BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. discusses the regional educational development in India. The need. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Lesson 4.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. and Jain system of education. Jainism and their educational implication. Lesson 5. Lesson 2. 9 . Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. In. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3.

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4.6.1.LESSON 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1.1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.5.1 1.3.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1.5.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.2 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.6 Education during British Era 1.6.1.3.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.5.6.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1.6.1.1.5.5 Jain system of education 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1.1.6.1.1.1.1.4.1.

Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.3. British system of education presented the modern western model. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.1.7 1. India. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. 1.6. The history of education passed through Buddhist.1. but English in taste. Education in India.1.1.8 1.1. Muslim and British periods. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.1. has a long past history starting in vedic education.9 1. “a class of persons. 1. in morals and in the intellect”. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. 1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. elucidate the education during British Era.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. describe the Jain system of Education 4.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. you will be able to: 1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. That 12 .1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.1. Indian in blood and colour.1. in opinion.1. both present and future.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.6.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.

The immediate aim of education. Pupils were taught. It was also moral. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 4. It was not merely intellectual. 13 . There was. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Forests as Centres of Education. Individual Teaching. No State Control on Education. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Teacher as Parents. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. and to agriculture and trade. Free and Accessible. 11. the monitorial plan was followed. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. as it is generally considered to be at present. Immediate Aim Vocational. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. 14. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. 6. questioning by the pupil. 16. Residential Schools. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. 9. High Status of Teachers. 13. 3. Curriculum. 10.knowledge was real. individually. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Role of Travel in Education. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. if they thought fit to do so. religious and spiritual. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. followed by explanation by the teacher. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. generally. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Method of Study. 8. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. to light. from darkness. with grants of land or money. however. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Education of Moral. from eternal to immorality 2. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. 5. Method of Instruction. Where pupils were many. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Religious and Spiritual. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. 12. managed entirely by Brahmans. Education was a private affair of the people. not en masse by the class method.

girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They were very cordial and intimate. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.17.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. studied Vedas. It was freely available to all those who wanted. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? .3. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. lived a life of celebacy.1. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. It was suited to the needs of the society. Wide-Spread Education in Women. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. besides preparing for worldly pursuits.

I take Refuge to Dharma. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. 15 . a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. every class in society. he was qualified to become a monk. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Right contemplation 1. use of cosmetics.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Right endeavour 7. After attaining the age of 20. except the Chandals. which included abstaining from theft. the most significant of which were the following 1. partaking of food at prohibited times. watching dances or listening to music. Right knowledge 2. etc. the student had his head shaved of all hair. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. impure conduct. Right activity 5. Right means of livelihood 6. taking things without being offered. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. in which. Consequently. I take Refuge to Sangh.4. disease and death of the human beings. 1. medium of Pali. the handicapped. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Right speech 4. 2. Right thought 3. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. had the right to receive education. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. It was denied only to the ill. use of intoxicating things. Education was imparted through the. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B.1. Right memory 8. dressed himself in yellow clothes. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. killing of any living being.C.

bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. Life is in a flux. 8. After this ritual. 2. a change is not only total but also perpetual. the presence of the monks was essential. Later on. assumptions. so long as it successfully does so. nothing is of any permanent consequence. military science. etc. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. 5. magic. animal husbandry. arithmetic and religious discussion. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. therefore.3. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. and. of clothes. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. approach. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. etc. meaning. however. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. 1. nature. etc. 6. 4. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. Initially. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. elephant lore.. handicrafts. 7. Even at this stage. knowledge of reviving the dead. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. As reality is becoming. has no metaphysical value for life. archery. cottage industries. commerce. It comprehended education in writing. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. eat food thrice a day. a continuous change creating 16 . Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. objectives of human life. beg for alms. These are called later Buddhist schools. it is regarded as true”. On this occasion.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. be considered the aim of education It. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. agriculture. women occupied a position inferior to men. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. medicine. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. wear three items. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls.4. control over sensuous activities. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. along with education in script writing. Hence. 3. archery. depth and range. education was impart in art. geology. bodily gestures. the science of taming and training animals. aspirations and. Whatever its nature and extent. changing the goals.

Education must. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. such as. Write Eight fold path . prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Its chief feature. whatever works are true and good.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. therefore. however.1. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. its pessimistic outlook on life.new and peculiar situations. In fact. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Jainism insists 17 . such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Validity is effective and consequences. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. i.e. it is much older than the latter.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. goes to Vardhaman. 1. and to give it a shape that it has today. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself.. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder.5. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. However. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

7. 8. thought and deed. 6. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. 4. Development of personality as an individual. and believe in happiness to all. and is to be redeemed and liberated. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. but on both. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. rather than the interpretation of the universe.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. more stress on individual aims. 1. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter.1. 2. As such. 3. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. 1. c) Not to steal. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. c) Right conduct. Hence. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. 2. They are: a) Not to injure. 18 . restoring the ideal character of the jiva. 5. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. d) To lead a celibate life. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. 9. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 10. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. 3. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom.5. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. b) Not utter falsehood. b) Right knowledge. it has a foot in both the words. e) To renounce the world.

therefore. and should bring happiness to all. 1. 4. 3.5. practised and not only aspired for. 3. 2. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Teaching should be social and tolerant. education should develop sense of discrimination. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Teaching must develop these faculties. 5. 19 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. education must be action based and ideally oriented. 1. What are Triratnas ? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. here and now. success and love.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Belief in transmigration of soul. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Hence. 8. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.4. Jiva is essentially karmic. that would be socially desirable.

6. primary 20 . much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. Bombay. science. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. However. 1. philosophy and literature of Europe. and not for life. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. 1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own.6. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. Madras. To set up separate departments of. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). 1953).1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. 1.1. North West Province and Punjab.6. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service.1. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. with rally and rout. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. 2.6.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. 1.

• Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. 1. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement.K. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. namely. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. In 1882. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). self-respecting and competent. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.6. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.6. Later on.education was neglected. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. • Universal free primary education. • Secondary education.6. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. at the primary level. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. The universities dominated the secondary education. secondary education became a step towards university.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. At that time M. 1. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. 1. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. To ensure qualitative improvement. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education.

During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. 10. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. After this stage. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11.1. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. all children are to have a common curriculum. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

the science of taming and training animals. 1. establishment of universities..9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. 2. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools.1. 2. 5. Right activity. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. Right means of livelihood. 4. Right knowledge. 4. During the Buddhist period. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Right speech. 1. science and English language. 23 . Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education.1. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Right thought. b. The system of education was well-organised. 6. arithmetic and religious discussion. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. followed by explanation by the teacher. Right memory. along with education in script writing. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. Right contemplation. 3. etc. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. archery. a. geology. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life.education of European literature. It was suited to the needs of the society. The immediate aim of education. handicrafts. 3. Right endeavour. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. questioning by the pupil. education was impart in art. military science.

a. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Ltd.K. 9. Right knowledge. Right faith. 24 . Hence. Development of Educational System in India. History of Indian Education System.1. Improvement of Literature. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. b.C. Y. Sharma.7. 8. Right conduct. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J. and Nath. 10.C. b. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Sargent report 12.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Y.K. Singh. R. 1937 1. (2005). (2007). Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. 1882. c. (2009). (1984). more stress on individual aims. J. 11. Aggarwal. a. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Development of personality as an individual.

4 National Policy on Education 1.2.2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt. The 25 .2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5 1.2.3 Kothari Commission 1.4 1.3.LESSON 1.9 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3.2.8 1.7 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.6 1.3.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.1 University Education Commission 1.2.2.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.3.2.2.

conditions of the teachers. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. 2. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. technological engineering. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. expansion of vocational. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. National Board of Teacher Education 10. 1. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. National Council for Women’s Education 5. Kothari (1964-66) 8. technical. S. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. vocational education. secondary and higher education. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement.2. New Educational Policy. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. you will be able to: 1. There had been vast institutional expansion. 1986 1. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. Post-graduate 26 .2. diversification of courses of studies. explosion of enrolment.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. curriculum.3. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. medical and legal education.2. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. girls and women education besides primary. analyse the progress of education in free India. 1. examination system. standard of teaching.

All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 .S. 1966. Government of India. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. accumulated over the years. material and spiritual. quantity. National System of Education.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. 1986. the New National Policy on Education. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. in January 1985. the chairman of University Grants commission. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. However. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. Finally. 1.2. 1. quality. Problems of access. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. A meaningfully Partnership. research et. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. The Essence and Role of Education.3.2. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. Therefore.3.teaching. 1952. D. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. 3. 2. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. Kothari. A. 1. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. 4.2.3. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. Education is the key to our allround development. Education for Equality. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. utility and financial outlay.

the minorities and the handicapped.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. It can train practical aptitudes. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. By working with hands. attitudes. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. the concepts of work experience.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work.” Thus. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. The UNESCO Report. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Thus. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. 28 . the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work.

the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. co-ordinations. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. the Commission. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. Besides. According to. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. co-operation and implementation of the scheme." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. The Radhakrishnan Commission.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. it will conduce self. In 1955. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. if he wishes. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. “The aim of these colleges.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. The Education Commission. With adequate planning. As such. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. “It may be described.” The Mudaliar Commission.

there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. Therefore. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. the rigid streaming of courses. raising the special facilities. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. With a view to relating education to the life.ot her. admission requirements to vocational courses. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . Subsequently. for quality of life in the rural areas. the. the semester and credit system. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W).” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. In addition. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future.. The Central Advisory Board of Education. etc. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs.

which offer scientific. In short.defined S UP W as “purposive. According to committee.. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. who conceived the System of Basic Education. manual work resulting in either goods or services. aimed at this goal. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. The wave of Basic Education.and the world of work. etc. which are useful to the community. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. 1. Commerce. felt that education should be centred around a craft.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. which swept the country for over two decades. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. meaningful. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. The Father of Nation. preferably spinning and weaving. 31 . giving importance to productivity in the national development. meaningful. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken.2. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. technological courses including Agriculture. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed.

Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. 3. locally available materials and tools. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. 4. Work practice. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Community work and social service. Some Hints to Teachers 1. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. so that it is educational in essence. Health and Hygiene 2. Educative and 3. Food 3. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Shelter 4. tools and techniques and 3. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Productive 2. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Experimentation with materials.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. as far as possible. Culture and recreation 6. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. be that the work involved is: 1. 2. Clothing 5. The teachers should make use of. 32 .

Merits of the Programme 1. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Such activities may include projects of village uplift.2. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. improve discipline. inculcate a faith. It can become an instrument to build character. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Education through work The SUPW should. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. the local community should be actively associated. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. Community Service In-1972. 1. etc. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Productive Work 33 . The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. removal of illiteracy. be allied to the elective chosen by the students.5. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. To make education more realistic. as far as possible. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. 6. slum clearance. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Check on educated unemployed 4.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past.

the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. if not productive. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. AICTE was set up in year 4. offering first aid. etc. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . in turn. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. skills and better future for the children. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. helping the adults-in productive work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. should involve itself in the educational effort. traffic control. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. The community.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define SUPW 34 .

Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. Radhakrishnan 2. f. manual work resulting in either goods or services. c. a. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.2. Dr. 1955 4. b. which are useful to the community. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 1. 6.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.2.1. 1. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. 2.2. meaningful. 35 . 1952 3. Write short note on SUPW.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. e. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. d. 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

A.K.. P. History of Education.2.P. and Rao. R. V. : Sharma. Singh. (2007). Rao. J. and Nath. Ltd. (2007). History and Problems of Indian Education. Anupama. Publishing Corporation. Y.C. History of Indian Education System.P. Y. Development of Educational System in India. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.(2005).D. B. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.K.H. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.1. New Delhi: A. Amala. (2009).K. (2005). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 36 .

3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.3. democratic republic.3.9 1.3. Besides the English version.4 1. 1950. for a total of 117.3.6 1. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. it came into effect on January 26.3. assuring its citizens of justice.2 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. directive principles and duties of citizens. establishing the structure.3. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. containing 395 articles.3.5 1.1 1. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. equality. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.1 Significance of DPSP 1.369 words in the English language version.3. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.7 1.8 1. Being the supreme law of the country.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3. 1949. procedures. 37 .3. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3. and liberty. there is an official Hindi translation.

describe the important constitutional articles related to education. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. legal and environmental. After many deliberations and some modifications. 2. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. 3.3. Two days later. the Drafting Committee was appointed. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. spread over a period of 2 years. 1947.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. understand our Indian constitution. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. embodied in Part IV of the constitution.3. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. Through them. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. you will be able to: 1. for 166 days. economic. with Dr. 1. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. 1. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. The Assembly met. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. 38 . 1947 meeting of the Assembly. in sessions open to public. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. According to the constitution. administrative. learn the role of central and state government on education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. social.3. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. 1. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented.3. 1950. 4. 1947.In the August 14. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. On August 29. political. Dr. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution.

The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Article 42. Appropriate concentration of wealth. in particular. old age. men and women. Article 39A. for workers. The State shall. Equal pay for both sex. Article 40. 39 . make effective provision for securing the right to work. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. provide free legal aid. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. and in other cases of undeserved want. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. The State shall endeavour to secure. No abuse of children. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. and shall. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Minimising inequalities in status. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Equal justice and free legal aid. Condition for dignity of children. Organisation of village panchayat. Liking wage etc. Article 43. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. sickness and disablement. Protecting health of the workers. That the health and strength of workers. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Right to work. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Article 41. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. on the basis of equal opportunity. Protecting children from exploitation.government. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes.

Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. by suitable legislation or in any other way. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 48A.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. in particular. to all workers. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. See also Article 21A). Note: Subs. Article 48. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. a living wage. Article 45. industrial or otherwise. Article 46. Article 43A. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Participation of workers in management of industries. in particular. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Article 49. [declared by or under law made by 40 . The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Article 47. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. 2002 for “45. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Article 44. The State shall endeavour to provide. (Original Article 45. The State shall take steps. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. agricultural. Uniform civil code for the citizens. work. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. and. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. in particular. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years.

Promotion of international peace and security. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security.Parliament] to be of national importance. 2. Article 50. Article 51. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article-21A Right to Education. disposal or export. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. destruction. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. from spoliation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. removal.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Article 45 . and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. disfigurement.3. as the case may be. 1. Separation of judiciary from executive. may be law determine”. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. 2002. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2.

iii. language or any of them”. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. 5. 7. from justice and all forms of exploitations. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. 6. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 2002. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. in particular. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. ii. and shall protect them. race. if such person is a minor. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. 3. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. and. caste. 4. his guardian has given his consent thereto. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. 8.” 42 . No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or.

for its vocabulary. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. 2. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. wherever necessary or desirable. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. and by drawing. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. 43 . Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country.3. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. the forms. The central government determines targets and promotes education. Article 351 gives importance to 6. & 1.9. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. Educational Reforms From time to time. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. private agencies etc. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. 5. 8. etc. The following pilot projects. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. So as to encourage education on right lines. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country.3. By starting these projects. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. All India Council of Medical Science. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. 6. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Local bodies and private enterprise. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc.. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. So that they may work well. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. 7. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Production of suitable for children and adults f. 4. the state governments. to achieve the desired ends. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b.

are published by it. 9. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. research. 12. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. education for women. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. etc. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2.3. training and statistics. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. The 45 . is the state responsibility. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. Material concerning nation-wide interests. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. reports etc. handicapped. 4. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 11. 3. 1. books. 1. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. 10.

Write short notes on a.3. Explain Directive principles 2.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. 1. articles in the Directive principles. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 46 . 5. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. 1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. Article 21A c. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Article 45 b. Article 46 4. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

(Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Article-21A Right to Education. 3. The Directive Principles of State Policy.5. a. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Article 45 . Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. a. 47 . a. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. b. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 46 5. Describe the educational role of State Government. 2002. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b.3. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 2002.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. b. Dr. Article 29 and 30 7. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Development of Hindi Language 6. Ambedkar 2. may be law determine”. Clearing House function 9. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 4. 1.

S. L. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. (2007). Dash. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2004).1.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Education in Emerging Indian Society. K. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Bhatia. (2009). Education in Emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. N. (2008). 48 . New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. S.3. B. K and Narang C. Ghosh.

4.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.5 1.4.1 Why Moral Education 1.4.4.4.4. Islam.4.3.3. religious education should be broad based. Students should be 49 . Buddhism etc.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.7 1.4.4 Moral education 1.4.8 1.4.4. Jainism.2 1. Christianity.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.1 1.6 1.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.

” Education broadens human outlook. duty-consciousness. integrity. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. religious education and the concept of secularism. 1. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.D. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. "In A multireligious society like ours. India' can produce men of character. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends.and dedication.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. state meaning and need for moral education 1. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment.4. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. know the position of religious education in our country 3. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. beauty and goodness so that 50 . The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. In the complicated and complex society of today. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). Thus. As result of which. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. you will be able to: 1.. According to E.

Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. religion and democracy are same.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August.4. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. if not regularly. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. As a matter of fact. at least occasionally. 1947 we achieved our freedom. it is clear that the State has no religion.3. 1. In short.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. According to Article 19. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. According to Article 22. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. castes and creeds. Thus. No religious tax can be imposed on them. Children attend these organizations.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. They thought that any kind of narrow. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. Viewing the defects of religious education. rancour.3. Hence.” From the above. all citizens are free to follow any creed. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged.4. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. realizes God in himself. through religious practices and 51 . our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. As our country is a country of diverse religions. 1. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education.

In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. aggressive.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. which can mould. As a result of which. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. temperament etc. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. It is religious education. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. what is done and what is not done etc. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). Good education.teachings. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. which help him for the development of his character. and what is evil. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. intellectual and physical faculties of children. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. moral and spiritual values. one fully developed. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. when he becomes an adult.. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. If unreleased. for the development of the individual and the society. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. He also learns about social. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. It helps to modify habits attitudes.

Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way.3. 2. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. This should not be allowed to happen. towards the society. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. 53 . Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. 3. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Therefore. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. 1.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. which is the basic need of a democratic life. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum.4. If we open the pages of history. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel.

The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. 9. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. churches and mosques 7. fellow-feeling. 11.4. Gurudwara as. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. stories of moral greatness. 10. Since all religions have virtues. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write Article 22 2. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. For this. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two aims of religious education? 3.5.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . therefore. examples of patriotism. Life histories of great persons of the world. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples.

Service to others. 5. 2. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. 3.4. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. They will play their role effectively. 4. 6. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Without moral values. 8. Fearlessness. Moral education. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. the methods of teaching. 3. Satyam (truth). let men see well of one another. 2. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 1.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. 4.4. 6. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Patriotism. students. 8.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all.acquisitiveness). Self sacrifice. 5. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. in the home. Non-injury. “Let all be happy and free from disease. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Brahmacharya (celebacy). the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 1. Purity. 7. Cultivation of emotions. is that which develops moral values. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Aparigarha (Non. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. The content of the curriculum. 55 . Asvada (Control of palate).5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). therefore. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 7. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate.

1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. discipline. Good temper. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited.9. The School Assembly should be held for a few. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Integrity. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. loyalty and self-sacrifice. National unity and Spiritual values. Discipline. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 2. Unity of mankind.4. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. minutes in the morning for group singing. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. 56 . Simple texts and stories concerning different. 11. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Sharivashram (Physical work). Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Asatyam (Non-thieving). religions may be included in the syllabus. 10. Good manners. 3. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Efficiency. Secondary Stage 1. 3. 4. In the school programme. 1.

A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. should form a normal part of school programme. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. 5. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. 2. 57 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. patriotism and self-discipline. In other words. Silent meditation should be encouraged. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. 5. University Stage 1. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. In this connection. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . 4. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. 3. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. love of humanity. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6.

Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. 1959 5.1. the. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. The School Assembly should be held for a few. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. In short. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 1. minutes in the morning for group singing.4. 4. 2. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. 58 . b.4. Training of Character 3. For this. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 2. b.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. Sri Prakasa 6 .4. a. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. a. 1. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. Discuss the aims of Religious education.

