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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
discusses the regional educational development in India. and Jain system of education. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. In. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. Lesson 5. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. The need. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. Lesson 4.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. Jainism and their educational implication. Lesson 2. 9 .
3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.6.2 1.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1.5 Jain system of education 1.1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .6 Education during British Era 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168 Buddhist system of Education 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 22.214.171.124.6.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 126.96.36.199 Aims of Jain system of Education 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206.3.1 Charter Act of 1813 220.127.116.11 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.1.LESSON 1.6.
3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.1.1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.1.1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. 1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. The history of education passed through Buddhist. Muslim and British periods. “a class of persons.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. That 12 .7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.8 1.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1. in opinion.6. both present and future. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.6.1. British system of education presented the modern western model. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. in morals and in the intellect”.7 1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. 1.1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Indian in blood and colour.1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.3. India. describe the Jain system of Education 4. has a long past history starting in vedic education.9 1. you will be able to: 1. Education in India. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. elucidate the education during British Era.1.1. but English in taste. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.
the monitorial plan was followed. from darkness. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. Curriculum. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Method of Study. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. 11. Where pupils were many. questioning by the pupil. 13. from eternal to immorality 2. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 16. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Individual Teaching. 12. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. to light. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. and to agriculture and trade. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Pupils were taught. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. 3. No State Control on Education. with grants of land or money. Free and Accessible. Education was a private affair of the people. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. not en masse by the class method. High Status of Teachers. Religious and Spiritual. 13 . It was also moral. however. followed by explanation by the teacher. Method of Instruction.knowledge was real. religious and spiritual. as it is generally considered to be at present. It was not merely intellectual. Education of Moral. 8. 14. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. generally. 6. There was. managed entirely by Brahmans. 5. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Teacher as Parents. Immediate Aim Vocational. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Forests as Centres of Education. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. individually. 10. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. 9. Role of Travel in Education. Residential Schools. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. The immediate aim of education. if they thought fit to do so. 4.
It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. It was suited to the needs of the society. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. It was freely available to all those who wanted.1. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times.3. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. 2. besides preparing for worldly pursuits.17. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. They were very cordial and intimate. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . lived a life of celebacy. 1. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. studied Vedas. Wide-Spread Education in Women. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised.
1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Right activity 5. the student had his head shaved of all hair. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. 2. I take Refuge to Dharma. dressed himself in yellow clothes. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. Right thought 3. use of intoxicating things. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Right speech 4. 1. Right endeavour 7. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. etc.4. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Consequently. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. use of cosmetics. partaking of food at prohibited times.1. the handicapped. Right knowledge 2.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. except the Chandals. medium of Pali. Right contemplation 1. I take Refuge to Sangh. in which. had the right to receive education. impure conduct. the most significant of which were the following 1. Education was imparted through the. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. Right memory 8. every class in society. It was denied only to the ill. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves.C. taking things without being offered. the student remained in a state of Shramana. disease and death of the human beings. After attaining the age of 20. watching dances or listening to music. killing of any living being. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. 15 . he was qualified to become a monk. which included abstaining from theft. Right means of livelihood 6.
3. objectives of human life. control over sensuous activities. 4. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. be considered the aim of education It. it is regarded as true”. commerce. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. arithmetic and religious discussion. Life is in a flux. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. however. aspirations and. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore.. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. nature. Even at this stage. 6. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. 5. Initially. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. These are called later Buddhist schools. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. approach. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. knowledge of reviving the dead. 2. cottage industries. nothing is of any permanent consequence. 8. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. archery. After this ritual. eat food thrice a day. assumptions. bodily gestures. magic. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. animal husbandry. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. On this occasion.4. of clothes. agriculture. 1. a change is not only total but also perpetual. As reality is becoming. so long as it successfully does so. meaning. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. and. education was impart in art. 7. Whatever its nature and extent. geology. etc. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. along with education in script writing. a continuous change creating 16 . military science. depth and range. archery. Hence. changing the goals. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. therefore. etc. the science of taming and training animals. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. wear three items. elephant lore. women occupied a position inferior to men.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. etc. the presence of the monks was essential. beg for alms. 3. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. Later on. medicine. has no metaphysical value for life. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. handicrafts. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. It comprehended education in writing.
such as.. and its refusal to believe in supreme God.1. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Write Eight fold path . Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. However. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. In fact. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter.new and peculiar situations. goes to Vardhaman. whatever works are true and good. its pessimistic outlook on life. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Its chief feature. Validity is effective and consequences. Education must. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6.e. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. and to give it a shape that it has today. i.5. Jainism insists 17 . In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. however. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. therefore. it is much older than the latter. 5. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable.
1. 6.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. 7. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. b) Right knowledge. c) Not to steal. rather than the interpretation of the universe. more stress on individual aims. 3. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. As such. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter.5. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. 9. 3. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. it has a foot in both the words. They are: a) Not to injure. 5. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. thought and deed. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. d) To lead a celibate life. b) Not utter falsehood. 10. but on both. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 1. 4. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. e) To renounce the world. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Development of personality as an individual. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. and is to be redeemed and liberated. 8. Hence. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant.1. and believe in happiness to all. 18 . Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. c) Right conduct. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. 2. 2.
4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. success and love. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 8. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Jiva is essentially karmic. Teaching must develop these faculties. and should bring happiness to all.5. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Belief in transmigration of soul. 3. 3. 1.5. What are Triratnas ? . Hence. 5. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. practised and not only aspired for. therefore. here and now.4. the precious principles of life that bring happiness.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. education should develop sense of discrimination. 1. that would be socially desirable. 19 . 2. 4. Knowledge is through senses and meditation.
1953).1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. However. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. North West Province and Punjab. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. 1. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). science. To set up separate departments of. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. primary 20 . 1. 1.6. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. 1. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.6. with rally and rout. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. 2.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.1.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 18126.96.36.199. Bombay. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. philosophy and literature of Europe. Madras.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. and not for life. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts.
K.education was neglected.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944.6. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. The universities dominated the secondary education. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. 1. 1. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. • Secondary education. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. At that time M. • Universal free primary education. 1.6. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. at the primary level. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.6. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. To ensure qualitative improvement. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. Later on. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. namely. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. self-respecting and competent. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . In 1882. secondary education became a step towards university.
The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. all children are to have a common curriculum. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire.At the primary stage (6-11 years). What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. 10. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. The objective of education was to provide 22 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. The report suggested development of adult education scheme.1. After this stage. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities.
. science and English language. 4. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. followed by explanation by the teacher. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. handicrafts. 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. b. Right knowledge. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. Right speech. military science. archery. arithmetic and religious discussion. 3. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. 6. Right activity. Right means of livelihood. questioning by the pupil. the science of taming and training animals. 4. 2. 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. education was impart in art. The system of education was well-organised. 1.1. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. Right memory. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. The immediate aim of education. Right contemplation.1. geology. etc. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. establishment of universities. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. Right endeavour. 23 . along with education in script writing. During the Buddhist period. 2. Right thought. It was suited to the needs of the society.education of European literature. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools.
New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. a. Ltd. Y. J. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. and Nath. Y. Right conduct. 10. Development of Educational System in India. J.C. Aggarwal. (1984).K. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Sargent report 12.K.1. more stress on individual aims.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.7. b.C. b. History of Indian Education System. 24 . 1882. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Singh. 9. Sharma. Improvement of Literature. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. R. Ltd. (2007). Development of personality as an individual. (2005). 1937 1. (2009). a. Hence. Right knowledge. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. 8. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. c. 11. Right faith.
2.7 1. The 25 .3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 1.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.4 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.1 University Education Commission 1.3. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.9 1.1 22.214.171.124.6 1.LESSON 1.2 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.3 Kothari Commission 1.
you will be able to: 1. S. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. New Educational Policy. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. explosion of enrolment. medical and legal education. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. National Board of Teacher Education 10. girls and women education besides primary.3. curriculum.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided.2.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. 1. technical.conditions of the teachers. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. Post-graduate 26 . examination system. technological engineering. National Council for Women’s Education 5. diversification of courses of studies. standard of teaching. 1. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. secondary and higher education.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Kothari (1964-66) 8. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. There had been vast institutional expansion. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. 1986 1. analyse the progress of education in free India. expansion of vocational.2. vocational education.2. 2.
the New National Policy on Education. quantity. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986.2. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. material and spiritual.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. Education is the key to our allround development.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. Problems of access. 1986. quality. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. 2. A meaningfully Partnership. 1. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.3. 1966. The national system of education envisages common educational structure.teaching. However. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. 1952. Kothari. D. Education for Equality. National System of Education. 4.2. 1. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.2. research et.S.3.3. accumulated over the years. in January 1985. 1. Finally. Government of India. utility and financial outlay. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. the chairman of University Grants commission. Therefore. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. The Essence and Role of Education. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. A. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 3. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation.
the concepts of work experience. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. The UNESCO Report.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the minorities and the handicapped. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. By working with hands. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. It can train practical aptitudes.” Thus. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. 28 . Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Thus. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life.2. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. attitudes. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2.
if he wishes. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions.” The Mudaliar Commission. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. In 1955. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. the Commission. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. The Radhakrishnan Commission. Besides. it will conduce self. “The aim of these colleges.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. The Education Commission. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. “It may be described. co-ordinations. According to.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. As such. With adequate planning.
T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. the rigid streaming of courses. the semester and credit system. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. for quality of life in the rural areas. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future.ot her. the. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. admission requirements to vocational courses. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. Therefore. With a view to relating education to the life. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. raising the special facilities. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. etc. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education.. In addition.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. Subsequently. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. The Central Advisory Board of Education. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts.
The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. 1. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. manual work resulting in either goods or services. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education.defined S UP W as “purposive. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. meaningful. etc. According to committee. who conceived the System of Basic Education. which offer scientific. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. technological courses including Agriculture. In short. felt that education should be centred around a craft. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.2.and the world of work. The Father of Nation. meaningful. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. which swept the country for over two decades. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. preferably spinning and weaving. Commerce. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. which are useful to the community. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. 31 . The wave of Basic Education. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. giving importance to productivity in the national development.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. aimed at this goal. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level..
The teachers should make use of. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. tools and techniques and 3. Productive 2. Educative and 3. 32 . The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. as far as possible. Experimentation with materials. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Shelter 4. locally available materials and tools. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Work practice. 3. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. so that it is educational in essence.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. 2. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Health and Hygiene 2. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. 4. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Food 3. be that the work involved is: 1. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Clothing 5. Community work and social service. Culture and recreation 6. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom.
It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter.5. etc. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. the local community should be actively associated. Check on educated unemployed 4. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. slum clearance. To make education more realistic. inculcate a faith. It can become an instrument to build character. Productive Work 33 . removal of illiteracy. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. Merits of the Programme 1. improve discipline. Community Service In-1972. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. as far as possible. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. 6. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Education through work The SUPW should.2. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. 1. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration.
Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. if not productive. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. etc.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. traffic control. AICTE was set up in year 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. helping the adults-in productive work. skills and better future for the children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. offering first aid.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. in turn. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. The community. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. Define SUPW 34 . should involve itself in the educational effort.
which are useful to the community. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. a. 6. Write short note on SUPW. 1955 4.2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2. 1952 3. f. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Radhakrishnan 2. e. c. 1.1. 35 . manual work resulting in either goods or services. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. meaningful. Dr. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1.2. d. 3. 2. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. b.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.
D. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. P.K.(2005). Publishing Corporation. Development of Educational System in India. History of Indian Education System. Singh.K. and Nath. 36 . Rao.K.P.C. and Rao. Ltd. Amala.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2005).2. B. New Delhi: A. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt..1.P. History and Problems of Indian Education. Anupama. V. A. (2007). : Sharma. Y.H. R. (2009). Y. J. History of Education. (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
3.5 1.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. for a total of 117.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.1 1. 37 . 1949.369 words in the English language version.3. 1950. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.7 1. equality. democratic republic. containing 395 articles. assuring its citizens of justice.3.3. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. it came into effect on January 26. establishing the structure.6 1. directive principles and duties of citizens.4 1.3.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.1 Significance of DPSP 1.2 1. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. there is an official Hindi translation. procedures.3.3. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.3.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Being the supreme law of the country. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. and liberty.8 1. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.9 1.3.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. Besides the English version.3.3.
The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. for 166 days. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 3. 38 . Two days later. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. you will be able to: 1. the Drafting Committee was appointed. 1947. On August 29. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. Through them. understand our Indian constitution. administrative. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws.In the August 14. 2. After many deliberations and some modifications. legal and environmental. 4. economic.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4.3. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. 1. learn the role of central and state government on education. The Assembly met. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. 1. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. 1947.3. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. with Dr. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. According to the constitution. 1950.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. social. spread over a period of 2 years. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. 1. political. in sessions open to public. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee.3. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. Dr.
The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. Protecting health of the workers. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. 39 . Liking wage etc. That the health and strength of workers. and in other cases of undeserved want. Article 40. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. The State shall. Article 41. and shall. on the basis of equal opportunity. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.government. Organisation of village panchayat. Condition for dignity of children. Article 39A. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. No abuse of children. sickness and disablement. in particular. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Minimising inequalities in status. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Equal pay for both sex. Right to work. Appropriate concentration of wealth. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Equal justice and free legal aid. provide free legal aid. Protecting children from exploitation. Article 43.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Article 42. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. for workers. men and women. old age. The State shall endeavour to secure.
Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Article 46. in particular. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. The State shall endeavour to provide. work. (Original Article 45. The State shall take steps. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. and.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. agricultural. Article 45. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Article 44. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Article 49. 2002 for “45. to all workers. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. industrial or otherwise. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Article 48A. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. by suitable legislation or in any other way. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 48. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. See also Article 21A). Note: Subs. Article 47. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Participation of workers in management of industries. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. a living wage. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. in particular. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. [declared by or under law made by 40 . in particular. Article 43A. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas.
may be law determine”. destruction. Article 45 . Separation of judiciary from executive. as the case may be. Article 51. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. 2002. disposal or export. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. removal. Article-21A Right to Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. Promotion of international peace and security. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. 2. disfigurement. Article 50. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.Parliament] to be of national importance.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . from spoliation. 1. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002.
No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds.” 42 . 6. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. his guardian has given his consent thereto. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. caste. if such person is a minor. language or any of them”. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. iii.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 3. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. from justice and all forms of exploitations. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. and shall protect them. ii. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 8. 7. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. 4. race. 5. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. in particular. 2002. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. and.
The central government determines targets and promotes education. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. and by drawing. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country.3. & 1. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. 43 . 2. Educational Reforms From time to time. for its vocabulary.9. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. the forms. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. wherever necessary or desirable. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis.
Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. All India Council of Medical Science. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). 8. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Local bodies and private enterprise. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction.3. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. So that they may work well. 6. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. 5. 7. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. The following pilot projects.. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Production of suitable for children and adults f. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. 4. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. private agencies etc. By starting these projects. to achieve the desired ends. the state governments. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. etc. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. So as to encourage education on right lines. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 .
4. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. 3. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities.3. The 45 . Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. 12. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. are published by it. 1. 9. handicapped. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. research. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. reports etc. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. education for women. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 1. training and statistics. 10. etc. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. is the state responsibility. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 11. books.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education.
Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. articles in the Directive principles.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.3. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Explain Directive principles 2.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. 1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Article 21A c. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write short notes on a. Article 46 4. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. 46 . Article 45 b. 1. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. 5. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.
2002. b. a. b. Describe the educational role of State Government. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. may be law determine”. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 3. 2002. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.3. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. 1. Development of Hindi Language 6.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Article 46 5. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Clearing House function 9. Dr. The Directive Principles of State Policy. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 4. 47 . Article 29 and 30 7. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Ambedkar 2. Article-21A Right to Education. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. a. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Article 45 . a.
New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2004). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society.1. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K. (2008). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. L. B. 48 . New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. (2007). Bhatia. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. S. S. (2009). Ghosh.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta.3. Dash. K and Narang C. N.
Islam.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.3.1 126.96.36.199.4.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1. Christianity.4.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.7 1.4. religious education should be broad based.4. Students should be 49 .4.2 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.4.4 Moral education 1.4.5 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4. Buddhism etc.188.8.131.52 1.6 1.1 Why Moral Education 1. Jainism.
Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. integrity. understand the relationship between religion and education 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. Thus. In the complicated and complex society of today. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. religious education and the concept of secularism. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.” Education broadens human outlook. 1. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. duty-consciousness.and dedication. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. you will be able to: 1. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. state meaning and need for moral education 1.D. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. know the position of religious education in our country 3. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. As result of which. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. beauty and goodness so that 50 . naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. According to E.4. "In A multireligious society like ours..4. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. India' can produce men of character. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends.
if not regularly. rancour. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. all citizens are free to follow any creed.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society.3. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. 1947 we achieved our freedom. In short. castes and creeds. According to Article 19. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. According to Article 22. 1. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. Hence. As our country is a country of diverse religions. at least occasionally. 1. through religious practices and 51 . They thought that any kind of narrow.” From the above. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. religion and democracy are same. As a matter of fact. Viewing the defects of religious education.4. Thus. No religious tax can be imposed on them. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate.4.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. realizes God in himself. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. it is clear that the State has no religion. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged.3. Children attend these organizations. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal.
” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. Good education. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action.teachings. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. which help him for the development of his character. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge.. He also learns about social. It is religious education. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. for the development of the individual and the society. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. If unreleased. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. and what is evil. which can mould. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. one fully developed. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. what is done and what is not done etc. temperament etc. As a result of which. aggressive. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. intellectual and physical faculties of children. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. moral and spiritual values. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. when he becomes an adult. It helps to modify habits attitudes. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 .
about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. towards the society. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. 3. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. This should not be allowed to happen.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. Therefore.4. 1. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. If we open the pages of history. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. 53 . Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. 2. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. which is the basic need of a democratic life. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man.3. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore.
stories of moral greatness. fellow-feeling. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 11. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. churches and mosques 7.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Gurudwara as.4. Write Article 22 2. For this. Since all religions have virtues. they should be discussed in the right earnest. therefore. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.5. Life histories of great persons of the world. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. examples of patriotism. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. 10. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8.
Ahimsa (Non-violence). Non-injury. Aparigarha (Non. Patriotism. let men see well of one another. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. 5. 4.4. Fearlessness. 3. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). students.acquisitiveness). Moral education.4. Self sacrifice. 6. Cultivation of emotions. is that which develops moral values. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Brahmacharya (celebacy). “Let all be happy and free from disease. 2. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Swadeshi (Patriotism). This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. the methods of teaching. 8. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. The content of the curriculum. 1.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Satyam (truth). personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Asvada (Control of palate).6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. It they learn what morality is in their early years. 4. therefore. 7. 3.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. in the home. 2. 7. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. 55 . Without moral values. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. They will play their role effectively. 1. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 6. 5. Service to others. 8. Purity. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together.
Good temper. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. discipline. 2. 10. National unity and Spiritual values. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited.4. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). 4. 11. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Discipline. 3. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. minutes in the morning for group singing. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Sharivashram (Physical work). Good manners.9. Integrity. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. 3. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Unity of mankind. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. religions may be included in the syllabus. 1. Asatyam (Non-thieving). The School Assembly should be held for a few. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. 56 . Secondary Stage 1. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Efficiency. loyalty and self-sacrifice.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. In the school programme. Simple texts and stories concerning different.
Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. love of humanity. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. patriotism and self-discipline. 57 . 3. Silent meditation should be encouraged. 5. University Stage 1. In other words. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. should form a normal part of school programme. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. In this connection. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated.4. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. 5. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion.
b. Sri Prakasa 6 . The School Assembly should be held for a few.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. a. a. 58 .1. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. b. 2. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. 1. Discuss the aims of Religious education. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. 4. In short. minutes in the morning for group singing.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. For this. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 1959 5. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b.4. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. Training of Character 3.4. 2. 1. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. the.4.
H. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2003). P.H.C. 59 .4. Bhatia. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K and Narang C. New Delhi: A. L. Pahuja. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. K. New Delhi : Siddiqui. M. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2007). B. Dash. (2008). Anmol Publications Pvt.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. N. Theory and Principles of Education. Ltd. N. J. (2008). (2004).P.1.
60 . disparities between provinces/States.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.12 184.108.40.206.6 220.127.116.11.5.e.9 1. Although.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.8 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.11 1.5.2 1.5 1.7 1.3 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.1 1.4 1.5..5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1. i.10 1.5.5.
5.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. roads.5.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 5. This leads to separatist movements. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. work hard towards this end. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. for example. they take appropriate measures. 1. understand the regional educational development in India 3. you will be able to: 1. energy. 1. 6. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. waters.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. 4. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. 7. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 2. 3. 61 .5. 1.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. know the education suited to different environments. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. etc. They therefore. Accordingly. 8.
3.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence.5. Secularism. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. some States became educationally far advanced. 4. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. 2. Tight security arrangements should be made. • Separate States (of course viable States). Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. and. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. some average. 62 . while others remained educationally backward. Therefore. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. on the basis of regional development may be formed. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. There are many reasons for this during the British rule.
Silchar. scholarships. Guwahati. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. In the Central sector.g. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. etc. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. Tezpur.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. etc. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.480. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. since its inception in 1998-99. Funds amounting to Rs.. Jammu and Kashmir. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. Nagaland and NEHU.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. NERIST. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. books. and provision of informal education to enable those. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Mizoram. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has.5. Central Universities of Assam. After the attainment of independence. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. 1. library buildings. Itanagar. Out of this. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. However.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice.14. Even in each State. approved proposals worth Rs. Regional Centres of IGNOU. the State Governments. academic buildings.392. remained under developed. 63 . NIT. while some States like Bihar. These projects are in various stages of implementation. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice.84 crore was released in 2005-06. the Union Government.After the Planning Process has originated. Rs.
5. Tezpur University.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.187. Moreover.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.500. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. A provision of Rs.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Out of this an amount of Rs. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.57 crore and Rs. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Government expenditure on education. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.8 per cent in 05). The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.501.40. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. 64 .261. During 2003-04.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. too.05 crore and Rs.
measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. telecom. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. engineering and R&D. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. notes the study. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Andhra Pradesh. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. Medical education. too. To add to the woes. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. The Chandigarh Administration. English. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. 1. too. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu. for instance. Listing the positives. too.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. for which 16 sites. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Moreover.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . Karnataka. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). pharma. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states.5. Karnataka. Kerala and Gujarat. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. health services and welfare of the citizen population.
and so on. in which the learners live. the working days: an academic . Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. while the former does not. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the vocations. the socio-physical conditions. For a learner living in a rural area.year. which a non-tribal person cannot do. taking the average in the middle. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. Then education become realistic and idealistic. The living conditions. life-oriented and environment slanted. Hence it is called as need-based. when he will not be sure of time. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. the needs. In the same manner. 66 .people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. the teaching methods. The working hours of educational institutions. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. the curricular subjects. even actually looking at the watch. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. the interests. Of course.
10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. to suit education to different environments? 1. 1. 2. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.5. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 67 .11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.5. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.5.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.
G.5. Salim.H. A.2. Educational Development in India. C. some of areas which were under the native rulers. S. (2001). New Delhi: Authors press. (2002). (2008). Giridhar. remained undeveloped 3. during the British rule. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. a. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. some States have become more developed than others b. R.N. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. and Nair. 68 . 60% 1. Education in Developmental Arena.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Dubey. S.K. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Education Scenario in India. (2001).
UNIT – II 69 .
You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. National Integration. 71 . secularism and democracy through Indian education. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. school community and mass media. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. community development.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept.
4 2.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.6.6 Education for Secularism 18.104.22.168.1 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.2 22.214.171.124 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.LESSON 2.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 126.96.36.199.3 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 188.8.131.52.5.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.8 2.1.9 184.108.40.206 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.7 2.
socialism and secularism 2. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. This is the political aspect of democracy. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. socialistic and secular state.1.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. The students may be associated with the management of the school. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. 73 . Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. for the people by the people”. Abraham Lincoln. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. creed.1. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.1. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. understand the concept of democracy.2. you will be able to: 1. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission.1.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. 3) Provision of Manual Work. colour or wealth. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. Democracy thus means power of the people. socialism and secularism 2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. there should be made no distinction of caste. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 2. 2.
2. debates. declamation contest etc. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. may be planned. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. 11) Student Parliament. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 74 . Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. There are different brands of socialism.1. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. Democracy means 2. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 12) Visits to Legislatures.. it soon spread all over the world. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together.
oppression and disparity. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.1. 75 . In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. Under it. the wealthy and the poor. 2. the prince and the peasant. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system.5.5. none high”. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 7) Special facilities for girls.1. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. free from exploitation. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 2. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. service and cooperation. but on the path of non-violence. the employer and the employee are all on the same level.
76 . “India is a secular-country. According to Holydake. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. secularism is being propagated. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. "which seeks the development of physical. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 2. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.1. 11) State schools. Write any two main features of socialism.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. 5.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” In every political and educational corner. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. Everyone says.
2. Equality. 9) It stress free inquiry. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. During the recent past. 2) It permits freedom of religion. the belief that the state morals. 5) It implies tolerance. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. In this type of prevailing situations. people started believing in regionalism. liberty. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. There is need of making the people open minded. Moral values have to be imbibed.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. 77 . People have different religions and they have different beliefs. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. That is why. 8) It believes in co-existence. “Webster further says. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. fraternity. education etc. 3) It permits freedom of worship. people have narrow mindedness. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. should be independent of religion. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values.1.6. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended.1. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society.opposed to religious education. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. A large number of people is uneducated.6.
6. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. There should be some internal checking of the material being. In the hands of such teachers. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. 1) Moral Education.1. students belonging to different religions should be associated. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. education. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. No doubt. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. In the celebration of each such function. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 .3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. Patiala. 2. The very sight of the building. that the central string of all religions is one. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape.presented by the students in the gathering. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. While doing so. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Religious Education.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. tours and trips may be organized. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based.
The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. The term secularism was first used by 8. 2. The word “Seculum” means 7. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. Define Secularism 9. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.1. No doubt. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 LET US SUM UP 79 .personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions.
