Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

UNIT: 1 – V



Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer



Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56


Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University


67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5



3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education

127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233


5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4


UNIT – I 7 .

8 .

Lesson 5. 9 . During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. In. The need. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. Lesson 2. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. and Jain system of education. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Lesson 4. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. Jainism and their educational implication. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. discusses the regional educational development in India. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism.

10 . Hunter Commission (1882) 1.LESSON 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.6.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1 1.5 Jain system of education Hartog Committee (1929) 11 . Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.6.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education Salient features of Gurukula system of Education Charter Act of 1813 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE Buddhist system of Education 1.6 Education during British Era 1.

1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.3. Indian in blood and colour. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.1.9 1. “a class of persons. 1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. Muslim and British periods. Education in India. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. The history of education passed through Buddhist. 1.6. in opinion.1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. India.1. has a long past history starting in vedic education. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. British system of education presented the modern western model.1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. in morals and in the intellect”.7 1.1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. you will be able to: 1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. That 12 . while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. both present and future. but English in taste.8 1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. describe the Jain system of Education 4.6.1. elucidate the education during British Era.

to light. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. from darkness. 14. Where pupils were many. 5. 12. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. however.knowledge was real. questioning by the pupil. The immediate aim of education. Pupils were taught. followed by explanation by the teacher. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. and to agriculture and trade. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. 10. managed entirely by Brahmans. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. generally. if they thought fit to do so. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. as it is generally considered to be at present. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. 16. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. 6. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. from eternal to immorality 2. 4. individually. 8. 3. It was also moral. Forests as Centres of Education. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. not en masse by the class method. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. 9. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Religious and Spiritual. 11. Individual Teaching. Residential Schools. 13. Method of Study. 13 . religious and spiritual. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. There was. Curriculum. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. with grants of land or money. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Free and Accessible. Role of Travel in Education. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Teacher as Parents. Education was a private affair of the people. Method of Instruction. Education of Moral. Immediate Aim Vocational. No State Control on Education. the monitorial plan was followed. It was not merely intellectual. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. High Status of Teachers.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It was suited to the needs of the society.17. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. lived a life of celebacy. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils.1. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. besides preparing for worldly pursuits.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. 1. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. Wide-Spread Education in Women. 2. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 .3. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. It was freely available to all those who wanted. They were very cordial and intimate. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. studied Vedas. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? .

had the right to receive education. Right speech 4. use of intoxicating things. every class in society. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form.1. Consequently. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. Right thought 3. use of cosmetics. impure conduct. Right means of livelihood 6. in which. 15 . medium of Pali. I take Refuge to Sangh. After attaining the age of 20. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. watching dances or listening to music.4. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. I take Refuge to Dharma. Right knowledge 2. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. the most significant of which were the following 1. etc. Education was imparted through the. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. the handicapped. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Right memory 8.C. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. 1. he was qualified to become a monk. the student had his head shaved of all hair. which included abstaining from theft. killing of any living being. taking things without being offered. It was denied only to the ill. 2. Right activity 5. disease and death of the human beings. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Right endeavour 7. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. dressed himself in yellow clothes. partaking of food at prohibited times. Right contemplation 1. except the Chandals.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely.

bodily gestures. etc. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. 3. archery. and.4. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. the science of taming and training animals. women occupied a position inferior to men. nothing is of any permanent consequence. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. magic. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. Later on. control over sensuous activities. however. education was impart in art. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. On this occasion. handicrafts. After this ritual. commerce. the presence of the monks was essential. be considered the aim of education It. Hence. medicine. Initially. beg for alms. military science. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. etc. nature. wear three items. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. objectives of human life. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. assumptions. so long as it successfully does so. a continuous change creating 16 . they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. therefore. cottage industries. a change is not only total but also perpetual. Even at this stage. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. approach. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. meaning. Whatever its nature and extent. As reality is becoming. aspirations and. along with education in script writing. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. These are called later Buddhist schools. has no metaphysical value for life. 8. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. changing the goals. etc. it is regarded as true”. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. geology. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. animal husbandry. of clothes. knowledge of reviving the dead. 4. agriculture. 5. Life is in a flux. 7. arithmetic and religious discussion. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. 6. eat food thrice a day. 1. It comprehended education in writing..3. depth and range. archery. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. 2. elephant lore.

the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. whatever works are true and good. goes to Vardhaman. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. i. 5. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching.e. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. its pessimistic outlook on life. Its chief and peculiar situations. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1.5.. and to give it a shape that it has today. Education must. such as. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. it is much older than the latter.1. However. 1. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Write Eight fold path . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Validity is effective and consequences. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. therefore. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. In fact. however. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Jainism insists 17 . is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder.

Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. but on both. 7. more stress on individual aims. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. They are: a) Not to injure. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. 2. 4. d) To lead a celibate life. and believe in happiness to all. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. 18 . Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. thought and deed. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 9. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. rather than the interpretation of the universe. 3. 3. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Development of personality as an individual. 10. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. it has a foot in both the words. c) Not to steal. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. and is to be redeemed and liberated. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 8. e) To renounce the world. Hence. 1. b) Not utter falsehood. 6.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. As such. c) Right conduct. b) Right knowledge.1. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. 2. 5. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem.5. 1.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul.

3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue.5. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 1. What are Triratnas ? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. practised and not only aspired for. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. therefore. that would be socially desirable. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. education should develop sense of discrimination. 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 3. here and now. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world.4. Belief in transmigration of soul. 19 . List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . 5. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. 1. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Hence. Jiva is essentially karmic.5.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. and should bring happiness to all. education must be action based and ideally oriented. success and love. 4. Teaching must develop these faculties. 2. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.

a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. North West Province and Punjab. 2. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. and not for life. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time.1. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. with rally and rout. Bombay. To set up separate departments of. philosophy and literature of Europe.6. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854).4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. science. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. 1953). a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. primary 20 . 1.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report.1. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. 1.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.6.6. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. 1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. Madras. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. 1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.6. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. However.

1. secondary education became a step towards university.K.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. To ensure qualitative improvement.6. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. self-respecting and competent. At that time M. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. • Universal free primary education. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education.6. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. • Secondary education. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). 1. Later was neglected.6. In 1882. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. at the primary level. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . 1. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. namely. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). The universities dominated the secondary education. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. Then the prevalent education was anti-national.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. 10. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities.1.At the primary stage (6-11 years). The report suggested development of adult education scheme. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. all children are to have a common curriculum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. After this stage. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. The objective of education was to provide 22 . What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? .

science and English language. 1. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. Right contemplation. geology. Right memory. the science of taming and training animals. military science. It was suited to the needs of the society.1. 23 . b. arithmetic and religious discussion. archery. 3.. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. During the Buddhist period. Right means of of European literature. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. education was impart in art. 4. a. The immediate aim of education. 4. Right activity. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education.1. establishment of universities. 6. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. 3. handicrafts. 5. Right thought. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. along with education in script writing. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Right knowledge. questioning by the pupil.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. Right endeavour. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. followed by explanation by the teacher. 2. The system of education was well-organised. etc. 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Right speech. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life.

New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.C. J. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Singh. J. Right faith. (1984). Sharma. Development of Educational System in India.K. c. Ltd. (2005). Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Right conduct. 24 . Y. Hence.K. 1882. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.1. a. Improvement of Literature. R. Ltd. 1937 1. (2007). 10. 11.C. a. History of Indian Education System. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. b. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 8. (2009). more stress on individual aims. Y. Right knowledge. b. Sargent report 12. 9. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.7. and Nath. Development of personality as an individual. Aggarwal.

4 National Policy on Education 1.5 1.2 1.3.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.1 1.9 1.8 1.2.1 University Education Commission The 25 .4 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE Secondary Education Commission 1.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.2.7 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.

2. National Board of Teacher Education 10. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India.2.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. technical. Post-graduate 26 .conditions of the teachers. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. curriculum. 2. There had been vast institutional expansion.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1. standard of teaching. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. 1. vocational education. National Council for Women’s Education 5. girls and women education besides primary. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. examination system. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. Kothari (1964-66) 8. S. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. analyse the progress of education in free India. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. diversification of courses of studies. technological engineering.3. you will be able to: 1. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2. 1986 1. medical and legal education. New Educational Policy. secondary and higher education. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. expansion of vocational. explosion of enrolment. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7.

4. accumulated over the years. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. 1986.3. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. A. 3. Government of India. 2.teaching. 1. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. quality. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3. Kothari. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . 1. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.S. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. 1. utility and financial outlay. the chairman of University Grants commission. National System of Education. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country.3.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. quantity. the New National Policy on Education. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. The Essence and Role of Education. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. 1952. However. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. Education is the key to our allround development.2. D. Therefore. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986.2. Education for Equality. A meaningfully Partnership. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. in January 1985. Problems of access. material and spiritual.2. 1966. Finally. research et.

understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. 28 . Thus. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. By working with hands.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. the concepts of work experience.” Thus. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality.2. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. It can train practical aptitudes. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. attitudes. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. the minorities and the handicapped. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. The UNESCO Report.

Besides. if he wishes. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. The Education Commission. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. As such.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. According to. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. In 1955. “It may be described. “The aim of these colleges.” The Mudaliar Commission. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. co-ordinations. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. co-operation and implementation of the scheme." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. The Radhakrishnan Commission. it will conduce self. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. the Commission. With adequate planning.

the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. With a view to relating education to the life. Subsequently. raising the special facilities. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. In addition. The Central Advisory Board of Education. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work.ot her. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations.. Therefore. the. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. admission requirements to vocational courses. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. for quality of life in the rural areas. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. the semester and credit system.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. the rigid streaming of courses. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. etc. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future.

Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. 31 . Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Commerce. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. felt that education should be centred around a craft. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject.defined S UP W as “purposive. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. According to committee. manual work resulting in either goods or services. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. which swept the country for over two decades. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum.. aimed at this goal. giving importance to productivity in the national development. The wave of Basic Education.and the world of work. which offer scientific. who conceived the System of Basic Education. 1. In short. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. technological courses including Agriculture. meaningful. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. meaningful. preferably spinning and weaving. etc. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. which are useful to the community. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions.2. The Father of Nation.

is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. be that the work involved is: 1. as far as possible. tools and techniques and 3. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Shelter 4. Health and Hygiene 2. Some Hints to Teachers 1. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. The teachers should make use of. Food 3. Experimentation with materials. 2. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. 4. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. locally available materials and tools. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. so that it is educational in essence. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Community work and social service. 32 . Productive 2. Culture and recreation 6. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Clothing 5. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Work practice. Educative and 3. 3. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage.

adoption of a a locality for its improvement. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. removal of illiteracy. Education through work The SUPW should. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Check on educated unemployed 4. the local community should be actively associated. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. 1. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. Productive Work 33 .5. slum clearance. It can become an instrument to build character. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood.2. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Community Service In-1972. etc. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. improve discipline. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. Merits of the Programme 1. inculcate a faith. 6. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. as far as possible. To make education more realistic.

offering first aid.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. should involve itself in the educational effort. AICTE was set up in year 4. helping the adults-in productive work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. in turn. if not productive. etc. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. traffic control. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . Define SUPW 34 . Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. The community.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. skills and better future for the children. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

manual work resulting in either goods or services. which are useful to the community. 2. 1952 3. Write short note on SUPW.2. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. 6. c. 1. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.2. 1955 4. 3. 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. a. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. 35 . e.1. Radhakrishnan 2. f. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Dr. meaningful.2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. d.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.

R.2. (2009). History of Education. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. V. P. Anupama. Amala.P. History of Indian Education System.(2005). Singh. (2007). Development of Educational System in India.1. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. : Sharma.K.D.H. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. A. Y.P. History and Problems of Indian Education. J. New Delhi: A. Ltd. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). B. Y.C. Publishing Corporation. and Nath.K.K. (2007).. and Rao. 36 . Rao.

3.3.1 Significance of DPSP 1. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3. democratic republic.3.4 1.3. procedures. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.6 1. for a total of 117. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. Besides the English version.9 1. 37 .369 words in the English language version.8 1.3.3. containing 395 articles. 1949.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.3.7 1. 1950.3.3. assuring its citizens of justice.1 1.3.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. it came into effect on January 26.3. Being the supreme law of the country. equality.5 1. there is an official Hindi translation.2 1. establishing the structure. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. and liberty. directive principles and duties of citizens.