(2004). Ltd. (2007).H. J. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2008). L.P. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Anmol Publications Pvt.C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 59 .1. Publishing Corporation. (2008). N. B. (2003). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. K and Narang C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. M. New Delhi : Siddiqui. P. K.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Dash. Pahuja. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi: A.H.4. N. Theory and Principles of Education. Bhatia.

there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1..5.2 1.5.11 1.e.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. disparities between provinces/States.5.5.5.6 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.7 1. Although.4 1.5 1. 60 .5.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5.8 1.5.5.10 1. i.5.3 1.5.1 1.5.5.9 1.12 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.

etc.5. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. roads. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. waters.1. 1. Accordingly. 6. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 7.5. work hard towards this end. 61 .4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. 3. they take appropriate measures. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. understand the regional educational development in India 3. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. energy. 5. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. you will be able to: 1. 4. 8.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region.5. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. 2. for example. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. know the education suited to different environments. 1. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. They therefore. 1.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. This leads to separatist movements.

which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. and. 3. some average. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. on the basis of regional development may be formed. 62 .Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. 2. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. Therefore. some States became educationally far advanced.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. 4. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. Tight security arrangements should be made.5. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. Secularism. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. • Separate States (of course viable States). and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. while others remained educationally backward.

who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. library buildings.5. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. since its inception in 1998-99.480. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. Even in each State. Out of this. the State Governments. NERIST. etc. Rs. Mizoram. 1. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. Funds amounting to Rs. Central Universities of Assam. Tezpur. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Regional Centres of IGNOU. approved proposals worth Rs. However. while some States like Bihar. the Union Government. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. After the attainment of independence.14.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner.392. etc. academic buildings.After the Planning Process has originated. and provision of informal education to enable those.84 crore was released in 2005-06.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. Guwahati. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. NIT. Jammu and Kashmir.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. In the Central sector. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. Silchar. Nagaland and NEHU. books. Itanagar.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.g. These projects are in various stages of implementation.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. remained under developed. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments.. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. scholarships. 63 . The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has.

Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.40.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Government expenditure on education.5.501. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. too. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. During 2003-04. 64 . A provision of Rs.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.261.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. Moreover. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Out of this an amount of Rs. Tezpur University.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.500.187.8 per cent in 05). it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.05 crore and Rs.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.57 crore and Rs. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.

too. English. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. telecom. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Moreover. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Kerala and Gujarat. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). for instance. too. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Karnataka. engineering and R&D. The Chandigarh Administration. health services and welfare of the citizen population. pharma. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. To add to the woes. Tamil Nadu. Karnataka. notes the study. Andhra Pradesh. for which 16 sites. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. Medical education. Listing the positives.5. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. too. 1.

and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. In the same manner. Hence it is called as need-based. Of course. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. when he will not be sure of time. The living conditions. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. life-oriented and environment slanted. The working hours of educational institutions. For a learner living in a rural area. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. the interests. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. even actually looking at the watch. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. 66 . and so on. the vocations. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. the needs. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life.year. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. Then education become realistic and idealistic. the socio-physical conditions. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. which a non-tribal person cannot do. while the former does not. in which the learners live. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. taking the average in the middle. the curricular subjects. the teaching methods. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. the working days: an academic . Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible.

How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.5. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2. to suit education to different environments? 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. 67 . There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1.5. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.

G. Educational Development in India. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. C. Education in Developmental Arena. (2008). Giridhar. S. some of areas which were under the native rulers. (2001). Dubey. 60% 1. (2001). S. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. during the British rule.N. New Delhi: Authors press.K. a. and Nair. (2002). 68 .H. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.5. Salim. remained undeveloped 3. Education Scenario in India.2.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. some States have become more developed than others b. R. A.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. National Integration. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. 71 . school community and mass media. semi literate and illiterates. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. secularism and democracy through Indian education. community development.

1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.1 2.1.1.1.1.2 2.1 Main features of Socialism 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.7 2.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.5.4 2.1.1.8 2.6.1.1.1.1.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.6.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.5.9 2.6.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.6 Education for Secularism 2.LESSON 2.3 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .

you will be able to: 1. In the matter of admitting students in schools.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically.1. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. creed. 2. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. The students may be associated with the management of the school.1. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. socialism and secularism 2. 3) Provision of Manual Work. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Democracy thus means power of the people. 73 . analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. socialistic and secular state. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. This is the political aspect of democracy. colour or wealth.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. there should be made no distinction of caste.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. Abraham Lincoln.1.2. for the people by the people”. socialism and secularism 2. understand the concept of democracy.

2. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. 74 . Democracy means 2.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. There are different brands of socialism. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression.1. declamation contest etc. debates. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. it soon spread all over the world. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 11) Student Parliament. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. may be planned. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. 12) Visits to Legislatures..6) Democratic Methods of Teaching.

1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. oppression and disparity. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling.5. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. the prince and the peasant. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 75 . none high”. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. but on the path of non-violence. 2.1. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 2) Socialism aims at equality.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. the employer and the employee are all on the same level.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools.5.1. free from exploitation. the wealthy and the poor. service and cooperation. Under it. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 7) Special facilities for girls. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 2.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. "which seeks the development of physical. 11) State schools. Write any two main features of socialism. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. secularism is being propagated. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States.” In every political and educational corner. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. 2. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.1. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. “India is a secular-country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. 76 . According to Holydake. Everyone says.

the belief that the state morals. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. During the recent past.6. 8) It believes in co-existence.opposed to religious education.1. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. “Webster further says. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. people have narrow mindedness. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 3) It permits freedom of worship.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. people started believing in regionalism. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. In this type of prevailing situations. Equality. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. liberty. education etc. 9) It stress free inquiry. There is need of making the people open minded. trifles over petty religious matters are caused.6. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. 77 . Moral values have to be imbibed. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. A large number of people is uneducated. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. should be independent of religion. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. That is why.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. 5) It implies tolerance. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. 2. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. fraternity.1. 2) It permits freedom of religion.

that the central string of all religions is one. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education.presented by the students in the gathering. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students.6. 2. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. Patiala. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. In the celebration of each such function. There should be some internal checking of the material being.1. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. While doing so. Religious Education. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. tours and trips may be organized. The very sight of the building. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. No doubt. In the hands of such teachers. students belonging to different religions should be associated. education. 1) Moral Education.Corruption and disbelief are rampant.

The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. No doubt. The term secularism was first used by 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The word “Seculum” means 7.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . Define Secularism 9. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.

1. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. The students may be associated with the management of the school. colour or wealth. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. This present age 7. 6. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. b. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. c. Equal Opportunities for Admission. Since socialism stands for equality. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. Socialism aims at equality.1.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. secularist and socialistic attitude among students.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. a. 2. a. for the people and the people”. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. George Jacob Holydake 80 . b. creed. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Abraham Lincoln. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 5. a. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Tuition free education b. 3. Respect of Individual Personality. 4. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. d. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. Provision of Manual Work. there should be made no distinction of caste. Socialism aims at social justice. Power of the people 2. 3. 5.

” 9. K. a. J. the belief that the state morals. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2005). School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Dash. N.C.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2003). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ltd. N. P. Mohanty. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. 81 . should be independent of religion. K and Narang C. Ltd. (2007). Theory and Principles of Education. J. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. B.1. Bhatia. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. It treats all religions on an equal footing. (2008). L. (2004). 10. It permits freedom of religion. b. b. Anmol Publications Pvt. a.8. education etc. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Pahuja.

1 International understanding in the school 2.10 2.2.6.3 2.5.2.2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.1 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.LESSON 2.2.5.4 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.2.9 2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.2.2.2.2.8 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2.2.2 2.7 2.6.2.

The developmental roles of children. skills. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. mental. emotional. It involves physical. A teacher is first and foremost. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values.2.generation to another. 2. therefore. who are placed in his custody. aims and objectives of the school.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. application. social. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. as workers. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. 2. as it is t he aim o f modern education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. and 4.2. 3. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. understandings. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. moral. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. a r e 1. as persons. 2. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. as learners. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. social and moral aspects. 83 . you will be able to: 1. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach.an instructor of school children. as citizens. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. development.

experiences and acceptance. morally. morally. mentally. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. He has to look after their physical. mental. The students live. inquisitive. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. motivated. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. emotionally. The following are some of such roles described in brief.2. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. economically effective. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. 2. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. culturally confident. intellectually. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. a part of their day in 84 . as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. social and emotional health. He is to become an active member. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. Teacher as a Citizen Next. member of his community at the outset. 1. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. and aesthetically to become. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. 2.All education should lead to better behavioural development. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. 3. socially. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. physically fit for socially efficient. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong.

languages and religions. It 85 . India is a land of many castes. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened.the school being under the custody of teachers. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. Dr. 4. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. List out the role of teachers towards community development . Unless. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. photographic clubs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. creeds. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. faiths. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. activities of the society into which he is born. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. They will be spending with their parents. solve them. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. and most of hours. 2. science club. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. fine art associations.

a. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. the citizens of the Republic of India. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state.2. therefore. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. 1. narrow-minded provincial. Let us. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. Nehruji has explained this as. should be emphasised. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. At the primary stage the importance of stories. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things.5. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. Sampurnanand remarked. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. The only process is the process of education. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . ‘We should not become parochial.is. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. It should broaden the outlook. this integration of the Indian people. with straight backs and look up at the skies. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. national anthem and other national songs. folklore and teaching of social studies. stand up straight.” 2. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country.” Regarding the role of education. social studies. and make into one strong national unit. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. Radhakrishnan. b. c. the study of language and literature. poems.