Abraham Lincoln.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. George Jacob Holydake 80 . there should be made no distinction of caste. 4. Since socialism stands for equality.1. The students may be associated with the management of the school. The two can move only in the consonance with each other.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. Tuition free education b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. creed. Socialism aims at social justice. Equal Opportunities for Admission. In the matter of admitting students in schools. d. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. 3. colour or wealth. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. 3. a. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. for the people and the people”. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. Respect of Individual Personality. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. 2. b. 5. a.1. c. b. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. This present age 7. a. Power of the people 2. Provision of Manual Work. Socialism aims at equality. 6. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. 5.
8. N. P. Bhatia. N. L. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. K. Theory and Principles of Education. Ltd. a. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Mohanty. b.” 9. Dash.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2008). Ltd. B. (2007). the belief that the state morals. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.C. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2004). Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). 81 . K and Narang C. It treats all religions on an equal footing. education etc. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. It permits freedom of religion. (2003). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.1. J. should be independent of religion. J. 10. a. New Delhi : Pahuja. b.
220.127.116.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2.2.LESSON 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2 18.104.22.168.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 22.214.171.124 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.4 2.2.8 126.96.36.199.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.9 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2.1 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .3 2.10 2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 188.8.131.52 2.2.
A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. who are placed in his custody. 2.an instructor of school children. as learners. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. therefore. you will be able to: 1. development. 83 . A teacher is first and foremost. understandings. It involves physical.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. as persons. as citizens. moral. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. social and moral aspects. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. skills. as workers. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. 3. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. application. as it is t he aim o f modern education.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. 2.2. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. 2. aims and objectives of the school. The developmental roles of children. and 4. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. a r e 1. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. emotional. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach.2. social. mental.generation to another.
He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. a part of their day in 84 . mentally. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family.2. The students live. economically effective. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. motivated. Teacher as a Citizen Next.All education should lead to better behavioural development. physically fit for socially efficient. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. morally. culturally confident. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. morally. 2. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. experiences and acceptance. and aesthetically to become. 2. 1. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. inquisitive. emotionally. mental.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. member of his community at the outset. socially. The following are some of such roles described in brief. intellectually. He has to look after their physical. 3. social and emotional health. He is to become an active member. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers.
languages and religions. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. Unless. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. science club. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. fine art associations. It 85 . Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. activities of the society into which he is born. and most of hours. solve them. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. creeds. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. 4. They will be spending with their parents.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them.the school being under the custody of teachers. Dr. faiths.2. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. India is a land of many castes. List out the role of teachers towards community development .” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. photographic clubs. 2.
and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration.” Regarding the role of education. the study of language and literature. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. folklore and teaching of social studies. social studies. Let us. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 .emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. narrow-minded provincial. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. Sampurnanand remarked. with straight backs and look up at the skies. should be emphasised. b. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. It should broaden the outlook.is. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. the citizens of the Republic of India. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. c. At the primary stage the importance of stories. Radhakrishnan. poems. ‘We should not become parochial.” 2. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. stand up straight. The only process is the process of education. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. 1. national anthem and other national songs. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration.2. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. therefore. a. Nehruji has explained this as. this integration of the Indian people. and make into one strong national unit.5.
Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Singing of National Anthem. 5. t he st udent s and t he community. and picnics. sports. educational excursions. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. National Days—January 26. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. 6. 4. militar y training like the NCC. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. dramatics and youth festivals. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. 2. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. 8. Uniform for School Children. Reverence of National Flag. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration.different social sciences. 9. 7. Taking Pledge. Textbooks. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. tours. Celebrations of National Days. 3. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. symposia. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Scouts and Guides. Co-Curricular Activities. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. languages and literature. 87 . They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. debates. ACC. 10. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. Student Camps. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented.
They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. colour. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Educational and Travel Documentaries. 12. 13. 2. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. School Projects. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Admissions. v.5. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Students Exchange and Tours. region or religion. ii. 88 . ways of thinking and doing things. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. 14. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school.2. language. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. 15. 16. Recognition of Institutions. iii. flora and fauna. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Open-Air Dramas. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics.11. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Admissions to schools. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. iv.
Define National Integration 3. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? .2. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. viii. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. irrespective of national boundaries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. ix. camps. vii. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. cultures and races on equal bases. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Community dinners. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. 2.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4.vi. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.e. In a very real sense.friendships between children of different countries. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Strong has observed.as important as that of a national citizenship. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.6. Therefore. (c) fairly tales. and the healthy development.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. 2. Radhakrishnan states. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. (b) stories of children of other lands. Dr. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. 6. C. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. of his body and mind. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. Organising of debates and.2. if it happens. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes.” 2. often in connection with anniversaries. Teachers 90 .” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. 5. the international level. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. that war.F. patriotism is not enough. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.2. 3.6.. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. This. therefore. 4. 2.
should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Russian. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. They should not be propagandists. a German. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum.” Well Informed About World Situations. an Englishman. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Impartial in their Treatment. Indian and American. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Defects of the educational System . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. As the school is but a miniature society. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.Another major.2. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students.2. 5. 2. leading to. there is wide spread frustration among all people.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. It does not prepare students for life. majority of people are. which results in agitation and aggression language. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. 4. understand and indiscipline: 1.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. Wide Spread Frustration . and help the students to over . Devaluation of Values .come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. the education function can be carried. 3. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. If this is done. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . Chronic Poverty .
List out the factors causing social tension in schools . Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. etc. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. 2. co-operation. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 3. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. sympathy and good will among the nations. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. 4. 93 . love. 2.democratic nature. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. fellow feeling. community development. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him.2. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 184.108.40.206 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 220.127.116.11 Functions and role of schools in the society 18.104.22.168 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 22.214.171.124 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 126.96.36.199 Radio as an agency of education 188.8.131.52 Television as an agency of education 184.108.40.206 Press as a medium of education 220.127.116.11 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
18.104.22.168 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 22.214.171.124 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
126.96.36.199 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
188.8.131.52 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. periodicals. In fact. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. Emphasising this thing. He taught his students orally. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Museums. To make them achieve their aim.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Then came newspapers. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. books. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. During the course of time. Hence. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times.3. “All the citizens of the community. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Moreover. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. the invention of the printing press. Define community.V. Now internet is being used. Crow and Crow write. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. 2. art galleries. led to the printing of books. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. are increasingly used in education.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities.
Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well.telecast. Various talks. current affairs and other areas. It enlightens public opinion. languages. Students listen various talks.G. 2.3. dram appreciation. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Important happening inventions. It stimulates curiosity and interests. for the teacher through school broadcasts. music. 2. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. the teacher still occupies. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. art.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. A lot of work by way of pre. “Listening participation” in current history. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. rather than on picture. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science.classroom teachers. Thus. Thus. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. In collaboration with the experts. 101 . political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Reynolds. It is also an important source of entertainment. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. the place of importance. social studies. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. In the emphasis is on sound. politics.6. Effective means of presenting music.
They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. 5. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. development of lessons. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. 4. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. School concerts. at recreational centers. Making learning an open system. 102 . since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. fol classical music. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. style. speech. mathematics. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. at any place. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. Participation of local teachers and pupils. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. 3. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. plays. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. at play. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Team-teaching demonstrations. projects or creative activities.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. at drawing room. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. At present. Before presenting the programme. travel talks. informal and non-formal education. audibility and presentability. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 184.108.40.206 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
220.127.116.11 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 18.104.22.168 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
4.5 2.4.4 Limitations of formal education 22.214.171.124 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 126.96.36.199 2.4.4.LESSON 2.3.8 188.8.131.52 2.4.4 Non formal educational system 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 18.104.22.168.6 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.3.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.1 2.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.
A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. 8. open school.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. his mental alertness. the mass media et. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. compare formal and non formal system of education. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. it was mostly. the learner are acquainted. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 4. In ancient time in India. the temple. starting and ending at -a particular age. imparted at the residence of the teacher. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. To realize this objective of education. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. School is. 2. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.4.2. Education organised by some agency. 9. 7. 5.4. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. Education.4. 2. 6.3. 2. open university. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. 2. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 3. the family. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college.. say the Government or the private enterprise. the most important agency of formal education. you will be able to: 1.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. the community. 110 . 4. 2.
the elements of language are first learned. Some education systems have separate middle schools. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education.3.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation.3. or post secondary education. diplomas. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society.a secondary education. Higher Education: Higher education. structured education. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . or academic degrees. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. usually between the ages of zero or three and five.2. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. also called tertiary. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . In general.4. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. as well as vocational education and training. 2. depending on the jurisdiction. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling.4. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. third stage. Concepts of proportion. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. such as a high school or secondary school. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Through early formal education. capacity. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. is an important agency of formal education. late beginners etc. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. 3. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs.4. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. and remote dwellers.3. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . Agencies can be classified as 2. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. 2. 4. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. What are levels of formal educational system? .which will help for nation's development. children with disabilities.
non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. It unlocks the doors of development plans. Open university. i. to help themselves.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. place of instruction. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. systematic. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. it is a more effective tool for rural development. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education..learning client take some learning objectives.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. Adiseshiah. one could say that non-formal education is an active. It is much more responsive to needs and change. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. adding up to a true learning society.formal education. Non-formal education includes adult education. open learning. It is deliberate. curriculum. It is functional. etc. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. adults as well as children. staffed. until 1970 it had not been defined. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. Thus. systematic. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. According to Malcolm A. it has its own valid claim to reality. planned. Therefore.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. However. “Non-formal education should 113 . critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. continuing education and on the job oriented education.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. financially supported life formal education.e. admissions.
national integration. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them.4. Lawrence.S.renewal. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. To develop in the student. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. age. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. 3. international understanding. exploring.be marketable and vocationalised. To help industrial workers to better their skills. curriculum. socialism. 2. 5. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. self.4. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.learning pattern. admissions.” According to H. the Ideas of citizenship. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 4. place of education. It should lay emphasis on the self. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.” 2. i. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. modes of teaching. Flexibility in various aspects of education. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status.4.S. 114 . Part-time education. Preparation for future needs. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. evaluation etc. 2.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.4. 6. Process of sharing.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. co-curricular activities. Covering life span of an individual. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. 7.e.
2. working adults. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. Senior Secondary. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 9. 5. 4.4. in villages and those who live in towns.4. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. • 2. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. 115 . 8. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. school dropouts. publication and information dissemination. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives.4. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. Eradication of adult literacy. Meeting the omissions of formal education. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 10. 6. 4. 2. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. 5.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods.4. 3. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 7.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. Technical. To offer Secondary. 3. Universalisation of primary education. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research.
It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals.full time to learners – can be home.. if organised in isolation. 4. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii.4. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. factory. effective in modern societal context. etc. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. Institutions for formal education. others are formal and informal. Again. public libraries. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.4. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies.4. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. etc. 2. Therefore. centres of correspondence education. To make if. To increase knowledge and 2. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. self-employment iii.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. All-round development i. Radio and television.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. 3.2. 2. open space. training centres in factories. library. farm. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. To better qualifications. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems.
. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Lecturing T. Teaching to face teaching. 117 . 7.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Written tests. radio. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give examples of non formal education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. institution.V. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. . Correspondence lesson. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Define non formal education. Face Contact programmes. 6. List out any two aims of non formal education.
educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Primary level. School 3. b. Pre-school level.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Formal and Non Formal 2. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. 4.4. 2. 5. Open University. the college and the university come under this category. 3. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. 118 .7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. b. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.4. 2. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.” 6. 4. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. 7. Secondary level. systematic. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Open School. a. Open learning and Correspondence Courses.2. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. The school. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Higher Secondary level and University level. a. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. 2. adults as well as children. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.
New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2008).C. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. P. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Bhatia. (2004). Gupta. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Mohanty.2. Pahuja. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). J. Dash. (2007). Ltd. J. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.4. New Delhi : 119 . N. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2003). Education in Emerging India. K. L. N. K and Narang C. B. S. (2008).
4.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.1 22.214.171.124 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.LESSON 2.2 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 126.96.36.199.7 188.8.131.52.5.5 184.108.40.206 Agencies of continuing education 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.4.4 Need for Open University 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 220.127.116.11 Objectives of Open University 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .6 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.4 Open University 126.96.36.199 Philosophy of Open University 2.
give the meaning. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. 2. This knowledge may be in political field. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.5. For them. continuing education is a boon. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. characteristics of open university 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. 2. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . know the need and objectives of open university. It is a continuous process. Any person.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. farmers. Under these circumstances.5. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. you will be able to: 1. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. economic field or such other fields. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. However. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. Thus. 2.3.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. labourers and half educated individuals.2. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education.5. It is a lifelong process. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. industries. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.5.
2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. T. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Cinema. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. Persons engaged in health services. Throughout the country. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. After the achievement of independence. 2.directly related to his job. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Doctors. if he gets opportunity to develop them. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. cultured and progressive.literate person. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Radio. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. Thus. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society.V. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. On the other hand.V. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. For them too continuing education is essential. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 .3. Block Development Officers.5. On the other hand. Radio and T. are also contributing their might for the purpose. deteriorating to his character and personality. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas.