1950.In the August 14. with Dr. understand our Indian constitution. 1. 1. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. 3. According to the constitution. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 1947. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. Dr. 2. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. you will be able to: 1.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. social. On August 29. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.3. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. 1947 meeting of the Assembly.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 38 . Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. 4. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. 1947. After many deliberations and some modifications. legal and environmental. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. administrative. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. Two days later. Through them. political. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. economic. the Drafting Committee was appointed.3. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws.3. learn the role of central and state government on education.3. for 166 days. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. The Assembly met. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. spread over a period of 2 years. in sessions open to public. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented.

old age. Condition for dignity of children. 39 . Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. Article 39A. Equal justice and free legal aid. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. men and women. Appropriate concentration of wealth. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Liking wage etc. No abuse of children. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. on the basis of equal opportunity. Protecting health of the workers. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Organisation of village panchayat. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. The State shall. sickness and disablement. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Article 40. Article 42. That the health and strength of workers. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. The State shall endeavour to secure. Article 41. Protecting children from exploitation. Article 43. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. provide free legal aid. and shall.government. in particular. for workers. Minimising inequalities in status. Equal pay for both sex. make effective provision for securing the right to work. and in other cases of undeserved want.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Right to work.

a living wage. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. to all workers. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Article 45. Article 47. Article 48A. Article 46. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. 2002 for “45. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Participation of workers in management of industries. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Article 49. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. The State shall endeavour to provide. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Article 44. See also Article 21A). Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. and. Article 48. Note: Subs. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. in particular. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. The State shall take steps. in particular. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. in particular. agricultural. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. industrial or otherwise. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. [declared by or under law made by 40 . and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Uniform civil code for the citizens. (Original Article 45. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Article 43A. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. by suitable legislation or in any other way.

(This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.3.Parliament] to be of national importance. Article 45 . 2002. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. 1. Separation of judiciary from executive. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. destruction. disposal or export. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. disfigurement. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. as the case may be. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. removal. Promotion of international peace and security. may be law determine”. Article 50.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. Article-21A Right to Education. from spoliation. Article 51. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.

3. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. race. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. ii. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. and shall protect them. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. 4. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. 8. 5. and. language or any of them”. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. if such person is a minor. iii. in particular. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. his guardian has given his consent thereto. caste. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. 7.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 6. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. from justice and all forms of exploitations. 2002.” 42 .

& 1. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. 43 . 2. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Educational Reforms From time to time. wherever necessary or desirable. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. and by drawing. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. The central government determines targets and promotes education. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. for its vocabulary. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language.9. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. the forms.3. Article 351 gives importance to 6.

Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Production of suitable for children and adults f. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. 8. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . So as to encourage education on right lines. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. All India Council of Medical Science. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Local bodies and private enterprise. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. By starting these projects. 5. 7. 4. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. 6. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. to achieve the desired ends.. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction.3. etc. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. The following pilot projects. private agencies etc. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. the state governments. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. So that they may work well.

It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. Material concerning nation-wide interests. 4. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. are published by it. 1. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. handicapped. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. etc. 10. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. education for women. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. 12. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. is the state responsibility. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. 1. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. reports etc. 11. books. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. research. 3. training and statistics. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas.3. 9. The 45 . Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state.

and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. articles in the Directive principles. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Explain Directive principles 2. 1. 5.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 1. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Write short notes on a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8.3. Article 21A c. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 46 4. Article 45 b.3. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. 46 . Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.

Clearing House function 9. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. The Directive Principles of State Policy. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b.5. 47 . a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Ambedkar 2. a. 2002. Development of Hindi Language 6. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 4. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Describe the educational role of State Government. Article 46 5. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Article 45 . The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 3. b. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. a. Article-21A Right to Education. 2002. Article 29 and 30 7.3. Dr. may be law determine”. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 1. b.

10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. B. Ghosh. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Bhatia. (2007). Education in Emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. S. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.3. (2008). Dash. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2004). S. 48 . K. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. (2009). N. K and Narang C. Education in Emerging Indian Society.1. L.

4. Islam.2 1.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4. Buddhism etc. Students should be 49 .4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.4.4.6 1.5 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3. Christianity. religious education should be broad based.8 Moral education 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4.7 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1. Jainism.4.1 Why Moral Education 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4.

understand the relationship between religion and education 2. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. Thus.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. According to E. know the position of religious education in our country 3. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication.4. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. religious education and the concept of secularism. India' can produce men of character. 1. duty-consciousness. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. beauty and goodness so that 50 . As result of which. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. state meaning and need for moral education 1.and dedication.” Education broadens human outlook. "In A multireligious society like ours. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. In the complicated and complex society of today.D. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. you will be able to: 1. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. integrity. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance.

The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. it is clear that the State has no religion. Viewing the defects of religious education. rancour.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. if not regularly. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. According to Article 22. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. all citizens are free to follow any creed. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. 1947 we achieved our freedom. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal.3.3. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. 1. realizes God in himself. According to Article 19. Hence. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. They thought that any kind of narrow. In short. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society.” From the above. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. Thus. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. through religious practices and 51 . As a matter of fact. As our country is a country of diverse religions. No religious tax can be imposed on them. Children attend these organizations.4.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. 1.4. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. religion and democracy are same. at least occasionally. castes and creeds.

Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. temperament etc. It helps to modify habits attitudes. one fully developed. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. when he becomes an adult. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. which can mould. which help him for the development of his character.. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. intellectual and physical faculties of children. If unreleased. As a result of which. aggressive. for the development of the individual and the society. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. and what is evil.teachings. Good education. It is religious education. He also learns about social. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . what is done and what is not done etc. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. moral and spiritual values. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility.

It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life.3. 53 . one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. This should not be allowed to happen. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. 2. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. 1.4. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. 3. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. towards the society. which is the basic need of a democratic life. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Therefore. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. If we open the pages of history.

Gurudwara as. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. churches and mosques 7. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Since all religions have virtues.5. 9. they should be discussed in the right earnest. 10. fellow-feeling. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school.4. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. 11. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. stories of moral greatness. examples of patriotism. therefore. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Write Article 22 2. For this. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Life histories of great persons of the world.

in the home. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 1. Satyam (truth). Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 55 . “Let all be happy and free from disease. let men see well of one another.4. 7. Brahmacharya (celebacy). 1. Service to others. 8. Cultivation of emotions. Aparigarha (Non. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. The content of the curriculum. Non-injury. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 6. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Purity. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Self sacrifice. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Moral education. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. is that which develops moral values. Fearlessness. Without moral values.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 4. 6. therefore. 3. 3.4. students. They will play their role effectively. 5. 2.acquisitiveness). an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. the methods of teaching. 8. 5.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 2. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Asvada (Control of palate). let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 7. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Patriotism. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. 4.

religions may be included in the syllabus.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Good temper. discipline. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. loyalty and self-sacrifice. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. 2. The School Assembly should be held for a few. National unity and Spiritual values. 10. minutes in the morning for group singing. Secondary Stage 1. 56 . Unity of mankind. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Asatyam (Non-thieving). One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. 3. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction.4. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. 3. Sharivashram (Physical work). 11. Good manners. 1. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Integrity.9. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Discipline. 4. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. In the school programme. Efficiency.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. should form a normal part of school programme. University Stage 1. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. In other words. 5. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 57 . In this connection.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Silent meditation should be encouraged. patriotism and self-discipline. 5. 2. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. love of humanity. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. 4. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated.

2. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. For this. a. a. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. a. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. In short. Training of Character 3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the aims of Religious education. 1. minutes in the morning for group singing. Sri Prakasa 6 . 1959 5. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. b.4. 4. 1. 58 . The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.1. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also.4. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. b. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. 2. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The School Assembly should be held for a few.4. the.

K and Narang C.1.P. 59 . (2008). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Theory and Principles of Education. N. (2008). Bhatia. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : Siddiqui. N.4. P. (2007). M. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A. Pahuja.H. Publishing Corporation. J. L. (2004). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt. Dash. B. (2003). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.C. K.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.H.

e.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.3 1. 60 . there are regional imbalances in an individual state also. i. disparities between provinces/States.5..5.9 1.5.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan. Although.12 1.6 1.2 1.11 1.1 1.4 1.8 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.10 1.

energy. 7. work hard towards this end. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. for example. 61 . 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.5.5. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. 3. 8.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region.1. 4. understand the regional educational development in India 3. etc.5. 5. 1. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. This leads to separatist movements. They therefore. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. you will be able to: 1.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. know the education suited to different environments.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. 6. roads. Accordingly.5. 1. they take appropriate measures. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. 2. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. waters.

3. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. 2. 4. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. Secularism. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. some States became educationally far advanced. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds.5. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. There are many reasons for this during the British rule.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. on the basis of regional development may be formed. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. and. • Separate States (of course viable States). Tight security arrangements should be made. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. Therefore. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. 62 . remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. some average. while others remained educationally backward. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1.

while some States like Bihar. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. Funds amounting to Rs. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Guwahati. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. In the Central sector. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. library buildings. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Jammu and Kashmir. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. NIT. NERIST. Mizoram. 63 . the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Itanagar. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. the State Governments.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. 1. approved proposals worth Rs. Even in each State. Out of this. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools.. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Nagaland and NEHU. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. remained under developed.392. etc.After the Planning Process has originated. Silchar.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. scholarships. These projects are in various stages of implementation.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity.14. Central Universities of Assam. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities.480. etc. since its inception in 1998-99.5.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. books.g. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. After the attainment of independence. and provision of informal education to enable those. Rs. the Union Government. academic buildings. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. However. Regional Centres of IGNOU. Tezpur. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.84 crore was released in 2005-06.

During 2003-04.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.5. 64 .In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.57 crore and Rs. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.8 per cent in 05). is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. Moreover.261. Government expenditure on education. Out of this an amount of Rs. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. too. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. Tezpur University.500. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.40.187.05 crore and Rs. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. A provision of Rs.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Source: National Portal Content Management Team.501.

Karnataka. telecom. too. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Andhra Pradesh. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. engineering and R&D. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Tamil Nadu.5. for instance. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. Karnataka. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). English. The Chandigarh Administration. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Kerala and Gujarat. for which 16 sites. To add to the woes. too. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. 1. Moreover. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. too. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. notes the study. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. pharma. Medical education. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. health services and welfare of the citizen population.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. Listing the positives. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level.

year. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. the curricular subjects. when he will not be sure of time. taking the average in the middle. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. The living conditions. the vocations. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. which a non-tribal person cannot do. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. even actually looking at the watch. The working hours of educational institutions. while the former does not. the socio-physical conditions. and so on. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. life-oriented and environment slanted. 66 . They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. the needs. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Of course. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. For a learner living in a rural area. Hence it is called as need-based. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. in which the learners live. the working days: an academic . the interests. In the same manner. Then education become realistic and idealistic. the teaching methods. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such.

11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.5. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. 1.5.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. 2.5. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. 2. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . 67 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to suit education to different environments? 1.

New Delhi: Authors press. remained undeveloped 3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2002).2. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. a. R. Giridhar. Salim. Dubey. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. (2001). 60% 1. C.N.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. and Nair. S.H.G. during the British rule. some of areas which were under the native rulers. (2008). Education Scenario in India. Educational Development in India.5. Education in Developmental Arena. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. A.K. S. (2001). 68 . some States have become more developed than others b.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. secularism and democracy through Indian education. 71 . semi literate and illiterates. community development. National Integration. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. school community and mass media. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts.

1 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.6.2 2.1.1.LESSON 2.1 Main features of Socialism Education for Secularism Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.6.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.8 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1.3 2.7 2.6.9 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.1.

2. 2. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. Democracy thus means power of the people. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. there should be made no distinction of caste. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. colour or wealth. 3) Provision of Manual Work. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. socialism and secularism 2. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.1. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. socialistic and secular state. Abraham Lincoln. understand the concept of democracy.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. you will be able to: 1. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. creed. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. In the matter of admitting students in schools. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. 73 . for the people by the people”.1. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic.1. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission.1. socialism and secularism 2.2. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. This is the political aspect of democracy.

11) Student Parliament. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. debates. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. declamation contest etc.. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Democracy means 2. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. There are different brands of socialism. 74 . Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. it soon spread all over the world. 12) Visits to Legislatures. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 2. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. may be planned. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible.1.

2. the prince and the peasant. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.1. Under it. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. oppression and disparity. but on the path of non-violence. service and cooperation.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. none high”.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.1.5. 2. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 7) Special facilities for girls. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 75 . 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. free from exploitation.5. the wealthy and the poor. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 2) Socialism aims at equality.

12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools.1.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. “India is a secular-country. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. 11) State schools. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. According to Holydake. "which seeks the development of physical.” In every political and educational corner. 2.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. Write any two main features of socialism. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. secularism is being propagated. Everyone says. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. 76 . Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values.

There is need of making the people open minded.6. 3) It permits freedom of worship. During the recent past. liberty. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. A large number of people is uneducated. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines.6. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. fraternity. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 9) It stress free inquiry. “Webster further says.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. education etc. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. 5) It implies tolerance. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. Moral values have to be imbibed. people have narrow mindedness. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended.1. That is why. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. 77 .1.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. Equality. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 2.opposed to religious education. 8) It believes in co-existence. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. In this type of prevailing situations. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. should be independent of religion. people started believing in regionalism. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. the belief that the state morals. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation.

that the central string of all religions is one. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. 2. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. tours and trips may be organized. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations.6. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. Religious Education. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. In the celebration of each such function. 1) Moral Education. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. While doing so.presented by the students in the gathering. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. education. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. The very sight of the building. There should be some internal checking of the material being. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions.1. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. In the hands of such teachers. students belonging to different religions should be associated. No doubt. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. Patiala.