7. educational excursions. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. 10. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. tours. Uniform for School Children. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. 8. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Reverence of National Flag. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. ACC. Textbooks. 4. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. symposia. languages and literature. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. 87 . Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Taking Pledge. and picnics. 5. Scouts and Guides. militar y training like the NCC. National Days—January 26. Co-Curricular Activities. dramatics and youth festivals. 3. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. 6.different social sciences. debates. Celebrations of National Days. 9. 2. sports. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. t he st udent s and t he community. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Student Camps. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Singing of National Anthem.

on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Recognition of Institutions. ways of thinking and doing things.2. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. language. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. iii. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 12. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Admissions. region or religion. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Students Exchange and Tours. 16. School Projects. flora and fauna. iv. 15. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Open-Air Dramas. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. 2. Educational and Travel Documentaries. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. colour. Admissions to schools. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery.11. 13. v. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. 14. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 88 . ii. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students.5. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places.

Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. 2. vii. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . cultures and races on equal bases. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 .6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. irrespective of national boundaries. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. ix. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. viii. Community dinners. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Define National Integration 3. camps. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity.2.vi.

is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. Teachers 90 . Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs.2. often in connection with anniversaries. and the healthy development.e. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. that war. 4. 3. Strong has observed. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”.F. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. the international level. patriotism is not enough. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. Radhakrishnan states.2. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries.friendships between children of different countries. Organising of debates and.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . of his body and mind.as important as that of a national citizenship.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. (c) fairly tales. 6.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. In a very real sense. 5. (b) stories of children of other lands. therefore. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. 2. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. 2. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. Dr. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.6. C.” 2. Therefore.6.. This. if it happens. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding.

List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should not be propagandists. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. a German. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. Indian and American. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Impartial in their Treatment. Russian.” Well Informed About World Situations. an Englishman.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed.

Chronic Poverty . Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . and help the students to over . out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. leading to. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. 3.2. there is wide spread frustration among all people. which results in agitation and aggression language. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. Devaluation of Values . 2.Another major.2. Wide Spread Frustration . 5.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. the education function can be carried. If this is done. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . understand and indiscipline: 1. As the school is but a miniature society. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. majority of people are. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. Defects of the educational System . It does not prepare students for life. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. 4.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves.

How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. 93 . Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. co-operation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. love. community development. sympathy and good will among the nations. etc. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. 3. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner.democratic nature. 2.2. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. List out the factors causing social tension in schools .2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. 5. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. 2. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. fellow feeling. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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art galleries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Then came newspapers. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. Now internet is being used. In fact. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Hence. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. books. led to the printing of books. Emphasising this thing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. Crow and Crow write. “All the citizens of the community.V. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. the invention of the printing press. During the course of time. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Define community. periodicals. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Museums. He taught his students orally. 2. Moreover.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. To make them achieve their aim. are increasingly used in education. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities.3.

during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. music. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. social studies. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. 2. A lot of work by way of pre. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. It enlightens public opinion. Various talks.3. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. Students listen various talks. Thus. current affairs and other areas. Effective means of presenting music. politics. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. 101 .G. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. the teacher still occupies. the place of importance. In collaboration with the experts. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. rather than on picture. “Listening participation” in current history.6. languages. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. dram appreciation. Thus.telecast. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. It is also an important source of entertainment. In the emphasis is on sound.classroom teachers. Reynolds. art. Important happening inventions. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. 2. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense.

projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. At present. Making learning an open system. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. at recreational centers. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. Participation of local teachers and pupils. informal and non-formal education. speech. at play. Team-teaching demonstrations. at drawing room. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. development of lessons. 102 . Before presenting the programme. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. 3. audibility and presentability. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. travel talks. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. fol classical music. 4. plays. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. projects or creative activities. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. at any place. School concerts. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. 5. Educational radio excels through dramatisation.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. style. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. mathematics.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

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2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.4.4.4.8 2.4.5 2.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.3.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4.2 2.3.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.6 2.4.3.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.1 2.3.LESSON 2.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.4.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .1 Characteristics of formal education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.7 2.4.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.4.4.

4. the community. starting and ending at -a particular age.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. Education organised by some agency. 7. School is. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. 2.4. Education. 2. 3. 2. Education associated with a degree or certificate..4. 9. the temple.3. say the Government or the private enterprise. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. his moral excellence and his social adjustment.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. you will be able to: 1. 4. the mass media et. 5. the most important agency of formal education. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. In ancient time in India. it was mostly. 6.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. compare formal and non formal system of education. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. his mental alertness.4. 2. open university. To realize this objective of education. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. open school. 2. the family.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. 110 . It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education.4. the learner are acquainted. 8. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 3. imparted at the residence of the teacher. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught.2. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.

Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. depending on the jurisdiction. In general. 2.4. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. the elements of language are first learned. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Through early formal education.2. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. third stage. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. or post secondary education. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing .4.a secondary education.3. or academic degrees. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. also called tertiary. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. capacity. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Concepts of proportion. Some education systems have separate middle schools. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. diplomas.3. as well as vocational education and training. such as a high school or secondary school. Higher Education: Higher education. structured education.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. late beginners etc. and remote dwellers. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. children with disabilities. 4. 2. 2.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.which will help for nation's development.3.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. What are levels of formal educational system? .4. is an important agency of formal education.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. Agencies can be classified as 2. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 .

one could say that non-formal education is an active. Thus. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. admissions.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. i. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. It is deliberate.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. It is functional. It is much more responsive to needs and change. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. etc. systematic. Adiseshiah. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. financially supported life formal education. Therefore. place of instruction. “Non-formal education should 113 . open learning. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. curriculum. It unlocks the doors of development plans. Non-formal education includes adult education. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. until 1970 it had not been defined.formal education. systematic. Open university. continuing education and on the job oriented education. work and the opportunity to put learning to use.learning client take some learning objectives. However.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured..” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. According to Malcolm A.e. adults as well as children.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. planned. adding up to a true learning society. it has its own valid claim to reality. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. staffed. it is a more effective tool for rural development. to help themselves.

are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Flexibility in various aspects of education. Part-time education. co-curricular activities. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. modes of teaching. age. 2. Preparation for future needs. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. Process of sharing. Lawrence. 6. 3. To help industrial workers to better their skills.4. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things.S. admissions. place of education. self. 2. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. It should lay emphasis on the self.4.renewal. 7.e. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. 114 . analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.4. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. national integration.be marketable and vocationalised. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. curriculum. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. i. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. 5.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. exploring. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge.learning pattern.” 2. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. To develop in the student. international understanding.S. the Ideas of citizenship.4.” According to H. Covering life span of an individual. evaluation etc. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. 4. socialism.

Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. 10. 6. • 2. 2.4. Senior Secondary. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. 4. 3. 3. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 2. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 115 . 9.4. 5. 4. in villages and those who live in towns. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. working adults. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. Eradication of adult literacy. 7. 8. Universalisation of primary education. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. school dropouts. Technical.4. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To offer Secondary. publication and information dissemination. 5.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans.4.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Meeting the omissions of formal education.

non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. effective in modern societal context. To increase knowledge and 2.full time to learners – can be home. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. Radio and television. etc. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. 3. To better qualifications.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. farm. public libraries. if organised in isolation. self-employment iii. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . To make if. 4. library.4.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1.4. Institutions for formal education. 2. etc. training centres in factories. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. others are formal and informal. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. Again. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. 2. factory. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. Therefore.2. open space.4. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. All-round development i. centres of correspondence education. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals.

. Written tests. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Define non formal education. . Give examples of non formal education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. 117 . Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 7. 6. Teaching to face teaching. Lecturing T. Face Contact programmes. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods.V. institution. radio. Correspondence lesson.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two aims of non formal education.

7. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. 3. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. Pre-school level. Open University. a.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5. School 3. the college and the university come under this category. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. Formal and Non Formal 2.4. The school. 2. Higher Secondary level and University level.4. 2. 2. Secondary level. Open School.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.” 6. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Explain the different levels of formal system of education.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. b. systematic. a. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 118 . The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. 4. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. b.2. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. 4.4. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Primary level. adults as well as children.

N. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. New Delhi : 119 . P. (2005). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Bhatia. Pahuja. (2008).2. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. L.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. K. Anmol Publications Pvt. B.C. Gupta. (2004). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008). (2007). Dash. Ltd. Mohanty.4. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2003). Modern Trends in Indian Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J. N. Education in Emerging India. Ltd. S. K and Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education.

5.LESSON 2.5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5.5.5.3.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.4.3.5.4.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.4.2 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.3.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5 2.5.6 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.3.4 Open University 2.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.7 2.3 Objectives of Open University 2.5.4.4 Need for Open University 2.5.5.5.4.1 2.5.

3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. 2. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened.5. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. economic field or such other fields. It is a lifelong process.5. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . give the meaning.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. This knowledge may be in political field. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. labourers and half educated individuals. continuing education is a boon. 2. know the need and objectives of open university. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. industries. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. characteristics of open university 4. Any person. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. It is a continuous process.2. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. Thus.5. For them. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. 2. you will be able to: 1. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. farmers. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. Under these circumstances.5.3.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. However.

Block Development Officers. For them too continuing education is essential. if he gets opportunity to develop them. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education.5. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. Radio. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society.3. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge.directly related to his job. Thus. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Doctors. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action.literate person. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Cinema. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. Persons engaged in health services. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest.V. Radio and T. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. cultured and progressive. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 .V. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. deteriorating to his character and personality. 2. are also contributing their might for the purpose. After the achievement of independence. On the other hand. T. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. On the other hand. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. Throughout the country. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress.

5. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. 2.V. (2) basic religious matters. (4) the fundamentals of economics.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. (8) psychology of adults. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. These books are not very useful. 7.3.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 6. 2. 123 . Of course. (14) information about bringing up young children. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. and Radio. (1) ancient history. (10) first aid. 2.. we have not been able to achieve our targets. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. especially women. 4. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation.3. (15) music. habits of people of other lands. (16) liking. 5. 3. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (17) modern international and national events.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (13) psychology of child behaviour.5. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (6) folk stories. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. (7) folk songs. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. Inspite of the great efforts.

2. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. NLM was launched in the year 2. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. of educational opportunities. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e .5.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. attendance restrict ion.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. lack of time etc. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.4. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 .