In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it.V. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (17) modern international and national events.5.3. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. 2.3. (13) psychology of child behaviour. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. we have not been able to achieve our targets. (15) music. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. 7.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. 2. 3. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (1) ancient history. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. 5. and Radio. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. Of course. These books are not very useful. especially women. (10) first aid. 123 . 4. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. Inspite of the great efforts. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (8) psychology of adults.. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (16) liking.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. (9) fundamentals of philosophy.5. 6. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. habits of people of other lands. (2) basic religious matters. (14) information about bringing up young children. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. 2. (7) folk songs. (6) folk stories. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . NLM was launched in the year 2. lack of time etc. It also attempts to pr ovide equality.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. attendance restrict ion.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. 2. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5.5. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . of educational opportunities.4.
instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. No one is too old or too late to learn. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. and in teaching. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education.4. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. c.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. its education is not class room based but home based. 4.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 3. Education is not a once for-all process.unobserved. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. but 125 . b. e. 2. it makes use of educational techno logy. d. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. Which was the first open university in India? . the higher the degree of openness. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. 2. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. 5. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. IGNOU was established in the year 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5.
2.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 3. 3. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. who were deprived of t he same earlier. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 6. 2. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. 126 . The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n.5.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 4.4. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . supplementing the existing provision. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. cho ice o f co ur ses. it a ims at wider and hig her. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education.4. 2.5. Mo re o ver. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. or who realised too late that they need it. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. 2. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 5. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced.who did not get it. 4. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.
Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. Every day. 4. In the present day world. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. 2. Therefore. Laboratory works. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 127 . 5.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. a state or nation. List out any four methods of Open University? . Self instructional materials.5. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 2. semi – literates.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y.5. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. school drop outs. Tutor Comments. 8.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 7. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. 3. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. 6. 1. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. 8. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. a society. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Correspondence tuition.4. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. you have learnt the concept. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.
d. Explain the objectives. aspirants for continuing education. 7. Broad casting lectures c. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. 8. 1988. 4.5. (1) ancient history. a. 6. 128 . Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. need and characteristics of Open University. 2.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 3. 7.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. cho ic e o f co u r ses. (4) the fundamentals of economics. its education is not class room based but home based.5. 2. youth. a. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. b.ambitious learners. (2) basic religious matters. Television Lessons. b. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. unskilled workers and other professionals. 1985. 8. 9. agricultural and industrial workers. a. P r int med ia b. which may include house wives.
New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2001). Reddy.. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 129 . (2004).S. (2007). Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. (2004). K and Narang C.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.5. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Ltd.K. K. Udaiveer. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. L. S. Modern Problems of Education.2. R.
UNIT – III 131 .
Training teachers for all levels of education. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. which may claim the attention of those concerned. and teacher education. Examination reform. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. its causes and remedial measures. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. examination. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. wastage and stagnation. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. All which is the need of the hour. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. 133 . Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. In Lesson 2. the education of women.
6 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.3.5 188.8.131.52.2 EFA – How? 3.1 EFA – For whom? 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.7 3.3. 135 .1.1.4 3.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.3 New initiatives.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.1 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 3.8 3.1.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.LESSON 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.
The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people.3. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. therefore. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). economic or cultural. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. education received added importance and significance. Continuing Education (CE) 1. 2. Therefore. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. Eradication of Illiteracy. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. understands the country. “The State shall 136 . On the other hand. you will be able to: 1.1. may be political.1. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. (EOI) 2. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. social. 3. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. directed that.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3.
This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Universalization of Enrolment. rights and responsibilities. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Continuing Education (CE). Three Stages for Universalization. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. Due to the adoption of democratic system. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Universalization of Retention. 137 . It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. It enables the parents to send their children to School. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year.endeavour to provide. Therefore. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. After the attainment of independence. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. 3. the national Government under. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. present and future. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. 1990. 1995 (for upper primary stage).3. 3. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. 138 . later to 1988.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. then to 1976. educational enterprise.1. Write Article 45. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. UNESCO Bulletin states. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. It is safe to assure. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. Therefore. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. This target had to be revised to 1970. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment.
Jams and Jellies. By undertaking survey. FELF. their social economic status and occupations. sex. 8. 9. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. their enrolment and retention. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. problem of literacy. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). creed. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. 3. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. and Women’s education programme should be improved. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Early childhood education should be streamlined. etc. 3. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. 10. 6. slum areas. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. 12. 11. Education of Girls. Apart from primary education. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. rural areas. The Social Education. 139 . the art of preparing fruit-juice. nutrition education and sports and games. Disabled. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. adolescent and adult. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. 5. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns.1.3. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Education of the Impaired. Emphasis must be given on health education. In order to make the programme of education for all community.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. NAEP.
3 NEW INITIATIVES. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.e. 3. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Wastage and Stagnation. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.1.3. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4.1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.3. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Expand MLL and SSA .
The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. it is considered as wastage. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.first stage of education. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Familial Factors . Personal Factors . School Factors .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Social Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enumerate the causes of Wastage.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Define Wastage. 142 . . Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
Family Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. relating to home.1.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.The following factors.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . They are described hereunder :1. rural or urban 3. School Factors .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. Societal Factors .3. in his home. Personal Factors . school or society.
—provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. mid-day meals. uniforms. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. Define Stagnation? 9. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? .discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. 144 . stationary.
directed that. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. 2. a. 6.. 3. a. therefore.” 3. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. improvement of curriculum.1. b. Minimum Levels of Learning b. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA.1.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. 4. Hartog Committee.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Universalization of Retention 2. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. 145 . 3. Universalization of Enrolment c. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment.3. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.1. 3. “The State shall endeavour to provide. 4. Universalization of Provision b.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. a. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA.
a. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Hemchand. improve examination system. 9.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 3. Crescent Publishing Corporation.K.1.K.N. (2008). introduce graded curriculum. (2007). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Problems of Elementary Education. S. School Factors d. Familial Factors c. T. a. b. S. Sharma. (2001). Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. New Delhi: 146 . Personal Factor b. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Social Factors 8.7.
4 Question banks 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2 3.LESSON 3.1 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.4.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.6.4 The problem of reform of Examination 18.104.22.168 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 22.214.171.124.2.4.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 126.96.36.199 New evaluation procedures 188.8.131.52 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Open book examination 18.104.22.168.3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 22.214.171.124 Let us sum up 147 .2 Grade System 3.2.1 Problems of examination 3.
It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. Besides. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.9 3.3. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. but on the other. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. 3.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. 3. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. suggest the new evaluation procedures. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .2. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.2. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. 3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. 126.96.36.199. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.2.8 3. you will be able to: 1.3. 4.
other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. schools for them wherever necessary. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing.3. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. roadside Romeoism. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. If the students are in sufficient number. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. hostel facilities. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. waiting rooms for girl students. 149 . which the educational authorities have to face. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. etc. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. etc. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life.. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes.2. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. They develop secondary sex characteristics. The following steps should be taken up. 3. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. They may cause problems relating to discipline. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. etc.
the net-work of examination system has also become vast. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. teachers. Instruction. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.2. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents.2. 150 .1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. public administrators and statesmen. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. conduct of internal examinations.4. public interested in education. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. appointment of paper-setters. It is considered as a major sub-system. the examination system has an important role to play. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. 3. With the mass growth of educational enterprise.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. assessment and Finance. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.
printing and distribution of question papers. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. etc. training of examiners. tabulators. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. validity and practicability. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation.4. etc. payment of remuneration to paper-setters.2. establishing reliability. examiners. invigilators. etc. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. values. scrutinizers.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. etc. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. etc. announcement of results. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. introducing objective-based testing. 3.
lack of objectivity etc. Rote memorisation.. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made.2. takes the place of comprehensive learning. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. it s a common experience that subjectivity. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable..3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. stereotyped questions.. do not appeal to the students and parents. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. 3) With respect to method of teaching. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. Subjects. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. halo-effect. which they are expected to study. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview.4. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. may also discredit them. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. 2) From the angle of content of education. Vagaries in making. 7) In connection with the question papers. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. 3. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. 152 . it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education.
What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3.. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers.a part of internal assessment. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. may be introduced. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Spot valuation. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. 153 . re-numbering of answer scripts. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. List any two merits of examination. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . etc. revaluation.develop true love for education. 4.
5. In actual practice. attitudes. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth.2. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.5. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. 3. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. The students can take any course offered in any department. he is given extra credit points. The new scheme of assessment.3.2. In this system. When a person chooses to work extra. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . Advantages More autonomy is given to students.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . skills are given importance.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Every paper is treated equal. Their interests.2. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. It is complicated.
3. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester.poor. courses can have weightages defined.discipline. An example is a seminar. Groupism is encouraged. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal.5.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . While designing syllabus. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. only the total credits to be earned is specified. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. In the new system. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison.2.good. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. or as a 4 credit course. This system reduces comparison of marks. These weightages are called credits. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. poor. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. v.
The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. However. 156 . Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.2. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.5. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. 3.5. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. 3. 3.2. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.5. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.2. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.
3. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. However. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. List any four new evaluation procedures. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . There are no proper procedures for selection. In the hierarchy. Therefore. recruitment.2.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . . Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. 3.
There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. 1. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. 3.qualified personnel. etc. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning.6. inspecting the class-room teaching. books are followed. staff. interpersonal relationships and so on.2. library books.. finding out the adequacy of. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. wherever necessary. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. playgrounds. requirements. disciplinary problems. finding out whether the prescribed text. When they are fully realised. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. qualifications. etc. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. complaints and compliments. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools.. school buildings.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. whether the syllabus has been covered. Academic inspection. taking up the follow-up programmes. 158 . submitting of the inspection reports. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. in a sense. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. in contrast. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. of late. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. They are. laboratory equipment.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. being realised as two different functions. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties.
. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. Similarly. at least. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. In the light of these conceptualisation. Insistence on specialisation in the B. 3. or. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. aptitude.Ed. once in five years. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. their professional knowledge.. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. modern. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors.Ed. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. M.2. course in either educational. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. In the case of departmental candidates. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. courses. 159 . who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher.
9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit.2. Administration. 3. a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. d.2. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. b. a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. b. a. 4. 5. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 3. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Instruction. 2. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education.2. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. assessment and Finance. 3. 160 . Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. 3. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. 3. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. b. c. Grade System.
To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. R and Sharma.2. Vaidya. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Educational Reforms. Problems of Education in India. (2005). Question banks. K. 3. Multiple sets of question paper. b. a.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. b.a part of internal assessment. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . (2004). History and Problems of Education in India. 7. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. a. K. 5. New 161 . a. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. S. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Open book examinations. c.4. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. b. (2002). To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma.
3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. 5.3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3.3.1 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 188.8.131.52 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. analyze the general and vocational spectra.5 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.6 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. 3.2 3.9 3.10 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3.4 3.3.3. identify the needs of rural India and social.3 3.7 3. 3. 2.8 3. you will be able to: 1. 4.3. 162 .3.3.LESSON 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.
. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. 8 years of general education. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. Similar is the case with some other States. the Banaras Sanskrit College. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 .g. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. The. Commission emphasised to continue. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage.. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. University Education.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. etc. in Andhra Pradesh. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. Consequent on the recommendations.3. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages.. i. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. The Calcutta Madras. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i.. e. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges.specialisation programmes 3. 10 years of general Secondary Education. and 3 years of First Degree Course. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses .3. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919.e. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. 2. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education.e. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission.
economical and political. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. Provision for transfer of credits to students. 5) to help for the social. to prepare. cultural and economic development of the country. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. to imbibe. 10. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. 7. who desire to change from one stream to another. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. historical.3.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. and. 8. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . 6. 5. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. 3.confidence in students. b. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. social. is also a plus point . to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. However. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities .a sense of dignity of labour. habits of hard work and develop . to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . educational channels.
to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. Psychologically. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. 3. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . Sociologically it is undesirable.. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only.national integration.3. international understanding. and. etc. 1. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. Philosophically it is not the conception. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. cultural and' religious tolerance. social justice. on one hand. at the other. The General Educational Spectrum. and that required to enter the tertiary level. to develop national character.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. cooperativeness. democratic living. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions.
All these need for an. vegetable growing. Commerce and other disciplines. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. 3. rural health. In our country. Agriculture is the main occupation. 166 . In the matter of language. industrial agricultural production is growing. such as Agriculture. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. educational and cultural services. or other machinery. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. professional. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. physics or mathematics. horticulture. Biology. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. technical. commerce. Science.3. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs.— tube-wells. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. the rural areas have suffered very much. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. medical plants. technological. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. 2. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. commerce. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. chemistry. and vocations based on dairy-farming.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. fish culture. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. In the vocational spectrum. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. India is a land of villages. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers.
3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. interests and aptitudes of the students. etc. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. In this it may be concluded. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. and the needs. and 5.etc. can be ensured. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . 4. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . In this way. In time. the local resources available.. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. There had been favourable reaction from the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. social justice. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
a. (2001). b. J. General Educational Spectrum and b. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. a. (2008). Anmol Publications Pvt.3. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.3. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3.a sense of dignity of labour. Modern Trends in Indian Education. S. B. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.C. (2007). we studied the history. J. to imbibe.3. (2005).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : 168 . 2. a.K. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Calcutta University Commission 2. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Vocational Sepctrum. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.3. 3. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Mohanty. Dash. b. habits of hard work and develop . 3.3. 3. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. Ltd. N.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. objectives. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4.