No doubt. Define Secularism 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions.1. The term secularism was first used by 8.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. 2. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. The word “Seculum” means 7.

for the people and the people”. Provision of Manual Work. Equal Opportunities for Admission. 5. In the matter of admitting students in schools.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. c. Socialism aims at equality.1. 4. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. 6. 5. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Socialism aims at social justice. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic.1. Respect of Individual Personality. a. there should be made no distinction of caste. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. b. a. Since socialism stands for equality. This present age 7. 4. 2. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. creed. Power of the people 2. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. a. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. George Jacob Holydake 80 . The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Abraham Lincoln.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Tuition free education b. colour or wealth. 3. d. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. b. 3.

B.C. a. It treats all religions on an equal footing. (2008). J. Theory and Principles of Education. Bhatia. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Pahuja. Anmol Publications Pvt. K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.1. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Dash. K and Narang C. b. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Ltd. (2005). the belief that the state morals. education etc. 81 . School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. should be independent of religion. 10. N. P. N. It permits freedom of religion. Ltd.” 9. L.8. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. (2004). a. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. b. (2003). J. (2007).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Mohanty. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.

7 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 . INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.LESSON 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.9 2.6.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2.1 International understanding in the school 2.3 2.8 2.4 2.2.10 2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.5.

It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. you will be able to: 1. mental. aims and objectives of the school.2. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3.generation to another. It involves physical. 83 . describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. 2. therefore. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. 3. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. understandings. and 4. as learners. as persons.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. as instructor of school children. a r e 1. emotional. 2. skills. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. 2. who are placed in his custody. as citizens. A teacher is first and foremost.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. moral. social and moral aspects. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. development. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. social. The developmental roles of children. as it is t he aim o f modern education. application. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge.

Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence.2. socially. intellectually. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. emotionally. mentally. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. He has to look after their physical. The following are some of such roles described in brief. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. 2. member of his community at the outset. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. economically effective. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. He is to become an active member. morally. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. morally. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y.All education should lead to better behavioural development. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. 2. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. 3. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. mental. The students live. experiences and acceptance. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. and aesthetically to become. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. 1. culturally confident. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. Teacher as a Citizen Next.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. a part of their day in 84 . physically fit for socially efficient. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. inquisitive. social and emotional health. motivated.

languages and religions. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. solve them. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. List out the role of teachers towards community development . Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. 4.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. science club. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. activities of the society into which he is born. Unless. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. fine art associations. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning.the school being under the custody of teachers. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. creeds. India is a land of many castes. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. and most of hours.2. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. faiths. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. It 85 . They will be spending with their parents. Dr. photographic clubs.

Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.” 2. Sampurnanand remarked. At the primary stage the importance of stories. this integration of the Indian people. a.2. Radhakrishnan. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 .” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. social studies. stand up straight. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. c. should be emphasised. It should broaden the outlook. with straight backs and look up at the skies. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. the citizens of the Republic of India.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. narrow-minded provincial. and make into one strong national unit. The only process is the process of education. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. Let us. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. folklore and teaching of social studies. therefore. 1. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. ‘We should not become parochial. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. the study of language and literature. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. poems.5. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform.” Regarding the role of education. b.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. national anthem and other national songs. Nehruji has explained this as.

The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important.different social sciences. 5. t he st udent s and t he community. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Student Camps. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. tours. languages and literature. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. educational excursions. debates. National Days—January 26. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. 2. 10. ACC. 4. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Celebrations of National Days. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. dramatics and youth festivals. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. militar y training like the NCC. Singing of National Anthem. Scouts and Guides. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. 7. Uniform for School Children. 9. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Taking Pledge. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. and picnics. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Co-Curricular Activities. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. 87 . 3. Reverence of National Flag. 8. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Textbooks. 6. symposia. sports.

colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . iii. colour.11. ii. 12. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. Students Exchange and Tours. 2. 88 .5. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. 13. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics.2. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. v. Admissions to schools. 16. Educational and Travel Documentaries. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. language. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. Admissions. Open-Air Dramas. School Projects. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. ways of thinking and doing things. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. flora and fauna. Recognition of Institutions. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. 14. iv. region or religion. 15.

Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. camps. irrespective of national boundaries. cultures and races on equal bases. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Define National Integration 3. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . viii. Community dinners. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. 2. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . vii. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year ix. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained.

Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum.F.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. Organising of debates and. 3. the international level. patriotism is not enough. if it happens. Strong has observed. 4. This. and the healthy development. Teachers 90 . 2.2. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. (c) fairly tales. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .as important as that of a national citizenship.6. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. In a very real sense. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. of his body and mind.friendships between children of different countries. 5. Dr. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. therefore. often in connection with anniversaries. that war.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. (b) stories of children of other lands. Therefore.6. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.” 2. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. C. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. 2.e. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. Radhakrishnan states. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.. 6. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen.2.

While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . Indian and American. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. an Englishman. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. a German.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Russian. Impartial in their Treatment. They should not be propagandists. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other.

2.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. and help the students to over . students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. It does not prepare students for life. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. there is wide spread frustration among all people. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. If this is done.2. As the school is but a miniature society. which results in agitation and aggression language. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. Chronic Poverty . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.Another major.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. Devaluation of Values . Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . Wide Spread Frustration . 4. leading to. Defects of the educational System . 5. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. 3. majority of people are.2. understand and indiscipline: 1. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. the education function can be carried.

3. 2. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. etc. List out the factors causing social tension in schools .democratic nature. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. sympathy and good will among the nations. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding.2. co-operation. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. community development. 93 . fellow feeling. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. 2. love. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System


Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.


STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency Functions and role of schools in the society Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency Radio as an agency of education Television as an agency of education Press as a medium of education Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.

9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.

16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together. MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.




1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society


2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.


libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Then came newspapers. He taught his students orally. the invention of the printing press. Moreover. Define community. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities.V. are increasingly used in education.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. periodicals. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. Emphasising this thing. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. In fact. To make them achieve their aim. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. 2.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. led to the printing of books. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. Now internet is being used. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. art galleries. Hence. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. books. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. “All the citizens of the community. During the course of time. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Museums. Crow and Crow write. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

3. the teacher still occupies. the place of importance. Important happening inventions. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. In collaboration with the experts. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. It is also an important source of entertainment. “Listening participation” in current history. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. current affairs and other areas. dram appreciation. It enlightens public opinion. Thus. art. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. In the emphasis is on sound. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. Students listen various talks. Various talks. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Reynolds. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. social studies.telecast. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. music. rather than on picture. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. for the teacher through school broadcasts. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures.classroom teachers. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. 101 . 2.6.G. A lot of work by way of pre. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Effective means of presenting music. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. 2. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. politics. languages. Thus. Many gaps are to be filled up by them.

drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. 3. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. Before presenting the programme. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. at play. School concerts. style. development of lessons. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. mathematics. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. 102 . Educational radio excels through dramatisation.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. At present. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Participation of local teachers and pupils. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. 5. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Team-teaching demonstrations. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. at any place. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. plays. informal and non-formal education. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. fol classical music. projects or creative activities. speech. audibility and presentability. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. at recreational centers. 4. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. at drawing room. travel talks. Making learning an open system. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.


Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.


For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.


Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.

2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.

Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.3.1 2.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education Advantages of formal education 2.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.7 2.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.8 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4 Non formal educational system 2.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.6 Limitations of formal education 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.

know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. Education. 3. To realize this objective of education.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan.4. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. the most important agency of formal education.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. compare formal and non formal system of education. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. the community. the temple. 2. open university. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.4. imparted at the residence of the teacher. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. the family. 9. 6. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. his mental alertness. 4. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 3. starting and ending at -a particular age. the learner are acquainted. the mass media et. 2. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 5. 7. 2.4.3. it was mostly. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. In ancient time in India. 110 . Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.4. 4. open school.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. 2.2. School is. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. 2. say the Government or the private enterprise. 8.. Education organised by some agency. Education associated with a degree or certificate. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’.

Through early formal education.3. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. as well as vocational education and training.3. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.4.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. or academic degrees. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . capacity.a secondary education. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . the elements of language are first learned. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. also called tertiary.4. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. or post secondary education. Higher Education: Higher education. In general. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Concepts of proportion. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six.2. structured education. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. depending on the jurisdiction. Some education systems have separate middle schools. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. 2. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. diplomas. such as a high school or secondary school. third stage. usually between the ages of zero or three and five.

4. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. 2. Agencies can be classified as 2. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities.3. 2. 4. is an important agency of formal education.which will help for nation's development. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. children with disabilities. late beginners etc. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 .4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. and remote dwellers. What are levels of formal educational system? .

Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. It is much more responsive to needs and change. “Non-formal education should 113 . to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. planned. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. curriculum. It is deliberate.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. adding up to a true learning society. Non-formal education includes adult education.learning client take some learning objectives. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. continuing education and on the job oriented education. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. adults as well as children. Therefore. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. etc. Open university. one could say that non-formal education is an active. to help themselves.e.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. It is functional. staffed. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. it has its own valid claim to reality. Thus..” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. i. According to Malcolm A. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. admissions. financially supported life formal education. until 1970 it had not been defined. open learning.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. However. place of instruction. systematic. It unlocks the doors of development plans.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education.formal education. it is a more effective tool for rural development. Adiseshiah.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. systematic.

4.e. the Ideas of marketable and vocationalised. co-curricular activities. 114 . 3. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. Lawrence.S. Process of sharing. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. exploring. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. To develop in the student.4. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. It should lay emphasis on the self.4. 2.renewal. place of education.S. international understanding. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. socialism. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. age. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. curriculum. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. 4. 6. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. national integration. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth.learning pattern. Preparation for future needs.” 2. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. To help industrial workers to better their skills. Flexibility in various aspects of education. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. i. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. Part-time education.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. self. 5. Covering life span of an individual. admissions. modes of teaching. 7.” According to H. 2.4. evaluation etc. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.

To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. working adults. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. • 2. 4. 2.4. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 7. in villages and those who live in towns. 5. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research.4. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners.4.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 3. 9. 10. Senior Secondary. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. Technical. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 115 . 6. 4. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. Eradication of adult literacy. To offer Secondary. 2. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society.4. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. 5. 8. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. publication and information dissemination.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 3. school dropouts. Universalisation of primary education.

This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. Therefore. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. self-employment iii. etc. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. farm. etc. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. 3. 4. effective in modern societal context. factory. 2. centres of correspondence education.full time to learners – can be home. training centres in factories. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. public libraries. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.2. To increase knowledge and 2. if organised in isolation. Radio and television. To better qualifications. To make if. others are formal and informal. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . open space. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii.4. All-round development i. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. Institutions for formal education.4. 2.. library. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.4. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. Again.

radio. Define non formal education. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Lecturing T. 6. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Written tests. institution. List out any two aims of non formal education.V. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. 7. Face Contact programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. . 117 . Teaching to face teaching. Give examples of non formal education? . Essay Assignments and short answer questions. . Correspondence lesson.

Primary level. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.4. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Open University. School 3. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. systematic. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 118 . Open learning and Correspondence Courses. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Secondary level.2. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Formal and Non Formal 2. 4. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. 3. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. 2. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education.” 6. Pre-school level. 2. 2. Open School. 4. adults as well as children. Higher Secondary level and University level. b. the college and the university come under this category. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. 5.4. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. b.4. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. 7. The school. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a.

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2004). Theory and Principles of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.2. J. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2007). Dash. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : 119 . New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. K and Narang C. P. Mohanty. B. (2003). L. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt. Education in Emerging India. Gupta.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Bhatia.4. Pahuja. K. N. (2008). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. S. (2005).C. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N. (2008). Ltd.

5.5.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.2 2.4.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5.4 Open University 2.5.LESSON 2.4 Need for Open University 2.4.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.7 2.1 Agencies of continuing education 2.3 Objectives of Open University 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.

3. continuing education is a boon. Under these circumstances. farmers. 2. This knowledge may be in political field. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person.5.5. 2. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. Thus. It is a continuous process. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 .1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture.2. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts.5. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. economic field or such other fields. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. you will be able to: 1. For them. 2. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. characteristics of open university 4. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon.5. give the meaning. industries. know the need and objectives of open university.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. However. It is a lifelong process. Any person. labourers and half educated individuals. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened.

continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Persons engaged in health services. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. cultured and progressive. deteriorating to his character and personality. if he gets opportunity to develop them.V. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened.literate person.directly related to his job. For them too continuing education is essential. Doctors. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Throughout the country. On the other hand. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons.3. Block Development Officers. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education.5. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. T. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. are also contributing their might for the purpose. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Thus. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Cinema. On the other hand. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. 2. After the achievement of independence. Radio and T. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Radio.V. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 .

