This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. 9 . The need. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. In. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. and Jain system of education. Lesson 5. Jainism and their educational implication. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. Lesson 2. discusses the regional educational development in India. Lesson 4. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India.
2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 18.104.22.168 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.LESSON 22.214.171.124.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 184.108.40.206.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.2 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 220.127.116.11.1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 18.104.22.168 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.6.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.5.5 Jain system of education 1.1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .6 Education during British Era 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199.
Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. elucidate the education during British Era.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. both present and future.1.1.6. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1. 1. 1.1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.3. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. That 12 . being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. India.1.6.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. describe the Jain system of Education 4. Education in India. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.1. but English in taste. you will be able to: 1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.8 1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. Indian in blood and colour. in morals and in the intellect”.1. British system of education presented the modern western model.9 1. The history of education passed through Buddhist. “a class of persons. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. Muslim and British periods.1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. in opinion.1.7 1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. has a long past history starting in vedic education.1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. 1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.
and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. not en masse by the class method. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. questioning by the pupil. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Method of Study. 13. Immediate Aim Vocational. Free and Accessible. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. with grants of land or money. however. managed entirely by Brahmans. generally. 6. followed by explanation by the teacher. Forests as Centres of Education. individually. from eternal to immorality 2. Teacher as Parents. to light. Curriculum. Individual Teaching. 8. High Status of Teachers. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Role of Travel in Education. There was. Education was a private affair of the people. Religious and Spiritual. The immediate aim of education. 12. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. and to agriculture and trade. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. 4. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 10. It was not merely intellectual. Residential Schools. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. 11. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 9. No State Control on Education. 5. 16. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. 13 . as it is generally considered to be at present.knowledge was real. 14. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. 3. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. Pupils were taught. Education of Moral. if they thought fit to do so. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Where pupils were many. It was also moral. from darkness. religious and spiritual. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. the monitorial plan was followed. Method of Instruction.
Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. 2. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. studied Vedas. It was suited to the needs of the society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It was freely available to all those who wanted. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony.17. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. lived a life of celebacy. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. They were very cordial and intimate. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Wide-Spread Education in Women. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values.1. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. 1. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils.
the student had his head shaved of all hair. Education was imparted through the. dressed himself in yellow clothes. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period.4. Right activity 5. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. watching dances or listening to music. Right thought 3. impure conduct. taking things without being offered. Consequently.C. Right speech 4. disease and death of the human beings. killing of any living being. Right means of livelihood 6. except the Chandals. Right contemplation 1. every class in society. It was denied only to the ill. After attaining the age of 20. had the right to receive education. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. in which. use of cosmetics. Right memory 8. medium of Pali. I take Refuge to Sangh. the most significant of which were the following 1. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. 2. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. use of intoxicating things.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. 15 . Buddha was concerned about the suffering. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. 1. etc. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Right knowledge 2. Right endeavour 7. partaking of food at prohibited times. he was qualified to become a monk. the handicapped. which included abstaining from theft. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people.1. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. I take Refuge to Dharma.
geology. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. Life is in a flux.. It comprehended education in writing. etc. Even at this stage. of clothes. along with education in script writing. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. As reality is becoming. the presence of the monks was essential. archery. agriculture. changing the goals. Whatever its nature and extent. and. etc. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. a continuous change creating 16 . Initially. therefore. 2. eat food thrice a day. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. magic. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. On this occasion. elephant lore. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. cottage industries. it is regarded as true”. control over sensuous activities. After this ritual. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. 7. depth and range. approach. assumptions. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. 6. 5. however. a change is not only total but also perpetual. so long as it successfully does so. Later on. animal husbandry. women occupied a position inferior to men. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. 3. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. 1. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. nature. wear three items. medicine. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. Hence. beg for alms. education was impart in art. arithmetic and religious discussion. be considered the aim of education It. archery. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life.3. commerce. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. objectives of human life. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. has no metaphysical value for life. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. meaning. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. etc. These are called later Buddhist schools. aspirations and. the science of taming and training animals. bodily gestures. 4. knowledge of reviving the dead. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. 8. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. handicrafts.4. military science. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. nothing is of any permanent consequence.
1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. Validity is effective and consequences. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. its pessimistic outlook on life. and to give it a shape that it has today. whatever works are true and good. 1. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Its chief feature. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. goes to Vardhaman. therefore.. it is much older than the latter. such as.new and peculiar situations. however.e. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. However. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success.5. Education must. i. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Jainism insists 17 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. In fact. Write Eight fold path . In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. more stress on individual aims. and is to be redeemed and liberated. e) To renounce the world. Hence. 9. and believe in happiness to all. Development of personality as an individual. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. it has a foot in both the words. 6.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 7. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 5. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. 18 . The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. rather than the interpretation of the universe. b) Not utter falsehood. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. 2. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 10. 3. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection.1. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. 8. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. b) Right knowledge. 4. 1. 3. c) Right conduct. 1. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. d) To lead a celibate life. but on both. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. As such. c) Not to steal. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith.5. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. 2. They are: a) Not to injure. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. thought and deed.
2. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. that would be socially desirable. Hence. practised and not only aspired for. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. and should bring happiness to all. 1.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. 8. Belief in transmigration of soul. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue.5. therefore.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Teaching must develop these faculties. education must be action based and ideally oriented. 3. What are Triratnas ? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. 4. 1. education should develop sense of discrimination. 5.5. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. Jiva is essentially karmic. here and now. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 3. success and love. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . 2. 19 .
6. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. Bombay. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time.6.1. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. 1. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. and not for life. Madras. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians.6.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. 1953). 1. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. 2. primary 20 . However. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. philosophy and literature of Europe. North West Province and Punjab. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.1.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. with rally and rout. science. To set up separate departments of. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. 1.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. 1. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.6.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.
1. To ensure qualitative improvement. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.6. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. Later on. In 1882. 1. • Secondary education. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. at the primary level. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. namely. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . 1. At that time M. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners.6.education was neglected. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools.K.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937).5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations.6. secondary education became a step towards university. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. The universities dominated the secondary education. self-respecting and competent. • Universal free primary education. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937.
The objective of education was to provide 22 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. all children are to have a common curriculum. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians.1. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. After this stage. 10. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? .At the primary stage (6-11 years). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.
23 . Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 2. b.1. Right contemplation. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. The immediate aim of education. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration.education of European literature. Right thought. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. a. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education.. 6. Right speech. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Right memory. 1. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Right means of livelihood. etc. science and English language. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. During the Buddhist period. handicrafts. Right endeavour. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. arithmetic and religious discussion. archery. 3. questioning by the pupil. It was suited to the needs of the society. 2. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. 1. establishment of universities. The system of education was well-organised. geology. 4. followed by explanation by the teacher. military science. Right activity. 5. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. the science of taming and training animals. along with education in script writing. education was impart in art. 4.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. Right knowledge. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools.1.
Singh. J. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Development of Educational System in India.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 1937 1. Ltd. Improvement of Literature. Ltd. 11. (2009). 24 . and Nath. a. (1984). 9.K. 1882. R. more stress on individual aims.1.7. History of Indian Education System. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J.K. c. 8. Hence. Development of personality as an individual. Sargent report 12. (2007). Right knowledge. Right faith. b. Sharma. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. (2005). Aggarwal. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva.C. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education.C. Y. Y. 10. Right conduct. b. a.
2.1 1.5 188.8.131.52.4 National Policy on Education 1.2 1.6 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.2.3 Kothari Commission 184.108.40.206.2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.8 1.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 220.127.116.11.9 1.7 18.104.22.168.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 22.214.171.124 1.1 University Education Commission 1.LESSON 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1. The 25 . There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.
technological engineering. 2. 1. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. 1. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. expansion of vocational. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India.2. technical. medical and legal education. secondary and higher education. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. analyse the progress of education in free India. Post-graduate 26 . S. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. you will be able to: 1. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. diversification of courses of studies.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. girls and women education besides primary.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. National Council for Women’s Education 5. examination system. National Board of Teacher Education 10. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. vocational education. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. standard of teaching. 1986 1.conditions of the teachers. curriculum. There had been vast institutional expansion. New Educational Policy. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. Kothari (1964-66) 8. explosion of enrolment.2. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr.3.2.
1986. 1952. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. 1. 1966. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.2. The Essence and Role of Education.3. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. Problems of access. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. the chairman of University Grants commission. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. National System of Education.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. the New National Policy on Education. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. 1. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. Finally. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . Education for Equality. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.3. 3. in January 1985. Education is the key to our allround development. Government of India. However. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. quantity. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.2.teaching. D.3. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. material and spiritual. utility and financial outlay.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. 2. A meaningfully Partnership. Therefore. quality. 4. research et. Kothari. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. accumulated over the years. A. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission.2.S. 1.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. the concepts of work experience. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. It can train practical aptitudes. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. By working with hands. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production.” Thus. Thus. the minorities and the handicapped.2.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. attitudes. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. The UNESCO Report. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. 28 .
but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. the Commission.” The Mudaliar Commission.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. co-ordinations. “It may be described.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. As such. “The aim of these colleges. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. With adequate planning. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. According to. Besides. it will conduce self. The Radhakrishnan Commission. In 1955. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. The Education Commission. if he wishes. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation.
the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. In addition. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. admission requirements to vocational courses. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. raising the special facilities. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. The Central Advisory Board of Education. for quality of life in the rural areas.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. the.ot her. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. the rigid streaming of courses. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. With a view to relating education to the life. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education.. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. Therefore. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. etc. the semester and credit system. Subsequently. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum.
But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. which offer scientific. The wave of Basic Education. meaningful. Commerce. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.defined S UP W as “purposive.. who conceived the System of Basic Education. 31 . meaningful. technological courses including Agriculture. preferably spinning and weaving. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. which are useful to the community. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji.2. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. The Father of Nation. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. etc. In short. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. 1. giving importance to productivity in the national development. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. According to committee.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. felt that education should be centred around a craft. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. manual work resulting in either goods or services. which swept the country for over two decades. aimed at this goal. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf.and the world of work.
so that it is educational in essence. Experimentation with materials. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Food 3.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Work practice. tools and techniques and 3. Clothing 5. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. 4. 32 . Shelter 4. locally available materials and tools. Productive 2. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Health and Hygiene 2. 3. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. be that the work involved is: 1. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. The teachers should make use of. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. as far as possible. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Culture and recreation 6. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Community work and social service. Educative and 3. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. 2. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home.
Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. the local community should be actively associated. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Such activities may include projects of village uplift.2. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Check on educated unemployed 4. slum clearance. inculcate a faith.5. Community Service In-1972. Education through work The SUPW should. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Merits of the Programme 1. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. removal of illiteracy. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. 6. as far as possible. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Productive Work 33 . in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. improve discipline. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. To make education more realistic. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. etc. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. It can become an instrument to build character. 1.
the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. offering first aid. Define SUPW 34 . the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. traffic control.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. AICTE was set up in year 4. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. skills and better future for the children. The community. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. should involve itself in the educational effort. in turn. if not productive. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. etc.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. helping the adults-in productive work.
Radhakrishnan 2.2. which are useful to the community.2. Write short note on SUPW. 2. 1955 4. 1952 3. 6. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 1. Dr. a. 35 . e. b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 1. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. c. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. f. 3. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.2. meaningful. manual work resulting in either goods or services. d.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.1.
. Y. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Publishing Corporation. R. V.K. : Sharma. History of Education. (2009).K. 36 .K. New Delhi: A.D. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.(2005). New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. A.P.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. J. and Rao.C. Y.2. and Nath. B. (2005). P. Ltd. Anupama. History and Problems of Indian Education. Rao. Amala. Development of Educational System in India. (2007). (2007). History of Indian Education System. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.1. Singh.H.P.
and liberty.5 1.3. 37 . 19126.96.36.199 1. equality. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.3.3.369 words in the English language version.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. directive principles and duties of citizens. Besides the English version. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. 1950. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. Being the supreme law of the country.8 1. containing 395 articles.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.188.8.131.52 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.1 Significance of DPSP 1.4 1.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. establishing the structure.3. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.9 1. assuring its citizens of justice. democratic republic.1 1.7 1.3. procedures.2 1. there is an official Hindi translation. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.3. it came into effect on January 26. for a total of 117.3.
Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. political. Through them.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 2. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. 4. for 166 days.3.3. with Dr. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. The Assembly met. administrative. 1. social. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. legal and environmental. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. After many deliberations and some modifications. Two days later. According to the constitution. learn the role of central and state government on education.3. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 38 . the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. Dr. 1947. the Drafting Committee was appointed. On August 29.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. 3. spread over a period of 2 years. you will be able to: 1. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. understand our Indian constitution.3. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. in sessions open to public.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. economic. 1947. 1. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. 1950.In the August 14.