14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4.11 184.108.40.206. social and 169 .4.9 3.4.13 220.127.116.11 Faculty wise enrolment 3.6 3.8 18.104.22.168 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. but the lighting of a fire”.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4.4.10 3.LESSON 22.214.171.124 3.4.1 3.5 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.3 3.2 3.12 126.96.36.199 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge. Education contributes to human development.
economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. In the post —independence period.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. For the first time in the history of India. economic. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered.higher education in particular. There is a close connection between education and development. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. The relevance of women’s education to social.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. Education . 3. These courses were. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. While women constituted only 9. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. Home Economics. cultural and political development of the individual. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. family. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. Nursing. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. During the year 1937. although we have miles to go. you will be able to: 1. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. higher education of girls developed immensely.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. Dr. Teaching and Fine Arts. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. 3. analyze the women and distance education. community and nation is universally acknowledged. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. particularly 170 .4.4. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5.
Even today. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. In 1950-51.women.0 Today. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.2 22.9 14.65 lakhs in 1994-95.1 31. out of 9200 and odd colleges.4.N.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.4. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. In the rest of the country. Mother Teresa Women University. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. Kodaikanal. 3. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.T Women University.D.0 16.1 24. Coimbatore.0 32. Yet.4. Mumbai. we have more than 1200 institutions.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. in our country. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. levels and professions. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . 3.2 29. The idea of women’s education for equality. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.0 43.9 27.
53 34.34 33.56 64.73 10.63 Female % 34.83 47. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.36 3.66 66.4%) prefer Arts subjects. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .47 65.17 52. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .44 35. 3.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.46 82.54 12. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .that of boys.27 89.1 respectively.1 and 14. 3.4.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.
financial difficulty of the parents. 173 . higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. The major hurdles. According to a survey.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas.4. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. They gave up their studies to enter home life. irrelevance of the content of education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. she will only learn fashion. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Book banks should be established. In college. marriage is a very common I factor. particularly. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. 3. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. and coeducation may spoil her character. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage.hinders the girls from getting higher education. promoted and increased. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. curriculum not suited to their requirements. In every third family. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Also. what is the need for higher education for her. distance of the college or university from home. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. Thus. etc.
At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. Education. Empowerment in a nutshell. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. space.4.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. resources and socio . Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. It is a productive investment. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. 3. Distance education is a boon to women. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. 3.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. Full-time employment. It also brings about 174 .4.economic disabilities faced by women. is the only tool for realising empowerment. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. There are constraints of time. Geographic distance of educational institutions. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. and the limitations of the conventional education system. It enables to study.
education of women must be given priority in national plans. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. for full development of our human resources. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. This can be achieved through reflection. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. Empowerment is an active. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. on their own. higher learning. The major objectives of women's higher education. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . legal awareness and economic independence. empowerment means being assertive.4. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. Women are partners in development. 3. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. education of women is of paramount importance.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level.
3. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. The educational institutions. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. But their number is small. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. will encourage them to venture new grounds. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. 176 . has to be implemented at the earliest.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. Reservation for women.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Scholarships and concessions for women. which had been the sole domain of men. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. The local administration. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. especially so in the developing countries. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. who are eager to take up courses. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries.4. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Better opportunities. which is pending for a long time.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.000 women in the country.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? .9%). participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. But.8%).4. engineering and related technologies (16. Chief Executive. IDP Education. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem.3 percent. especially in developing countries like African countries. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. 3. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. According to Lindy Hyam. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. talents. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. capacities etc. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Australia. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Also. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%).1%) and architecture and building (38.. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent.
Annakodi. A. (2007). 3. 3. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. 178 . Centre for Women’s Studies. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. individuals and society b. SNDT Women’s University. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women.R. (2005). S.C. Mumbai. Rao. 43% 6. Coimbatore. create the right attitude towards life.K. a. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. and Swain. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. 2. Coimbatore. Mishra. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. R. community and the nation. and Suryalatha. R. (2008). A. Women Education. Mother Teresa Women University. SNDT Women’s University.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Kodaikanal. R. Women and Education. 4. Pattanaikj. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. (2000). S.4.4. 3. Women Education.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Mumbai.4. Rajasthan 5.to the family.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. 4.
whole.10 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.5. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.8 3.9 3.6 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5 3.7 3.personality of children in and out of school.5.LESSON 3.3 3.5.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. They should be trained.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.11 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.188.8.131.52 3.1 3.2 3.
enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. national consciousness. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students.5. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. equality and justice. 3. 3. Lack of physical facilities. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so.5. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. you will be able to: 1. know the pre service and in service training facilities.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. 4. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. social and emotional integration. understand the training teachers for Primary. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. 5. 180 . and national character. Shorter working hours. understanding and strong desire for international peace. Dearth of new technology of teaching. international. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction.
If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Inadequate training in practical skills. etc..Ed. Lop-sided curriculum. levels. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. inservice and extension education programmes. it is called the In-service teacher education.Less qualified teacher educators. it is called the Extension teacher Education. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . the primary teacher education. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools.Ed. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. a Diploma course and a Degree course. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. the secondary teacher education. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. (NCERT) New Delhi. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. 3.. who have not been trained earlier. If the student teachers are working teachers. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. At the diploma level. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . the state Government.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities.5.5. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. and M. students. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. the centre.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. 3. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. Depending on the levels. higher secondary teacher education. and the collegiate teacher education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors.
HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . extensio n service. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. depart ments etc. collegiate cells. state Institutes of Educat ion. etc. Education cells. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. non-formal.. Evaluation unit.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Science Education units. are established. Expand NCERT 2. Educational teehnology cells. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Also Guidance Bureaux. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs .6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 .5. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
to improve curricular programmes. to ensure teacher competence. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. to offer consultative services. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B.. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. and so on. which should include experience in the primary schools too. to prescribe conditions for recognition.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . material conditions relating to libraries.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . audio visual aids. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . which help breaking isolation from one another . and 183 . primary and secondary school teachers. should be improved on a top priority basis. degree. laboratories.Ed. despite its vast expansion. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission.. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department.Ed. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. schools and sister institutions. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B..
Workshops. 184 . Hence. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. methodology and evaluation. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content.secondary education. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. Induction Courses. whether they should have professional education or. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. Modern Techniques of Teaching. To meet this exigency. and XII. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. Psychology of Students. not came up once again. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. though no pre-service training.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. etc. The problem. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. Agriculture. Meanwhile. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. Modern Methods of Evaluation. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. etc. Organisation of Content Courses. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering.
courses and M. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Ed.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3..Ed. in Education. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.Ed. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.. Pre-service training is for those. Ajmer... training.’s for Ph. Post-Graduates also undergo B.. M. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. State Institutes of Education. (Education) and M. Degree and M. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations..’s are elig ible for M. For re-orienting the teachers..Ed. 3. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. Courses leading to B. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.A.Ed. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.S. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. These facilities are available for regular students. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. Degree. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. (Education) are organized by 185 . University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.Ed. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.5.A. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.D.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. All B Ed.
as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned.). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .List any two code of conduct for teachers? . 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 5. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.A. . What is the role of ERIC? .some Faculties of Education of some Universities. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.A. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. and B. of conduct—written or unwritten. they should be conscientious . 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. However. (Ed. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. Hence the employability of M.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.. 186 . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. 3. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession.5.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. established by tradition and teachers of the past. 6. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . (Ed).
a. 5. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. Bhopal. 3. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 6. b. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 2. 3. 4. However. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Ajmer. The necessity is however this. Shorter working hours. 2. 187 . b. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. they should be conscientious. Discuss the problems of teacher education.5.3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. a.5. a.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities.5. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 4. Explain code of conduct for teachers. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training.
Teacher Education.5. Tewari.3.N. Teacher Education. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Ltd Aggarwal. and Teacher Education. (2010). A.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . J. P. Publication Pvt. Corporation.D. (2003). Mohanty. B. (2009).
UNIT – IV 189 .
Since food is the source of nutrients. The person’s environment is equally important. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. In lesson 1. nutritional deficiency diseases. objectives and role of the physical education. consuming the right amounts becomes important. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. preservation of nutrients. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. economic and educational developments.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. If the diet is poor. In lesson 4. 191 . objectives. objectives. communicable diseases and their prevention. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. common ailments of children. the focus is on the school health programmes.
1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody. It is a miniature society.1.1.1.e. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.8 4.LESSON 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.7 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1 4.1.6 4.1.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.3 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1.4 4.9 4. physical.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1. 193 .2 4. mental. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.10 4.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time. emotional and social.1.11 4.5 4.
e.. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. 4. To develop certain skills concerning health. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. content of health education.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 5. 194 .1. to his family and to the community at large. 10. 4. 6. To develop healthy health habits among children. 4. 11. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. list the common ailments of children 3. you will be able to: 1. cleanliness and healthful living. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 3.g. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. training of teachers and evaluation. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 9. 2. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. explain the importance of First aid 5. know the need for sex education. Instruction. 7. training in first aid and etc. 8. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. To give information regarding health rules. understand school health programmes 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1.
Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. (xl) mental health. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. Vaccination for small pox. There should be regular water supply. 3. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided.G.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A.1. First aid facilities should be made readily available. B. ( iii) sanit at io n. B. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. (viii) first aid. There should be good drainage facilities. (vi) nutrition education. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. direct lighting. 5. The school buildings should be spacious. inoculation against cholera. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. proper doors and windows. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . “Play-for-all” programmes. vaccination. 4. Arranging better transportation facilities. minimizing the travelling distance. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes.coming or absence. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. is imperative. (ii) communit y healt h.4. Triple Antigen Vaccination.. suitable furniture. play festivals. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. organisation of school health days. as described below 1. typhoid. The flooring should not be damp. (v) safety education. cleanliness weeks. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. 2. excusing late. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. The surroundings of schools should be clean. 2. (vii) physio logy o f exercises.. etc. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. (xii) smoking education etc. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes.C.
bleeding. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. • Close the schools.. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. • Have adequate rest and sleep. poisons. 196 . Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. scalds. drowning. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. sports and games in the interest of their health. D. wounds. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. and other accidents. • When sleeping in groups. if epidemic is wide-spread. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. isolate and notify. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. insect stings. C. burns. • Take nutritious food. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. • Find out the cases. • Keep all rooms clean. fractures. fainting (epileptic fit). cuts. dislocations. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. etc.
List out the Health curriculum 3. So they easily get illnesses.1. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. headache.. chicken pox. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. asthma. Mention the school health programmes. cough. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. They are: i) The incubation stage.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. polio. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. which are – cold.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. 4. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. There are three stages in any communicable disease. fever. These diseases are called communicable diseases. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. pain in the joints.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. tuberculosis. backache. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. measles etc. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage.1. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. Once these germs get into the body. water or bodily contact. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs.
sugar and water.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Scabies . He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. The following are the common communicable diseases. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. etc. The child may have fever. This is caused by cold virus. Tonsilitis . One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. The symptoms include cold. Hence it is called a killer disease. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. After three or four days of fever. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Mumps . Children catch cold from persons having cold. Throat is affected. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Hence liquid diet is recommended.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus.It is caused by measles virus. Common Cold . Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt.This disease is caused by bacteria. Others make the children very weak. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Diarrhoea . Ear Infections . nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. eating food which is not clean. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. 198 .is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. unhygienic bottle feeding. Measles . The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. cough and fever. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. unhygienic living conditions. head-ache and cough. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately.When a child suffers from scabies.
This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. By scratching he causes secondary infections. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. separate. raised pink spots appear on head. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. 199 . the child is not able to breathe. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. face and waist. Enlist the common ailments of children.• • • • Chicken Pox . 5. It begins with fever. Shortly. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. Diphtheria . A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. What are communicable diseases? 6. If proper treatment is not given. Typhoid .Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. The child may also have diarrhoea. Expand DPT . As the disease progresses. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the child may die.
Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. man-woman behaviours. 4. it is a subject of art. In such cases. snakebites. fiction. 200 .Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. and films. Sprains . exciting and body-oriented. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. etc. Wounds . 4. films and jokes. dislocation.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. 2. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. fainting.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. It has its rightful place in education too. It is both biological and psychological.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. wounds. scorpion stings. Cuts and Bruises . simple fractures. sprains.g. drowning.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. and Community Work and Social Service. head injury. 3. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. so-called sex books and periodicals. Drowning .1. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. swelling. eye injury. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. Sex is popular. cuts.1. bleeding. sprains. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. 5.4. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. bruises.
Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. 3. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. health. try experimenting with their bodies.old values. 2. In secondary schools.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. B. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. The values of life. in their ignorance. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. they would be treading the path of sure doom.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. the school. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. celibacy are age. but preserve them from disaster and disease. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. In today's liberal and interactive society. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems.. The home. Hence. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. sex education is being recommended in schools. the religious organisations. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. Should the boys and girls.
For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. Teacher education institutions are. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. C. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. 202 . 4.1. first aid and sex education. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. hence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. common ailments of children. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. the school health programmes. communicable diseases and their prevention. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. What are the major components of Sex Education. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. there will no crisis in its implementation.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. when the courses are already overloaded. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 184.108.40.206 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. 209 . Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Mention the food nutrients 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned.4. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . Let us talk about each of these aspects. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s .2. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied.2. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. 210 .5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . minerals. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. If you look at the definition carefully.