It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. Of course. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (6) folk stories. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. 123 . habits of people of other lands.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (13) psychology of child behaviour. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons.. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. we have not been able to achieve our targets.3. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (2) basic religious matters. 7. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy.V. These books are not very useful. 4. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. and Radio. 3. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (15) music. (1) ancient history.5.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. 2.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as.3. 2. (14) information about bringing up young children. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (8) psychology of adults. (10) first aid. 2. 6. (16) liking. (7) folk songs.5. (17) modern international and national events. 5. especially women. Inspite of the great efforts. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons.

5.4. attendance restrict ion. of educational opportunities. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. NLM was launched in the year 2.5. lack of time etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

e. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. 3. Education is not a once for-all process. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. c. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. d. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. the higher the degree of openness. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. but 125 . An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. 4. No one is too old or too late to learn. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. and in teaching. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. 2. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . b.unobserved. it makes use of educational techno logy. Which was the first open university in India? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. its education is not class room based but home based. 2. 5. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. IGNOU was established in the year 6.4.

3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. Mo re o ver. 126 .4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. 3. 2. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 2.who did not get it. who were deprived of t he same earlier. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 4.4. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 2. 4. cho ice o f co ur ses. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies.4.5. 6. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. 2.5. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 3. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. or who realised too late that they need it. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 5. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. supplementing the existing provision. it a ims at wider and hig her. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc.

The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. 8. 3. a state or nation. 2. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. 2.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y.4. 1. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. school drop outs. 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Every day. Tutor Comments. you have learnt the concept.5.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 4.2. In the present day world. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. Self instructional materials. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. 127 . Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 5. Therefore. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . 6. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual.5. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Laboratory works. 8. a society. Correspondence tuition. semi – literates. List out any four methods of Open University? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n .

youth.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Television Lessons. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 1985. a. which may include house wives. 8. 1988. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 2. Broad casting lectures c. d. a. b.5. agricultural and industrial workers. 128 . 7. Explain the objectives. aspirants for continuing education. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. (1) ancient history. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. P r int med ia b.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. a. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification.ambitious learners. 7. need and characteristics of Open University. 3. 6. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. (4) the fundamentals of economics. unskilled workers and other professionals. 8. (2) basic religious matters. 9.5. its education is not class room based but home based. cho ic e o f co u r ses. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 2. b. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 4.

K. S.2. 129 . (2001). L. Ltd. Udaiveer.S. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Reddy. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.K. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. (2004).8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi: Rajat Publication.. R. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Modern Problems of Education. K and Narang C.5. (2004). Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

All which is the need of the hour. Examination reform. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. examination. In Lesson 2. the education of women. 133 . its causes and remedial measures.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. wastage and stagnation. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. and teacher education. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Training teachers for all levels of education. which may claim the attention of those concerned.

134 .

They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.2 3.1.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.4 3.5 EFA – How? EFA – For whom? 3.LESSON 3.8 3. 135 .3 New initiatives.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.6 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.

economic or cultural. may be political. (EOI) 2. understands the country.1. Eradication of Illiteracy.3. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. therefore. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). Continuing Education (CE) 1. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. On the other hand.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. education received added importance and significance. “The State shall 136 . In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. 2. Therefore. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. you will be able to: 1. 3. social. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness.1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. directed that. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures.

After the attainment of independence. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. the national Government under. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. It enables the parents to send their children to School. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child.endeavour to provide. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Therefore. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. 3.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Three Stages for Universalization. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Universalization of Enrolment. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. 137 . rights and responsibilities. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Continuing Education (CE). Universalization of Retention.

1995 (for upper primary stage). We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. This target had to be revised to 1970. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. 138 .” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. It is safe to assure. UNESCO Bulletin states. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. Write Article 45. educational enterprise. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. then to 1976. 1990. 3.3. later to 1988. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. present and future. Therefore. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. slum areas.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. Education of Girls. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. The Social Education. Disabled. sex. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). we have to develop the programme of Adult education. 11. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Jams and Jellies. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. 6. 139 .3. FELF. etc.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. Emphasis must be given on health education. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. 10. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. their enrolment and retention. nutrition education and sports and games.1. NAEP. 8. Education of the Impaired. Early childhood education should be streamlined. adolescent and adult. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. the art of preparing fruit-juice. By undertaking survey. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 3. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. and Women’s education programme should be improved. In order to make the programme of education for all community. 5. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 3. rural areas. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). problem of literacy. Apart from primary education. 9. 12. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. creed. their social economic status and occupations.

District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Wastage and Stagnation. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.3.1. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.e. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Expand MLL and SSA . Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. 4. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.

Personal Factors .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.first stage of education. School Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. Familial Factors .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. Social Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. it is considered as wastage.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .

Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Wastage. . 7. 142 . can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

School Factors .5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Societal Factors . relating to home.1.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. in his home. Personal Factors .3. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. school or society. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. They are described hereunder :1.The following factors.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. rural or urban 3. Family Factors .

—provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. stationary. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. mid-day meals. uniforms. 144 . Define Stagnation? 9. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.

“The State shall endeavour to provide. 2.” 3. Universalization of Enrolment c.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. improvement of curriculum. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Minimum Levels of Learning b.1. 3.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. directed that. Hartog Committee.1.. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. Universalization of Provision b. 6. 3. 3. therefore. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Universalization of Retention 2. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. 4. a. a. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education.3. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. 145 . 4. a. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA.

Personal Factor b. S. (2001). b. a. Sharma. (2007).N.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. T. a. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. S.1. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations.K. improve examination system. Crescent Publishing Corporation. School Factors d. 3. introduce graded curriculum.7. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Hemchand. New Delhi: 146 .K. Familial Factors c. Problems of Elementary Education. Social Factors 8. 9. (2008). Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers.

1 Advantages of Co-education 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education Question banks 3.6.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2.1 New evaluation procedures 3.5.LESSON 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.1 Problems of examination 3.7 Open book examination 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts Grade System 3.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2.7 Let us sum up 147 . Modern reforms of examination SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2.

analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .2. 3.2. 3.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.2. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. suggest the new evaluation procedures.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.3. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.8 3.2.2. 4.2. but on the other.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Besides. 3. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.9 3.2.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. you will be able to: 1. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. 3.3.

other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. 149 . 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. which the educational authorities have to face. They may cause problems relating to discipline. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. schools for them wherever necessary. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. The following steps should be taken up. etc. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. hostel facilities. waiting rooms for girl students. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. If the students are in sufficient number. etc. roadside Romeoism. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing.. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers.2. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. 3. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened.3. They develop secondary sex characteristics. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. etc.

Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is considered as a major sub-system.4. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. teachers.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. With the mass growth of educational enterprise.2. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. conduct of internal examinations. public interested in education. public administrators and statesmen.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them.2. Instruction. assessment and Finance. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. appointment of paper-setters. 150 . the examination system has an important role to play. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3.

(d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. announcement of results. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. etc. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 .2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. etc. training of examiners. etc. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. etc. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. tabulators. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness.2. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. introducing objective-based testing. examiners. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. 3. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. establishing reliability.4. etc. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom.printing and distribution of question papers. invigilators. values. scrutinizers. validity and practicability. pursuing objective-oriented instruction.

The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. lack of objectivity etc. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation.. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. which they are expected to study. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc.4.. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. may also discredit them. 2) From the angle of content of education. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. stereotyped questions. 7) In connection with the question papers. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc.. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. 3) With respect to method of teaching. do not appeal to the students and parents. 152 . 3. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. it s a common experience that subjectivity. Subjects. takes the place of comprehensive learning. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. halo-effect. Vagaries in making. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Rote memorisation. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education.2.

Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. List any two merits of examination. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.develop true love for education. etc. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . re-numbering of answer scripts. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Spot valuation. revaluation. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. 153 . may be introduced. Question Books may be developed in all schools. .a part of internal assessment.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers.

1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. attitudes. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. In actual practice. he is given extra credit points. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. 3. The students can take any course offered in any department.2. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . Their interests. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. skills are given importance. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.2. In this system. It is complicated. The new scheme of assessment. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.3. Advantages More autonomy is given to students.2. Every paper is treated equal. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . When a person chooses to work extra. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.5.5. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination.

Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. An example is a seminar. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. v. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper.poor.5.discipline. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. These weightages are called credits.2. poor. or as a 4 credit course. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. Groupism is encouraged. While designing syllabus. only the total credits to be earned is specified. In the new system.good. This system reduces comparison of marks. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. 3. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. courses can have weightages defined. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning.

most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. However. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. 3.2. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.5.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. 156 . the need for re-evaluation should not arise. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.2. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency.5. 3. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.2. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.5. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. 3. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992.

There are no proper procedures for selection. However.5. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. List any four new evaluation procedures. 3. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Therefore. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. 6. .2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. recruitment.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. In the hierarchy.2. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard.

wherever necessary. finding out the adequacy of. being realised as two different functions. books are followed. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. interpersonal relationships and so on. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. submitting of the inspection reports. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. inspecting the class-room teaching.qualified personnel. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools.2. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. requirements. whether the syllabus has been covered. in contrast. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. 1. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. finding out whether the prescribed text. school buildings. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. etc. They are. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. staff.6. playgrounds.. of late. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. complaints and compliments. disciplinary problems. etc. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. 3. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. When they are fully realised. 158 . taking up the follow-up programmes. Academic inspection. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. in a sense. library books.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. laboratory equipment.. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. qualifications. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance.

giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. M. In the case of departmental candidates. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. at least. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. modern.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them..Ed. course in either educational. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. 159 .Ed. In the light of these conceptualisation. Insistence on specialisation in the B. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. courses. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life.. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. or. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. once in five years. 3. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. their professional knowledge. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Similarly.2. aptitude. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. d. 3. b. Instruction. b. 2.2. Administration. 4. 3. a.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. a.2. 3. 5. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System.2. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Grade System. 3. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. c. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. assessment and Finance. 160 . 3. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. b.

b. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. a.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. (2004). 3. (2002). Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. History and Problems of Education in India. a. Vaidya.2. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. K. a. (2005).a part of internal assessment. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. b. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Problems of Education in India. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. 5. c. Educational Reforms. R and Sharma.4. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Question banks. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. b. New 161 . S. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Multiple sets of question paper. 7. K. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Open book examinations.

you will be able to: 1.9 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 3.5 3.8 3.3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. identify the needs of rural India and social.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3.10 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.6 3.7 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4 3.3.LESSON 3.3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3. 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. 4. 162 .3.1 3.3 3.3.3. 5.3. 2. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3. 3.

the Banaras Sanskrit College. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education.specialisation programmes 3. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. and 3 years of First Degree Course. Consequent on the recommendations. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. e. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. The Calcutta Madras. 10 years of general Secondary Education. University Education. 2. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. etc. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. 8 years of general education..3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. Commission emphasised to continue.e. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination.3. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education.g... Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. in Andhra Pradesh. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. The.3. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course.e.. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. Similar is the case with some other States. i. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates.

to prepare. social. 5. to imbibe. is also a plus point . 3. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . who desire to change from one stream to another.3. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. cultural and economic development of the country. 5) to help for the social. 10. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. 6. 7. Provision for transfer of credits to students. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities .confidence in students. However. educational channels.a sense of dignity of labour. habits of hard work and develop . b. and. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . historical. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. economical and political. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. 8. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4.

Psychologically. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. and that required to enter the tertiary level. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies.3. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. social justice. cooperativeness. on one hand. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. 3. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. etc. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions.national integration. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. Philosophically it is not the conception. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. 1. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. international understanding. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. to develop national character. at the other.. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. cultural and' religious tolerance. and. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Sociologically it is undesirable. The General Educational Spectrum. democratic living.

In our country. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. 3. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. fish culture. technological. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. India is a land of villages. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. In the matter of language. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. industrial agricultural production is growing. physics or mathematics. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. Commerce and other disciplines. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs.3. technical. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. Science. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. medical plants. or other machinery. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Biology. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. professional. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. educational and cultural services.— tube-wells. All these need for an. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. 2. the rural areas have suffered very much. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. vegetable growing. 166 . adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. chemistry. commerce. horticulture. In the vocational spectrum. Agriculture is the main occupation. commerce. rural health. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. and vocations based on dairy-farming. such as Agriculture.

In time. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely .etc. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and 5. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. and the needs.3.. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. social justice. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. There had been favourable reaction from the students. the local resources available. In this it may be concluded. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education.. 3. In this way.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. can be ensured. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. etc. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. interests and aptitudes of the students. 4.

a sense of dignity of labour. a. J. a. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.K. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : 168 . 3. Ltd. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. (2008). (2007). b.3.3. 3. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. Anmol Publications Pvt.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. objectives. General Educational Spectrum and b. N. Vocational Sepctrum. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 3. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2001).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. S.3. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. B. habits of hard work and develop .C. a. J. 2. Mohanty. we studied the history. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.3. Dash. Calcutta University Commission 2. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 3.3. (2005). to imbibe. b.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.