That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Appropriate concentration of wealth. That the health and strength of workers. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. 39 . The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. and shall.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. make effective provision for securing the right to work. The State shall.government. on the basis of equal opportunity. Protecting health of the workers. Equal pay for both sex. Liking wage etc. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Article 39A. men and women. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Right to work. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. for workers. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Equal justice and free legal aid. Article 43. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. in particular. and in other cases of undeserved want. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Protecting children from exploitation. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. No abuse of children. old age. provide free legal aid. Organisation of village panchayat. Condition for dignity of children. sickness and disablement. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Article 41. Article 40. Article 42. Minimising inequalities in status. The State shall endeavour to secure. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice.
in particular. Article 44. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Article 48. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Uniform civil code for the citizens. The State shall take steps. Article 46. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. work. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Article 48A. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Article 43A. Article 45. industrial or otherwise. See also Article 21A).by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. The State shall endeavour to provide. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. in particular. a living wage. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. (Original Article 45. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. and. Note: Subs. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. 2002 for “45. Article 47. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Article 49. agricultural. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Participation of workers in management of industries. by suitable legislation or in any other way. in particular. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. to all workers. [declared by or under law made by 40 .
The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Separation of judiciary from executive. disfigurement. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. maintain just and honourable relations between nations.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. destruction. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. disposal or export. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. removal. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 45 . 2002. Article 50.3. as the case may be. 2.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.Parliament] to be of national importance. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. Promotion of international peace and security. Article-21A Right to Education. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. 1. may be law determine”. from spoliation. Article 51.
Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds.” 42 . Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. 8.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 2002. 3. his guardian has given his consent thereto. race. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. 4. 7. caste. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 5. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. iii. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. if such person is a minor. in particular. and. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. from justice and all forms of exploitations. ii. language or any of them”. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. and shall protect them. 6. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections.
the forms. The central government determines targets and promotes education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Educational Reforms From time to time. & 1. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. Article 351 gives importance to 6.9.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. for its vocabulary. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. 43 . The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. wherever necessary or desirable. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. and by drawing. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. 2. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language.
Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. etc. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. 4. 7. to achieve the desired ends. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Local bodies and private enterprise. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. 6. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Promoting Inter-state understanding g.. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring).3. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. the state governments. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. All India Council of Medical Science. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. By starting these projects. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. The following pilot projects. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. 8. So as to encourage education on right lines. 5. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Production of suitable for children and adults f. So that they may work well. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. private agencies etc.
for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. 10. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. 1.3. 1. 3. research.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. handicapped. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. 11. is the state responsibility.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. 9. are published by it. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Material concerning nation-wide interests. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. books. etc. training and statistics. reports etc. The 45 . It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. 4. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. education for women. 12.
1. Explain Directive principles 2. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9.3. 46 . The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5. articles in the Directive principles. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Write short notes on a. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Article 21A c. Article 46 4. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8.3.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Article 45 b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
3. Describe the educational role of State Government.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. a. a. 2002. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. b. The Directive Principles of State Policy. Article 46 5. 2002. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. 4. 1. 47 . Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. may be law determine”. Clearing House function 9. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. b. Development of Hindi Language 6. a. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Dr. Ambedkar 2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3. Article-21A Right to Education.5. Article 29 and 30 7. Article 45 . Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.
Dash. S. (2007). B. (2004). K and Narang C. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. N.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2008). K. S. Bhatia. (2009). Education in Emerging Indian Society.3. L. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ghosh. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. 48 .1.
1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.1 Why Moral Education 1. Islam.4.1 1.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.6 1. Jainism.4. Buddhism etc.4.4. Students should be 49 .184.108.40.206 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4.2 1.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4 Moral education 220.127.116.11 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1. religious education should be broad based.3.5 18.104.22.168.4. Christianity.22.214.171.124 Aims of Religious Education 1.7 1.8 1.
beauty and goodness so that 50 . 1. duty-consciousness. Thus. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. know the position of religious education in our country 3. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. According to E. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. "In A multireligious society like ours. you will be able to: 1.. India' can produce men of character. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. religious education and the concept of secularism. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. As result of which.and dedication. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline.D.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion.4. state meaning and need for moral education 1.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.” Education broadens human outlook. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. understand the relationship between religion and education 2.4. In the complicated and complex society of today. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. integrity. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).
1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. According to Article 22. As our country is a country of diverse religions. at least occasionally. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full.4. No religious tax can be imposed on them.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. Viewing the defects of religious education.” From the above. 1. castes and creeds. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. They thought that any kind of narrow. 1947 we achieved our freedom.4. According to Article 19. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. it is clear that the State has no religion. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. Hence. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. Children attend these organizations. religion and democracy are same. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. In short.3. Thus. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. As a matter of fact. if not regularly. all citizens are free to follow any creed.3. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. through religious practices and 51 . religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. 1. realizes God in himself. rancour. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education.
Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. He also learns about social. what is done and what is not done etc. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. Good education. intellectual and physical faculties of children. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way.teachings. for the development of the individual and the society. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility.. moral and spiritual values. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. temperament etc. which help him for the development of his character. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. and what is evil. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. which can mould. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. As a result of which. If unreleased. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. aggressive. when he becomes an adult. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. It helps to modify habits attitudes. one fully developed.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. It is religious education.
Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. If we open the pages of history. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. 53 . 1. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. which is the basic need of a democratic life. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument.3. Therefore. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man.4. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. towards the society.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. This should not be allowed to happen. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. 3. 2.
Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. they should be discussed in the right earnest. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Since all religions have virtues. Gurudwara as. churches and mosques 7. examples of patriotism. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1.5. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . stories of moral greatness.4. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Write Article 22 2. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. 11. 10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Life histories of great persons of the world. fellow-feeling. therefore. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. For this. 9. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples.
of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). 7. Ahimsa (Non-violence).5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. The content of the curriculum. 55 . 8.acquisitiveness). Asvada (Control of palate). let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Cultivation of emotions. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. is that which develops moral values. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 6. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 1. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Fearlessness. 4. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 3. 3. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 4. let men see well of one another. therefore.4. 1. Brahmacharya (celebacy). It they learn what morality is in their early years. Purity. Satyam (truth). Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. 8. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. They will play their role effectively. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Without moral values. “Let all be happy and free from disease. in the home. 2. 5. the methods of teaching. Moral education. Non-injury. Aparigarha (Non. 7. Patriotism. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. 6. Self sacrifice. 2. Service to others. students.4. 5.
Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. 1. In the school programme. 10. Asatyam (Non-thieving). 2. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 .9. Good temper. Sharivashram (Physical work). Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Good manners. Secondary Stage 1. Efficiency. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. The School Assembly should be held for a few. National unity and Spiritual values. minutes in the morning for group singing. Integrity. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Unity of mankind. 11. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. 3. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Discipline. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). discipline.4. 56 . Community singing should also be encouraged 2. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. 4. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. religions may be included in the syllabus. 3. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Simple texts and stories concerning different. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions.
The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. 4.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. 5. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. patriotism and self-discipline. 57 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. 2. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. University Stage 1. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. love of humanity. Silent meditation should be encouraged. 3. should form a normal part of school programme. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. In other words. 5. In this connection.
4. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the aims of Religious education. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. 1. The School Assembly should be held for a few. b. a. Sri Prakasa 6 .1. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. For this.4. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.4. Training of Character 3. In short. a. 2. the. minutes in the morning for group singing. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.4. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. b. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. 2. 1. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. 58 . the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. 1959 5. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.
Pahuja. (2008). K. K and Narang C. 59 . Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2004). Ltd. M. L. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2008). (2007). Dash. Bhatia. N. B. New Delhi : Siddiqui. Publishing Corporation.4. N.H. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.1.C.P. New Delhi: A.H. P. (2003). Theory and Principles of Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Anmol Publications Pvt.
5.8 1. disparities between provinces/States. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.. 60 .5.5.5 1.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.e.5.5.6 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.12 1.5.9 1.5. i.2 1.11 1. Although.5.7 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5.3 1.1 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 126.96.36.199.5.10 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.4 1.5.
Selfishness of the regional political leaders. Accordingly. understand the regional educational development in India 3. 61 . they take appropriate measures. etc. 6. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 4. This leads to separatist movements.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. work hard towards this end. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. energy.5. waters. 1. 1.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1.5. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. for example. know the education suited to different environments. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. 5. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. 7. 1. 2.1. roads. They therefore. 8. 3. you will be able to: 1.5.5. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.
• Separate States (of course viable States). Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. while others remained educationally backward. Tight security arrangements should be made. Secularism. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. 3. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. Therefore. and. 62 . 4. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. some States became educationally far advanced.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still.5. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. 2. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. some average. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. on the basis of regional development may be formed.
efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. while some States like Bihar. Silchar. After the attainment of independence. Mizoram. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. In the Central sector.5.480. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. These projects are in various stages of implementation. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. Itanagar. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. However. Even in each State.g. Jammu and Kashmir. remained under developed. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. since its inception in 1998-99. Out of this.392. 63 . academic buildings. NERIST. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. the Union Government. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. the State Governments. Central Universities of Assam. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. NIT. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Tezpur. Regional Centres of IGNOU. approved proposals worth Rs. and provision of informal education to enable those. Rs. books. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. Guwahati. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. Nagaland and NEHU. 1.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. etc.14. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. Funds amounting to Rs.84 crore was released in 2005-06.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity.After the Planning Process has originated. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. etc.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities.. scholarships. library buildings.
the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.501. Tezpur University. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. 64 . During 2003-04.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.187.05 crore and Rs.500. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.40.261. A provision of Rs.5.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.57 crore and Rs. Government expenditure on education. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. too. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. Moreover.8 per cent in 05).40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Out of this an amount of Rs.
5. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. To add to the woes. notes the study. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. Andhra Pradesh.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. Karnataka. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. too. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. The Chandigarh Administration. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. English. Medical education. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Listing the positives. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. 1. pharma. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. for instance. health services and welfare of the citizen population. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Moreover. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . Karnataka. telecom. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. for which 16 sites. engineering and R&D. too. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. too. Tamil Nadu. Kerala and Gujarat.
when he will not be sure of time.year. 66 . Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. the curricular subjects. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. the socio-physical conditions. In the same manner. the needs. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. the working days: an academic . the teaching methods. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. in which the learners live. Hence it is called as need-based. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. For a learner living in a rural area. life-oriented and environment slanted. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. Of course. The living conditions. while the former does not. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Then education become realistic and idealistic. which a non-tribal person cannot do. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. The working hours of educational institutions. taking the average in the middle. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. the interests. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. and so on. the vocations. even actually looking at the watch.
to suit education to different environments? 1. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. 2. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.5.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .5.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5. 67 . 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. 2.
S. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. (2001).5. R. Educational Development in India. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001).K. Dubey. some States have become more developed than others b.G. some of areas which were under the native rulers. (2008). A.N. Giridhar. 68 .2. during the British rule. remained undeveloped 3. C.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S.H. a. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. 60% 1. and Nair. Education Scenario in India. New Delhi: Authors press. (2002). Education in Developmental Arena. Salim.
UNIT – II 69 .
semi literate and illiterates. school community and mass media. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. National Integration. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. 71 . Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. community development. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept.
LESSON 2.3 2.7 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 188.8.131.52 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.6.6 Education for Secularism 2.4 18.104.22.168.5.1.9 2.1 Main features of Socialism 22.214.171.124 2.8 2.6.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.1 126.96.36.199.
They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. creed. Democracy thus means power of the people. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 3) Provision of Manual Work. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. understand the concept of democracy. 73 . This is the political aspect of democracy. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group.2. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.1. socialism and secularism 2. 2.1. socialism and secularism 2. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy.1. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. 2. Abraham Lincoln. 5) Encouragement to Group Work.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. colour or wealth. you will be able to: 1.1. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. In the matter of admitting students in schools. socialistic and secular state. there should be made no distinction of caste. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. for the people by the people”. The students may be associated with the management of the school. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission.
7) Promotion of Self-Expression. may be planned.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. 8) Opportunities for Social Service.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 12) Visits to Legislatures. debates. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 11) Student Parliament. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. declamation contest etc. 2. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. Democracy means 2. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. There are different brands of socialism.. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. it soon spread all over the world.1. 74 . These activities should form an integral part of curriculum.
8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. service and cooperation. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 2. oppression and disparity. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. none high”. Under it. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 7) Special facilities for girls. 75 .Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. free from exploitation. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.5.1. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. the prince and the peasant. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 2) Socialism aims at equality. the wealthy and the poor.5. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system.1. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 2. but on the path of non-violence.
"which seeks the development of physical. 2. 76 . “India is a secular-country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. Everyone says. secularism is being propagated. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 11) State schools. 5. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools.” In every political and educational corner. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.1. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. According to Holydake. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. Write any two main features of socialism.
the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. That is why. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. Moral values have to be imbibed. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights.opposed to religious education. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. 5) It implies tolerance.6.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. 8) It believes in co-existence. the belief that the state morals. Equality. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. A large number of people is uneducated. should be independent of religion. 6) It has faith in rational thinking.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. “Webster further says.6. fraternity.1. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. 2. During the recent past. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. people started believing in regionalism. There is need of making the people open minded. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. 77 . 3) It permits freedom of worship. liberty.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. 2) It permits freedom of religion. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. education etc. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. In this type of prevailing situations. 9) It stress free inquiry.1. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. people have narrow mindedness.
How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. Patiala. students belonging to different religions should be associated. No doubt. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. that the central string of all religions is one. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other.1. In the celebration of each such function. There should be some internal checking of the material being. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. In the hands of such teachers. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools.6. 1) Moral Education. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. education. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. The very sight of the building. Religious Education. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions.presented by the students in the gathering. tours and trips may be organized. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. While doing so. 2. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution.