The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. dosa are typical of the south. In the case of adults. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. it is also specific to a given activity level .sedentary. the social and religious practices of that region. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. 4. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. In other words. People in the east of our country prefer rice. construction labourer). But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables.g.6. sex. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). Preferences/customs are also important. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. Even within given States there is considerable variation. paratha and poori. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 .one in the morning and the other at night. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns.2. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. for example. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. A balanced diet is specific firstly. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. activity level and physiological stress. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. These are: region where the person resides and income. There is no point. moderate or heavy work.g.
Among the social factors. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. fat and sugar tend to increase. One must. Having more money. Even among flesh foods. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. However. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. however. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. however.planning the diet. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. As you read this discussion. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. taboos related to food may play an important role. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. income plays a vital role. customs. for example. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. nuts and dry fruits. These determine the acceptability of foods. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. while another may hate them. As income increases. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. In addition to these. as important for the rich as for the poor. If you think of your own religious group. Judicious selection of food is. One person may be fond of milk products. however. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. Including these 212 . vegetables and fruits. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving.
213 . List out any two healthy food habits.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. but they should be thrown away. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . Define balanced diet. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. if the teachers have good food habits. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . For this. eggs . over-eating or under. 8) Walk a while after eating. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. mouth. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. meat. 17.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. green leaves. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. fruits. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables.eating is hazardous. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. 8.
Beri Beri 4. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Vitamin D 5. Keratomalacia 3. Explain food nutrients 4. e. a. Conjuctival xerosis. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5.4.2. Discuss good food habits. Night blindness.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A.2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. good nutrition is essential for good health. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. 4. c. When the diet is inadequate. preservation of nutrients. In fact. Bitot’s spots.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2.2. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. b. 4. Corneal xerosis. d.
b. b. Sri Lakshmi B.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. 7. S. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. a. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.6. (2005). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. Nutrition and Dietetics. (2009). Food should be consumed after eating well. (2008).C. Nutrition Science. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. A Text Book of Foods. Food and Nutrition Education. P. minerals.2. (2004). Chopra. Food and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. (2008). 8. Hands. mouth.N. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. R. 4.M. R. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Health and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. a .
13 4.2 4.4 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.7 4.3 Impact on Education 4.10 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168.1 Impact on social development 4. 216 .22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.3.LESSON 4.3.3 188.8.131.52 4.1 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3.5 184.108.40.206 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.3.
Population Education. 4. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. community. state the meaning. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. the stress is. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. aims at providing the younger generation. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. It is not sex education.3. describe the impact of population growth on social. economic and educational development 3. characteristics and changes for himself. the causes of population change. population characteristics. 217 . family planning and sex education etc. understand the importance of small family norm 5. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. There is some difference. and the consequences of these processes.3. his family. you will be able to: 1. objectives and need for population education 2. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. his societ y and the world.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. It is a much wider co ncept.4.3.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. therefore. Whenever we talk of sex education.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . the family. List out any two objectives of Population Education.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3. Define Population Education 2.4. the society. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. the nation and the world. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. 4. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual.
economic and educational development of the country. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. When the family is small. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. the family programmes are also handicapped. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.3. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. 4. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. health and happiness of its citizens. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. 4. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Family is considered as a social unit. With the larger families. 219 .6. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. which will not be possible without population control. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous.3. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Every second two thousand children are being born.
Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils.. 4. organization index and material index. Many students herded in a small room. in cinema halls and theatres. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. toilets. In developing countries. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. 220 . there is an inverse relationship between population and development.3.3. 4. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching.6. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. Swollen cities. facility for drinking water. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. in buses and trains.e.6.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. i. pollution of the environment. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. The gulf between them is widening further. heavy intern I migration etc. lack of proper health care.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. teacher index. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. in parks and other places of public gatherings. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. and so on. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. unemployment. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index.
Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. 221 . all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme..7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. essays. reproduction. Social Studies Statistics on population education. There would be poor library facilities. Hindi and English. and laboratory equipments. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. even text books would be in short supply. Regional Language. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. thus. less space facilities.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme.3. can be taken up. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. blank verses etc. family planning etc. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. less budget for education. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. There would be very few audiovisual aids. bar graphs etc. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. can be studied in science and health education.
Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 10. Brazil. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. West Bengal. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. 3. causes of deaths etc. 7. 5. area and average density of population. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Bihar. Children with the help of parents. 11. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Uttar Pradesh. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Children may compare two families. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Canada. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. United States of America. 13. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 15. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 4. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. China. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 2. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. 9.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1.4. 8. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population.3. 12. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. deaths. 14.
18. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. we have no right to stop 223 .3. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The question. age at marriage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 17. preferences for sex.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. 16. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. values and role children etc.be opened in their schools. Comparing life in various respects in two families. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. How will you correlate Population Education? 5.
4 births per woman in mid-1990s..6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. should be overcome at the intellectual levels.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. which education can only do. and the child survival components of the news: program. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. continued . “He who is responsible for population growth. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children.3. Since the program's inception. More than 45 years ago.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.were implemented 224 . 4. however.their entry into the world”. on an overall basis. at varying places in different regions. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. The Family Welfare Program. especially the expansion of child immunization services .to emphasize family planning services.4-6.
which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Local programs vary in their approaches. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. In October 1997. In April 1996. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. At these meetings. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. Moreover.earlier than the safe motherhood components. the community appears willing to pay for services. men. expansion of services to unmarried women. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. reliance on local women as community health workers. a focus on health promotion. and nominal fees for services. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. and the World Conference on Women. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . Therefore. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. Describe the impact of population growth on social. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. economic and educational development 4. Its main purposes are to create awareness. involving the community.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. 1997). 226 .3. 4. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. 3. family. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. nation and the world. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. What are the goals of RCH? 4.3. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.emphasizing the needs of the client. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. community. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual.
To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 3. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. area and average density of population. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. and the consequences of these processes. 227 . 6. 7.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 5. less budget for education. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. United States of America. China. 4. Brazil. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. his society and the world. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. population characteristics.4. b. the causes of population change. bar graphs. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. b. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. a. characteristics and changes for himself. a. less space facilities.3. his family.” 2. Canada. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.
(1992). Udaiveer. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Principles of Population Studies.4. Bhende. Ltd. (2002). Coimbatore. (2005). (2005). Ltd. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. A. Jayapoorni. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Modern Problems of Education. 228 . T. N.3.K. (2004). Kantikar. V. Centre for Women’s Studies. Reddy. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. J. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty.
220.127.116.11 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 18.104.22.168.4.8.3 4.1 4.1 Minor games 4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .3 Indigenous games 4.7 22.214.171.124 19.LESSON 4.10 4.4 Lead up games 4.4 4.2 126.96.36.199.4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 188.8.131.52 4.6 4.4.2 Major games 4.4.5 4.
The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. you will be able to: 1. understand the importance of Physical Education 4.4.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. team spirit. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. 4. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. which forms its most valuable assets. mental alertness. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. as it should 230 . The concept of physical education has been made broader. the youth of the country. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. leadership and balance in defect. moral fitness and emotional fitness.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. perseverance. full records of physical activities should be maintained. 4. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education.4. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. classify the different types of games.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.4. social fitness. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness.4. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.
Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. team spirit. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. They are inseparably united together. Every individual is a part of society. The educational efforts at home. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Therefore. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. obedience to rules. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . They go hand in hand. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. To be more precise. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. leadership.
recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. nor body but the whole man.” The Secondary Education Commission. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. Just like Education. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. game and sports. 4. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. Rousseau states. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. ment al. H. Buck has observed that 232 . mo ral. a sound health. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. pleasing manners. “Physical education does neither train up the soul.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal.4.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers.” Montaigue writes. Physical exercises. C. Regarding the significance of physical education. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers.
Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. “If we wish to develop the whole being. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. etc. endurance. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. efficiency and character.a properly directed physical education should result in health.” 4. initiative. elegance. Froebel says. resourcefulness and smartness. 233 .5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. speed. strength. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. we must exercise the whole human being. happiness. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength.” In brief.4. coordinative abilities. flexibility and power. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.
Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. While wars. they may form gangs. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Every age has its artists. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. these fundamental things have always been present. in greater or lesser degree. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. including all racial groups and historical ages. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. 234 (i) (ii) . have come and gone in the long record of mankind. systems of government. should help in the spiritual development of the student. poetry and painting. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. its adherents and its enemies. plagues and famines. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students.
to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. Write any two importance of Physical Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. self. respect for rules.sacrifice. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. 3. B. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. bravery and interest in games and sports. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. to develop tolerance. etc. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 235 . to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. 2.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. obedience.\ to develop perseverance.
and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured.4. 12. Act as a leader. 5. 15. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. defects. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Be well-prepared. 6. .4. is essential. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Keep the field ready for the activities. Posture screening should be done. Usually parents. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 7. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Inform health principles. injuries among pupils should be made. 4. Be self-confident. Always keep the whistle ready. and readmission after they have recovered. 10. 16. 3. 14. Be in the uniform. 8. 11. Be punctual. students. 13. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Be sportive. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Haag. 9. 236 1. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities.H.4.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 2. and. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. 4.
4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 237 .8. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. 4. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Indigenous games. the play. their development is handicapped. Such inst incts as imitation. less equipment and less expense.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. 1. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.4. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. 2. 4. 3.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. Lead up games. As such they are well enjoyed by children. chasing. 4. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. frolic and jo y. Moreover.
under ball pass Relay. zig zag relay. finding the partner. over ball pass Relay.8. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. Shuttle Badminton. Khokho. wherever the kids assemble. Except a few games. benefit in playing minor games. on mountain tops and on river beds.. Jumping. Kabaddy etc. Volley Ball. On lawns. Ball Badminton. dribbling. muffling. the play equipment. stopping. bowling etc. Throwing. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Cricket. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Tennikoit. While many of them are played in the open playfields. Tennis. 4.With a very few rules. snatching the kerchief.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. They are played for a shorter duration. Soft Ball. on sea-shore. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. couple tag. the games can be modified according to convenience. 238 . driving. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. For each game the rules are many. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. pitching. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. The dimension of the posts and nets. some of them are played indoors. trapping. spiking. Jump the stick clay and so on. women take part most of the games. the number of players and substitutes. Dodging. Hockey. Hopping. heading. Basket Ball.4. on hard courts. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. catching. boosting. with implements or without implements. These games require varied skills such as running. skipping. hitting. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest.
Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. List out some major games. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. For example. An example for indigenous game is 8. birth.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.8. On occasions like marriage. They have an abundant social value. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. festivals connected with religion and public functions. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. 4. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.4. Games may be classified as 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . These games find their places in the high school activity programmes.8. Kho-kho. and . death. All the fundamental tactics. 7. While observing the players in action. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. these games being popular. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm.4. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. they are in existence.
Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. 4. d. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.4. 2. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. 3. aims and objectives and need of physical education. a. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. 5. 2. 3. a.4. 4.4. b. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. b. 4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. b. Posture screening should be done. c. Minor and Major 240 . to secure physical health b. physically and emotionally fit and alert. a.4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Briefly discuss the different types of games. to develop physical stamina. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. 4.
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J. Volley Ball. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2008).4. Foot-ball. Ball Badminton. Health. (2005). Khokho 8. Handbook of Physical Education. J. Mohanty. Shuttle Badminton. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Kabaddy 7. 241 . Tennis. Khokho. (2009). Aggarwal.K. Hockey.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Ltd. J. (2008). G. 4. Basket Ball. Soft Ball. Krishna murthy. Tennikoit.C. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Cricket. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers.6. Physical Education and Sports. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.
5.1 Natural Environment 4.5.3 4.7 4.LESSON 4.5.2 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.10 4.11 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .4 4.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.184.108.40.206.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.6 4.5.8 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 220.127.116.11.1 4.5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.9 4.
4. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. 3.5. 4. 2. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. 243 . list out the types of environment 3. economic.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. it covers the following elements: 1. Details are given below: I. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. 5. 3. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Essential knowledge about the Environment.educat ion for the environment. 2. 4. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Attitude.5. social. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Awareness. Evaluation Ability. Participation. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. political. Skills. education about the environment and education through the environment.5. aesthetic and educational factors. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 6. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. population explosion and resource depletion could be. Knowledge. you will able to: 1. The best place to start such learning is school. Broadly.
Oxidants Other pollutants. heat sink and wind flow in cities. 2. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population.B. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. • Biological magnification E. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. F. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. D. a. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. 244 . Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C.
The pill ii. 3. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1.3. Family planning ii. 2. Socio-economic measures. Intrauterine device iii. economic. 4. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. c. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Control of population growth a. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. The human ecosystem II. Birth control through education b. Use of medical science i. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. 2. B. III. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Abortion iv. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Persuasion: i. Sterilisation.
3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (UNESCO. e) Recycling. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Water pollution abatement.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Air pollution abatement ii. 246 . Define Environmental Education. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. 1983).