T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. 5. Education is not a once for-all process. and in teaching. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.unobserved. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 4. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. its education is not class room based but home based. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. but 125 . it makes use of educational techno logy.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. b. d. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. IGNOU was established in the year 6. Which was the first open university in India? .5. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. e. No one is too old or too late to learn. the higher the degree of openness. c. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world.4. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. 2. 2.

T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 6. 3. supplementing the existing provision. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 5. it a ims at wider and hig her.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. cho ice o f co ur ses. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 3.4. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. 2. 2. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals.4. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment.5. 126 . b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. annu al wr it t en examinat io n.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1.5. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 4. Mo re o ver. 2. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. 2. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 4. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all.who did not get it. or who realised too late that they need it. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 127 .2. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. 6.5. you have learnt the concept. 4. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Tutor Comments. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. 5. Correspondence tuition. 8. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. 2. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. semi – literates. Self instructional materials. 7. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Every day. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. school drop outs. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. a state or nation. 1.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. a society.4.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Therefore. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . Laboratory works. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. List out any four methods of Open University? . 2. In the present day world. 8. 3.5. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? .

ambitious learners.5. 4. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. need and characteristics of Open University. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. agricultural and industrial workers. cho ic e o f co u r ses. a. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. Explain the objectives. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 9. 7. 1985. 6.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. P r int med ia b. unskilled workers and other professionals. a. which may include house wives. b. 2. aspirants for continuing education. b. 3. (4) the fundamentals of economics. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. its education is not class room based but home based. Television Lessons. 8. 128 . 2. 8. d. 1988.5.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. 7. (2) basic religious matters. a. Broad casting lectures c. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. youth. (1) ancient history.

Reddy. Ltd. Recent trends in Non Formal Education.2. (2007). Teacher and Education in Indian Society.S.K. K. Modern Problems of Education.. Udaiveer. (2004). (2001). New Delhi: Rajat Publication.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2004). L.5. S. 129 . K and Narang C. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. R.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

the education of women. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. its causes and remedial measures. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. and teacher education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. 133 . Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. In Lesson 2. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. All which is the need of the hour. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. wastage and stagnation. examination. Examination reform.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Training teachers for all levels of education. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. which may claim the attention of those concerned.

134 .

2 EFA – How? 3. 135 .1.1.4 3.8 3.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.3 New initiatives.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.1.1.3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.LESSON 3.2 3.1.1.1.1.6 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1 3.1 EFA – For whom? 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.3.7 3.5 3.1.

education received added importance and significance.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. Therefore. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. may be political. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. Eradication of Illiteracy.3. economic or cultural. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. 3. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. understands the country. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. social. therefore. you will be able to: 1.1. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). 2. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. On the other hand. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. “The State shall 136 . so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. (EOI) 2. Continuing Education (CE) 1. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE).1. directed that.

This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. Three Stages for Universalization. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. 3. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. 137 . Due to the adoption of democratic system. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. It enables the parents to send their children to School. Continuing Education (CE). it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. the national Government under.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. Therefore. Universalization of Retention. After the attainment of independence. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Universalization of Enrolment. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas.endeavour to provide. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. rights and responsibilities. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration.

We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. UNESCO Bulletin states. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. present and future.1. educational enterprise. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. 3. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. Write Article 45. Therefore. It is safe to assure. 1990. This target had to be revised to 1970. then to 1976. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. later to 1988. 138 . all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education.3. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. 1995 (for upper primary stage).” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind.

where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. 6. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. sex. 11. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. 12. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. 9. the art of preparing fruit-juice. rural areas. Emphasis must be given on health education. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. and Women’s education programme should be improved. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. Early childhood education should be streamlined. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Jams and Jellies. Education of the Impaired.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. their social economic status and occupations. Education of Girls. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. problem of literacy. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. 8. 5. 3.1. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 139 . 3. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). slum areas. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all.3. nutrition education and sports and games. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. etc. Disabled. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. 10. The Social Education. their enrolment and retention.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. NAEP. Apart from primary education. creed. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). adolescent and adult. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. By undertaking survey. FELF.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.1. Expand MLL and SSA .e. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.3 NEW INITIATIVES.1. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Wastage and Stagnation. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . 4. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.3. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.3. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.

The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. School Factors . Familial Factors .first stage of education.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. Social Factors . it is considered as wastage. Personal Factors .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.

Enumerate the causes of Wastage. 142 . . can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Define Wastage. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. .

relating to home.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.3. They are described hereunder :1.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. Family Factors . Personal Factors . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. Societal Factors . school or society. rural or urban 3. in his home. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.The following factors.1. School Factors . a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.

etc. Define Stagnation? 9.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. uniforms. 144 . appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. mid-day meals. stationary. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? .

therefore. 6. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. 2. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment.” 3.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b.3. Minimum Levels of Learning b. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. a. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. 3. Universalization of Retention 2.1. a. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. 3. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. Universalization of Enrolment c. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all.1. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Universalization of Provision b.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community.1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. Hartog Committee. improvement of curriculum. “The State shall endeavour to provide. directed that. 145 . Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. a. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. 4. 3. 4.

Social Factors 8. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. (2007). Crescent Publishing Corporation. School Factors d.N.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. S. Problems of Elementary Education.7. a. Familial Factors c. a. (2008). introduce graded curriculum. improve examination system. Hemchand. 9. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Sharma. New Delhi: 146 . Personal Factor b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 3.1. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.K. (2001).K. S. T. b.

2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2.2.2.4.5.2.4.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2 3.LESSON 3.4.2.2 Grade System 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.2.2.7 Let us sum up 147 .2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.5.6.5.5.1 3.5.2.2.2.3.2.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2.5 New evaluation procedures 3.5.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.4 Question banks 3.2.1 Problems of examination 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.5.7 Open book examination 3.3.2.2.

it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. but on the other. you will be able to: 1. suggest the new evaluation procedures. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.8 3.9 3. 4. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.2.2.3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.3.2. Besides.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.2. 3.2. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.2. 3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2. 3.

Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. etc. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. If the students are in sufficient number. schools for them wherever necessary. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. hostel facilities. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education.3. etc. They develop secondary sex characteristics. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. etc. They may cause problems relating to discipline.. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. roadside Romeoism. 3. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. 149 . about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age.2. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. waiting rooms for girl students. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. which the educational authorities have to face. The following steps should be taken up. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. assessment and Finance.2. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. appointment of paper-setters. It is considered as a major sub-system. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. the examination system has an important role to play.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 150 . so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. 3. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. Instruction. public administrators and statesmen.4. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. conduct of internal examinations. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. public interested in education. teachers. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3.2.

The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. scrutinizers. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. establishing reliability. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. invigilators. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. validity and practicability. introducing objective-based testing. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. etc.4. etc. 3. announcement of results. examiners.2. values. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. training of examiners. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 .2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. tabulators. etc. etc.printing and distribution of question papers. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. etc. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts.

3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. takes the place of comprehensive learning. it s a common experience that subjectivity..2. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. 3) With respect to method of teaching. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books.. Subjects.4. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. stereotyped questions. may also discredit them. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. halo-effect. 7) In connection with the question papers. 152 . 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. do not appeal to the students and parents. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. lack of objectivity etc. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. Vagaries in making. Rote memorisation. 2) From the angle of content of education. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. 3. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. which they are expected to study.. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made.

Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t.. Spot valuation. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers.develop true love for education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Question Books may be developed in all schools. may be introduced. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. 4. etc. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately.a part of internal assessment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. revaluation. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. re-numbering of answer scripts. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. 153 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. . Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. List any two merits of examination. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination.

This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures.2. Every paper is treated equal. attitudes. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. When a person chooses to work extra. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.5.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. he is given extra credit points. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.5. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. The new scheme of assessment. skills are given importance. In this system. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.2.3. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . Advantages More autonomy is given to students. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. Their interests.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . 3. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.2. The students can take any course offered in any department. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. It is complicated. In actual practice.

good.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. 3. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. or as a 4 credit course. poor. While designing syllabus. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. courses can have weightages defined. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. An example is a seminar. v. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . Groupism is encouraged. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal.5. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses.discipline. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. instead of specifying number of paper/courses.2. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. These weightages are called credits. In the new system. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. only the total credits to be earned is specified. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents.poor. This system reduces comparison of marks. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning.

3.5. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.2.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. 3.5.5. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. 156 . and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. 3. However. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. the need for re-evaluation should not arise.2. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.2.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. . Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard.3. In the hierarchy. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. However. recruitment. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately.2. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Therefore.5. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. List any four new evaluation procedures. 6. There are no proper procedures for selection. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.

Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. etc.2. whether the syllabus has been covered. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. When they are fully realised. finding out the adequacy of. requirements. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. playgrounds. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. 1. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. laboratory equipment. There has been dearth of properly trained and well.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is.. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. 3. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. library books. disciplinary problems. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools.qualified personnel. submitting of the inspection reports. qualifications. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. staff. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner.. complaints and compliments. interpersonal relationships and so on. 158 . is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now.6. finding out whether the prescribed text. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. taking up the follow-up programmes. being realised as two different functions. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. in a sense. Academic inspection. of late. school buildings. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. whether proper teaching methods have been followed.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. wherever necessary. in contrast. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. They are. inspecting the class-room teaching. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. books are followed. etc.

Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. In the light of these conceptualisation. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level.Ed. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. 3. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. course in either educational. their professional knowledge.. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought.Ed. In the case of departmental candidates. or. M. Insistence on specialisation in the B. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. modern.. 159 . There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. once in five years. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace.2. courses. Similarly. aptitude. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. at least. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. c. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. a. b. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. a. Grade System. 3. b. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. b. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 2. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance.2. Administration. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. 160 . 3. a. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Instruction. assessment and Finance.2.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. d.2. 5. 3.

Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Educational Reforms. 3. b. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Problems of Education in India. c. (2002). New 161 . a. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Multiple sets of question paper. 7. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .2. K. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Vaidya. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. R and Sharma.a part of internal assessment.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. a. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Question banks. 5. History and Problems of Education in India. S. (2005). To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. a. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. (2004). Open book examinations. b.4. b. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. K. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline.

examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.9 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.4 3.3.10 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. identify the needs of rural India and social.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.1 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3. 5. 3. you will be able to: 1. 2.3. 3.2 3.LESSON 3.6 3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3.7 3.3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3.3 3.3. 4.3.5 3. 162 .3.3.8 3.3.

. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education.specialisation programmes 3. 10 years of general Secondary Education. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission.. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . the Banaras Sanskrit College. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. etc.. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. University Education. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. in Andhra Pradesh. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.3. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. Consequent on the recommendations. Commission emphasised to continue. e. 2. Similar is the case with some other States.e.g. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education.3. and 3 years of First Degree Course. 8 years of general education. The Calcutta Madras. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses .e. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. The. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines.. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. i. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges.

It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. habits of hard work and develop . cultural and economic development of the country. However. to imbibe. to prepare.confidence in students. Provision for transfer of credits to students. who desire to change from one stream to another. 7. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved .3.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. 5. 8. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. 3. 5) to help for the social. 10. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. b. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities.a sense of dignity of labour. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. historical. economical and political. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. and. social. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. 6. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . is also a plus point .4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. educational channels.

The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. The General Educational Spectrum. to develop national character.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. at the other. and that required to enter the tertiary level.national integration. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. etc. cultural and' religious tolerance. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. Psychologically. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. Philosophically it is not the conception. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as.. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. social justice. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . Sociologically it is undesirable. democratic living.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. cooperativeness. 1. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. on one hand. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. international understanding. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. and. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. 3. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X.3.

economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers.3. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Biology. or other machinery. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. technological. industrial agricultural production is growing. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. In the vocational spectrum. educational and cultural services. the rural areas have suffered very much. All these need for an. and vocations based on dairy-farming. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. physics or mathematics. India is a land of villages. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. such as Agriculture. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. vegetable growing. 166 .— tube-wells. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. 3. commerce. Agriculture is the main occupation. Science. In the matter of language. Commerce and other disciplines. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. technical. fish culture. medical plants. rural health. commerce. chemistry. horticulture. 2. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. In our country. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. professional. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially.

In this way. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. There had been favourable reaction from the students. 3.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . interests and aptitudes of the students. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum.3.etc. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. the local resources available. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. and 5.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. can be ensured. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses.. 4. social justice. In this it may be concluded. etc. In time. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. and the needs. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging.

Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 3. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. B. a. to imbibe. 3. Mohanty. we studied the history. a. (2008). (2007).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. J. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C. objectives. (2001). a. N. Vocational Sepctrum. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.3. J. (2005). S. 2. Anmol Publications Pvt. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3.3.3. Dash.3. b. habits of hard work and develop . Modern Trends in Indian Education. Calcutta University Commission 2.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Ltd. New Delhi : 168 .a sense of dignity of labour. General Educational Spectrum and b. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.K. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b.

4.3 3.4.9 3.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.1 3.4.4.4.LESSON 3.4.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge. social and 169 . Education contributes to human development.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.12 3.7 3.10 3.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.6 3.5 3.4.8 3.4.4.4.4.2 3.4.13 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.4. but the lighting of a fire”.11 3.

Education . the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. For the first time in the history of India. These courses were. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. The relevance of women’s education to social.4. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development.4. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. While women constituted only 9. In the post —independence period. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. higher education of girls developed immensely. economic. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. 3. Teaching and Fine Arts.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. Nursing.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . particularly 170 . 3. analyze the women and distance education.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. Dr. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. cultural and political development of the individual. family. There is a close connection between education and development. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up.higher education in particular.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. During the year 1937. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. Home Economics. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. although we have miles to go. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. community and nation is universally acknowledged.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development.

Coimbatore. Mother Teresa Women University. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. In the rest of the country. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. we have more than 1200 institutions.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.0 43.4. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. Mumbai. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.1 24.T Women University.9 14. out of 9200 and odd colleges. The idea of women’s education for equality. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.women. Even today.D.N. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.0 Today.0 16.4.2 22.0 32.65 lakhs in 1994-95. 3.9 27. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. in our country.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.4. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.1 31. Yet. Kodaikanal. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). In 1950-51. 3.2 29. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. levels and professions. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.

54 12.4.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .73 10.83 47. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .44 35.66 66. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.34 33. 3.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.17 52. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.27 89.4.53 34. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .47 65.36 3.4%) prefer Arts subjects.that of boys. 2.56 64.4.46 82.1 respectively. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.1 and 14.63 Female % 34. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. marriage is a very common I factor.4. In college. etc. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. curriculum not suited to their requirements. Book banks should be established. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. what is the need for higher education for her. promoted and increased. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. The major hurdles. particularly. she will only learn fashion. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. In every third family. According to a survey. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations.hinders the girls from getting higher education. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. They gave up their studies to enter home life. 173 . Also. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. irrelevance of the content of education. Thus. distance of the college or university from home. and coeducation may spoil her character. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. financial difficulty of the parents. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. 3.

is the only tool for realising empowerment. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. It is a productive investment.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. space. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. It enables to study. resources and socio . There are constraints of time. 3.4. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. 3.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development.4.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Distance education is a boon to women. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Education. and the limitations of the conventional education system.economic disabilities faced by women. Full-time employment. Geographic distance of educational institutions. Empowerment in a nutshell. It also brings about 174 .

empowerment means being assertive. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. higher learning. Empowerment is an active.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. Women are partners in development. education of women must be given priority in national plans. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. legal awareness and economic independence.4. education of women is of paramount importance. This can be achieved through reflection. 3. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. The major objectives of women's higher education. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. on their own. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. for full development of our human resources.

3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. who are eager to take up courses. which is pending for a long time. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. will encourage them to venture new grounds.4. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. 3. But their number is small. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Better opportunities. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. which had been the sole domain of men. especially so in the developing countries.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. 176 . Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Scholarships and concessions for women. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. has to be implemented at the earliest. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. The local administration. Reservation for women. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. The educational institutions. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures.

The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. But.3 percent. Also.9%). participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Chief Executive. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs.000 women in the country. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . especially in developing countries like African countries. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. According to Lindy Hyam. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.1%) and architecture and building (38.. 3. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests.8%). Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. Australia.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. IDP Education. capacities etc. talents.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. engineering and related technologies (16.4. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%).

Pattanaikj. 3. A. 43% 6. S. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. (2005). Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.R.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 178 . Women Education. Kodaikanal. Mumbai.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera.4. Coimbatore. (2000). R. 3. (2007). “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Annakodi. and Suryalatha. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. and Swain. community and the nation. 3. 4. R. Rajasthan 5. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. Women Education. Women and Education. R. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. individuals and society b. 2. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Centre for Women’s Studies.K.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. a. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. S. 4. A.to the family. SNDT Women’s University. Mumbai. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Coimbatore.C.4. SNDT Women’s University.4. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Mother Teresa Women University. Rao. create the right attitude towards life. Mishra. (2008).

8 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.3 3.7 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .2 3.5.5. whole. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5.5.5.5.10 3.5 3.9 3.personality of children in and out of school.11 3.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. They should be trained.5.4 3.6 3.1 3.LESSON 3.

It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. understanding and strong desire for international peace. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. 180 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. international. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. 5.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. 3. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. national consciousness. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. understand the training teachers for Primary. Lack of physical facilities. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. and national character. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has.5. Shorter working hours. equality and justice. 3. know the pre service and in service training facilities. social and emotional integration. 4.5. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction.

3. the secondary teacher education.Ed. Inadequate training in practical skills.. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. At the diploma level. inservice and extension education programmes.Less qualified teacher educators. the state Government. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. and M. 3. it is called the In-service teacher education.5. (NCERT) New Delhi. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. etc. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. and the collegiate teacher education. higher secondary teacher education. Depending on the levels. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. the centre. students. a Diploma course and a Degree course. it is called the Extension teacher Education. levels.5. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 .4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. who have not been trained earlier. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools.Ed.. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . If the student teachers are working teachers. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. the primary teacher education. Lop-sided curriculum.

etc. Education cells. Evaluation unit. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Science Education units. state Institutes of Educat ion. Also Guidance Bureaux. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Educational teehnology cells. collegiate cells. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . extensio n service. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . non-formal. Expand NCERT 2.. depart ments etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. are established. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs .Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose .5. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory .

audio visual aids.. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . to ensure teacher competence. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. which help breaking isolation from one another . material conditions relating to libraries. schools and sister institutions. which should include experience in the primary schools too. and so on.. to offer consultative services. degree.Ed. to improve curricular programmes.Ed. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. laboratories.. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. to prescribe conditions for recognition.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. and 183 .• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . despite its vast expansion. should be improved on a top priority basis. primary and secondary school teachers.

to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. not came up once again. Modern Methods of Evaluation. 184 . Induction Courses. The problem. Modern Techniques of Teaching.secondary education. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Psychology of Students. To meet this exigency. though no pre-service training. etc. and XII. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. methodology and evaluation. Hence. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Organisation of Content Courses. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. Agriculture. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. whether they should have professional education or. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Workshops. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . etc. Meanwhile. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission.

. courses and M.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Ed. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.. Pre-service training is for those. Courses leading to B.Ed. All B Ed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.A. M.Ed. Degree and M. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. Degree.. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.D.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Ed. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.. Post-Graduates also undergo B. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. training. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.’s for Ph.Ed..’s are elig ible for M. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. 3. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. Ajmer. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. For re-orienting the teachers.S.A. State Institutes of Education.5.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. These facilities are available for regular students.. (Education) and M.Ed. in Education. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. (Education) are organized by 185 .