Define Secularism 9. 2.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The term secularism was first used by 8.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. The word “Seculum” means 7. No doubt.1.
9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Since socialism stands for equality. d. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. c. The students may be associated with the management of the school. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. This present age 7. Socialism aims at equality. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. 6. Equal Opportunities for Admission.1. b. Abraham Lincoln. colour or wealth. creed. there should be made no distinction of caste. In the matter of admitting students in schools. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. a.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. George Jacob Holydake 80 . 5. 4. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. a. Provision of Manual Work. Power of the people 2. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. 2. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. 3. 5. Respect of Individual Personality. 4. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. b. for the people and the people”. 3. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. a. The two can move only in the consonance with each other.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Socialism aims at social justice. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Tuition free education b.1.
It permits freedom of religion. (2003). K. Bhatia. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. the belief that the state morals. (2008). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Theory and Principles of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. J. Anmol Publications Pvt. Mohanty. (2004). L.C. N. B. P. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2005). b. education etc. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. b. 81 . J. 10. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. It treats all religions on an equal footing. a. (2007). K and Narang C.8. Dash. should be independent of religion. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. N. Ltd. a.” 9.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Pahuja. Ltd. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.1.
2.10 2.8 188.8.131.52.LESSON 184.108.40.206 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.3 2.6.9 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.2 2.2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 220.127.116.11.6.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 18.104.22.168.7 2.4 2.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.1 2.2.
'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. therefore. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. A teacher is first and foremost. a r e 1. mental. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. as it is t he aim o f modern education. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. understandings. development. and 4. The developmental roles of children.2. social and moral aspects. 2. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. you will be able to: 1. 83 . 2. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. as citizens. emotional. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. as learners. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals.generation to another. skills. as workers. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. who are placed in his custody. moral. application. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. It involves physical. as persons.an instructor of school children. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. aims and objectives of the school. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. social. 2.
morally. economically effective.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. mentally. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. social and emotional health. emotionally. culturally confident. 3. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. The following are some of such roles described in brief. inquisitive. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. a part of their day in 84 . He is to become an active member. 1. physically fit for socially efficient.2. experiences and acceptance. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. morally. member of his community at the outset. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community.All education should lead to better behavioural development. mental. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. socially. Teacher as a Citizen Next. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. and aesthetically to become. 2. He has to look after their physical. motivated. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. intellectually. The students live. 2. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society.
objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. Dr. science club. 4. and most of hours. It 85 .the school being under the custody of teachers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Unless. India is a land of many castes. fine art associations. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. languages and religions. photographic clubs. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward.2. creeds. List out the role of teachers towards community development . Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. faiths. solve them. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. activities of the society into which he is born. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. They will be spending with their parents. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural.
“Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar.2. with straight backs and look up at the skies.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. a. stand up straight. b. narrow-minded provincial. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. the study of language and literature. ‘We should not become parochial. It should broaden the outlook. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. Let us. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. and make into one strong national unit. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. folklore and teaching of social studies. Nehruji has explained this as. this integration of the Indian people. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. At the primary stage the importance of stories.” 2.is. c.” Regarding the role of education. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. therefore. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. The only process is the process of education. should be emphasised. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. national anthem and other national songs. Sampurnanand remarked. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. poems. Radhakrishnan. 1.5. social studies. the citizens of the Republic of India.
The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. National Days—January 26. Co-Curricular Activities. Textbooks. debates. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Scouts and Guides. 9. Taking Pledge. 2. Student Camps. languages and literature. educational excursions. t he st udent s and t he community. 5. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Uniform for School Children. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Reverence of National Flag. ACC. 3. 6. sports. dramatics and youth festivals. Celebrations of National Days. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. 10. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. symposia. 87 . Singing of National Anthem. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. and picnics. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. 4. tours. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s.different social sciences. 7. 8. militar y training like the NCC.
ways of thinking and doing things. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another.11. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Admissions. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. Students Exchange and Tours. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. 15.2. Admissions to schools. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 14. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. 12. v. Educational and Travel Documentaries. flora and fauna. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. language. School Projects. colour. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. 2. ii. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. 13.5. Recognition of Institutions. Open-Air Dramas. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. region or religion. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. iii. iv. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. 88 . At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. 16.
2. Community dinners. camps. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. vii. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. ix. Define National Integration 3. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. 2. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. cultures and races on equal bases. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. irrespective of national boundaries. viii. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.vi. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.
therefore. Teachers 90 . Dr. 2. the international level.as important as that of a national citizenship.e.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. Radhakrishnan states.6.F. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. This.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. In a very real sense. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. 5. Organising of debates and. (c) fairly tales.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.2. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. Therefore. 3.” 2. 2. (b) stories of children of other lands. Strong has observed. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. that war. patriotism is not enough. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. 6.. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. often in connection with anniversaries. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. 4. if it happens. and the healthy development. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. of his body and mind.friendships between children of different countries. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen.6. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . C.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.2. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum.
They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Indian and American. a German. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 .should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Russian. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. an Englishman. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7.” Well Informed About World Situations. Impartial in their Treatment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should not be propagandists. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race.
A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. It does not prepare students for life.Another major.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. Chronic Poverty .7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. majority of people are. 4. Soon after they leave their educational institutions.2. 3. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. the education function can be carried. and help the students to over . they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. leading to. As the school is but a miniature society. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. Defects of the educational System . which results in agitation and aggression language. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . Wide Spread Frustration . Devaluation of Values . 2. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. understand and indiscipline: 1. 5. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. If this is done. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.2. there is wide spread frustration among all people.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.
2. community development. 5. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. etc. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. fellow feeling.democratic nature. 2. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. 2. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. co-operation. sympathy and good will among the nations. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. 3. love. 93 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.2.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 22.214.171.124 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 126.96.36.199 Functions and role of schools in the society 188.8.131.52 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 184.108.40.206 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 220.127.116.11 Radio as an agency of education 18.104.22.168 Television as an agency of education 22.214.171.124 Press as a medium of education 126.96.36.199 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
188.8.131.52 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 184.108.40.206 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
220.127.116.11 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
18.104.22.168 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. In fact. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Now internet is being used. books. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. art galleries. Museums. He taught his students orally. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. Define community. To make them achieve their aim. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Emphasising this thing. Moreover. “All the citizens of the community.3. During the course of time. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.V. Hence. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. periodicals. led to the printing of books. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Then came newspapers. Crow and Crow write. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. the invention of the printing press. are increasingly used in education. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. It is also an important source of entertainment. In the emphasis is on sound. “Listening participation” in current history.3. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. music. rather than on picture. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. art. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts.G. Students listen various talks. In collaboration with the experts. 2. Effective means of presenting music. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. languages. Important happening inventions. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. Thus. Thus. dram appreciation. 101 . Various talks. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. for the teacher through school broadcasts. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. current affairs and other areas.telecast. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. the place of importance. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. politics. A lot of work by way of pre.6. 2. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. the teacher still occupies. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. social studies. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. It enlightens public opinion. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Reynolds.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded.classroom teachers.
There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. at play. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. style. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. 4. At present. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. audibility and presentability. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. speech. 5. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. travel talks. Before presenting the programme. at drawing room. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. Team-teaching demonstrations. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. School concerts. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. 102 . They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. projects or creative activities. fol classical music. Making learning an open system. at recreational centers. at any place. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. informal and non-formal education. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Participation of local teachers and pupils. development of lessons. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. mathematics. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. 3. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. plays.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 22.214.171.124 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
126.96.36.199 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 188.8.131.52 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
3.8 184.108.40.206.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.3.4.LESSON 220.127.116.11.4.1 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.5 2.2 18.104.22.168 Aims of Non formal education 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.6 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.4.3 Advantages of formal education 22.214.171.124 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.7 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.
2. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. To realize this objective of education. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. the most important agency of formal education. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education.4. 6. 2.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. 8. 110 . you will be able to: 1. 7. Education associated with a degree or certificate. the mass media et. 2. 9.2. Education organised by some agency. 3. the community. Education.. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. open school. 4. his mental alertness. 2. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. 3.4.4. the learner are acquainted. the temple. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. 5. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. the family. say the Government or the private enterprise.4. School is.3. 4. In ancient time in India. open university. compare formal and non formal system of education. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. imparted at the residence of the teacher. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. starting and ending at -a particular age. it was mostly.
but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Concepts of proportion. the elements of language are first learned. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. or academic degrees. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. third stage.a secondary education. as well as vocational education and training. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. In general. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. or post secondary education. also called tertiary.2. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Higher Education: Higher education. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. such as a high school or secondary school.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. diplomas. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. capacity. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. 2. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates.3. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 .4. structured education. Through early formal education. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Some education systems have separate middle schools. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence.4.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation.3. depending on the jurisdiction. and relations are formed and developed through normal play.
which will help for nation's development. 3. 4.4. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Agencies can be classified as 2. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.4. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . 2. children with disabilities. is an important agency of formal education.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. late beginners etc. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.3. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. and remote dwellers. What are levels of formal educational system? .
i. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. Non-formal education includes adult education.e. It is deliberate. It is much more responsive to needs and change.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. place of instruction. adding up to a true learning society. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. It is functional. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. one could say that non-formal education is an active.formal education. financially supported life formal education. However. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. planned. Thus.. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. systematic. Open university. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. etc. staffed. Adiseshiah. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. Therefore. systematic. it is a more effective tool for rural development. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. adults as well as children. to help themselves. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. continuing education and on the job oriented education.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. According to Malcolm A. “Non-formal education should 113 . It unlocks the doors of development plans. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.learning client take some learning objectives. it has its own valid claim to reality. open learning.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. curriculum. until 1970 it had not been defined. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. admissions.
To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. 2. Lawrence. place of education. admissions.S. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.4. curriculum. 4. the Ideas of citizenship. 2. modes of teaching. 7. 3. 6. Preparation for future needs.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.” 2. 114 . analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. i. international understanding. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter.e. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. 5. self. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. age. national integration. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. socialism. Covering life span of an individual. evaluation etc. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. It should lay emphasis on the self.4. Flexibility in various aspects of education. Part-time education.learning pattern. exploring.be marketable and vocationalised.renewal. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. Process of sharing. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. co-curricular activities. To help industrial workers to better their skills.” According to H.4. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. To develop in the student. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.S. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.4.
5. 10. 6. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. in villages and those who live in towns. 3. Universalisation of primary education. school dropouts. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 2.4. 5. 7.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 115 . 9. 8. • 2. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. publication and information dissemination.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Senior Secondary. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live.4. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances.4. To offer Secondary.4. 3. Technical. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. working adults. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Eradication of adult literacy. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. 4. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 2. 4.
Again. All-round development i.4. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1.4. Institutions for formal education. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. open space. 4. etc. effective in modern societal context. self-employment iii. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. 3.. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. To better qualifications. 2. To make if. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. etc. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. factory.4. centres of correspondence education. public libraries. if organised in isolation. training centres in factories. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. To increase knowledge and 2.full time to learners – can be home. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. others are formal and informal. 2.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. farm. library. Radio and television. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. Therefore. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education.2.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6. Teaching to face teaching. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.V. Correspondence lesson. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. 117 . period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Written tests. Define non formal education. Give examples of non formal education? .6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. radio. . List out any two aims of non formal education. . Face Contact programmes. Lecturing T. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. institution. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. 7. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods.
School 3. 2. 2. a. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.4. Higher Secondary level and University level. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. the college and the university come under this category. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. The school. 7. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Secondary level.4.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Open University. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. b. 2. 118 . 4. Primary level. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Pre-school level. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Formal and Non Formal 2. 5. 4. 3. Open School. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress.” 6. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. systematic. b. a. Explain the different levels of formal system of education.2. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. adults as well as children. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.
K. Anmol Publications Pvt. Pahuja. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Dash. Modern Trends in Indian Education.C. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J. L. J. N. (2008). Bhatia. B. P. (2008). Theory and Principles of Education. (2003).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.2. (2005). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education in Emerging India. K and Narang C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ltd. Ltd. New Delhi : 119 . S.4. (2004). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Mohanty. (2007). Gupta. N. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.
8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5 2.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.4.3 Objectives of Open University 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.2 184.108.40.206.5.4 Need for Open University 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.1 2.7 2.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.4 Open University 2.4.LESSON 188.8.131.52.5.
characteristics of open university 4. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.5. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. 2. economic field or such other fields. It is a lifelong process. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. give the meaning. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. industries. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. know the need and objectives of open university. Any person. 2. continuing education is a boon.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. For them. labourers and half educated individuals.3.5.5. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. However.5. farmers. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. This knowledge may be in political field. It is a continuous process. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies.2.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. Under these circumstances. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. Thus.
Radio. Throughout the country. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. On the other hand. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures.V. Persons engaged in health services. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks.directly related to his job. Radio and T. 2. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas.5. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education.3. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. if he gets opportunity to develop them. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. are also contributing their might for the purpose. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. On the other hand. After the achievement of independence. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. For them too continuing education is essential. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Cinema. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Doctors.V. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. T. deteriorating to his character and personality. cultured and progressive. Block Development Officers. Thus. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans.literate person.