4. He modifies according”. -other. a. A change in one brings about a change in the other. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. 4. These are biotic components.5. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .5. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. Any constituent or condition of the environment. includes the plants. Biological environment The biological environment. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. to his needs.5.other components of the environment. They interact with each. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. animals and other organisms (biotic).5.5. telex.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. way is called environmental or ecological factor. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.5. b. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. fax agricultural apparatus. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.
windmills. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. sources. reasons. natural way of controlling pests. preventing siltation of dams. social studies. industrial survey. water scarcity. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. supplying timber for various uses. use of medicinal plants. industrial pollut io n. ozone depletion. ozone layer deplet ion. noise control. are the topics which may be taught in History. use of pesticides. t heir role in preventing pollution. change in climate may be added. over exploitation of ground water. balance of nature. need for bio-diversity. desertification 248 . At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. extinction of species. explosion deforestation. noise pollution. (ii) Air pollution. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. nuclear energy. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. etc. effects. excellent recreation sites. importance of nitrogen cycle. river systems.. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. sources of pollut ion.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. trees reducing noise pollution. population. food chain and food-web. solar cookers. greenhouse effect. preserving the watersheds. nuclear warfare. effects o f CFC. History The rise and fall. relation between population and pollution. maintaining the ecological diversity. of civilizations. mineral survey. etc. alternate sources of energy. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. role of trees in building economy. need for conservation. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . importance of trees in the production of oxygen. evolution. wars and hazards of war. air pollutants from industries. acid rain. biogas plants. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion.
249 . treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 7. Peepal and Tulsi. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 6. 4. aims and scope. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 4. 12. 9. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. animal and plants. 10. 13. 11. 5. 14. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 3. 8. 2. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant.may be inc ded in Geography. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. group discussions and seminars. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Providing. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising conferences. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues.5.
List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. used oils down the drain. 6. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Use public transport wherever it is possible. 5. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Reuse carrier bags. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. or form a car pool for everyday travel. World Environmental falls on 250 . Don’t burn any waste. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Never put any left over chemicals. it will cause pollution. all these can cause serious pollution. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles.Send their waste oil. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. If it is done. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. especially plastics. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June.
To discuss the approach to problems or topics. To arrange for visiting speakers. (cleanliness. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. To provide materials needed for practical work. Harmony with the nature . Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. The groups may exchange. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. etc. rather than conquest and mastery. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection.). Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. deforestation. orderliness and beauty). According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. potable water. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. Social responsibilit y (common good. To provide reference materials for children’s use. concern for others). etc. CFCs. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. loss of bio-diversity. developing desirable attitudes. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Concern for species. To arrange visits or expeditions.5. dest roying nat ural habitats. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. viz. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. diversity and stability. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. and 251 .. nuclear wars. depletion of ozone. Att itudes of balance towards nature.4.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information.mat erials. Conservation of natural resources. values and habits.
11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 8.5. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. 252 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. preserving natural cycles. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. 4.
Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. b. Providing. Nanda. Kuldeep. Environmental Education. b. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Udaiveer. Education for values. Social responsibilit y (common good. over exploitation of ground water. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population.K. Ltd. sources. (2004). Organising conferences. 6.\ 4. To provide materials needed for practical work. T.K. new problems from science and technology. 8. (2007). To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Publications Pvt. Ltd. (ii) Air pollution. S. concern for others). New Delhi : Authors Press. 5. a. Knowledge. explosion deforestation. (2007). population. ozone layer deplet ion. (1997). a. S. group discussions and seminars. Rapid population growth. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Awareness.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu.. To provide reference materials for children’s use. 3. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. air pollutants from industries. importance of nitrogen cycle. Anmol Publications Pvt.K. acid rain. b.K. relat ion between population and pollution. b. greenhouse effect. June 5 7. 4. water scarcity. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Modern Problems of Education. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . New Delhi : Sharma. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Environmental Education. sources of pollution. effects. a. reasons. Environment and Human Rights. Y. a.2.5.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 18.104.22.168 Idealism and aims of Education 22.214.171.124 Idealism and Curriculum 126.96.36.199 Idealism and methods of teaching 188.8.131.52 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and aims of Education 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and Curriculum 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and methods of teaching 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 126.96.36.199 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
188.8.131.52 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 184.108.40.206 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
Universal Education. It is self-realisation. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. Spiritual Development. promote and transmit it to rising generation." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. man is essentially a moral being. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. in fact. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm.” 5. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. enrichment and transmission of culture. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. should be universal in nature.1.3. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Education must contribute to development of culture. moral. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . Education according to idealism.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation.our life. The universe is regarded as a thought process. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. the emancipation of spirit. Therefore. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. According to Rusk'.
He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. Learning through reading.3.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types.1. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. 3. So he should embody. Learning through discussion. 5. friend and guide.the spiritual qualities of mankind. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. 4. should be there. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. According to Frobel. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. So health. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. According to idealism.” 5. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Science.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. So cognition (knowing). Ethics. Herbert advocated instruction method. an indispensable necessity. He carries the child from darkness to light. so subjects like Religion. subjects like Languages. The plant can grow. Mathematics etc. a spiritual guide for the child. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. hygiene. the school is a garden. For intellectual development. 2.” He is thus. affecting (feeling). Learning through lecturing. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. Philosophy. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. no doubt.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . For this no particular method has been suggested. Learning through imitation.1. 5. It considers teacher as. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. However. Learning through questioning.3. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. He sets the environment in which education takes place. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. History. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. and collation (striving) should find due place. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education.
whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self.preservation. 2. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Perfection of Human Machine. formal lessons or examinations.perfection and beauty.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. curricula. text books. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.1.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. Ross explains. time tables. "Education should make 263 • . Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. 5. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In the words of Ross.
Punishment is given by nature in its own way. It is based on the psychology of the child. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Literature. Biology. Education also aims at helping the individual t. In all. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. therefore. Education should. Chemistry. Zoology. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Botany etc Language. “Education finds its purpose. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. geography should also be included in the curriculum. • 5.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum.1. It emphasises physical and health education 5. It stresses basic sciences. There is no place for religious and moral education. Arithmetic. 4.4. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Therefore. Naturalistic curriculum. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. education should develop the child into Joyous. rational harmoniously balanced. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. is based on the nature of the child. useful and mature child. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. 264 .the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. subjects like history. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality.
It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Learning through observation. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. 5.1.1. he should be taught by experience alone.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers.4. Dalton Plan.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In the .” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. 4.5. It discards all rigid. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. 2. Rousseau says. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Learning through experience. Heuristic method. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Learning by doing. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. 5. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.1.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . 3. a provider of an ideal environment. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. the stage. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy.
Subjects. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Vocational and 266 . History. Sciences. Continuous Growth. 5. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Continuous reconstruction of Experience.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. diversified and flexible.1. Agriculture. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. is true. The aim of educational development. Social Efficiency.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed.5.5. Social Science. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Geography. 5. All Round Development of an Individual. of human personality is in terms of his physical. social and moral aspects. Physical training.absolutism of idealism. Personal Social Adjustment. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems.1. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. intellectual. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. The individual has not only to adjust himself. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism.
The subjects. a senior partner and a sincere guide.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment.1. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. 5. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. He must be trained. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. should find proper place.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Learning by Doing.1.Technical Education. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. a teacher occupies an important position. alert and resourceful.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” 5. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child.5. He has to be active. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.
Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. 4. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Chemistry. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Study of Subjects like Language. scientific and psychological education. 5. intellectual.1. It favours child-centered. 5. 4. Sex Education. History. 3. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Education is preparation for a complete living. literary or humanistic education. Art. Psychology. practical. 3. Music and Dance. Astrology. specific. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. 5. 2.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1.1. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. liberal. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life.6. Literature. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind.6. Geography are unnecessary 268 .1. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Population Education.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism.5. The basic tenets of realism are 1. 2. Biology. Mathematics. Biography Philosophy. rich and happy. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Crafts.
6. easily and pleasantly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.1.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.1. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. certainly and clearly. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.6.
Child centered c. 6. pragmatism and realism. Sciences. Self Realisation b. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Social Science.1. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. & curriculum. a. Rousseau 5. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. History. has no end other than growth.1. Education according to pragmatism. Universal Education 2. naturalism. Tours / Excursion e. Languages. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. in this lesson. Learning through imitation. Learning through lecturing. Experimentation d. Learning through questioning. c. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Vocational and Technical Education. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Demonstration and Observation 270 .8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Physical training. d.1. e. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. 3. Learning through discussion. Agriculture. Learning through reading.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. 5. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Geography. a. Learning through experience b. 5. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life.5. a.7 LET US SUM UP We have. 5. b.
Narang C.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. of Pathak. R. Foundations of Education.P.P. P. Pahuja. N.1. (2003).H. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Bhatia. O.5. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. (2007). Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004). K. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Ltd. L. P. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi : A. 271 . Publishing corporation. (2007).
5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 220.127.116.11.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2.4. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 18.104.22.168.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.4 Views about teacher 22.214.171.124.4.3.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.3 Methods of teaching 126.96.36.199.2.LESSON 5.3.1 Aims of Education 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .2 Curriculum 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.2.4 Views about teacher 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.1 Aims of Education 5.1 Aims of Education 5.4. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2.2 Curriculum 18.104.22.168 5.
3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.8 5. content and methods. 5.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.2.2. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.4 Role of the teacher 5. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. an artist. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.2.2. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.5. you will able to: 1. 273 .1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. 2. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. mind and spirit.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Gandhiji was primarily a social. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. 5. economic and political reconstruction in our country.2.5. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.2. Tagore was a poet.7 5. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.6 5. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.
He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. In the words of Gandhiji. strength of mind. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. His scheme of education is life centred. 274 . It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education." Dignity of Labour.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. 5. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. It really provides opportunity for character building. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote.intellectual and physical faculties of the children.2. "I attach more. it is education of life. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. through life and for life. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. nor the gross animals body. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim.supporting. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. 'Man is neither mere intellect. righteousness. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. mind and soul of children He further observed. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji.3. self-restraint and service of humanity. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor.
Drawing and Hindustani.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. metal work. leather work have been suggested. Individual and Social Aims. Mother-tongue. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.2. 5. the realization of the ultimate reality. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. wood work. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Music. "Development of the moral character. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. Art.Training for Leadership.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. General Sciences.3. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . According to Gandhi. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Only good individual forms a better society. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. gardening. development of the whole all were directed: towards.
Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Basic education is other wise known as 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.trained.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.3.2. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. proficient. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. men of 276 . all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.3.2.
He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education must be child centered. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1.3. 5.2. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. That is why. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 .knowledge. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. He also advocates freedom for the child. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. 3. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says.
The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. He believed in the oneness of humanity.K. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. He was a true patriot. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. He was deadly against untouchability. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 5. • Cult of non-violence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.2. Gandhi in 1937.4. he was a true Vedantist 5.” Like all other ideals. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .2. • Ideal of citizenship. • Education should involve manual work. 5.
Mother tongue and other Indian languages. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Therefore. stronger in power than ever before. Dance. Religion and Psychology.2. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Chemistry.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . International Understanding. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. That way only. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Civics." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Tagore said. sentiment. could help in forging unity among all. (vi) Philosophy. Music. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge.4. complete manhood could be attained. It should help. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Zoology.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. wider in range. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. them solve problems of day to day life. the more dedicated and devoted. Botany. 279 .Language and Literature . he said. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. deeper in. It should help the learner have good physique. International understanding. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Geography. "Mankind must realise a unity. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. etc.
A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.2. Activity Method Heuristic Method. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.4.4. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.2.2.” He further says. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. 5." 5.4. 5. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. Tagore rightly says. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. In 1921. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. 280 .
Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. 9. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. race. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. 10. It is open to all irrespective of country. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. 281 . What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11.g. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5.
2. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Freedom. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Education for strong Moral Character. 3. man making.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. Book learning. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. According to him.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues.” 5. Education for Self-realization.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.5. 4. work and deeds come out of it.2. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Education should make a person self-reliant. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Purity of thought. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. He believed in to learning or selflearning. character forming and assimilation of ideas.5. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. The whole beauty of life is linked with it." He was against the theoretical type of education. 2. Education for Self-reliance. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Concept of Education. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him.
6. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. Philosophy and Theology. Religion. 5. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. 5. philosopher and guide to the students He. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Thirdly he wished that games.2. 283 . Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. 5. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Education should help in the physical development of an individual.5.5. The teacher should be the facilitator. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. A physically strong person is the need of the society. Swami. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Education for Physical Development.5. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Discussion Method. That will serve the purpose of education fully.2. engineering and technical subjects.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Secondly he wanted Science.5. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Of course. And above all. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things.2. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.the learners on different students in the discussion. Every individual should be trained for concentration. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.
Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. We have seen that Tagore. 2. Their educational ideas. and pragmatist . List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write short notes on Basic education. 5. legs. Gandhiji as a Idealist. 5.2. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. 12. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. in this lesson. naturalist. of course. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man.2. 284 . Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people.6 LET US SUM UP We have. ears and eyes.Substantiate your answer.
Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Meditation and concentration c. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. 2. Self-Study b. leather work have been suggested. 11. Technique of Correlation 6. Explain Vishwabharathi. Debate and Discussion Method. Learning by Doing c. Activity Method d. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. c. b. Basic education. 8.2. 5. a. 5. d. e. a. Activity Method b. gardening. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. wood work. 3. Teaching while Walking b. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Self realization. 10. Nai Talim 4. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. c. Heuristic Method. Education should involve manual work. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 5. a. metal work. a.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Cult of non-violence.4. 9. f. 1937 7. Discussion Method 285 . Ideal of citizenship. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda.