However. (Ed. of conduct—written or unwritten. 5. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.). 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. they should be conscientious . Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession.A. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. Hence the employability of M. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. established by tradition and teachers of the past. 186 .5. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. (Ed).. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned.A. 6. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . .some Faculties of Education of some Universities.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the role of ERIC? . 3..List any two code of conduct for teachers? . and B. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.

b. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. a. 3.5. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 4. Explain code of conduct for teachers. 3. 4.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful.5. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. Shorter working hours. 3. a. 6. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. The necessity is however this. Discuss the problems of teacher education.3. b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. 2. National Council of Educational Research and Training. they should be conscientious. 5. Dearth of new technology of teaching.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. a. 3. 2. Ajmer. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Bhopal. 187 . the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. However.

12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. Mohanty. (2010). (2003). P.3. Corporation. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . (2009). Teacher Education.5. A. and Teacher Education.N. Publication Pvt. Tewari. B.D. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Teacher Education. Ltd Aggarwal. J.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. If the diet is poor. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. the focus is on the school health programmes. economic and educational developments. nutritional deficiency diseases. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. The person’s environment is equally important. common ailments of children. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. Since food is the source of nutrients. 191 . In lesson 1. preservation of nutrients.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. objectives. objectives and role of the physical education. In lesson 4. objectives. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. communicable diseases and their prevention. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important.

192 .

The programmes of school health education are quite important. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.8 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.5 4.9 4.1.1.11 4.1.1.6 4.1.LESSON 4.1 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1.1.2 4.1. It is a miniature society.1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time. mental. physical. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1. emotional and social.7 4.1.4 4.10 4.1.3 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody.e. 193 .

to his family and to the community at large. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. training of teachers and evaluation. list the common ailments of children 3. 10. Instruction. 4.g. 7. 194 . To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. understand school health programmes 2. 5. 4. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To develop certain skills concerning health. 8.1. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. To give information regarding health rules. e. 3. content of health education. training in first aid and etc. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 6. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. cleanliness and healthful living.. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. 2. 11. 4. explain the importance of First aid 5. know the need for sex education. 9.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student.1. To develop healthy health habits among children.

training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. The school buildings should be spacious. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. Arranging better transportation facilities. First aid facilities should be made readily available.1. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. (ii) communit y healt h. Triple Antigen Vaccination. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. B. (xl) mental health. (xii) smoking education etc. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. 3. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. organisation of school health days.G. There should be good drainage facilities. The surroundings of schools should be clean. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. inoculation against cholera. 2.coming or absence. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs.. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided.4..4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. (v) safety education. The flooring should not be damp. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . minimizing the travelling distance. typhoid. play festivals. vaccination. 2. suitable furniture. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. arranging class rooms in the ground floors.C. “Play-for-all” programmes. Vaccination for small pox. cleanliness weeks. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. (viii) first aid. 4. is imperative. direct lighting. as described below 1. (vi) nutrition education. 5. B. excusing late. There should be regular water supply. ( iii) sanit at io n. proper doors and windows. etc.

fainting (epileptic fit). drowning. C. D. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. scalds. dislocations. etc. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. 196 . • Keep all rooms clean. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. burns. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. if epidemic is wide-spread. • Close the schools. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. • Have adequate rest and sleep. • Take nutritious food. isolate and notify. bleeding. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. sports and games in the interest of their health. wounds. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. and other accidents. fractures. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. insect stings. poisons.. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. cuts. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. • When sleeping in groups. • Find out the cases.

4. Once these germs get into the body. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. So they easily get illnesses. water or bodily contact.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. polio. 2. headache. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. measles etc. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. pain in the joints. cough.1. These diseases are called communicable diseases. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. backache. 4. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. There are three stages in any communicable disease.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection.1. fever. which are – cold. They are: i) The incubation stage. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. List out the Health curriculum 3. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. chicken pox. Mention the school health programmes.. asthma. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. tuberculosis.

The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Measles . Throat is affected. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Common Cold .• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. After three or four days of fever. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil.It is caused by measles virus. head-ache and cough. Tonsilitis .This disease is caused by bacteria. cough and fever. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. The child may have fever. etc. Mumps . There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Diarrhoea . Hence liquid diet is recommended. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. unhygienic bottle feeding. Important salts and water are lost in this process. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Ear Infections . Children catch cold from persons having cold. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Scabies . This is caused by cold virus. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease.When a child suffers from scabies. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Hence it is called a killer disease. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Some suffer cold due to allergy. eating food which is not clean. The symptoms include cold. Others make the children very weak.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. The following are the common communicable diseases. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. sugar and water. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. unhygienic living conditions. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. 198 . In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure.

The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. the child is not able to breathe. Shortly. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Typhoid . As the disease progresses. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. By scratching he causes secondary infections. The child may also have diarrhoea. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Diphtheria . If proper treatment is not given. What are communicable diseases? 6. separate.• • • • Chicken Pox .Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. Enlist the common ailments of children. 199 . raised pink spots appear on head. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. 5. face and waist.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It begins with fever. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. the child may die. Expand DPT . The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks.

eye injury.1. 2. simple fractures. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. and Community Work and Social Service. Cuts and Bruises .Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. films and jokes. scorpion stings. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. so-called sex books and periodicals. It is both biological and psychological.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. Sex is popular. It has its rightful place in education too. sprains. fainting. 200 . which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. snakebites. sprains. bruises.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. fiction. 4. Drowning . The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. bleeding. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. swelling. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. dislocation. head injury. 3. exciting and body-oriented. 5. etc. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. wounds. and films. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. Sprains .Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. man-woman behaviours.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups.1. cuts.4. it is a subject of art. Wounds .Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. drowning. In such cases.g. 4.

The values of life. health. Should the boys and girls. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. the religious organisations. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. In today's liberal and interactive society. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge.. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. In secondary schools. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. celibacy are age. The home. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. sex education is being recommended in schools. in their ignorance. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life.old values.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. B. they would be treading the path of sure doom. the school. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. Hence. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. 2. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. but preserve them from disaster and disease. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. try experimenting with their bodies. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. 3.

1. What are the major components of Sex Education. communicable diseases and their prevention. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. 4. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. C. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. first aid and sex education. when the courses are already overloaded. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. hence. the school health programmes. there will no crisis in its implementation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. Teacher education institutions are. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. 202 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. common ailments of children. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Mention the food nutrients 2. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 209 . Rickets is the deficiency of 5.

is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.2. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. If you look at the definition carefully. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. Let us talk about each of these aspects. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet.2. minerals. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied.4. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. 210 .6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.

Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. paratha and poori. These are: region where the person resides and income. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. moderate or heavy work. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. activity level and physiological stress. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. sex. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days.6. the social and religious practices of that region. it is also specific to a given activity level . So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age.g.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age).g.2. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). Those in the west also tend to eat rice. People in the east of our country prefer rice. construction labourer). Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.one in the morning and the other at night. In the case of adults. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. dosa are typical of the south. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. A balanced diet is specific firstly. There is no point. In other words. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. for example.sedentary. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Even within given States there is considerable variation. 4. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. Preferences/customs are also important. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body.

This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. nuts and dry fruits. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. Having more money. while another may hate them. however. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. These determine the acceptability of foods. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. taboos related to food may play an important role. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. income plays a vital role. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. for example. as important for the rich as for the poor. As you read this discussion. As income increases. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. One must. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. fat and sugar tend to increase. Among the social factors. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. Even among flesh foods. However. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. vegetables and fruits. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods.planning the diet. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. Judicious selection of food is. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. In addition to these. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. customs. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. Including these 212 . you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. however. If you think of your own religious group. however. One person may be fond of milk products.

9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. List out any two healthy food habits. 17. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed .eating is hazardous. fruits. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. For this. over-eating or under. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. but they should be thrown away. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 213 . don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. etc. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . green leaves. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. 8) Walk a while after eating. meat. eggs . 8.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. if the teachers have good food habits. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. mouth. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. Define balanced diet. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students.

a. 4. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. preservation of nutrients.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.4. Conjuctival xerosis. 4. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Vitamin D 5. b. In fact. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Explain food nutrients 4. good nutrition is essential for good health. d. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Keratomalacia 3. Night blindness. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Corneal xerosis.2.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Bitot’s spots. e. When the diet is inadequate. c.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss good food habits. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Beri Beri 4. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer.

A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . Nutrition Science. P. R. Sri Lakshmi B. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . (2009). minerals.C.M. 8. S. A Text Book of Foods. (2008). Food and Nutrition Education. b. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. a . New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra.2. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. 7. mouth. (2008). (2005). 4. Nutrition and Dietetics. Hands. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.N.6.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. R. Health and Nutrition Education. a. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Food should be consumed after eating well. Chopra. (2004). b. Food and Nutrition Education. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.

3.10 4.LESSON 4.7 4.3.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.6.4 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3.13 4.3.3 Impact on Education 4.6.2 Impact on economic development 4.6.8 4.11 4.3 4.2 4.9 4. 216 .5 4.3.3.3.3.12 4.3.1 4.3.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3.3.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.3.

Population Education.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. 217 . his societ y and the world. describe the impact of population growth on social. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.3. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. community. population characteristics. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as.3. his family. the causes of population change. characteristics and changes for himself. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. the stress is.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. economic and educational development 3. objectives and need for population education 2. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. Whenever we talk of sex education. state the meaning. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. you will be able to: 1. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. 4.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.3. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. It is a much wider co ncept.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control.4. therefore. family planning and sex education etc. and the consequences of these processes. understand the importance of small family norm 5. 4. aims at providing the younger generation. It is not sex education. There is some difference.

List out any two objectives of Population Education.3. Define Population Education 2. the nation and the world.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. the family. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.4. the society. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.

With the larger families. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Family is considered as a social unit. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. the family programmes are also handicapped. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. When the family is small.3. 4. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. 4.3. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. which will not be possible without population control. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. Every second two thousand children are being born. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. health and happiness of its citizens. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. 219 . Any modern state is responsible for the welfare.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries.6.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. economic and educational development of the country.

organization index and material index.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. The gulf between them is widening further. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.6. heavy intern I migration etc. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. in cinema halls and theatres. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. 4. Many students herded in a small room.e. lack of proper health care. in buses and trains.. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. unemployment. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. 4. i. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. Swollen cities.3. teacher index. and so on. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. in parks and other places of public gatherings. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.3. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower.6. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. pollution of the environment. 220 .The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. In developing countries. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. facility for drinking water. toilets. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils.

