group 5. a. Classwork. H. a. Instruction. 4.5. Educational Administration. a. NUEPA.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. it becomes the basis for school inspection. c. e.

Community and Mass Media 2. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. wastage and Stagnation 3. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . 2. Code of conduct for teachers.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Buddhist and Jain system of education. Communicable diseases . First Aid.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. 1. Examination reforms. Preservation of nutrients. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.4 India's Secular Policy .4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.1 Gurukula system of education. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.3 Educational Influences of Home. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. population education.Pre-service and In-services facilities. Healthy Food Habit 4.I.Religious and Modern Education 1.5 Regional Educational Development in India .3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.teachers should have : 1. Common ailments of Children. Inspection and Supervision 3. physical education and environmental education 5. Sex-education 4.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.CORE PAPER .Article 45 .3 Directive Principles .1 School Health Programme. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. School. social Impact 3. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.1 Primary Education : Education for all. nutritional requirement. Economic 315 . Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. women education and teacher education in India. New evaluation procedures.1 Inculcation of Socialism. higher education.Preventive measures. Balanced diet.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Realized the problems of school education. 4.2 Nutritional deficiencies.

Tagore 5. (2004) Problems of Education in India.K. Sharma.1 Idealism. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.R. (2005) Foundations of Education. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Taneja V. Ghanta R. Socialization. REFERENCE 1. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Ram S. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Delhi : University Publications 2.4. and Human Development. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Prof.4 4. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.C. 316 . 5. Saraswathi T. Mahatma Gandhi.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Realism. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. Naturalism and Pragmatism .N. Pandy V. (1999) Culture. T.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5.K.N. and Dash B. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. New Delhi: NCERT 3. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. 7. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. B.S. Hemchand.Aim.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. and Sharma R. and Mohanty R. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Curriculum and national goals . Mishra.K.K. R.

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