(2007). Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Aggarwal. 286 . J. on Bhatia. C. L. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. P.P.5. Pahuja.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. Publishing Corporation. (2002). (2004).2. B. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). Ltd. K and Narang C. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. O. (2003).H. New Delhi : A. N. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. P. Dhiman. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. K.
LESSON 5.2 5.9 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3 5.11 5.3.5 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124.3.3.1 5.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.10 5.6 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3.4 5.7 5.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.8 5.3. In this lesson. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.
Both the processes are integrated. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. it is identical wit h socializat ion. is a means to the process. the plain area. In it. in fact . new behaviour may be acquired. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. in the U.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5.under the direction of the school. you will be able to: 1. Since the demands. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’.A. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . While education is a process.3. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. maintained or eliminated.. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. Then in a big country like India. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. in the form of new experience.3. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. present behaviour may be modified. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. state the meaning of curriculum 2. While education is learning.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. In the words of Kerney and Cook. curriculum.3. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. A g o o d curricu lu m. Curriculum is intimately related to education. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. From the latter point of view. 5.S. there is a large number of communities. in Russia or in Japan. curriculum signifies situations for learning. the plateau area and 288 . ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. the desert area. living in the hilly area. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. In the former sense. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5.
The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. It must differ from locality and from society to society. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. In fact . A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. customs and needs. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. Again. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. 5. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. studying therein. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. environment. if it is to educate the whole of the personality.3.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. democratic and socialistic country. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. From a slave-country we became secular. it is. according to modern trends in the educational process. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. differs from individual to individual. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. Besides craft. the learning capacity of children. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. irrespective of their needs and environment. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. too. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. therefore. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. and 289 . However.
They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. tangible. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. they depend on the political. Goals of Secondary Education. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . uninspiring and unscientific. emotional. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. They are achievable. Application Objective.g. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. moral. Vocational Efficiency. social. So it is inadequate. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. 5. 290 .3. 4. unsatisfactory.. e. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. unambiguous and functional. which may or may not be attained. Understanding Objective. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. 2. of classroom. e. etc. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. 3. etc. Knowledge Objective. individual or Social and so on.. They speak of immediate purposes of education. They speak of perfect goals. National Integration.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. specific. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. The word “Curere” means 2. social. aims. They are visionary goals e. etc. remote or immediate... Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Self Realisation. in instructional objectives. aesthetic and spiritual development. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. eg. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands.g. They may be ultimate or proximate. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. general or specific. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. 1. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. Goals of Primary Education.g. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process.
“The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. in the class rooms. The interests.5. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. According to Crow and Crow. finding them very interesting and captivating. needs.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced.3. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. The old and prevalent curriculum is under.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. Crow and Crow remarks. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. educationists. but it includes the totality of experiences. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. heavy fire. abilities. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” 291 . capacities. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. Raymont rightly says. on the playing fields.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects.
Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. aptitudes. moral. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. time in a useful manner. mental. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. tendencies. Due to these variations and differences. capacities and abilities.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. urges. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. They often waste it or rather kill it.
production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. 2.curricular. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. phased preparation. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. development of professional capability at all levels. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. 3. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. Similarly. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. 293 . To ensure success of the process. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. organized. administrative programme need be planned.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching.
principles of curriculum construction.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. 11. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation.3. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 12. 17.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Run. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. laboratory.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. workshop. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. Child Centred Education b.3.3. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. 5. library. a. 18. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Relation with Life c. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. 10. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. 1937 19.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. in the class room. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 .
K. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. N. Lakshmi. S. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. (2007).12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Innovations in Education. New Delhi : Authorspress. Curriculum Development. New Delhi : Isha Books. S. Bhalla. P.3.S. Curriculum and Instruction. and Sarita Kumari.5. (2001). (2007). D. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 295 . (2007).
1 Developing scientific outlook 126.96.36.199.3 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4.1 5.4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.10 188.8.131.52.4.6.LESSON 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 184.108.40.206.9 5.5 220.127.116.11 Scientific Attitude 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 18.104.22.168 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 22.214.171.124 5.4 126.96.36.199.2 5.
importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. superstition or emotion. Gradually. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.during the second half of this century. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. tolerance for the opinions of others. 2. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology.4.5. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. you will be able to: 1. in the economic reconstruction of society. know the importance of science education. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. We mean curiosity. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . 5. 297 . understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not.4. newer and newer industries started growing. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. 3.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. 4. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. open-mindedness. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings.4. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. honesty. 5. explain the concept of scientific attitude. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age.
These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. 5. Devotion towards nature increases. 4. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. After such experience and training. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. 2. 3. 5. Central science workshop. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Love for truth enhances. seminars and symposiums. 6. 5. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. 6. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Through examinations. Organisation of science fairs. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 7. Selection for science education. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Principles are formulated. Schemes of teaching science. Promotion of science clubs.So that. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. as well as of the society. 3.4. Thinking and memory develops. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 5.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work.4. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Through newspapers.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . stipends and appreciations in various ways. 2. 4.
The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. sex or religion. For laboratory and workshop techniques.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. 7.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. should provide opportunities to. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Enquiry teaching is. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They encounter many social events as they grow. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4. They experience natural phenomenon. They ask many questions about the objects they see. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. It is. essential that teachers. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. 5. 5. After presenting the problem. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. each child to “enquiry skill building”. therefore.6. Training of science teachers. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look.4. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. Write any two advantages of Science Education. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. objectivity. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. In the inquiry approach.needs and conditions.
3. Evidence. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues.4. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. 6. 3. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook.books. commands or orders. 5. to ask questions and experience things. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Social sciences.6. stern pursuit of accurate data. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Giving less directions.Herma Wouk. Appreciating pupils ideas. . 4.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 5. Adopting creative models of teaching. It requires consistent thinking. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. test. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. 300 . . 5.4. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . if they like. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”.
open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. to develop among the learners. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. These include open mindedness. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. it must be encouraged.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science.7. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. The students observation. keen observation. of vast resources running waste. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. 5. For instance. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. and emphasized during the learning process . In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. school and society at large. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience.4. (Vaidya 2007). Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students.(Smith 2008). friends. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. neighbourhood. critical thinking and suspended judgments. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. To achieve this we should understand what it means. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. therefore should be unbiased and objective.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. practiced. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth.
The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. rumor. (Das. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. The intention to respect another’s point of view. he studies all aspects of it. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science.7. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. intuition or wishful thinking”. think and work it”. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. understanding and logic. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. 5. In considering a situation or a problem.4. 302 . Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. or superstitions. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. 2007). Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions.
• 5.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil.7. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. 5.4. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. but to begin only after careful planning. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .7.4. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. 5. it must be encourages.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. 304 . Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.4. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education.
Love for truth enhances.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. 4. Study of superstitions d. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. 305 .11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa.B (2008). 16. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Reflections on Scientific attitude. Adopting creative models of teaching. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. objectivity. N. D. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Proper example of the teacher c. Yadav. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. 3. S. 5. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.4. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. b. Planning of activities 5. 5. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. a. a. a. (2008). b. b. M. a.4. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. 2.4. Rao.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.S. (2006). Wide reading b.5. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. (2000). Vaidya.
6 5.5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5. actively.11 5.5.2 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.8 5.5. you will be able to: 1. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5.3 5.5.10 5.LESSON 5.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.1 5. state the concept.5.5 5. objectives and characteristics. areas of institutional planning.9 5. 188.8.131.52.4 5. 306 . 2.7 5.5.
the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . in the task of educational planning. every parent. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. and. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. and every student in the process of educational planning. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. Institution should be regarded as the unit.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. 5. 5.5. • To make institutional planning more successful. which become the bases for further planning at the district. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans.5. State and national levels from below. teachers and students is not lost sight of. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. every teacher. executive as well as public.3. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. and supplement planning from above. and each student are regarded as separate entities. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. • to involve teachers and school administrators. • to make planning development-oriented. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. each teacher. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions.
who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.• implemented. 5. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. and Personnel services. approved after making necessary modifications. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. 308 . (2) Co. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. council and. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. it becomes the basis for school inspection.curricular Activities. Classwork.5. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. which will be discussed in the general. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. Syllabus.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. etc. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.5. Co-curricular activities. Examinations. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.
etc. scientific and historical excursions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Preparation of audio-visual aids. etc. 1. Fair distribution of syllabi. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Organisation of Self-Government Days. etc. Conducting of educational. Improving the internal assessment. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Preparation of models. etc. Equipping of laboratory and library. 3. hobby-centres. charts and apparatus.No. Organising play-for-all programmes. Organisation of Students’ Association. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. etc. Courts. Organisation of class-room libraries. Running science clubs. Organisation of Pupils. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Preparation of instructional material. Editing the school magazine. Undertaking remedial instruction services.
Administrator-State.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. teacher-State. administrator-pupil. and —pupil-pupil. understanding.” The human relationships in. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. involving mainly human materials. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. students’ associations. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. ii. parent-teacher associations.5. teacher-managing body. teacher-teacher. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. pupil310 . headmasters associations. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. teacherinspector. administrator-administrator. teacher-pupil.5. administrator-supervisor. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. etc. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. which are divided as the in. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. and solidarity. co-operation. parents. teachers. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. pupils. science teachers’ associations.
The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. superintendence. control. organisation and management.State. Good. According to C. and to serve. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent.5. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. to attend. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. teacher-community leader. supervision. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. now-a-days. V. to accomplish.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. pupil-community leader. 311 . pupil-parent. etc. social sciences and other disciplines. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. It covers personnel and material management. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. pupil-non-official functionaries. supervision and superintendence. pupil-inspector. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. organisation. It is also being modernized to become a technique. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. teacher-parent. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. to carry out." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. To administer means to manage. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. administrator.
The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. Economic Management . 8. Liasion with the Public . 10.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 11. If the cost benefit ratio is less. low. This is the latest democratic trend in management.Of all the approaches. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. Those. Democratic Management . Rapport between the Management and Employees . 9. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. If it is more. 6.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.Management should be efficient and economical 312 .Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. Socio-Scientific Approach . 5. 2. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . Better Human Relationships . Motiviation .The manager should take his subordinates into confidence.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. 12.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .The manager should have leadership traits. who occupy the managerial positions. The relationship should change from master. Leadership .This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. 13.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. Worker Participation .Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. 4. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. Decision Making . He should be an artist in human relationships. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. it is not worth-while. 7. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. 3. Cost-Benefit Analysis . Communication .sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic.Any good management will always have good public relations.
Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained.These two are.5. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. 313 . Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution.5. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. enrichment of curricula. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. 14.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and cooperative performance should be ensured. 5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work.g. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. 19. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. improvement of teaching methods. 5. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.too. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. objective. to improve the quality of education it provides. 18. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance .
11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. NUEPA.5. Fundamental of Educational Management. 4.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. a. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Classwork. and Personnel services. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Singh. In group and Out group 5. S. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. R. APH Publishing Corporation. b. Co-curricular activities. Tarachand and Prakash.5. Motiviation d. Educational Administration.5. (2003). it becomes the basis for school inspection. f. b. (2001). H. Communication 5. Leadership c. 314 .K. Decision Making b. 2.M. b. Instruction. Syllabus. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. c. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. (1995). d. a. Examinations. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. e. a. a.
Healthy Food Habit 4. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. Inspection and Supervision 3. 2.4 India's Secular Policy . Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. physical education and environmental education 5.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.Article 45 .3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.teachers should have : 1. Balanced diet. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. First Aid.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .Pre-service and In-services facilities.1 Inculcation of Socialism.5 Regional Educational Development in India .I. Common ailments of Children.3 Directive Principles . (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. nutritional requirement.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Communicable diseases . higher education.1 School Health Programme.CORE PAPER . social Impact 3.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . women education and teacher education in India.Religious and Modern Education 1. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.1 Primary Education : Education for all. Community and Mass Media 2.1 Gurukula system of education.Preventive measures. Sex-education 4.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. 1. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Economic 315 .Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Preservation of nutrients.2 Nutritional deficiencies.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. 4. New evaluation procedures. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . School. Realized the problems of school education. Code of conduct for teachers.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.3 Educational Influences of Home. Buddhist and Jain system of education. population education. wastage and Stagnation 3. Examination reforms.
Naturalism and Pragmatism . (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Pandy V.1 Idealism.K.R.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. 7. and Sharma R. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.N. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. Delhi : University Publications 2.Aim. 5. T. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. and Human Development. Hemchand. 316 . (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. Mahatma Gandhi.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.K. B.K.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Mishra. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. Saraswathi T.K. R.C. REFERENCE 1. Ram S.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Prof. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles .N. (2004) Problems of Education in India. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Ghanta R. Curriculum and national goals . Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Kalan Paper Packs 10. and Dash B.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5.4 4. New Delhi: NCERT 3. and Mohanty R. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.S. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Tagore 5. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. Realism. Taneja V.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.4. (1999) Culture. Socialization. (2005) Foundations of Education. Sharma.
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