(4) the fundamentals of economics. (10) first aid.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely.. we have not been able to achieve our targets. (7) folk songs. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. 123 . (13) psychology of child behaviour. 5. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases.V. habits of people of other lands. 4.3. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. Of course.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (9) fundamentals of philosophy.5. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (15) music. (6) folk stories. (17) modern international and national events. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. 6. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. and Radio.5. (16) liking. (2) basic religious matters. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. These books are not very useful. 2. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. 2. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (8) psychology of adults. 3.3.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 2. (1) ancient history. (14) information about bringing up young children. especially women. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. Inspite of the great efforts. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. 7.
Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. NLM was launched in the year 2. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. attendance restrict ion. 2. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. of educational opportunities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. lack of time etc. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.4. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e .5. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . What is the objectives of NLM? 3.
” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. d. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education.4. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. its education is not class room based but home based. it makes use of educational techno logy. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which was the first open university in India? .unobserved. IGNOU was established in the year 6. c. No one is too old or too late to learn. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. 4. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. e. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Education is not a once for-all process. 2.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. the higher the degree of openness. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. 5. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. but 125 . and in teaching. b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.5. 3. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? .
It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. or who realised too late that they need it. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n.4. 4. 2. it a ims at wider and hig her. 6. 5. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n.4.who did not get it. 2. 2. 126 . cho ice o f co ur ses. supplementing the existing provision.5.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. Mo re o ver. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 4. 2.5. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 3. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 3.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1.
beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. 3. 127 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Therefore.4. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Correspondence tuition. school drop outs. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. 2. 4. 8.5. List out any four methods of Open University? .no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following.2. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In the present day world. 1. Self instructional materials. a society. Every day.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Laboratory works. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. 2. 8. a state or nation. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. semi – literates. 6. Tutor Comments. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates.5. 5. you have learnt the concept. 7. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? .
a. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 6. 1985. unskilled workers and other professionals. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening.5. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. 9. b. 4.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Television Lessons. which may include house wives. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. its education is not class room based but home based. a. aspirants for continuing education. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.5. b. (2) basic religious matters. (4) the fundamentals of economics.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. 8. 2. P r int med ia b. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 2. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. cho ic e o f co u r ses.ambitious learners. Explain the objectives. 8. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. a. need and characteristics of Open University. (1) ancient history. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 7. d. 128 . 3. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. 7. 1988. youth. Broad casting lectures c. agricultural and industrial workers.
5. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia.S. (2007). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. R. (2004). (2001). S.K. (2004). New Delhi: Rajat Publication. K and Narang C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ltd. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Modern Problems of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.. K. Reddy.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Udaiveer. L. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 129 .2.
UNIT – III 131 .
Examination reform.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Training teachers for all levels of education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. which may claim the attention of those concerned. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. All which is the need of the hour. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. In Lesson 2. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. examination. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. 133 . pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. the education of women. wastage and stagnation. its causes and remedial measures. and teacher education.
1.1.6 3.1.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 184.108.40.206 EFA – How? 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.3.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1.1 3.1. 135 .3.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.4 3.1.3 New initiatives.1.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.LESSON 3.7 3.5 3.8 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.
Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI).1. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. social.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. On the other hand. Therefore. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. Eradication of Illiteracy. economic or cultural.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. directed that. may be political. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. (EOI) 2. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. you will be able to: 1. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. understands the country. “The State shall 136 . if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. education received added importance and significance. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. 3. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. therefore. Continuing Education (CE) 1.1.
Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. the national Government under. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year.endeavour to provide. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Universalization of Retention. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Even then we have not yet achieved the target.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Universalization of Enrolment. 137 . 3. Therefore. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. After the attainment of independence. Three Stages for Universalization. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Continuing Education (CE). It enables the parents to send their children to School. rights and responsibilities. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration.
“Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. present and future. It is safe to assure. UNESCO Bulletin states. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. 1995 (for upper primary stage). We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1990. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. later to 1988. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education.1. 138 .1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. 3.3. This target had to be revised to 1970. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. Therefore. educational enterprise. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. then to 1976. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. Write Article 45. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society.
5. Apart from primary education. FELF. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. sex.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. The Social Education. slum areas. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. 12. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. the art of preparing fruit-juice. nutrition education and sports and games. their social economic status and occupations. Education of Girls. Education of the Impaired. 11. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Disabled. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education.1. and Women’s education programme should be improved. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. adolescent and adult. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. 6. 9. 10. Early childhood education should be streamlined. 139 . NAEP. 3. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Emphasis must be given on health education. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. rural areas. Jams and Jellies. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). 8. problem of literacy. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. creed. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country.3. By undertaking survey. their enrolment and retention.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. 3. etc.
Wastage and Stagnation.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Expand MLL and SSA . SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.e. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. 4.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.1.1. 3. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.3.
it is considered as wastage.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. Social Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. Familial Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . School Factors .first stage of education.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Personal Factors .
can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Define Wastage. . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. 142 .
Societal Factors .The following factors. Personal Factors . a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. Family Factors .The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . relating to home.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.1. They are described hereunder :1. School Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. school or society. in his home. rural or urban 3.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.3.
Define Stagnation? 9. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. uniforms. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 144 .discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . mid-day meals. stationary. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books.
8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. “The State shall endeavour to provide. a. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Minimum Levels of Learning b.” 3. improvement of curriculum. 6. 3. therefore. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. a. directed that. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. Universalization of Provision b. 145 . you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. 3. Universalization of Retention 2. 3.. 2.3. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Universalization of Enrolment c. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. b. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. a. 4.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.1. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Hartog Committee.1.1. 4.
K. S. S.K. Problems of Elementary Education.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. introduce graded curriculum. Social Factors 8. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Crescent Publishing Corporation. T. a. improve examination system. (2001).N. Hemchand. (2008). Personal Factor b. a. (2007).1. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Sharma. 9. School Factors d. b. New Delhi: 146 . 3. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Familial Factors c.7.
2.5.7 Open book examination 3.2.7 Let us sum up 147 .5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.1 3.6.LESSON 220.127.116.11.5.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination 18.104.22.168.2.2.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 22.214.171.124 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.5.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1 Problems of examination 3.4 Question banks 3.2 Grade System 126.96.36.199 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.5 New evaluation procedures 188.8.131.52.2 Merits and demerits of examination 184.108.40.206.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2 220.127.116.11.5.2.
you will be able to: 1. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . suggest the new evaluation procedures.3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .2. 3. 3.9 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. but on the other.2. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.2.8 3.2. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. Besides. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. 3.3. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.2.2.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. 3.2.
specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. etc.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. etc. etc. hostel facilities. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. 149 . thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage.3.. If the students are in sufficient number. The following steps should be taken up. roadside Romeoism. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. 3.2. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. waiting rooms for girl students. They develop secondary sex characteristics. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. schools for them wherever necessary. They may cause problems relating to discipline. which the educational authorities have to face.
teachers. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. public interested in education.4. the examination system has an important role to play. It is considered as a major sub-system. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.2. Instruction. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. 150 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. conduct of internal examinations.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. public administrators and statesmen. appointment of paper-setters. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. assessment and Finance.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country.
3. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. examiners. introducing objective-based testing. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. reducing the domination of knowledge objective.4. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. etc. etc. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. validity and practicability. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 .printing and distribution of question papers. tabulators. etc.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. scrutinizers. training of examiners. invigilators. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction.2. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. values. etc. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. announcement of results. establishing reliability. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. etc. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters.
.. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed.2. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. lack of objectivity etc. it can be said that they become examination-oriented.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. Rote memorisation. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. which they are expected to study. Subjects. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. stereotyped questions. 3. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. halo-effect. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally.4. takes the place of comprehensive learning. 7) In connection with the question papers. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. Vagaries in making.. 3) With respect to method of teaching. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. 2) From the angle of content of education. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. may also discredit them. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. 152 . it s a common experience that subjectivity. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. do not appeal to the students and parents. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc.
. Spot valuation. may be introduced. revaluation. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. re-numbering of answer scripts. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. 153 . Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. . Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. 4. List any two merits of examination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations.a part of internal assessment. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .develop true love for education. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.
Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. In actual practice. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. 3. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.5. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. attitudes.2.2. skills are given importance. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . The new scheme of assessment. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. It is complicated. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure.3. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. When a person chooses to work extra. Every paper is treated equal.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .2. In this system. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. he is given extra credit points. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. The students can take any course offered in any department.5. Their interests. Advantages More autonomy is given to students.
The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester.2. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. Groupism is encouraged. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. only the total credits to be earned is specified. courses can have weightages defined. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. 3. These weightages are called credits. The human error of evaluation is ± 10.discipline. While designing syllabus. or as a 4 credit course. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses.5. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. An example is a seminar. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. poor.good. v. In the new system. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development.poor. This system reduces comparison of marks.
there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. However. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. 3. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992.2. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.2.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. 3.2.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. 3. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.5.5. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 156 . If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.
there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . Therefore. In the hierarchy. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. . However. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. recruitment. List any four new evaluation procedures. 3. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. There are no proper procedures for selection.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. 6. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India.3.2.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions.5. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.
inspecting the class-room teaching. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. staff. submitting of the inspection reports. being realised as two different functions. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. in a sense. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools.. playgrounds. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. wherever necessary.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is.qualified personnel. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. library books. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. etc. books are followed. in contrast. Academic inspection. complaints and compliments. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. finding out whether the prescribed text. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. qualifications. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. They are. requirements. 1. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. disciplinary problems. When they are fully realised. of late. etc. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. whether the syllabus has been covered. 3. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. finding out the adequacy of. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance.2. interpersonal relationships and so on. taking up the follow-up programmes.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected.6.. school buildings. laboratory equipment. 158 .
Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. modern.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. In the case of departmental candidates. M. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. aptitude.2. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. their professional knowledge. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. In the light of these conceptualisation..Ed. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. courses. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. course in either educational. once in five years. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection.. 3. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. Similarly. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments.Ed. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. at least. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. 159 . Insistence on specialisation in the B. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. or.
c. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. 3. a. assessment and Finance. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 3. 3.2. d. a. 3.2. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. 4. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Administration. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. b.2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Instruction. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. 160 . Grade System. a. 2. b. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.
S. (2004). b. Multiple sets of question paper. Problems of Education in India.2. Open book examinations.a part of internal assessment. K. Question banks. K. a. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . History and Problems of Education in India. Vaidya.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. a. c. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. a. b. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. (2005). Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.4. R and Sharma. 5. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. (2002). 3. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. New 161 . To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. 7. b. Educational Reforms.
3.1 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3.3. 3. 3. 162 .3.5 3.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.6 3.7 3.4 3.3 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3.8 18.104.22.168 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.22.214.171.124.10 3. 5.2 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education. identify the needs of rural India and social. 2. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. 4.9 3.LESSON 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. you will be able to: 1.
which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. Consequent on the recommendations. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. The Calcutta Madras. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination.3.specialisation programmes 3.. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. etc. e.. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. 8 years of general education. and 3 years of First Degree Course. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages.e.e.. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. 10 years of general Secondary Education. University Education. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. 2. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. the Banaras Sanskrit College.g. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. Similar is the case with some other States.3. in Andhra Pradesh. i. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. The.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. Commission emphasised to continue. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education..
4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. 6. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. 5. 7. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 5) to help for the social. who desire to change from one stream to another. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. cultural and economic development of the country. b. is also a plus point . Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. 8. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. 3. 10. to prepare. habits of hard work and develop . It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. economical and political.3. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities .a sense of dignity of labour. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 .confidence in students. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . historical. to imbibe. However. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. Provision for transfer of credits to students. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. and. educational channels. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. social.
This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. on one hand.national integration. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. democratic living. and that required to enter the tertiary level. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . 3. cultural and' religious tolerance. Sociologically it is undesirable.3. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. Philosophically it is not the conception. at the other. cooperativeness. Psychologically. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. international understanding.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. The General Educational Spectrum. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. and. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. to develop national character.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. etc. social justice. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education.. 1.
commerce. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. India is a land of villages. physics or mathematics. In the vocational spectrum.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. industrial agricultural production is growing. All these need for an. technical. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. and vocations based on dairy-farming. 166 . rural health. 2. Agriculture is the main occupation. professional.3. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. commerce. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. or other machinery. such as Agriculture. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. chemistry. vegetable growing. Biology. the rural areas have suffered very much. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. In our country. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. In the matter of language. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Science.— tube-wells. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. technological. medical plants. fish culture. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. horticulture. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. Commerce and other disciplines. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. educational and cultural services. 3.
the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. In time. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2.etc. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. interests and aptitudes of the students. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. the local resources available. There had been favourable reaction from the students.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. social justice. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this way. 3. and 5. In this it may be concluded. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. etc. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? .. and the needs.. can be ensured.
we studied the history. Mohanty. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 3. S.3. a. b. New Delhi : 168 . 3. to imbibe. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. B. (2007). Vocational Sepctrum. (2001). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.3. (2008). a. J. General Educational Spectrum and b.a sense of dignity of labour. (2005).K. Ltd. 2. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. objectives. J.3.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. habits of hard work and develop . to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. a. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. 3. b.3. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.3. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. N. Dash. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Calcutta University Commission 2. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. Anmol Publications Pvt. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.C. 3.