4.4.9 3. social and 169 .4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE Faculty wise enrolment 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.11 3.4.3 3.4.10 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.8 3.1 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge. but the lighting of a fire”.2 3.12 3.4.4.LESSON 3.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.7 3. Education contributes to human development.6 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.4.

community and nation is universally acknowledged. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. economic. 3. Home Economics. family. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. In the post —independence period.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. During the year 1937. you will be able to: 1. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. Education . The relevance of women’s education to social. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. There is a close connection between education and development. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . although we have miles to go. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. For the first time in the history of India. These courses were. Teaching and Fine Arts. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. Dr. particularly 170 .4. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. higher education of girls developed immensely. cultural and political development of the individual. Nursing.4.higher education in particular. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. 3. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. analyze the women and distance education. While women constituted only 9.

Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.2 29.9 14. 3.1 31. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.T Women University.0 43. In the rest of the country. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. out of 9200 and odd colleges. The idea of women’s education for equality. Mumbai. we have more than 1200 institutions. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . levels and professions. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). 3.0 Today. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. Yet. Mother Teresa Women University.N. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.1 24.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.0 16. In 1950-51. Even today. Kodaikanal. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.D.4.4.0 32.4. in our country. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.women.9 27. Coimbatore.2 22.65 lakhs in 1994-95. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.

3.83 47.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.4. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.47 65.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. 3.27 89.73 10.63 Female % 34. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.4.56 64. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.53 34.44 35. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1 respectively. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .1 and 14.66 66.that of boys.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .36 3.17 52.46 82. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .54 12.34 33. 2.4%) prefer Arts subjects.

what is the need for higher education for her. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. curriculum not suited to their requirements. According to a survey. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. she will only learn fashion. In college. distance of the college or university from home. They gave up their studies to enter home life. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. irrelevance of the content of education. financial difficulty of the parents.hinders the girls from getting higher education. Book banks should be established. Also. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. marriage is a very common I factor. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. Thus.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education.4. 173 . Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. 3. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. and coeducation may spoil her character. etc. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. promoted and increased. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. particularly. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. In every third family. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. The major hurdles.

It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Empowerment in a nutshell. resources and socio . Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. It is a productive investment. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Distance education is a boon to women. space. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. and the limitations of the conventional education system. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. 3. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. is the only tool for realising empowerment. which is the most dynamic factor of development. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Education. It enables to study. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. There are constraints of time.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. 3. It also brings about 174 . Geographic distance of educational institutions. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.4.4.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. Full-time employment.economic disabilities faced by women.

The major objectives of women's higher education. Women are partners in development. This can be achieved through reflection. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. on their own. 3. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. legal awareness and economic independence. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. education of women must be given priority in national plans. Empowerment is an active. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. education of women is of paramount importance. for full development of our human resources.4. empowerment means being assertive. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. higher learning. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation.

3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. But their number is small. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. which is pending for a long time.4. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. The educational institutions. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. has to be implemented at the earliest. especially so in the developing countries.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. Better opportunities. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. who are eager to take up courses. which had been the sole domain of men. Scholarships and concessions for women. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. Reservation for women. 3. will encourage them to venture new grounds. 176 . The local administration. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO.

and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent.9%).. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. especially in developing countries like African countries.000 women in the country. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . talents.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities.8%). capacities etc. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). IDP Education. Chief Executive. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. But. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Also. 3. According to Lindy Hyam.3 percent. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management.1%) and architecture and building (38. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. engineering and related technologies (16. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education.4. Australia.

New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. and Suryalatha. Annakodi. Women and Education. R.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Women Education. community and the nation.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. A.4. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Mumbai. SNDT Women’s University. R. (2007).K.R. Centre for Women’s Studies. 3. 3. Rajasthan 5. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. (2005). Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. 2. 4. 43% 6. R. a. individuals and society b. and Swain. Coimbatore.4.4. S. 4. Pattanaikj. the family. Kodaikanal. create the right attitude towards life. Mishra. Women Education. Mother Teresa Women University.C. Mumbai. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. (2008). SNDT Women’s University.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. S. Coimbatore. 178 . A. (2000).

Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.1 3.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5. They should be trained.5.LESSON 3.3 3. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5.4 3.5.10 3.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.11 3.5.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.6 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.9 3.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.2 3.5.7 3.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. whole.5.8 3.personality of children in and out of school.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5 3.

4. you will be able to: 1. 3. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. social and emotional integration. understand the training teachers for Primary. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. 5. know the pre service and in service training facilities. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. 180 . Dearth of new technology of teaching. understanding and strong desire for international peace. Lack of physical facilities. 3. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Shorter working hours. equality and justice. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. international.5. national consciousness. and national character. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students.5. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has.

If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. If the student teachers are working teachers. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. (NCERT) New Delhi.. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools.. higher secondary teacher education. the primary teacher education.Less qualified teacher educators. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . it is called the Extension teacher Education. students. the centre. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. it is called the In-service teacher education. At the diploma level. etc. inservice and extension education programmes. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. Lop-sided curriculum. the secondary teacher education. 3.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. levels. and the collegiate teacher education. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier.Ed. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . the state Government.Ed. Depending on the levels. 3. a Diploma course and a Degree course. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education.5. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors.5. and M. who have not been trained earlier. Inadequate training in practical skills.

Expand NCERT 2. Also Guidance Bureaux. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . 3.. etc. Evaluation unit. collegiate cells. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. are established. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . depart ments etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational teehnology cells. Science Education units. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory .Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. extensio n service. non-formal. Education cells.5. state Institutes of Educat ion. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose .

audio visual aids. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. primary and secondary school teachers. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B.Ed. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. schools and sister degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . and so on. which should include experience in the primary schools too. to improve curricular programmes. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified ... the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. to prescribe conditions for recognition. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. to ensure teacher competence. should be improved on a top priority basis. to offer consultative services. degree. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. and 183 . • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . despite its vast expansion.. which help breaking isolation from one another . material conditions relating to libraries. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training .Ed. laboratories.

no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. 184 . efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. though no pre-service training. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Modern Methods of Evaluation. Modern Techniques of Teaching.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. To meet this exigency. prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. Workshops.secondary education. methodology and evaluation. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. The problem. and XII. etc. Induction Courses. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. Organisation of Content Courses.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Agriculture. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . not came up once again. Psychology of Students. whether they should have professional education or. etc. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. Meanwhile.

.D.. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. For re-orienting the teachers. courses and M. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .Ed.’s for Ph.Ed. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. State Institutes of Education. M.Ed. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.’s are elig ible for M. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.A.Ed.Ed. These facilities are available for regular students. Degree and M. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. (Education) and M. Degree.. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work... training. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.A.S.5.. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. 3. Courses leading to B. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. in Education. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Post-Graduates also undergo B. Pre-service training is for those. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Ajmer.Ed. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. (Education) are organized by 185 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. All B Ed. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.

and B. (Ed). 3.some Faculties of Education of some Universities.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession.). established by tradition and teachers of the past. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. 4. However. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . 5. Hence the employability of M. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. (Ed. 186 . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively.. What is the role of ERIC? .5. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. they should be conscientious . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .List any two code of conduct for teachers? . 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. .A. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. of conduct—written or unwritten.A. 6.

4. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. 3. b. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. Dearth of new technology of teaching.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 187 . They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 3.3. a. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 4. a. they should be conscientious. 5. The necessity is however this.5. Shorter working hours. Bhopal.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3.5. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. a.5. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Ajmer. b. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. 6. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 3. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. However.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. Explain code of conduct for teachers. 2.

5. Teacher Education.N. Mohanty. (2003). Teacher Education.D. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . Tewari. B.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. (2009). P. (2010). Ltd Aggarwal. and Teacher Education. J.3. Publication Pvt. A. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Corporation.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. economic and educational developments. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. objectives. In lesson 1. preservation of nutrients. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. consuming the right amounts becomes important. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. communicable diseases and their prevention. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. the focus is on the school health programmes. objectives and role of the physical education. common ailments of children. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. 191 . If the diet is poor. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. Since food is the source of nutrients. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. The person’s environment is equally important. In lesson 4. objectives.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. nutritional deficiency diseases.

192 .

1.6 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.4 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. physical.1.1.7 4.e. mental.1.1 4.5 4.9 4.2 4.10 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody.1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.8 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.LESSON 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. emotional and social. It is a miniature society.11 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1. 193 . for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.

you will be able to: 1. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. training of teachers and evaluation.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. 194 . e. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 4.g. understand school health programmes 2. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. list the common ailments of children 3. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health.1. 9. 8. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. 10. cleanliness and healthful living. To give information regarding health rules. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 5. 3. To develop certain skills concerning health. 6. explain the importance of First aid 5. training in first aid and etc.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 11. content of health education. 4.1. 4. 7. 2. To develop healthy health habits among children. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12.. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. to his family and to the community at large. Instruction. know the need for sex education.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner.

Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. (vi) nutrition education. etc. 5.C. First aid facilities should be made readily available. direct lighting.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. suitable furniture. vaccination. (xii) smoking education etc. 4. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. proper doors and windows. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. as described below 1. There should be good drainage facilities. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. play festivals. 2. typhoid. “Play-for-all” programmes.4. B. There should be regular water supply. Vaccination for small pox. inoculation against cholera. Toilet rooms should be amply provided.G. cleanliness weeks. (xl) mental health.. is imperative. excusing late. (viii) first aid. B. Triple Antigen Vaccination. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. 3. organisation of school health days. ( iii) sanit at io n. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene.. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes.coming or absence. (v) safety education. The flooring should not be damp. The school buildings should be spacious. Arranging better transportation facilities. The surroundings of schools should be clean. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. (ii) communit y healt h. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. 2. minimizing the travelling distance.1. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . (x) choice aid use of health services and products. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. (vii) physio logy o f exercises.

Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. drowning. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. poisons.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. cuts. isolate and notify. • Keep all rooms clean. 196 . • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. sports and games in the interest of their health. • Have adequate rest and sleep. scalds. etc. and other accidents. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. D.. C. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. fainting (epileptic fit). • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. dislocations. burns. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Find out the cases. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. bleeding. • Close the schools. • Take nutritious food. wounds. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. if epidemic is wide-spread. fractures. • When sleeping in groups. insect stings.

5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. backache.1. cough. 2. 4. pain in the joints. fever. Once these germs get into the body. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. chicken pox. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. So they easily get illnesses. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. which are – cold.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. They are: i) The incubation stage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the school health programmes. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. headache. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. 4. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. asthma. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. There are three stages in any communicable disease. water or bodily contact. List out the Health curriculum 3. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. measles etc. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. tuberculosis. These diseases are called communicable diseases. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • .1.. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. polio.

etc. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Tonsilitis .When a child suffers from scabies. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Children catch cold from persons having cold. 198 . Gargling with hot water containing salt gives passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. The following are the common communicable diseases. unhygienic living conditions.It is caused by measles virus. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. unhygienic bottle feeding. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Scabies . The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Ear Infections . There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Measles . Mumps . The virus is present in the secretions of throat. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. This is caused by cold virus.This disease is caused by bacteria. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Common Cold . Others make the children very weak. Hence liquid diet is recommended. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. After three or four days of fever. The symptoms include cold. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Diarrhoea . Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. The child may have fever. Throat is affected. Hence it is called a killer disease. eating food which is not clean. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. sugar and water. head-ache and cough.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. cough and fever. There may also be fever accompanied by cough.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Typhoid . The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor.• • • • Chicken Pox . As the disease progresses. The child may also have diarrhoea. What are communicable diseases? 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. 5. the child may die. It begins with fever. Diphtheria .Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. the child is not able to breathe.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. face and waist. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. Enlist the common ailments of children. Expand DPT . So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. If proper treatment is not given. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. By scratching he causes secondary infections. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. raised pink spots appear on head. 199 . Shortly. separate. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given.

It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education.1. head injury. Drowning . scorpion stings. simple fractures. films and jokes. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. 4. it is a subject of art. Cuts and Bruises . eye injury. so-called sex books and periodicals.g. and films. 5. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. 3. sprains. Sex is popular.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. It is both biological and psychological. cuts. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. man-woman behaviours. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. 200 . bruises. fainting. In such cases. It has its rightful place in education too. wounds. dislocation.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. snakebites. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. drowning. 2. Sprains . exciting and body-oriented. 4. fiction. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. Wounds . bleeding. swelling.4. and Community Work and Social Service. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex.1.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. sprains. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. etc.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water.

it is carried through sexually transmitted to give sex education to the young. health. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. the school. they would be treading the path of sure doom. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. The home. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. but preserve them from disaster and disease. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. try experimenting with their bodies. The values of life. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Hence.. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . 3. 2. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. B. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. In today's liberal and interactive society. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. in their ignorance. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. celibacy are age. Should the boys and girls. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A.old values. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. In secondary schools. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. sex education is being recommended in schools. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. the religious organisations. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community.

3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. 202 . offering sex education as a part of their curricula. when the courses are already overloaded. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. hence. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised.1. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. communicable diseases and their prevention. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 4. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. there will no crisis in its implementation. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. What are the major components of Sex Education. common ailments of children. Teacher education institutions are. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. the school health programmes. first aid and sex education. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. C. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.



SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.


STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.


4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:


Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.


Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy


CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Mention the food nutrients 2. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. 209 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. 210 .2. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. Let us talk about each of these aspects. minerals. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied.2.4. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. If you look at the definition carefully. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.

6. moderate or heavy work. Preferences/customs are also important. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). activity level and physiological stress. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety.g. the social and religious practices of that region. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). construction labourer).2. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. There is no point. dosa are typical of the south.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. sex. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires.sedentary. These are: region where the person resides and income. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and in the morning and the other at night.g. it is also specific to a given activity level . Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. 4. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. People in the east of our country prefer rice. for example. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. paratha and poori. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. In other words. A balanced diet is specific firstly. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. In the case of adults. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. Even within given States there is considerable variation. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex).1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier.

customs. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. nuts and dry fruits. Judicious selection of food is. however. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. Including these 212 . however. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. fat and sugar tend to increase. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. for example. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. In addition to these. Among the social factors. If you think of your own religious group. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. while another may hate them. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Even among flesh foods. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. income plays a vital role. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. As you read this discussion. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. One person may be fond of milk products. One must. These determine the acceptability of foods. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. however. as important for the rich as for the poor. Having more money. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. vegetables and fruits. taboos related to food may play an important role. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. As income increases. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. However.planning the diet.

10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 213 . mouth. if the teachers have good food habits. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. eggs . which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. meat. Define balanced diet. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. For this. List out any two healthy food habits. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. over-eating or under. green leaves.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 8) Walk a while after eating. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. fruits. but they should be thrown away.eating is hazardous.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 8. etc. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 17.

the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Night blindness. 4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. preservation of nutrients. good nutrition is essential for good health. Keratomalacia 3. Vitamin D 5.4. Beri Beri 4. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. e.2. Discuss good food habits. c. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Bitot’s spots. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. b.2. In fact. a. d. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Explain food nutrients 4. When the diet is inadequate. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Corneal xerosis.2. Conjuctival xerosis. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 .9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.

M.N. R. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. 7. Nutrition and Dietetics. R. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Hands.2. 8. (2008). a. Health and Nutrition Education. Nutrition Science. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. minerals. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. S. (2009). Food should be consumed after eating well. P. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . A Text Book of Foods.6. Sri Lakshmi B. (2004).C. Food and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. 4. Food and Nutrition Education. b. (2005). mouth. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 .11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. (2008). b. a . Chopra.

LESSON 4.9 4. 216 .12 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.5 4.1 4.3.2 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.10 4.3.3 Impact on Education POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3.11 4.3.3 4.6.13 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.

3. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. describe the impact of population growth on social. you will be able to: 1. aims at providing the younger generation.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. his societ y and the world.4. therefore. understand the importance of small family norm 5. objectives and need for population education 2.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.3. It is not sex education. It is a much wider co ncept.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 217 . Population Education. state the meaning. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India.3. family planning and sex education etc.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. community. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. economic and educational development 3. and the consequences of these processes. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. his family. characteristics and changes for himself. the causes of population change. 4. Whenever we talk of sex education. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. There is some difference. population characteristics. the stress is. 4.

the nation and the world.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .4. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. the family. 4. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.3. Define Population Education 2.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.3. the society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. which will not be possible without population control. economic and educational development of the country. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social.3. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. 219 .6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. 4.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. With the larger families. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. Every second two thousand children are being born. When the family is small.6. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. the family programmes are also handicapped. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. 4. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. health and happiness of its citizens.3. Family is considered as a social unit. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. social welfare schemes can be implemented well.

toilets. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. In developing countries. 4. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. i. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. Swollen cities.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. organization index and material index. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. in parks and other places of public gatherings. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends.6.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too.3. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils.e. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. The gulf between them is widening further. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. teacher index. and so on. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. pollution of the environment. in buses and trains.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets.3. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. unemployment. 4. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. in cinema halls and theatres. facility for drinking water.6. Many students herded in a small room. lack of proper health care. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. 220 . They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. heavy intern I migration etc.

Social Studies Statistics on population education. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. bar graphs etc. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. can be studied in science and health education. reproduction. essays.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme.. even text books would be in short supply. 221 . can be taken up. family planning etc. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. thus. Hindi and English.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners.3. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. less space facilities. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. There would be very few audiovisual aids. There would be poor library facilities. and laboratory equipments. less budget for education. blank verses etc. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. Regional Language. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there will be lacuna in many other spheres.

Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 3. area and average density of population. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children.3. 7. China. 15.4. Bihar. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 13. 11. 9. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. West Bengal. 12. 8. deaths. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Canada. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Children may compare two families. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Uttar Pradesh. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. 2. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. 5. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. causes of deaths etc. 10. 4.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Brazil. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Children with the help of parents. 14. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. United States of America.

how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 17. age at marriage. we have no right to stop 223 . automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. values and role children etc. Comparing life in various respects in two families. preferences for sex. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family opened in their schools. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. The question. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. 18. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education.3. 16.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families.

and the child survival components of the news: program. at varying places in different regions. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).4 births per woman in mid-1990s.3. especially the expansion of child immunization services . which education can only emphasize family planning services.their entry into the world”. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children.4-6. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. 4. “He who is responsible for population growth. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . however. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. The Family Welfare Program. continued .10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.. Since the program's inception. More than 45 years ago.were implemented 224 . on an overall basis.

the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. At these meetings. expansion of services to unmarried women. Therefore. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. In April 1996. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. and the World Conference on Women. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. a focus on health promotion. In October 1997. and nominal fees for services. Moreover. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. Local programs vary in their approaches. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . the community appears willing to pay for services.earlier than the safe motherhood components. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. reliance on local women as community health workers. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. men. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women.

12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 226 . 1997).3.emphasizing the needs of the client. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. involving the community. 3. family. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. economic and educational development 4. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Describe the impact of population growth on social. Its main purposes are to create awareness. community. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.3. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. What are the goals of RCH? 4. 4. nation and the world.

3. population characteristics. the causes of population change. a. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. b.4. bar graphs.” 2. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. area and average density of population. a. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. China. b. 227 . his society and the world. 7. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. 5. Brazil. United States of America. 4.3. Canada. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. his family. less space facilities. a. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. less budget for education. 6. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. and the consequences of these processes. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. characteristics and changes for himself.

Udaiveer. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. (2002). N. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Jayapoorni. Bhende. Modern Problems of Education. Changing attitudes to Education in India. T. Kantikar. (2004). Coimbatore. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. V. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). (1992). A. Principles of Population Studies. (2005). Ltd. J. Modern Trends in Indian Education. 228 . New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House.3. Ltd.4. Centre for Women’s Studies. Reddy.K. Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.4.1 Minor games 4.7 4.4.3 4.9 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .1 4.4.2 4.10 4.4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4 4.3 Indigenous games Lead up games 4.LESSON 4.2 Major games 4.4.4.

full records of physical activities should be maintained. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. the youth of the country. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications.4. 4. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body.4. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. mental alertness. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. moral fitness and emotional fitness. as it should 230 . social fitness. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. perseverance. which forms its most valuable assets. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. The concept of physical education has been made broader.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. 4. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.4. leadership and balance in defect. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. classify the different types of games. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. team spirit.4. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.

“Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. They go hand in hand. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. team spirit. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. They are inseparably united together. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Therefore.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . leadership. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. The educational efforts at home. obedience to rules. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. To be more precise. Every individual is a part of society. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society.

“The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. Buck has observed that 232 . “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. 4. H.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. Physical exercises. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. C.” The Secondary Education Commission. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. pleasing manners. ment al. Regarding the significance of physical education. mo ral.4.” Montaigue writes.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. a sound health.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. Rousseau states. nor body but the whole man. game and sports. Just like Education.

happiness. “If we wish to develop the whole being. speed.” 4.4. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. elegance. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance.a properly directed physical education should result in health. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. etc.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. endurance. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. coordinative abilities. strength. flexibility and power. Froebel says. 233 . we must exercise the whole human being.” In brief.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. efficiency and character. initiative. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. resourcefulness and smartness.

If no opportunity is provided to the students. including all racial groups and historical ages. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Every age has its artists. systems of government. these fundamental things have always been present. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. they may form gangs. its adherents and its enemies.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. 234 (i) (ii) . While wars. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Tournaments foster this sentiment. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. in greater or lesser degree. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. should help in the spiritual development of the student. plagues and famines. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. poetry and painting.

respect for rules. Write any two importance of Physical Education.\ to develop perseverance. to develop tolerance. etc. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. B. 235 . self. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. bravery and interest in games and sports. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline.sacrifice. obedience. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. 3.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination .

14. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases.4. and readmission after they have recovered. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Be well-prepared. is essential. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. 12. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Be punctual. defects.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 4. 5. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 6. 16. Haag. and. 3. 13. injuries among pupils should be made. 236 1. .7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there.4. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 2. Keep the field ready for the activities. 8. Inform health principles.4.H. 11. 10. Usually parents. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Posture screening should be done. 4. Be sportive. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Be in the uniform. students. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 15. Act as a leader. 7. Be self-confident. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Always keep the whistle ready. 9.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.4. As such they are well enjoyed by children. 1. their development is handicapped. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.8. frolic and jo y. Lead up games. Moreover.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls.4. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. 237 . chasing. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. 4. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. 2. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. Indigenous games. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. 3. less equipment and less expense. 4. Such inst incts as imitation. the play. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

4. zig zag relay. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. couple tag. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. benefit in playing minor games. the number of players and substitutes. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. skipping. Tennis. Jump the stick clay and so on. For each game the rules are many. the games can be modified according to convenience. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Basket Ball. Cricket. Ball Badminton. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. under ball pass Relay. pitching. boosting.8.With a very few rules. with implements or without implements. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Shuttle Badminton. Soft Ball. the play equipment. While many of them are played in the open playfields. Except a few games. trapping.. Volley Ball. dribbling. They are played for a shorter duration. hitting. on mountain tops and on river beds.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Hockey. over ball pass Relay. stopping. snatching the kerchief.4. Jumping. Dodging. driving. 238 . They are rules approved by the International Associations. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. finding the partner. Throwing. bowling etc. wherever the kids assemble. heading. some of them are played indoors. catching. spiking. These games require varied skills such as running. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. On lawns. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Hopping. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. The dimension of the posts and nets. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Khokho. women take part most of the games. on hard courts. muffling. Tennikoit. Kabaddy etc. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. on sea-shore.

Kho-kho.8. 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. For example.4. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. death. they are in existence. birth. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 .4. An example for indigenous game is 8. and . List out some major games. All the fundamental tactics. festivals connected with religion and public functions.8. these games being popular. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. They have an abundant social value. 4. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Games may be classified as 6. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. While observing the players in action. On occasions like marriage. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu.

b. a. 3. a. Posture screening should be done. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. aims and objectives and need of physical education. b. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.4. a. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. 5. 3. to secure physical health b. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. to develop physical stamina. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 2. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. 4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 4. b. c. Briefly discuss the different types of games. d.4. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Minor and Major 240 . 2.4. 4. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. a. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept.4. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

Shuttle Badminton. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Khokho. Health. (2005). Soft Ball. (2008). J. Handbook of Physical Education. J.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. 241 . Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Ltd. (2009). Krishna murthy. Tennis. 4. Aggarwal. Kabaddy 7. Physical Education and Sports. Cricket.C. Tennikoit.4. Khokho 8. J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Mohanty. G.K. Volley Ball.6. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Basket Ball. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. (2008). Hockey. Ball Badminton. Foot-ball.

5.7 4.9 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 . Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.4 4.3 4.5.1 4.LESSON 4.5.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .8 Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.10 4.11 4.5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.1 Natural Environment 4.6 4.5.5.

The best place to start such learning is school. 5. economic.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Awareness. population explosion and resource depletion could be. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. political. 2. list out the types of environment 3. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. social. 3. Attitude.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. education about the environment and education through the environment. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2.5. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Evaluation Ability. Essential knowledge about the Environment. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. 4. Broadly. 4.5.educat ion for the environment. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. aesthetic and educational factors. Participation. Details are given below: I. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. it covers the following elements: 1. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. 243 . you will able to: 1. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 2. Skills. 4. 3. Knowledge. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. 6.5.

a. 244 . Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. 2.B. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. • Biological magnification E. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Oxidants Other pollutants. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. D. F. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle.

New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. III. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. The human ecosystem II. Control of population growth a.3. Family planning ii. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. 4. Use of medical science i. economic. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. The pill ii. Socio-economic measures. 2. Abortion iv. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. B. Intrauterine device iii. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Persuasion: i. c. Birth control through education b. 2. Sterilisation. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . 3.

246 . 1983). 3. Define Environmental Education. Water pollution abatement. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2. 3. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Air pollution abatement ii. (UNESCO. e) Recycling. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Planning human intervention on the natural processes.

5. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. A change in one brings about a change in the other. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. b.5. He modifies according”.5.5.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. a.5.5. Any constituent or condition of the environment. telex. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. way is called environmental or ecological factor. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. These are biotic components. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. fax agricultural apparatus.4. They interact with each. -other. animals and other organisms (biotic). to his needs. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. 4. includes the plants. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4.other components of the environment.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. Biological environment The biological environment.

Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. History The rise and fall. balance of nature. population. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . sources of pollut ion. alternate sources of energy. maintaining the ecological diversity. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. effects o f CFC. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. etc. river systems. over exploitation of ground water. wars and hazards of war. biogas plants. ozone depletion. ozone layer deplet ion. natural way of controlling pests. water scarcity. preserving the watersheds. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. importance of nitrogen cycle. food chain and food-web. relation between population and pollution. extinction of species. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. noise pollution. use of pesticides. supplying timber for various uses. solar cookers. (ii) Air pollution. nuclear warfare. acid rain. mineral survey. of civilizations. explosion deforestation. desertification 248 . air pollutants from industries. change in climate may be added. preventing siltation of dams. windmills. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics.. social studies. reasons. greenhouse effect. are the topics which may be taught in History. etc. t heir role in preventing pollution. sources. trees reducing noise pollution. industrial survey. role of trees in building economy. need for bio-diversity.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. nuclear energy. need for conservation. effects. noise control. excellent recreation sites. use of medicinal plants. evolution. industrial pollut io n.

Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 9. animal and plants. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. group discussions and seminars. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 12. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. aims and scope. 13. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres.5. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 249 . Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Peepal and Tulsi.may be inc ded in Geography. Organising conferences. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 10. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 4. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 2. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 7. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 6. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Providing. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. 11. 3. 14. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 8. 4.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 5. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes.

If it is done. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Reuse carrier bags. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. 6. Don’t burn any waste. especially plastics. all these can cause serious pollution. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. World Environmental falls on 250 . used oils down the drain. it will cause pollution. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Never put any left over chemicals.Send their waste oil. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so.

and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. Att itudes of balance towards nature.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. The groups may exchange. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere.. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. concern for others).). rather than conquest and mastery. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information.4. etc. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Conservation of natural resources. Social responsibilit y (common good. and 251 .mat erials. CFCs. Harmony with the nature . concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. values and habits. depletion of ozone. diversity and stability. dest roying nat ural habitats. viz. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. orderliness and beauty). etc. loss of bio-diversity. potable water. To arrange for visiting speakers. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. nuclear wars. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. deforestation. Concern for species. To arrange visits or expeditions. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. developing desirable attitudes. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. To provide materials needed for practical work. (cleanliness. prevention of irretrievable loss of species.5.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. preserving natural cycles. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. 4.5.5. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 252 . 4. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. 8.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.

over exploitation of ground water. Organising conferences. Rapid population growth.2. Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Authors Press. 6.. air pollutants from industries. (2007).K. (2004). b. a. Y. Ltd. Udaiveer. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. S. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Education for values. 4. Providing. 3. (1997). Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Knowledge.K. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. (ii) Air pollution. Publications Pvt. (2007). Awareness. To provide reference materials for children’s use. greenhouse effect. sources. a. reasons. b. 8. Kuldeep.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Environmental Education. New Delhi : Sharma.K. Environment and Human Rights. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. importance of nitrogen cycle. To provide materials needed for practical work. T. Environmental Education. concern for others). relat ion between population and pollution. effects. group discussions and seminars. water scarcity. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. sources of pollution. explosion deforestation. S. importance of trees in the production of oxygen.\ 4.K. June 5 7. b. new problems from science and technology. 5. ozone layer deplet ion. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. a. Social responsibilit y (common good. acid rain. Modern Problems of Education.5. a. population. Nanda. b.

254 .




Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.



STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism Idealism and aims of Education Idealism and Curriculum Idealism and methods of teaching Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism Naturalism and aims of Education Naturalism and Curriculum Naturalism and methods of teaching Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

259 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to

“The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. According to Rusk'. enrichment and transmission of culture. The universe is regarded as a thought process. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. Therefore. It is self-realisation." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. should be universal in nature. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted.3. Universal Education. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. man is essentially a moral being. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. moral. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. Education must contribute to development of culture.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. the emancipation of spirit. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Education according to idealism. in fact.1. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality.our life. promote and transmit it to rising generation.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism.” 5. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. Spiritual Development. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind.

3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.1.” 5. So he should embody. 3. friend and guide. He sets the environment in which education takes place. For intellectual development. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. 4. an indispensable necessity. 5. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Learning through reading. Learning through lecturing. subjects like Languages. so subjects like Religion. So health. According to idealism. and collation (striving) should find due place. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. 2. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. Learning through imitation. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. Mathematics etc. should be there. It considers teacher as. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. History. He carries the child from darkness to light. a spiritual guide for the child. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. Ethics. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. no doubt. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. Philosophy.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. affecting (feeling).4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. the school is a garden.” He is thus.1. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. hygiene. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage.3. So cognition (knowing). He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. 5.the spiritual qualities of mankind. Learning through discussion. Learning through questioning.3. For this no particular method has been suggested. However. The plant can grow. Herbert advocated instruction method. Science. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . According to Frobel.

"Education should make 263 • .1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. Perfection of Human Machine. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. text books. time tables. 5. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.preservation. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century.4. In the words of Ross. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. 5.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.1.1. formal lessons or examinations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Ross explains. curricula. 2. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.perfection and beauty.

Zoology.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. 264 . is based on the nature of the child. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Botany etc Language. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. rational harmoniously balanced. useful and mature child.4. Education should. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. subjects like history. Arithmetic. It stresses basic sciences. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Chemistry. 4. therefore. Literature. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. education should develop the child into Joyous. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. geography should also be included in the curriculum. • 5. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. It emphasises physical and health education 5. It is based on the psychology of the child. Therefore.1. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Naturalistic curriculum. “Education finds its purpose. Biology. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. There is no place for religious and moral education. In all.

4. he should be taught by experience alone. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally.5. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. 5. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. the stage.1.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. It discards all rigid. Learning by doing. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers.4. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. 3. Rousseau says. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Learning through observation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.1. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Learning through experience.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. Heuristic method. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. a provider of an ideal environment.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher.4. 2. Dalton Plan.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. In the .

Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Vocational and 266 .5. Social Science. 5. History. Personal Social Adjustment.1. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. intellectual. social and moral aspects. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. diversified and flexible.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Social Efficiency. All Round Development of an Individual.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. The aim of educational development. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Sciences. Agriculture. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. of human personality is in terms of his physical. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. is true. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order.1. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism.5. 5. Continuous Growth. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Continuous reconstruction of Experience.absolutism of idealism. Physical training. Subjects. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Geography.

a senior partner and a sincere guide. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. He must be trained.” 5.1. a teacher occupies an important position. He has to be active.5. 5. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. activities and experience should be integrated properly.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Learning by Doing. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. alert and resourceful.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Technical Education. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. The subjects. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .5. should find proper place.

liberal. literary or humanistic education. 4. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic.6. 2. scientific and psychological education.1. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Astrology. specific. Biography Philosophy. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Art.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Sex Education. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. 5. 3. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Literature. Mathematics.6.1. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Crafts. Population Education. practical. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Study of Subjects like Language. Biology. 3.5. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Education must cultivate scientific outlook. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Psychology. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. 5. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Music and Dance. History. 2. Education is preparation for a complete living. 5. It favours child-centered. Chemistry. 4.1. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. rich and happy. intellectual. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real.

1.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.6. certainly and clearly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. easily and pleasantly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.1. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.

5. History. Tours / Excursion e. c. Learning through reading. Education according to pragmatism. d. 6. Child centered c. a. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Social Science. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression.1. Learning through imitation. 5.5. has no end other than growth. & curriculum. pragmatism and realism. e. 3. Vocational and Technical Education. Self Realisation b. Rousseau 5. in this lesson. naturalism.1. b. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization.1. Languages. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Physical training. Learning through lecturing. Learning through experience b. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. 5. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Agriculture.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Geography. a. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. a. Universal Education 2. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Learning through questioning.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Learning through discussion. Sciences.7 LET US SUM UP We have. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Experimentation d.

P. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.P. K. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. of Pathak. 271 . Foundations of Education.H.5. O. (2003). N. Publishing corporation. Pahuja. P. L. (2007). New Delhi : A.P. Anmol Publications Pvt. R. Ltd. (2004). Theory and Principles of Education. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. (2007). Narang C.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. New Delhi : Bhatia.1.

1 Aims of Education 5.3.2 Curriculum 5.2 5.4 Views about teacher 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.4.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2.LESSON TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE Methods of teaching 5. Idealist and Pragmatist Methods of teaching 272 .2.2.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.4 Views about teacher 5.5.1 Aims of Education 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.3.2 Curriculum 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.1

8 5. 3. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. you will able to: 1. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. economic and political reconstruction in our country.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.2. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.7 5. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.4 Role of the teacher 5. 2.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.2. 5. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.6 5. mind and spirit. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.5. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.2. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.2. 273 .9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. Tagore was a poet. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.2. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. an artist.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.2. 5. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.2. Gandhiji was primarily a social. content and methods.5.

righteousness.supporting. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour.3. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. 5.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. it is education of life. strength of mind. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. nor the gross animals body. In the words of Gandhiji. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. mind and soul of children He further observed. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. 274 . development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. "I attach more. 'Man is neither mere intellect. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. through life and for life. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. It really provides opportunity for character building." Dignity of Labour.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim.2. self-restraint and service of humanity. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. His scheme of education is life centred.

Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. development of the whole all were directed: towards. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . General Sciences. the realization of the ultimate reality. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Individual and Social Aims. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. metal work. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development .3. Music. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. 5. gardening. Art. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. "Development of the moral character. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. According to Gandhi. Drawing and Hindustani.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Only good individual forms a better society. leather work have been suggested. wood work. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Mother-tongue.Training for Leadership. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving.2.

expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as Basic education is other wise known as 4. proficient. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. men of 276 .3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.trained.3. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.

He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations.knowledge. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. 3. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education.2. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. That is why. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Education must be child centered. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. He also advocates freedom for the child. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST.

The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.4. He believed in the oneness of humanity.2.2. 5. He was a true patriot.3. 5. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. He was deadly against untouchability. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.” Like all other ideals.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. Gandhi in 1937.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.K. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . • Cult of non-violence. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. • Education should involve manual work.2. he was a true Vedantist 5. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. • Ideal of citizenship.

That way only. wider in range. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. sentiment. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. could help in forging unity among all. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Dance.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Tagore said. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Chemistry. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality.2. Civics. complete manhood could be attained. Botany. etc. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. he said. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. International Understanding. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Zoology. stronger in power than ever before. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. them solve problems of day to day life. deeper in. 279 . Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. International understanding. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual.4. "Mankind must realise a unity.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study .Language and Literature . Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Religion and Psychology. It should help. the more dedicated and devoted. (vi) Philosophy. Therefore. It should help the learner have good physique. Music. Geography. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students.

2. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. Tagore rightly says. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. 5." 5. 5.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. Activity Method Heuristic Method. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.2. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.2. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.4. 280 . Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.4.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. In 1921.4. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.” He further says. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.

Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. 10. 281 . Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. It is open to all irrespective of country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.g. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. race. 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11.

5.5. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Purity of thought. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. The whole beauty of life is linked with it.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Book learning. Education should make a person self-reliant. work and deeds come out of it. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all.2. Freedom. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. who possess sweet and amicable tempers.2. character forming and assimilation of ideas. He believed in to learning or selflearning. 4. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. According to him. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. 3. Education for Self-reliance. 2.” 5. Education for Self-realization. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself." He was against the theoretical type of education. man making. Education for strong Moral Character. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Concept of Education.

The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion.2.the learners on different students in the discussion.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend.5. Secondly he wanted Science. A physically strong person is the need of the society. 6. 5. Religion. Thirdly he wished that games. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.5. That will serve the purpose of education fully.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.5. 5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. And above all. 283 . Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. engineering and technical subjects. 5. The teacher should be the facilitator. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. Swami. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Only a selfless person can be good teacher.2. Philosophy and Theology.5. Discussion Method. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Education for Physical Development. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.2. philosopher and guide to the students He. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Of course.

284 . curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. Gandhiji as a Idealist. 5. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. ears and eyes. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. 3. Their educational ideas. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. naturalist. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers.Substantiate your answer. 5.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. in this lesson. Write short notes on Basic education.2. 2.6 LET US SUM UP We have. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. legs. 12.2. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. and pragmatist . List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. We have seen that Tagore. of course. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims.

d.4. Heuristic Method. Basic education. Discussion Method 285 . Teaching while Walking b. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. c. e. gardening. f. leather work have been suggested. wood work. 9. a. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Explain Vishwabharathi. Activity Method d. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. c. 11. Nai Talim 4. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. 1937 7.2. 8. Ideal of citizenship. 5. Cult of non-violence. Education should involve manual work. 5. Meditation and concentration c. a. Self realization. 10. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Self-Study b. b. 2. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Activity Method b. Technique of Correlation 6. Debate and Discussion Method. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. metal work. 5. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Learning by Doing c. a. 3. a.

Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Theory and Principles of Education.5. O. C. N. New Delhi : Aggarwal. N. Foundations of Education. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. P. on Bhatia. K. K and Narang C. Dhiman.H. Ltd. (2007). L. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : A. Publishing Corporation. B.P. Pahuja.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. (2002). J. (2007). Anmol Publications Pvt. 286 . New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2003).2. (2004). P. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

3.2 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.10 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.8 5.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3 5.5 5.3.4 5.7 5.3.LESSON 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.1 5.3.3. In this lesson.9 5.

5. you will be able to: 1. Curriculum is intimately related to education. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5.A. In the words of Kerney and Cook. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. While education is learning. in the U. it is identical wit h socializat ion. Both the processes are integrated. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. 5. the plateau area and 288 . curriculum. in Russia or in Japan. curriculum signifies situations for learning. curriculum also offers a wide contrast.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. From the latter point of view.3. In the former sense.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. living in the hilly area.. maintained or eliminated. A g o o d curricu lu m. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. In it. Then in a big country like India. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. the plain area. present behaviour may be modified. While education is a process. in fact . One is the individual process and the other is the social process. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion.S. the desert area. there is a large number of communities. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India.3. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. state the meaning of curriculum 2. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. new behaviour may be acquired. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture.under the direction of the school. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. Since the demands. is a means to the process. in the form of new experience.

We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. customs and needs. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission.3. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. It must differ from locality and from society to society. Besides craft. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. In fact . differs from individual to individual. according to modern trends in the educational process. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. therefore. and 289 . environment. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. irrespective of their needs and environment. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. the learning capacity of children. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. democratic and socialistic country. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. too. Again. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. However. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. studying therein. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. 5. it is. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. From a slave-country we became secular. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society.

. National Integration. They speak of immediate purposes of education. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. which may or may not be attained. The word “Curere” means 2. 3. uninspiring and unscientific. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They may be ultimate or proximate. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. eg. Self Realisation.g. 4. aims. Application Objective. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. unsatisfactory. They are visionary goals e. social. remote or immediate. Goals of Secondary Education. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. Vocational Efficiency.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. emotional. 1. individual or Social and so on. So it is inadequate. of classroom.. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. They are achievable. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. they depend on the political. 290 . What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. Knowledge Objective. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. unambiguous and functional. general or specific. 2. etc. etc. e. Goals of Primary Education.. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . social. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. tangible. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. Understanding Objective. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. specific.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. etc. aesthetic and spiritual development.3. e. moral.g. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. 5. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. They speak of perfect goals.g.. in instructional objectives.

in the class rooms. According to Crow and Crow. Raymont rightly says. educationists. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children.3. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. capacities. heavy fire. but it includes the totality of experiences. abilities. finding them very interesting and captivating. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced.5. needs. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. on the playing fields. The interests.” 291 . activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. Crow and Crow remarks.

“There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. capacities and abilities.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. aptitudes. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. Due to these variations and differences. mental. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. urges. They often waste it or rather kill it.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. tendencies. time in a useful manner. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. moral. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 .Utility Curriculum should include those subjects.

organized. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. administrative programme need be planned. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. 3. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation.curricular. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. development of professional capability at all levels. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. 293 . The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. 2. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. To ensure success of the process. phased preparation. Similarly. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books.

Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. Run.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. 10. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. 12. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. in the class room. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 17. 11. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. a.3. 5. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning.3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. laboratory.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. 1937 19. Child Centred Education b. principles of curriculum construction. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 18.3. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. workshop. Relation with Life c.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. library.

New Delhi : Authorspress. (2007). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. Innovations in Education. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.5. Curriculum Development. New Delhi : Isha Books. N. and Sarita Kumari. D. (2007). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Lakshmi. S.3.K. P. Bhalla. (2007). (2001).12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Curriculum and Instruction. 295 .S.

4.6.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude Developing scientific outlook 5.7.9 5.8 5.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.10 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.2 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 . Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.LESSON 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.3

newer and newer industries started growing.during the second half of this century. tolerance for the opinions of others. 2. 4. in the economic reconstruction of society. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. explain the concept of scientific attitude. know the importance of science education. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.4. 297 . which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. Gradually.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. honesty. open-mindedness.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. superstition or emotion. 5.4. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. 5.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. We mean curiosity. 3. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.4. you will be able to: 1. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth .

5. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 5. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Love for truth enhances. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 3. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Central science workshop. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. 2. 5.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Promotion of science clubs. 3. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 4. seminars and symposiums. 5. 2. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations.So that. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Through newspapers. After such experience and training. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Devotion towards nature increases. Thinking and memory develops. 7. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. as well as of the society. Principles are formulated. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1.4. Organisation of science fairs.4. 6. 4. 6. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Through examinations. Schemes of teaching science. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Selection for science education.

5. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They encounter many social events as they grow. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. 5. Enquiry teaching is. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. 7. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. For laboratory and workshop techniques.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. In the inquiry approach. They ask many questions about the objects they see. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. therefore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. They experience natural phenomenon.4. should provide opportunities to. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. objectivity. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. Training of science teachers. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. It is. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. Write any two advantages of Science Education. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations.4.needs and conditions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. sex or religion. each child to “enquiry skill building”.6. After presenting the problem.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. essential that teachers. which is essential for developing scientific outlook.

to ask questions and experience things.4. Adopting creative models of teaching. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. It requires consistent thinking. test. Giving less directions. stern pursuit of accurate data. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”.books. 5. .Herma Wouk. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. 4. commands or orders.4. 300 .6. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. . Appreciating pupils ideas. 6. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. 3. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 3.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Social sciences. 5. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. 5. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Evidence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. if they like. 2.

The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. The students observation. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. For instance. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . critical thinking and suspended judgments.4. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. These include open mindedness. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. (Vaidya 2007). Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. to develop among the learners. friends. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. practiced. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience.(Smith 2008). therefore should be unbiased and objective. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen.7. and emphasized during the learning process . it must be encouraged. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. of vast resources running waste.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. school and society at large.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. neighbourhood. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. 5. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. To achieve this we should understand what it means. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. keen observation.

Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live.7. or superstitions. 302 . understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. he studies all aspects of it. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth.4.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. (Das. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. intuition or wishful thinking”. 5. In considering a situation or a problem. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. think and work it”. rumor. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. 2007). Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. The intention to respect another’s point of view. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. understanding and logic.

The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. but to begin only after careful planning. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. 5. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil.7.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.4.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.4.7. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. • 5. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.

manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience.4. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. 304 .• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. 5. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. it must be encourages. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.

M. b. a. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Study of superstitions d. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students.4. Yadav. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. b.4. b.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. 5. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. 5. Proper example of the teacher c. (2006). Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. (2008). 305 . A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. D. 3. 16. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Vaidya. S. 2. Wide reading b. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. Adopting creative models of teaching. a. (2000). Rao.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.S. 4. Love for truth enhances.B (2008). a.5. Reflections on Scientific attitude. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. a.4. objectivity. Planning of activities 5. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. N.

objectives and characteristics.9 5.4 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2 5.6 5. actively.5. 306 .5.3 5. areas of institutional planning.10 5.LESSON 5.5. state the concept. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population. you will be able to: 1.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.11 5.5.1 5.5. 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5.5 5.5.7 5.8 5.5.

5. every parent.3. each teacher. every teacher. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. executive as well as public. • to involve teachers and school administrators. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. 5. and each student are regarded as separate entities. teachers and students is not lost sight of. and. and every student in the process of educational planning.5. in the task of educational planning. Institution should be regarded as the unit. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. which become the bases for further planning at the district. State and national levels from below. and supplement planning from above.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. • To make institutional planning more successful.5. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. • to make planning development-oriented.

etc.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. Classwork. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.5. (2) Co. council and. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. which will be discussed in the general. Examinations. and Personnel services. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. 308 . Syllabus. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers.• implemented. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. 5. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.5. Co-curricular activities. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. approved after making necessary modifications. it becomes the basis for school inspection.curricular Activities. (3) TeachingLearning Aids.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning.

etc. etc. Fair distribution of syllabi. Undertaking remedial instruction services. scientific and historical excursions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Organisation of Pupils. Improving the internal assessment. etc. charts and apparatus. Editing the school magazine. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Organisation of Students’ Association. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Organising play-for-all programmes. Preparation of instructional material. 3. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Organisation of class-room libraries. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Conducting of educational. hobby-centres. etc. Improving the subject competence of teachers. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. 1. etc. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Equipping of laboratory and library. Preparation of models. Running science clubs. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare.No. Courts. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning.

administrator-pupil. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. teachers. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. teacherinspector. involving mainly human materials. which are divided as the in. parent-teacher and out-group relationships are as given below i. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. co-operation. pupil310 . The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. teacher-State. etc. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. Administrator-State. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. ii. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. teacher-teacher.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system.5. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal.5. and —pupil-pupil. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. administrator-administrator. teacher-managing body.” The human relationships in. pupils. understanding. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. administrator-supervisor. teacher-pupil. students’ associations. headmasters associations. parents. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. science teachers’ associations. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. and solidarity.

organisation and management. social sciences and other disciplines. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. pupil-non-official functionaries. organisation. superintendence.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. pupil-parent. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. and to serve. to carry out. teacher-community leader. pupil-inspector.State. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. teacher-parent. now-a-days. It is also being modernized to become a technique. pupil-community leader. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. It covers personnel and material management. V. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. 311 . According to C. to attend. supervision and superintendence. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management.5. administrator. Good. control. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. supervision. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. to accomplish. To administer means to manage.

There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. 13.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 4. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. 6. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. it is not worth-while. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. Decision Making . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. Cost-Benefit Analysis . 7.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. 5. who occupy the managerial positions. Communication .lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . Those.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. If it is more. 10. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. 2. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. He should be an artist in human relationships.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. Liasion with the Public . it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. low. The relationship should change from master. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. Democratic Management . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. Economic Management .The manager should have leadership traits.Of all the approaches. This is the latest democratic trend in management. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. 9. 11. If the cost benefit ratio is less. Socio-Scientific Approach . Motiviation .Any good management will always have good public relations. 8. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . Leadership . Better Human Relationships .Management should be efficient and economical 312 . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. Worker Participation . 3. Rapport between the Management and Employees . 12.

Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. improvement of teaching methods. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. objective. characteristics and areas of institutional planning.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept.5. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. 313 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 18. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance .These two are.5. 5. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. and cooperative performance should be ensured. 5. to improve the quality of education it provides. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. 19. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. 14. enrichment of curricula.g. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.too. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work.

Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Examinations. 2.5. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. APH Publishing Corporation. (2003). R.5.K. Tarachand and Prakash.5.M. Decision Making b. it becomes the basis for school inspection. a. Educational Administration. Syllabus. b. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Singh.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. H. d. 4. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Co-curricular activities. Communication 5. NUEPA. a. a. Fundamental of Educational Management. f. (1995). e. In group and Out group 5. S. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Classwork. Instruction. b. 314 . b. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. a. and Personnel services. c. Motiviation d. (2001). to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Leadership c.

5 Regional Educational Development in India . Code of conduct for teachers. nutritional requirement.Preventive measures. Sex-education 4. 1. New evaluation procedures.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .3 Directive Principles .I.3 Educational Influences of Home.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.1 School Health Programme. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .1 Gurukula system of education.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Preservation of nutrients.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Inspection and Supervision 3.2 Nutritional deficiencies. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Examination reforms. School. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. Common ailments of Children. social Impact 3.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Community and Mass Media 2. women education and teacher education in India. First Aid.4 India's Secular Policy .2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .Religious and Modern Education 1.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Education by Christian Missionaries 1.Article 45 . Realized the problems of school education. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. higher education. Balanced diet. 4.1 Primary Education : Education for all. Healthy Food Habit 4. population education. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. wastage and Stagnation 3. physical education and environmental education 5. 2. Communicable diseases . Economic 315 .4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.CORE PAPER .Pre-service and In-services facilities.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.teachers should have : 1. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.

Sharma. Realism.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.N. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.K. (2004) Problems of Education in India. Prof. (1999) Culture.S. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.R. Pandy V. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.K. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Hemchand. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Mishra. 316 . New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.K. and Sharma R. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.Aim. R. REFERENCE 1. B. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. (2005) Foundations of Education. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.4. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. 7. Naturalism and Pragmatism . New Delhi: NCERT 3. Curriculum and national goals . Tagore 5. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. and Dash B. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. Socialization.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. and Mohanty R.K. curriculum and teacher's role 5.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Ghanta R. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.1 Idealism. Taneja V. and Human Development.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.C.N.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Ram S. Delhi : University Publications 2.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. T. Saraswathi T. 5.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles .4 4. Mahatma Gandhi.

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