8 3.4.12 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3. but the lighting of a fire”.4.4.10 3.LESSON 3.4.11 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.4. social and 169 .4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.4.2 126.96.36.199.6 3.1 3.7 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.9 3.4.3 188.8.131.52 3.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Education contributes to human development.4.5 3.4.4.
The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. Teaching and Fine Arts. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades.4. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. These courses were.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. analyze the women and distance education. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. higher education of girls developed immensely. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. In the post —independence period. 3. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. During the year 1937. Dr. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. family.4. community and nation is universally acknowledged. although we have miles to go. While women constituted only 9. Home Economics. you will be able to: 1. economic. cultural and political development of the individual. The relevance of women’s education to social. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. There is a close connection between education and development. Education . 3. particularly 170 . For the first time in the history of India. Nursing. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way.higher education in particular.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877.
a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. In 1950-51. Mother Teresa Women University. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.9 14.0 16.2 29. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.1 31.1 24. in our country.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.4. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. 3.4.9 27. we have more than 1200 institutions.0 32.0 Today. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. out of 9200 and odd colleges.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.T Women University. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.women. levels and professions. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.0 43. The idea of women’s education for equality. Mumbai. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.D. 3.65 lakhs in 1994-95. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.N. Yet. Even today. In the rest of the country. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.2 22. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. Kodaikanal. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. Coimbatore. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .4. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.
36 3.66 66.54 12.27 89. 3. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.44 35.46 82.56 64. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .that of boys.73 10.4%) prefer Arts subjects.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .4. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.1 and 14.1 respectively. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.47 65.63 Female % 34.53 34.34 33.4. 3. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.83 47. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.17 52.
Book banks should be established. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. In every third family.4. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. and coeducation may spoil her character. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. 3. In college. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. financial difficulty of the parents. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. According to a survey. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. distance of the college or university from home. curriculum not suited to their requirements. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. The major hurdles. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. Thus. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. marriage is a very common I factor.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. promoted and increased. she will only learn fashion. particularly. etc. Also. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law.hinders the girls from getting higher education. what is the need for higher education for her. 173 . Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. irrelevance of the content of education. They gave up their studies to enter home life. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities.
Geographic distance of educational institutions. space. resources and socio . Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Distance education is a boon to women. It also brings about 174 . It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Full-time employment. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. Empowerment in a nutshell. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Education.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. which is the most dynamic factor of development.economic disabilities faced by women.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world.4. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. There are constraints of time. It is a productive investment. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. is the only tool for realising empowerment. 3. 3. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. It enables to study.4. and the limitations of the conventional education system.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.
Empowerment is an active. The major objectives of women's higher education.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. education of women is of paramount importance. for full development of our human resources. legal awareness and economic independence. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. empowerment means being assertive. education of women must be given priority in national plans. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. on their own.4. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. This can be achieved through reflection. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. Women are partners in development. higher learning. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. 3.
4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. especially so in the developing countries. which had been the sole domain of men. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. 3. The local administration. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. has to be implemented at the earliest.4. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. who are eager to take up courses. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. 176 . which is pending for a long time. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. The educational institutions.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. Better opportunities. will encourage them to venture new grounds. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. But their number is small. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. Reservation for women.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. Scholarships and concessions for women.
She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. According to Lindy Hyam. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . engineering and related technologies (16.4. capacities etc. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. Also.3 percent. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. talents. Australia. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. IDP Education. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 .000 women in the country.1%) and architecture and building (38. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. 3. But. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.9%). although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%).11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. especially in developing countries like African countries.8%). and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Chief Executive.
New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. and Swain. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Rao. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3.R. community and the nation.to the family. 2. create the right attitude towards life. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. A. R.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Women and Education. 3. (2007). Women Education.4. 4. SNDT Women’s University. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Women Education. 3. R.4. a. Mumbai. Mishra.4. Rajasthan 5. Pattanaikj. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Mother Teresa Women University. 178 .C. Coimbatore. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. S. R. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Mumbai. Centre for Women’s Studies. SNDT Women’s University. (2008). 43% 6. Kodaikanal. individuals and society b.K.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. (2005). and Suryalatha. Coimbatore.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. A. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Annakodi. 4. (2000). S.
5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.personality of children in and out of school.5.9 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.7 3.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5.5. They should be trained.3 3.6 3.LESSON 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. whole.2 3.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5.5.5 3.11 3.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5.10 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.8 3.1 3.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.4 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.5.
list out the agencies of teachers education 3. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. understanding and strong desire for international peace.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5. 4. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner.5. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. social and emotional integration. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. you will be able to: 1. national consciousness. equality and justice.5. Shorter working hours. international.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. 3. understand the training teachers for Primary. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. and national character. 3. Dearth of new technology of teaching. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. 180 . know the pre service and in service training facilities. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Lack of physical facilities.
At the diploma level. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. 3. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.Ed.Ed. the state Government.. the primary teacher education. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. students. higher secondary teacher education. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. a Diploma course and a Degree course. (NCERT) New Delhi.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. the centre. who have not been trained earlier. etc.5. it is called the Extension teacher Education. and M. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Lop-sided curriculum.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. the secondary teacher education. Depending on the levels. levels. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching.5. Inadequate training in practical skills. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . it is called the In-service teacher education. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. 3.Less qualified teacher educators. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. and the collegiate teacher education. inservice and extension education programmes. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. If the student teachers are working teachers.. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 .
3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. non-formal. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Education cells. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . collegiate cells. state Institutes of Educat ion.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Science Education units. are established.. etc. Educational teehnology cells. Evaluation unit. depart ments etc. Also Guidance Bureaux.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education.5. Expand NCERT 2. extensio n service.
and so on.Ed.. material conditions relating to libraries. and 183 . The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . should be improved on a top priority basis. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary.Ed. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. which should include experience in the primary schools too. to prescribe conditions for recognition.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified .. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. laboratories.. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . degree. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . which help breaking isolation from one another . The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. schools and sister institutions. to improve curricular programmes. audio visual aids. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. despite its vast expansion. to offer consultative services. primary and secondary school teachers. to ensure teacher competence.
To meet this exigency. etc.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . etc. Agriculture. The problem. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. and XII. methodology and evaluation. Meanwhile. whether they should have professional education or. 184 . There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. Modern Techniques of Teaching. Organisation of Content Courses. Induction Courses. Modern Methods of Evaluation. Workshops. Hence. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training.secondary education. Psychology of Students. though no pre-service training.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. not came up once again.
Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. courses and M. 3. Courses leading to B.. M.S.’s for Ph. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. (Education) are organized by 185 ..Ed. These facilities are available for regular students.A. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. in Education. Post-Graduates also undergo B. All B Ed. Ajmer. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. State Institutes of Education.5. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.A. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.Ed. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B..Ed. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .D. training. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.’s are elig ible for M. Degree.Ed. Degree and M.Ed...Ed. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Pre-service training is for those. For re-orienting the teachers. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. (Education) and M.
. of conduct—written or unwritten. (Ed. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. (Ed). 5. What is the role of ERIC? . Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence the employability of M. 6.List any two code of conduct for teachers? .some Faculties of Education of some Universities.). 4. However. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. established by tradition and teachers of the past. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. 3. . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. and B.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .5.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 186 . 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. they should be conscientious .A. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.A.
9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. 4. 3. they should be conscientious. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. 5. The necessity is however this. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. However. 4. 187 . and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.5. 3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 3. a.5. 2.5. b. Explain code of conduct for teachers. Shorter working hours. b. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. Ajmer. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Dearth of new technology of teaching.3. a. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. National Council of Educational Research and Training. Bhopal. a. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 2. 6. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities.
(2009). Corporation. (2010). Publication Pvt.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda.5. (2003). and Teacher Education. Ltd Aggarwal. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . P. Mohanty. B.3. Tewari. J. Teacher Education.N.D. A. Teacher Education. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.
UNIT – IV 189 .
Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. In lesson 4. In lesson 1. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. common ailments of children. the focus is on the school health programmes. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. If the diet is poor. objectives. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. preservation of nutrients. objectives. nutritional deficiency diseases. objectives and role of the physical education. economic and educational developments. Since food is the source of nutrients.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. 191 . communicable diseases and their prevention. The person’s environment is equally important. Lesson 5 explains the meaning.
for giving health education to the children under its custody.1.1.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.e. 193 .1.LESSON 4.6 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.3 4.8 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.1.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1.1. It is a miniature society.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.7 4.1.2 4. emotional and social.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important.10 4. mental.5 4.9 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.4 184.108.40.206. physical.1 4.11 4.
194 . 8. 6. 7.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To develop certain skills concerning health. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. 3. To develop healthy health habits among children. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 4. you will be able to: 1. to his family and to the community at large. 9.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. understand school health programmes 2. explain the importance of First aid 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. training of teachers and evaluation.1. 4. To give information regarding health rules. cleanliness and healthful living. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases.. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. training in first aid and etc. e. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. Instruction. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health.g. list the common ailments of children 3. 4. 2. 5. know the need for sex education. 11. content of health education. 10. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases.1. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation.
• Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. Triple Antigen Vaccination.G. suitable furniture.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. 2. The school buildings should be spacious. There should be regular water supply. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. cleanliness weeks. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1.coming or absence. proper doors and windows. Vaccination for small pox. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. (viii) first aid. 5.C. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . organisation of school health days. is imperative. Arranging better transportation facilities. excusing late. inoculation against cholera. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. typhoid. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes.. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. (xl) mental health. “Play-for-all” programmes. 4.. (xii) smoking education etc. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. etc. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. (vi) nutrition education. as described below 1. B. (v) safety education. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. play festivals. direct lighting. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. (x) choice aid use of health services and products.1. First aid facilities should be made readily available. 3. The surroundings of schools should be clean. There should be good drainage facilities. minimizing the travelling distance. 2. ( iii) sanit at io n.4. (ii) communit y healt h. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. vaccination. B. The flooring should not be damp.
cuts. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. wounds. isolate and notify. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. scalds. • Take nutritious food.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. sports and games in the interest of their health. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. and other accidents. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. • Keep all rooms clean. • Close the schools. dislocations.. if epidemic is wide-spread. • When sleeping in groups. fractures. bleeding. burns. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. 196 . drowning. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. fainting (epileptic fit). etc. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. D. poisons. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. C. • Have adequate rest and sleep. insect stings. • Find out the cases.
Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. 2. which are – cold. So they easily get illnesses. chicken pox. 4. polio. Mention the school health programmes.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. tuberculosis. cough. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. There are three stages in any communicable disease. Once these germs get into the body. 4. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. headache. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. water or bodily contact.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. fever. backache. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. These diseases are called communicable diseases.1. measles etc. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. pain in the joints. They are: i) The incubation stage. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • .. List out the Health curriculum 3. asthma.1. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air.
is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. There may also be fever accompanied by cough.When a child suffers from scabies. The symptoms include cold. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Throat is affected. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Common Cold . head-ache and cough. Others make the children very weak. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. eating food which is not clean. Ear Infections . Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Mumps . Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. The child may have fever. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Measles . Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Hence it is called a killer disease. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. unhygienic living conditions. After three or four days of fever. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. cough and fever. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. This is caused by cold virus.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Diarrhoea . sugar and water. Tonsilitis . In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. 198 . The following are the common communicable diseases. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Scabies . Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. etc.It is caused by measles virus.This disease is caused by bacteria. unhygienic bottle feeding.
Enlist the common ailments of children. face and waist. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. the child is not able to breathe. As the disease progresses. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days.• • • • Chicken Pox . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Expand DPT . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. It begins with fever. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. raised pink spots appear on head. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. By scratching he causes secondary infections.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. Typhoid . separate. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. Shortly. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The child may also have diarrhoea. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. What are communicable diseases? 6. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. 199 . Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. 5.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. Diphtheria . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. If proper treatment is not given. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. the child may die.
Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. 3. bruises. fiction. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. man-woman behaviours. drowning. It has its rightful place in education too.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. Drowning .Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. Cuts and Bruises . In such cases. 4. exciting and body-oriented.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex.1. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. 5. fainting. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. snakebites. simple fractures. dislocation. and films. scorpion stings. 2. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. eye injury. 4. so-called sex books and periodicals. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.1. 200 . films and jokes. sprains. wounds. bleeding. cuts. and Community Work and Social Service. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. swelling. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. It is both biological and psychological. sprains. it is a subject of art. Sprains . Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. etc.4.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. Sex is popular.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful.g. head injury. Wounds .
We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems.old values. health. The values of life. the school. sex education is being recommended in schools. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. 3. B. In today's liberal and interactive society. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. but preserve them from disaster and disease. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. they would be treading the path of sure doom. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. in their ignorance. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. try experimenting with their bodies. celibacy are age. the religious organisations. Hence. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. 2. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. Should the boys and girls. In secondary schools.. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. The home. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life.
offering sex education as a part of their curricula. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. the school health programmes. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. 4. first aid and sex education. 202 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. communicable diseases and their prevention. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now.1. What are the major components of Sex Education. C. Teacher education institutions are. hence.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. when the courses are already overloaded.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. there will no crisis in its implementation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. common ailments of children. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 220.127.116.11 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
Mention the food nutrients 2. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 209 . What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients.
This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4.2. 210 . Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied.4. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. minerals. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s.2. Let us talk about each of these aspects. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. If you look at the definition carefully. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.
Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. activity level and physiological stress. moderate or heavy work. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. the social and religious practices of that region. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. paratha and poori. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. Even within given States there is considerable variation.one in the morning and the other at night. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). In other words. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. it is also specific to a given activity level . a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). Rice or rice preparations such as idli.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals.g. There is no point. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. People in the east of our country prefer rice. 4. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress).2. for example. These are: region where the person resides and income. dosa are typical of the south. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. Preferences/customs are also important. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. sex. In the case of adults.6. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness.g. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. construction labourer). It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. A balanced diet is specific firstly.sedentary.
However. however. taboos related to food may play an important role. Among the social factors. customs. fat and sugar tend to increase. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. as important for the rich as for the poor. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. Judicious selection of food is. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. One person may be fond of milk products. If you think of your own religious group. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Including these 212 . This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. income plays a vital role. One must. Even among flesh foods. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. As income increases. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion.planning the diet. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. however. nuts and dry fruits. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. Having more money. As you read this discussion. however. vegetables and fruits. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. These determine the acceptability of foods. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. for example. while another may hate them. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. In addition to these. enables a person to add more variety to the diet.
but they should be thrown away. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . fruits. mouth. 8. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. over-eating or under. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. if the teachers have good food habits. green leaves. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. etc. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. For this. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 8) Walk a while after eating. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. meat. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. 7) One should eat what is needed to live .eating is hazardous. List out any two healthy food habits. eggs . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define balanced diet. 17. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 213 .
c. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Corneal xerosis.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 .2. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease.2. Explain food nutrients 4. Night blindness. preservation of nutrients. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. a. In fact. b. Conjuctival xerosis. Vitamin D 5. Discuss good food habits. Beri Beri 4. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. d. 4. good nutrition is essential for good health. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. When the diet is inadequate. e. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. 4. Keratomalacia 3.4. Bitot’s spots.
Food and Nutrition Education. Sri Lakshmi B. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. (2008). minerals. 4. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. (2008). (2005). 8. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . b. A Text Book of Foods.2. a.6. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . a . b. 7. (2004). A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.M. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. Food should be consumed after eating well.N. Food and Nutrition Education.C. S. Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. Chopra. R. Health and Nutrition Education. P. mouth. Nutrition Science. Hands. R. (2009). plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
3.1 Impact on social development 4. 216 .3.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.7 4.3 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 4.3.12 4.3.5 4.8 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.2 4.LESSON 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.11 4.3 Impact on Education 126.96.36.199.10 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.6.9 4.4 188.8.131.52.3.13 4.
on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. the stress is. and the consequences of these processes.4. 4. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. objectives and need for population education 2. population characteristics. aims at providing the younger generation. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. therefore.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. you will be able to: 1. It is a much wider co ncept. his family. describe the impact of population growth on social. family planning and sex education etc. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. Population Education. economic and educational development 3. community.3. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. state the meaning. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. his societ y and the world. There is some difference. understand the importance of small family norm 5. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.3. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.3. Whenever we talk of sex education. characteristics and changes for himself. 217 . It is not sex education.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. the causes of population change.
Define Population Education 2.4. the nation and the world.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the family. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the society.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.3.3. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 4. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.
They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. health and happiness of its citizens.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. 219 . Population growth has obviously its impact on the social.3. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. which will not be possible without population control. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. economic and educational development of the country.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Every second two thousand children are being born. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries.6. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion.3. When the family is small. 4. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. the family programmes are also handicapped. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. 4. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Family is considered as a social unit. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. With the larger families.
6. toilets. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. The gulf between them is widening further.3. pollution of the environment. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. unemployment. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.3. in buses and trains. and so on.6. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. 220 . In developing countries. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. i. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. facility for drinking water.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. Swollen cities. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. organization index and material index. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. teacher index. in cinema halls and theatres.. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. 4. lack of proper health care. 4.e. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. Many students herded in a small room. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. in parks and other places of public gatherings.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. heavy intern I migration etc. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt.
reproduction. even text books would be in short supply. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. Regional Language. can be taken up. bar graphs etc. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. can be studied in science and health education.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. There would be poor library facilities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. essays. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. 221 . There would be very few audiovisual aids. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hindi and English. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. family planning etc.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. less space facilities. blank verses etc. thus. and laboratory equipments.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages.3. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. less budget for education. Social Studies Statistics on population education. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme.
Canada. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 15. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. 12. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 10. Children may compare two families. Uttar Pradesh. 2. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 11. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 7. Children with the help of parents. 13. China. 5. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. United States of America. West Bengal. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. 14. 3. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. deaths. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 9. Bihar.4. They may arrange them as per average density of population. area and average density of population. Brazil. 8. 4.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. causes of deaths etc. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 .3.
17. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. 18. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Comparing life in various respects in two families. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. values and role children etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4.be opened in their schools. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. preferences for sex. 16. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. we have no right to stop 223 . The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. The question. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. age at marriage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. How will you correlate Population Education? 5.3. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife.
For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.their entry into the world”. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. however.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.. and the child survival components of the news: program. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. More than 45 years ago. at varying places in different regions. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.4-6. should be overcome at the intellectual levels.to emphasize family planning services. 4. which education can only do.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.3. the total fertility rate decreased from 6.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. continued . The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. especially the expansion of child immunization services . India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. Since the program's inception. on an overall basis. “He who is responsible for population growth. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. The Family Welfare Program.were implemented 224 .
The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. Local programs vary in their approaches. men. a focus on health promotion. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. the community appears willing to pay for services. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding.earlier than the safe motherhood components. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. reliance on local women as community health workers. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. Moreover. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. expansion of services to unmarried women. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. and nominal fees for services. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. In October 1997. At these meetings. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. and the World Conference on Women. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. Therefore. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. In April 1996. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program.
4. Describe the impact of population growth on social. nation and the world. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future.3.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. involving the community. 226 . which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training.emphasizing the needs of the client. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. What are the goals of RCH? 4. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. community. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. family. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Its main purposes are to create awareness. economic and educational development 4. 1997). 3. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
b. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. his society and the world. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. his family.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. and the consequences of these processes. area and average density of population. 227 . characteristics and changes for himself.3. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. a. the causes of population change. 6. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. a. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. less budget for education. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. 5. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. less space facilities. Canada. Brazil. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union.” 2. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. a. China. 4. population characteristics. 7. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.4. United States of America. bar graphs. b. 3.
(2004). New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House.4. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. J. Modern Trends in Indian Education.K. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Kantikar. (1992). A. (2002). (2005). Principles of Population Studies. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Bhende. Ltd. Centre for Women’s Studies. (2005). Udaiveer.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Modern Problems of Education. Reddy. N. 228 . Jayapoorni.3. V. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. T. Coimbatore. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Ltd.
4.1 4.8.6 4.3 Indigenous games 184.108.40.206 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4.11 19.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.5 4.4.2 4.10 220.127.116.11 4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.1 Minor games 18.104.22.168 4.2 Major games 4.4.4 22.214.171.124 4.4 Lead up games 4.4.LESSON 126.96.36.199.
Physical Education is education through Physical activity. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. state the meaning of Physical Education 2.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. as it should 230 . Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. The concept of physical education has been made broader. social fitness. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. 4.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. team spirit.4.4. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. moral fitness and emotional fitness. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. full records of physical activities should be maintained.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. leadership and balance in defect.4. which forms its most valuable assets. you will be able to: 1. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. the youth of the country. perseverance. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications.4. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. 4. classify the different types of games. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. mental alertness.
school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Therefore. The educational efforts at home. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. leadership. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Every individual is a part of society. obedience to rules. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . To be more precise. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. They are inseparably united together. They go hand in hand. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. team spirit. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’.
pleasing manners. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. ment al.” Montaigue writes.4.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. 4. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. a sound health. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.” The Secondary Education Commission.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. mo ral. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. C. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. Regarding the significance of physical education. Physical exercises. nor body but the whole man. game and sports. H. Buck has observed that 232 .” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. Just like Education. Rousseau states.
happiness. we must exercise the whole human being. efficiency and character. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society.a properly directed physical education should result in health. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development.” In brief. endurance. strength. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. resourcefulness and smartness.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief.4. elegance. flexibility and power. 233 . “If we wish to develop the whole being. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Froebel says. initiative. speed. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. coordinative abilities.” 4. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. etc. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully.
Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. While wars. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. they may form gangs. poetry and painting. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. in greater or lesser degree. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Every age has its artists. plagues and famines. these fundamental things have always been present. systems of government. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. If no opportunity is provided to the students.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. its adherents and its enemies. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. 234 (i) (ii) . This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. have come and gone in the long record of mankind.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. including all racial groups and historical ages.
to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. 235 .sacrifice.\ to develop perseverance. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. bravery and interest in games and sports. obedience. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to develop tolerance. 3. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . etc. self. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. respect for rules. 2.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. B. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two importance of Physical Education. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education.
Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. 3. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Act as a leader. 16. 9. Haag.4. 236 1. Be in the uniform. 10. Be well-prepared. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. and readmission after they have recovered.H. Keep the field ready for the activities. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed.4. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Emergency care procedures should be followed. and. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 4. 8. 14. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 12. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Be punctual. students. 5. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. defects. 13. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Posture screening should be done.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Usually parents. is essential. injuries among pupils should be made. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. 2. 15.4. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Be sportive. . Be self-confident. 6. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Inform health principles. 11. Always keep the whistle ready. 4. 7. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured.
Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. 2. 4. 4. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. 237 . Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.8. the play.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. chasing. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. less equipment and less expense. As such they are well enjoyed by children. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. frolic and jo y.4. 4. Moreover.4. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. their development is handicapped. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Indigenous games. 1. Such inst incts as imitation. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. 3. Lead up games.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
Tennis. benefit in playing minor games. zig zag relay. Ball Badminton. dribbling. Jumping. Cricket. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. with implements or without implements. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. 4. the games can be modified according to convenience. Tennikoit. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. hitting. skipping. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. some of them are played indoors. The dimension of the posts and nets. couple tag. Jump the stick clay and so on. trapping. finding the partner. under ball pass Relay. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Except a few games. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. They are rules approved by the International Associations. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. stopping. Hockey. over ball pass Relay. boosting.4. spiking. 238 . On lawns.8. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Hopping. Throwing. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. catching. Kabaddy etc. on hard courts. Khokho. bowling etc. These games require varied skills such as running. While many of them are played in the open playfields.. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. They are played for a shorter duration. wherever the kids assemble. Volley Ball. Basket Ball. snatching the kerchief. women take part most of the games. Soft Ball. on sea-shore. pitching. on mountain tops and on river beds. the play equipment. driving. For each game the rules are many. Dodging. muffling.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Shuttle Badminton. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally.With a very few rules. heading. the number of players and substitutes.
the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game.8. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. An example for indigenous game is 8. festivals connected with religion and public functions. 4. and . 7. They have an abundant social value.4. birth. All the fundamental tactics. death. For example.8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. While observing the players in action. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. Kho-kho. Games may be classified as 6. they are in existence. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games.4. these games being popular. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. On occasions like marriage. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. List out some major games. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.
Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Minor and Major 240 . to develop physical stamina. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 2. a.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Posture screening should be done.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. 3. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. aims and objectives and need of physical education. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 3.4. 2. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. 4. 4. 4. Briefly discuss the different types of games. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.4. d. physically and emotionally fit and alert. a. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education.4. 5. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. b. a. 4. b.4. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. to secure physical health b. c. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities.
Modern Trends in Indian Education. Physical Education and Sports. Hockey. Khokho 8. Volley Ball. Kabaddy 7. Tennis. (2009). Ball Badminton. Tennikoit. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008). Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. 241 .K. Ltd.4. Basket Ball. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Mohanty.6. J. 4. Handbook of Physical Education. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Health. Cricket. Khokho. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2005). Foot-ball. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J. Soft Ball. G. (2008). Shuttle Badminton. Aggarwal. J. Krishna murthy.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews.C.
9 188.8.131.52 Natural Environment 4.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.2 4.7 184.108.40.206 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.8 4.5.1 4.11 4.3 4.5.5.LESSON 4.5.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.2 Manmade Environment 4.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.10 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.6 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.5.5.
4. Attitude. Details are given below: I. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Evaluation Ability. 4. aesthetic and educational factors.5. 3. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. economic. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems.5.5. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Broadly. 2. Knowledge.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. you will able to: 1. it covers the following elements: 1. Skills. political. 243 . Awareness. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. 3. The best place to start such learning is school. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.educat ion for the environment. 5. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Participation. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 2. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. list out the types of environment 3. education about the environment and education through the environment. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. 6. social. Essential knowledge about the Environment. population explosion and resource depletion could be. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4.
soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. 244 . Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Oxidants Other pollutants. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. F. heat sink and wind flow in cities. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. • Biological magnification E. 2.B. a. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. D.
and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Family planning ii. Persuasion: i. B. Sterilisation. The human ecosystem II. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. III. Use of medical science i. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. 3. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . The pill ii. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Intrauterine device iii. c. Control of population growth a.3. Abortion iv. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Socio-economic measures. economic. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. 2. 2. Birth control through education b. 4. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1.
Water pollution abatement. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Define Environmental Education. Air pollution abatement ii. 3. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. 246 . 2. (UNESCO. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 3.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 1983). CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. e) Recycling. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. He modifies according”. to his needs.5.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. animals and other organisms (biotic). They interact with each.5. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. telex.5.5.4.other components of the environment. Biological environment The biological environment. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . Any constituent or condition of the environment. way is called environmental or ecological factor. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. fax agricultural apparatus. -other.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. 4. b. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. includes the plants. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.5. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. These are biotic components.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. A change in one brings about a change in the other. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4.5. a.
role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. explosion deforestation. acid rain. reasons. industrial pollut io n. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. effects. greenhouse effect. change in climate may be added. trees reducing noise pollution. need for bio-diversity. excellent recreation sites. biogas plants. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. t heir role in preventing pollution.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. air pollutants from industries. social studies. need for conservation. alternate sources of energy. evolution. noise pollution. use of medicinal plants. effects o f CFC. maintaining the ecological diversity. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. wars and hazards of war. use of pesticides. mineral survey. water scarcity. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. noise control. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. solar cookers. ozone layer deplet ion. river systems. (ii) Air pollution. windmills. over exploitation of ground water. etc. of civilizations. natural way of controlling pests. role of trees in building economy. desertification 248 . History The rise and fall. supplying timber for various uses. sources of pollut ion. nuclear warfare. preserving the watersheds. etc. are the topics which may be taught in History. industrial survey. population. nuclear energy. relation between population and pollution. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion.. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . food chain and food-web. ozone depletion. balance of nature. importance of nitrogen cycle. extinction of species. sources. preventing siltation of dams.
6. Providing. 7. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. aims and scope. animal and plants. 4. group discussions and seminars. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material.5. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Peepal and Tulsi. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 3. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. 9. 12. 10. 8. 2. 13. Organising conferences. 14. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan.may be inc ded in Geography. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 249 . specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 4. 11.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 5. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin.
as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. World Environmental falls on 250 . Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. all these can cause serious pollution. 5. Don’t burn any waste. Reuse carrier bags. it will cause pollution. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Use public transport wherever it is possible. especially plastics. Never put any left over chemicals. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. If it is done. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Send their waste oil. 6. or form a car pool for everyday travel. used oils down the drain. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide.
To initiate and develop discussion and debate. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. developing desirable attitudes. concern for others).4. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. The groups may exchange. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. and 251 . etc. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. CFCs. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes.. orderliness and beauty). Conservation of natural resources. Social responsibilit y (common good. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. nuclear wars. Concern for species. To provide materials needed for practical work.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. etc. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry.). diversity and stability. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. To provide reference materials for children’s use. deforestation. values and habits. Att itudes of balance towards nature. rather than conquest and mastery. (cleanliness. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. To arrange visits or expeditions. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. Harmony with the nature . depletion of ozone.5. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio .mat erials. dest roying nat ural habitats. loss of bio-diversity. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. To arrange for visiting speakers. viz. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. potable water.
List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.5. preserving natural cycles. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.5. 252 . interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. 4.5.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 8. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise.5. Ltd. a. 5. effects. Nanda. Providing. June 5 7. Modern Problems of Education. Environment and Human Rights. Rapid population growth. (2007).2. 6. 8. reasons.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. (2004). over exploitation of ground water. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. (2007). Udaiveer. Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt. acid rain. (1997). 3. a. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Environmental Education. air pollutants from industries. To provide materials needed for practical work. T. Organising conferences. Awareness. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. group discussions and seminars.K. sources. Environmental Education. Publications Pvt.. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . water scarcity. New Delhi : Sharma. Social responsibilit y (common good. 4.K. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population.\ 4. b. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. b. relat ion between population and pollution.K. importance of nitrogen cycle. concern for others). Kuldeep. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. S. a. explosion deforestation. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. (ii) Air pollution. new problems from science and technology. Y. ozone layer deplet ion. population. sources of pollution. Knowledge. Education for values.K. greenhouse effect. S. b. a. New Delhi : Authors Press. b.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 220.127.116.11 Idealism and aims of Education 18.104.22.168 Idealism and Curriculum 22.214.171.124 Idealism and methods of teaching 126.96.36.199 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 188.8.131.52 Naturalism and aims of Education 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and Curriculum 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and methods of teaching 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 22.214.171.124 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
126.96.36.199 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 188.8.131.52 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
" Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. The universe is regarded as a thought process. in fact.our life. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. According to Rusk'.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. moral. the emancipation of spirit. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm.1. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. should be universal in nature. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. Universal Education.” 5. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. Spiritual Development. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. man is essentially a moral being. promote and transmit it to rising generation. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. enrichment and transmission of culture. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . Education according to idealism.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. It is self-realisation. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. Therefore. Education must contribute to development of culture. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation.3. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man.
1. He carries the child from darkness to light. Learning through questioning. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. 4. the school is a garden. 5. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. no doubt. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. So cognition (knowing).3.the spiritual qualities of mankind. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. Ethics. Learning through reading. Science.” He is thus. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. So health. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. It considers teacher as.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. friend and guide. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming.” 5.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. 2. Learning through lecturing. should be there. an indispensable necessity. According to Frobel. subjects like Languages. For intellectual development. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. According to idealism. Mathematics etc.1. 3. hygiene.3. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. affecting (feeling). Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . The plant can grow.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. 5. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. and collation (striving) should find due place. Learning through imitation. History. However. For this no particular method has been suggested. a spiritual guide for the child. Herbert advocated instruction method. so subjects like Religion. Philosophy. So he should embody. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. He sets the environment in which education takes place. Learning through discussion. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage.
text books. formal lessons or examinations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. "Education should make 263 • . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. 5.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.preservation. 5. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. time tables. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.perfection and beauty. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. In the words of Ross.1. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Perfection of Human Machine. 2. Ross explains. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self.1. curricula.4. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.
It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. rational harmoniously balanced. Arithmetic. 4. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. It is based on the psychology of the child.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. There is no place for religious and moral education. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Literature. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Education also aims at helping the individual t.1. therefore. 264 . by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. In all. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. “Education finds its purpose. Therefore. Naturalistic curriculum. Chemistry. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment.4.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. is based on the nature of the child. subjects like history. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. It stresses basic sciences. education should develop the child into Joyous. Zoology. Education should. • 5. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Biology. Botany etc Language. useful and mature child.
The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. 4.1. the stage.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 .5. Learning through experience. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method.4. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .4.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. 5.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher.1. he should be taught by experience alone. a supplier of materials and opportunities.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Dalton Plan. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. 3. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. It discards all rigid. a provider of an ideal environment. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Rousseau says. Learning through observation. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Heuristic method. 2. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Learning by doing. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. In the .1.
1.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Geography. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses.absolutism of idealism. Social Efficiency. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Social Science. intellectual. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Vocational and 266 . immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Subjects. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Continuous Growth. History. of human personality is in terms of his physical. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. The aim of educational development. diversified and flexible. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements.5. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. is true. Physical training.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. 5. Agriculture. Personal Social Adjustment.1. The individual has not only to adjust himself. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Sciences.5. All Round Development of an Individual. social and moral aspects. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. 5.
5. Learning by Doing.1. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. should find proper place. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. alert and resourceful. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. He must be trained. 5.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. a teacher occupies an important position. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. activities and experience should be integrated properly.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching.Technical Education. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” 5.1. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.5. a senior partner and a sincere guide. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. The subjects. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. He has to be active.
2. Literature. 4. practical. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. 4. Psychology.1. Education is preparation for a complete living. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. rich and happy.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Sex Education. 2. It favours child-centered.6.5. scientific and psychological education. Astrology. 3. 5. Music and Dance. Crafts. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Chemistry. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic.1. 5. liberal. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Population Education. specific. Mathematics. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Study of Subjects like Language. 3. 5. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. History. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Art. literary or humanistic education. Biography Philosophy.1.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Biology.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. intellectual.6. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. The basic tenets of realism are 1.
4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.6.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. easily and pleasantly. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .5. certainly and clearly.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.
Learning through lecturing. a. History.5. Learning through experience b. c. in this lesson. Child centered c.1. Learning through imitation. Social Science. Vocational and Technical Education. d. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Demonstration and Observation 270 . What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2.7 LET US SUM UP We have. & curriculum. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Learning through discussion. Education according to pragmatism. Tours / Excursion e. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. has no end other than growth. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. e. Self Realisation b. Sciences. a. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Learning through reading. Rousseau 5. Physical training. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. b. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Geography. pragmatism and realism. 5. a. 5. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Languages. Experimentation d.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. Agriculture.1.1. 5. 6. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. naturalism. Learning through questioning. Universal Education 2.
New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. P. Foundations of Education. L. Theory and Principles of Education. of Pathak. (2003). Anmol Publications Pvt.5. New Delhi : Bhatia. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. R. K. 271 . K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. P. New Delhi : A. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Publishing corporation. (2004). Narang C.1. O. (2007). N.P. (2007).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Pahuja.P.H.
184.108.40.206.4.1 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.1 Aims of Education 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2.2 5.3.LESSON 22.214.171.124 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.2 Curriculum 126.96.36.199 Aims of Education 188.8.131.52.2 Curriculum 5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.4 Views about teacher 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.184.108.40.206. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.4.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.4.2.3 Methods of teaching 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.4 Views about teacher 220.127.116.11.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.
8 5. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. an artist. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. 5. economic and political reconstruction in our country.5. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.2. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.2. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. Tagore was a poet. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. 2.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. you will able to: 1. 3.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.7 18.104.22.168.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.2.2. 273 .6 5.4 Role of the teacher 5. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.5. Gandhiji was primarily a social. 5. mind and spirit. content and methods.
"I attach more. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. 5. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. 274 .intellectual and physical faculties of the children. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. His scheme of education is life centred. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. In the words of Gandhiji. strength of mind.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education.supporting. This can be matched with any modern concept of education.2. mind and soul of children He further observed. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. self-restraint and service of humanity.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. 'Man is neither mere intellect. righteousness. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character." Dignity of Labour. through life and for life. it is education of life. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. nor the gross animals body. It really provides opportunity for character building.3.
He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . leather work have been suggested. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Only good individual forms a better society. Music. gardening. "Development of the moral character. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. Mother-tongue.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. the realization of the ultimate reality. metal work. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Drawing and Hindustani.Training for Leadership. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. 5. General Sciences. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. wood work. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched.2. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Art. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Individual and Social Aims. According to Gandhi.3.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.
2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.2. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. proficient. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. Basic education is other wise known as 4. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3.trained. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. men of 276 .3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1.2. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. 3. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.knowledge. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . That is why. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. He also advocates freedom for the child.3. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. 5. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Education must be child centered.
Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. • Ideal of citizenship.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. He was a true patriot.2.4.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.K. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. Gandhi in 1937. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. He was deadly against untouchability. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. • Cult of non-violence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He believed in the oneness of humanity. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 5. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. he was a true Vedantist 5.” Like all other ideals. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. 5.2. • Education should involve manual work.2.
he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. International understanding. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Chemistry. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth.2. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Dance. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Civics. Religion and Psychology. It should help the learner have good physique. Geography. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge.Language and Literature . Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Tagore said. wider in range. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. etc. deeper in. sentiment. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. he said. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics.Mother tongue and other Indian languages.4.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Zoology. stronger in power than ever before. Therefore." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Music. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. International Understanding. It should help. 279 . the more dedicated and devoted. (vi) Philosophy. "Mankind must realise a unity. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . them solve problems of day to day life. complete manhood could be attained. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Botany. could help in forging unity among all. That way only. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History.
2. 5. 5.2.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.” He further says. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.4. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.2. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”." 5. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. Tagore rightly says.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. Activity Method Heuristic Method. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. In 1921.4.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. 280 . Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.4.
Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 281 . Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. 9. race. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. It is open to all irrespective of country. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 10. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5.g. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8.
” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. Concept of Education. Freedom. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Purity of thought.” 5. He believed in to learning or selflearning. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself.2. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. 3.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual.5. Education should make a person self-reliant. man making.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Education for Self-realization. 4. Education for Self-reliance." He was against the theoretical type of education. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. work and deeds come out of it.5. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Book learning. 2. Education for strong Moral Character. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. According to him. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues.2. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only.
There the teacher provided just guidance to them. Swami. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.2. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things.5. That will serve the purpose of education fully. 5.5. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. Of course. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.2. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. engineering and technical subjects. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. 5.the learners on different students in the discussion. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. A physically strong person is the need of the society. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Education for Physical Development. And above all. The teacher should be the facilitator. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Thirdly he wished that games. Secondly he wanted Science.5. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Discussion Method. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. 5. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. philosopher and guide to the students He. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. 6. Philosophy and Theology.5.2. 283 .3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Religion. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and .
List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. We have seen that Tagore.6 LET US SUM UP We have. ears and eyes. in this lesson. Their educational ideas. Write short notes on Basic education.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. legs. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. 284 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. and pragmatist .Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. 2. 5.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. of course. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Gandhiji as a Idealist. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore.2. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. 12. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. naturalist. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2.Substantiate your answer. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. 5. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. 3.
Teaching while Walking b. d. e. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. 8. Discussion Method 285 . Self realization. metal work. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Learning by Doing c. a. Basic education. Nai Talim 4. Debate and Discussion Method. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment.4. Explain Vishwabharathi. 1937 7. 10. wood work.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. a. Self-Study b. Heuristic Method. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Technique of Correlation 6. Cult of non-violence. 5. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 5. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. 3. gardening. a. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. c. 5. Education should involve manual work. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. leather work have been suggested. c. 2. Ideal of citizenship. 11. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. a. Activity Method b. 9. Meditation and concentration c. Activity Method d. f. b.
C. New Delhi : A. (2004). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2003). Anmol Publications Pvt. J. N. P. New Delhi : Aggarwal. Theory and Principles of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Pahuja. L. 286 . K. on Bhatia. Dhiman.H. Ltd. (2007).5. K and Narang C.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.2.P. O. B. (2007). (2002). Publishing Corporation. N.
3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.1 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.6 5.8 22.214.171.124 5. In this lesson. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.2 5.3.11 5.LESSON 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 126.96.36.199.10 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.9 5.3.5 5.4 188.8.131.52.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.7 5.
the plateau area and 288 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the plain area. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely.. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. Both the processes are integrated. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion.A. there is a large number of communities.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. the desert area. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways.S. In the words of Kerney and Cook. in the U.3. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. in Russia or in Japan. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. in the form of new experience. 5. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. state the meaning of curriculum 2. Since the demands. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. While education is learning. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. curriculum. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. While education is a process. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. A g o o d curricu lu m. From the latter point of view. 5.3. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . in fact .3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. is a means to the process. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. In it. living in the hilly area. Then in a big country like India. new behaviour may be acquired. Curriculum is intimately related to education. present behaviour may be modified. curriculum signifies situations for learning.3.under the direction of the school. it is identical wit h socializat ion. you will be able to: 1. In the former sense. maintained or eliminated.
therefore. democratic and socialistic country. irrespective of their needs and environment. the learning capacity of children. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. It must differ from locality and from society to society. 5. Besides craft. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. too. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. However. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. From a slave-country we became secular. Again. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. and 289 . Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. according to modern trends in the educational process. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. In fact . (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. customs and needs. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. it is. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. environment. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. differs from individual to individual.3. studying therein.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery.
It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. They speak of immediate purposes of education. aesthetic and spiritual development. eg. Knowledge Objective. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. which may or may not be attained. They speak of perfect goals. emotional. e. 1. moral. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . of classroom. So it is inadequate. specific.g. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. in instructional objectives. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. Vocational Efficiency. they depend on the political. Goals of Primary Education. unsatisfactory. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. etc. They are visionary goals e. etc. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. remote or immediate. e.. aims. They are achievable. Self Realisation.. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. social. social.. The word “Curere” means 2. tangible. etc. unambiguous and functional.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture.g. general or specific. 3.3. individual or Social and so on. National Integration.. 5. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed.g.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. Understanding Objective. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. 290 . uninspiring and unscientific. 4. Application Objective. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. They may be ultimate or proximate. Goals of Secondary Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education.
as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. in the class rooms. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. finding them very interesting and captivating.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children.5. The interests. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. Raymont rightly says. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. capacities. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. According to Crow and Crow. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. Crow and Crow remarks. heavy fire.” 291 . abilities. needs. but it includes the totality of experiences.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others.3. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. on the playing fields. educationists.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns.
” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. time in a useful manner. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. tendencies. mental. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. capacities and abilities. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. They often waste it or rather kill it. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. urges. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. moral. aptitudes. Due to these variations and differences.
infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. development of professional capability at all levels. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. phased preparation. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. To ensure success of the process. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. 3. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. 2.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. Similarly. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. administrative programme need be planned. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. organized. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels.curricular. 293 . production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials.
List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. 12. 11. 17. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. laboratory. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. in the class room. Relation with Life c. 18. 1937 19.3. Child Centred Education b. 5. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. workshop. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. Run.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. principles of curriculum construction. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . 10.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9.3. a. library. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
and Sarita Kumari. New Delhi : Authorspress. New Delhi : Isha Books.K. S. (2007). D. (2007).12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Lakshmi. S. P. Curriculum and Instruction. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited.5. N. Curriculum Development. (2001). 295 . Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava.3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Bhalla. (2007).S. Innovations in Education.
4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.7.LESSON 5.4 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.7 Scientific Attitude 18.104.22.168.4.5 5.4.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .6.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.8 5.10 22.214.171.124 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.1 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.2 5.4.9 126.96.36.199.4.
you will be able to: 1. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. superstition or emotion. We mean curiosity. 2.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age.during the second half of this century. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. 3. newer and newer industries started growing.4. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively.4. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking.4. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . 5. know the importance of science education.5. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. 297 . open-mindedness. honesty. explain the concept of scientific attitude.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. 5. tolerance for the opinions of others. Gradually.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. in the economic reconstruction of society. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. 4.
Devotion towards nature increases. Organisation of science fairs. 5. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Schemes of teaching science. Promotion of science clubs. 7.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. stipends and appreciations in various ways. 6.4. Thinking and memory develops. 4. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Central science workshop. 4.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. seminars and symposiums. 2. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases.So that. 6. 5. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 .4. 3. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. as well as of the society. 3. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Principles are formulated. Through examinations. 2. Selection for science education. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 5. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Through newspapers. Love for truth enhances. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 5. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. After such experience and training. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people.
the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. each child to “enquiry skill building”. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. They encounter many social events as they grow. 5. objectivity.4. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. therefore. It is.6. For laboratory and workshop techniques. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. In the inquiry approach. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. They ask many questions about the objects they see. essential that teachers. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. They experience natural phenomenon. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. should provide opportunities to. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Training of science teachers.needs and conditions. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. sex or religion. 5. After presenting the problem. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. 7. Enquiry teaching is. Write any two advantages of Science Education. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4.
The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . 5. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. commands or orders. test. 4. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Social sciences. Giving less directions. if they like. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. 300 .2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. .6. Evidence. 6. to ask questions and experience things. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. 3.Herma Wouk. 5. It requires consistent thinking. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook.books.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. 3. Adopting creative models of teaching.4. Appreciating pupils ideas. 5. stern pursuit of accurate data. .
Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. 5.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. therefore should be unbiased and objective. To achieve this we should understand what it means. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. The students observation. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. and emphasized during the learning process . The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. friends. keen observation. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. For instance. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. it must be encouraged. of vast resources running waste. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. (Vaidya 2007). Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.7. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. school and society at large. These include open mindedness. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. neighbourhood. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits.4. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. critical thinking and suspended judgments. to develop among the learners.(Smith 2008). practiced.
The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. or superstitions.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. 5. understanding and logic. rumor. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. 302 . Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof.7. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. intuition or wishful thinking”. In considering a situation or a problem. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. 2007). Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. The intention to respect another’s point of view. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. he studies all aspects of it. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. (Das. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science.4. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. think and work it”. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained.
Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. 5. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.7. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. but to begin only after careful planning. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.7.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. • 5.4. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.4. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.
The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it must be encourages.4. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. 304 . and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. 5. 5.
A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Proper example of the teacher c. Love for truth enhances. 16. (2000). Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. a. 3. New Delhi : Anmol Publications.S. 2. b. a. 5. D. M.5. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Yadav. a. Wide reading b. 305 .11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. N. Study of superstitions d. S. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. 4. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Reflections on Scientific attitude. objectivity. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Adopting creative models of teaching. Vaidya. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. 5. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13.B (2008). Discuss the importance of science education 14.4. b. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. a. (2008).4. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. b. Planning of activities 5.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Rao.4. (2006).
you will be able to: 1. 188.8.131.52.2 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5.4 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.5.7 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11.5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions. state the concept.10 5.3 5. 306 .6 5.11 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5.9 5.1 5. actively. 2. objectives and characteristics.8 5.LESSON 5. areas of institutional planning.
every parent.3. • To make institutional planning more successful. and every student in the process of educational planning. each teacher. • to make planning development-oriented. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy.5. and each student are regarded as separate entities. State and national levels from below. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. and supplement planning from above.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. 5. 5. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. teachers and students is not lost sight of. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. and. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. executive as well as public. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. Institution should be regarded as the unit. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. • to involve teachers and school administrators.5. which become the bases for further planning at the district. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . in the task of educational planning. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. every teacher.
308 . and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. Syllabus. council and.• implemented.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers.curricular Activities. which will be discussed in the general. and Personnel services. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.5. Co-curricular activities. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. (2) Co. Classwork. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. it becomes the basis for school inspection. approved after making necessary modifications.5. Examinations. 5. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. etc. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.
Preparation of audio-visual aids. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . 1. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Editing the school magazine. etc. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. hobby-centres.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. charts and apparatus. Organisation of class-room libraries. scientific and historical excursions. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Running science clubs. Preparation of instructional material. etc. Courts. 2. 3. Improving the internal assessment. Undertaking remedial instruction services. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. etc. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Equipping of laboratory and library. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Organisation of Pupils. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Fair distribution of syllabi. Celebrating of national and international festivals. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.No. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Organisation of Students’ Association. Preparation of models. Conducting of educational. etc. Organising play-for-all programmes.
group and out-group relationships are as given below i. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. etc. understanding. students’ associations. teacher-managing body. headmasters associations. teacher-pupil. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. administrator-supervisor. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. pupil310 . science teachers’ associations. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal.” The human relationships in.5.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. parents. administrator-administrator. administrator-pupil. and solidarity. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. parent-teacher associations. and —pupil-pupil. which are divided as the in. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. teacherinspector. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. Administrator-State. ii. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. co-operation. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. teacher-State. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. pupils. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. involving mainly human materials. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. teachers. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. teacher-teacher.5.
social sciences and other disciplines. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. to attend. organisation. pupil-parent. to carry out. 311 . supervision and superintendence. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. teacher-community leader. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. teacher-parent." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. It is also being modernized to become a technique. It covers personnel and material management. Good. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. superintendence. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. and to serve. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. According to C. pupil-non-official functionaries.State. supervision. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. etc. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. To administer means to manage.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. pupil-community leader. pupil-inspector.5. now-a-days. administrator. to accomplish. organisation and management. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. V. control.
Leadership . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above.Of all the approaches. 12. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. 2.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. The relationship should change from master. 7.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . 9. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. Better Human Relationships . He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. This is the latest democratic trend in management. low. If the cost benefit ratio is less. Those. Democratic Management . Rapport between the Management and Employees . 10. Economic Management . If it is more.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. He should be an artist in human relationships. Decision Making . Liasion with the Public . the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. Motiviation . 11.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner.Any good management will always have good public relations. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. 4. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. 5. Communication . Socio-Scientific Approach . Cost-Benefit Analysis . 8. it is not worth-while. who occupy the managerial positions. Worker Participation . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. 3.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.The manager should have leadership traits. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . 13. 6.
Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. 14. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. enrichment of curricula. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning.too. 5. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning.g. to improve the quality of education it provides. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions.These two are.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . 19. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.5. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. and cooperative performance should be ensured. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. 313 . The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. objective. 18. improvement of teaching methods.
Singh. 2. b. Communication 5.K.5. (1995). Educational Administration. d. APH Publishing Corporation. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. NUEPA. (2001). Examinations. Syllabus. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Tarachand and Prakash. b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.M.5.5. Decision Making b. Instruction. c. Motiviation d. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. In group and Out group 5. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2003). S. it becomes the basis for school inspection. a. b. f. Fundamental of Educational Management. H. e. R. and Personnel services. Classwork. Co-curricular activities. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. 314 . a. 4. a. a.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Leadership c.
Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.1 School Health Programme.I.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.3 Educational Influences of Home. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.1 Gurukula system of education. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.teachers should have : 1.CORE PAPER .Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Community and Mass Media 2. Examination reforms. population education. Buddhist and Jain system of education. 1.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . 4.Religious and Modern Education 1. New evaluation procedures. Communicable diseases . Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.5 Regional Educational Development in India . CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . women education and teacher education in India. Sex-education 4. 2. Balanced diet. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . School. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.1 Primary Education : Education for all. wastage and Stagnation 3. Realized the problems of school education.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Preservation of nutrients. nutritional requirement. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.2 Nutritional deficiencies. First Aid.3 Directive Principles .Preventive measures. higher education. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. Economic 315 . Common ailments of Children.1 Inculcation of Socialism.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. social Impact 3. Inspection and Supervision 3.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.Article 45 . Healthy Food Habit 4.4 India's Secular Policy . physical education and environmental education 5.Pre-service and In-services facilities. Code of conduct for teachers.
Mishra. curriculum and teacher's role 5.K. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. (2004) Problems of Education in India. Curriculum and national goals .4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms.1 Idealism. B. Pandy V. Kalan Paper Packs 10.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.N. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. Tagore 5. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Saraswathi T. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Mahatma Gandhi. Taneja V. and Human Development. and Dash B.K. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Hemchand.N. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Ghanta R. Prof.4. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.S. REFERENCE 1. 316 .5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.4 4. (2005) Foundations of Education.Aim. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.K. Naturalism and Pragmatism . Ram S.R. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Delhi : University Publications 2.K. 7. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. and Sharma R. 5.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. T. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5.C. R. and Mohanty R.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. Sharma. (1999) Culture. Socialization. Realism. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.