221 . material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.3. less space facilities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. bar graphs etc. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. blank verses etc. Hindi and English. can be studied in science and health education. and laboratory equipments. even text books would be in short supply. There would be very few audiovisual aids. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. Social Studies Statistics on population education. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. thus. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. can be taken up. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue.. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. family planning etc. less budget for education. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Regional Language.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. essays. There would be poor library facilities.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. reproduction.

15. Brazil. United States of America. Children may compare two families. 7. 13. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . 12. China. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 11. 10. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Children with the help of parents. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 5. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living.3. Uttar Pradesh. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. causes of deaths etc. area and average density of population. 8. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. 9. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Canada. 4.4. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. deaths. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Bihar. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 2. 3. 14. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. West Bengal.

one with a working woman and the other only a house wife.be opened in their schools. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. values and role children etc. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. 17. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. we have no right to stop 223 .3. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Comparing life in various respects in two families. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. The question. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 16. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. age at marriage. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. 18. preferences for sex.

The Family Welfare Program. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. More than 45 years ago. at varying places in different regions. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. Since the program's inception. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. and the child survival components of the news: program. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . continued . Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. 4.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3.3.their entry into the world”. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. especially the expansion of child immunization services . however. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. “He who is responsible for population growth.were implemented 224 .4 births per woman in mid-1990s.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc..4-6.to emphasize family planning services. on an overall basis. which education can only do. fertility levels have declined throughout the country.

earlier than the safe motherhood components. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . In October 1997. In April 1996. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. men. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. a focus on health promotion. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. Moreover. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. At these meetings. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. Local programs vary in their approaches. and nominal fees for services. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. reliance on local women as community health workers. expansion of services to unmarried women. Therefore. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. and the World Conference on Women. the community appears willing to pay for services.

to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. Describe the impact of population growth on social. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. nation and the world. 1997). 226 . which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. community.3. Its main purposes are to create awareness. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers.emphasizing the needs of the client. What are the goals of RCH? 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. family.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. economic and educational development 4. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. involving the community.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. 4.

Canada. less budget for education. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. the causes of population change. 7. population characteristics. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 227 . b. a. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Brazil. a.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. bar graphs. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. area and average density of population. United States of America. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. 3. 4. b. 5. his family. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. less space facilities. China. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. and the consequences of these processes. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. 6.4.3.” 2. a. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. characteristics and changes for himself. his society and the world. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.

4.3. Reddy. Ltd. (2002). Coimbatore. V. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Jayapoorni. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Centre for Women’s Studies. N. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. J.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Bhende. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Principles of Population Studies. Modern Problems of Education.K. Udaiveer. (2005). A. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Kantikar. (2004). (1992). T. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. 228 . (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education.

8.4.10 4.7 4.4.LESSON 4.4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4.4.2 Major games 4.3 Indigenous games 4.4.4.5 4.3 4.2 4.4.4 4.8.8.11 19.4 Lead up games 4.9 4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.4.4.4.1 Minor games 4.8.1 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.6 4.4.4.4.

The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education.4. you will be able to: 1.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. The concept of physical education has been made broader. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. full records of physical activities should be maintained. perseverance.4. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. moral fitness and emotional fitness. 4. leadership and balance in defect. team spirit. 4. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. which forms its most valuable assets.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. social fitness. as it should 230 . Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. classify the different types of games. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. mental alertness. the youth of the country. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.4.4. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.

g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Therefore. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. They are inseparably united together. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. obedience to rules. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. team spirit. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Every individual is a part of society. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. leadership. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. The educational efforts at home. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. To be more precise. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. They go hand in hand. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end.

a sound health. 4. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.” The Secondary Education Commission.4. Regarding the significance of physical education. “Physical education does neither train up the soul.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. Rousseau states. C. ment al.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. Buck has observed that 232 . “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. pleasing manners. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. Just like Education. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. nor body but the whole man. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. H. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. Physical exercises. game and sports. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action.” Montaigue writes. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. mo ral. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical.

Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. efficiency and character. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. coordinative abilities. endurance. “If we wish to develop the whole being.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. elegance. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. etc. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Froebel says. speed. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. happiness.a properly directed physical education should result in health. resourcefulness and smartness.4.” In brief. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. strength. we must exercise the whole human being. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. 233 . initiative.” 4. flexibility and power.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society.

including all racial groups and historical ages. plagues and famines. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Every age has its artists.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. poetry and painting. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. its adherents and its enemies. these fundamental things have always been present. in greater or lesser degree. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. 234 (i) (ii) . Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. they may form gangs. systems of government. While wars. Tournaments foster this sentiment. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups.

and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.sacrifice. self. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. 235 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. etc. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. 3. B. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. Write any two importance of Physical Education. obedience. to develop tolerance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. respect for rules. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline.\ to develop perseverance. bravery and interest in games and sports. 2. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit.

16. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases.4. injuries among pupils should be made. and. Usually parents.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 14. 13. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Inform health principles. Be sportive. 10. . 9. 2. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 4. 236 1.H. Keep the field ready for the activities. 4.4. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 15. Posture screening should be done. Be punctual. 6. 5. Be in the uniform. Be self-confident. students.4. 11. 12. Be well-prepared. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. and readmission after they have recovered. Always keep the whistle ready. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. is essential. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Act as a leader. 3. defects. 8. Haag. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. 7.

fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. As such they are well enjoyed by children. 2. 237 . They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. chasing.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. 4. 4. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. the play. 4. 1. Moreover. Lead up games. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. Indigenous games.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls.8.4. Such inst incts as imitation. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. frolic and jo y. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. less equipment and less expense. their development is handicapped.4. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.

on hard courts. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. over ball pass Relay. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. some of them are played indoors. For each game the rules are many. Khokho. 4. with implements or without implements. bowling etc. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. finding the partner. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. driving. muffling. boosting. Hopping. Jumping. the number of players and substitutes. Hockey. hitting. dribbling. skipping. trapping. on mountain tops and on river beds.4. pitching. On lawns. Cricket. The dimension of the posts and nets. While many of them are played in the open playfields.8. Except a few games. stopping. the play equipment. wherever the kids assemble. heading.With a very few rules. Tennis. Basket Ball. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. on sea-shore. spiking. Soft Ball. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Ball Badminton. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Kabaddy etc. They are played for a shorter duration. catching. Shuttle Badminton. They are rules approved by the International Associations. snatching the kerchief. zig zag relay. women take part most of the games. couple tag. Volley Ball.. the games can be modified according to convenience. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. under ball pass Relay. Throwing. Tennikoit. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. Dodging. These games require varied skills such as running. benefit in playing minor games. 238 . Jump the stick clay and so on.

8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. An example for indigenous game is 8. 7. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . Kho-kho. They have an abundant social value. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. death.4. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. List out some major games. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. Games may be classified as 6. 4. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. For example. festivals connected with religion and public functions.8. While observing the players in action. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. these games being popular.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. All the fundamental tactics. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. birth. On occasions like marriage.4. they are in existence. and . Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one.4.

Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. a. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. c. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 3. 4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. aims and objectives and need of physical education. physically and emotionally fit and alert. b.4. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. b. 5. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. a. 4. d.4. a. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. b. to secure physical health b. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 2. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. to develop physical stamina. Minor and Major 240 . a. 4. Posture screening should be done. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.4.4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Briefly discuss the different types of games. 4. 3. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Krishna murthy. G.6. Tennis. Foot-ball. J. Khokho 8. Soft Ball. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Basket Ball. (2009). Tennikoit. (2005).C. 241 .12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews.4. Khokho. (2008). J. Ltd. Ball Badminton.K. Mohanty. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Health. Aggarwal. Handbook of Physical Education. Hockey. Kabaddy 7. (2008). Shuttle Badminton. 4. Cricket. J. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Volley Ball. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Physical Education and Sports. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.

5.2 Manmade Environment 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .2 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.8 4.5.9 4.5.10 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.5.5.5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.1 Natural Environment 4.6 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.11 4.5.5.3 4.4 4.5.5.1 4.7 4.LESSON 4.5.

The best place to start such learning is school. 5. Details are given below: I. education about the environment and education through the environment. 2. Broadly. 4. list out the types of environment 3. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. it covers the following elements: 1. Attitude. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.5. Skills.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. political. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 4.5. population explosion and resource depletion could be. 3. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. 6. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Evaluation Ability. Participation. aesthetic and educational factors. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. 243 . Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. Essential knowledge about the Environment. Awareness. Knowledge. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. you will able to: 1. 3. 2.5. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. economic. social. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. 4.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast.educat ion for the environment.

B. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. D. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. • Biological magnification E. Oxidants Other pollutants. 244 . F. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. a. 2. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen.

Abortion iv. c. III. Socio-economic measures. Use of medical science i. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Family planning ii. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. economic. The pill ii. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. The human ecosystem II. 2. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. B. 4. Sterilisation. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Birth control through education b. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. 2. Intrauterine device iii. 3. Persuasion: i. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Control of population growth a.3. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Air pollution abatement ii. 2. 246 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. (UNESCO. 1983). Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Water pollution abatement. e) Recycling. 3. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. 3. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Define Environmental Education. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i.

includes the plants. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism.5. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. way is called environmental or ecological factor. Biological environment The biological environment. -other. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.other components of the environment. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.4.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. They interact with each.5. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. He modifies according”. a. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. These are biotic components. telex. animals and other organisms (biotic). A change in one brings about a change in the other.5. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 .5. to his needs. b. Any constituent or condition of the environment. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. 4. fax agricultural apparatus.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4.5.5.

role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. explosion deforestation. over exploitation of ground water. extinction of species. wars and hazards of war. alternate sources of energy. solar cookers. preserving the watersheds. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. sources of pollut ion. preventing siltation of dams. social studies. river systems. need for bio-diversity. desertification 248 . maintaining the ecological diversity. effects.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. acid rain. mineral survey. noise control. reasons. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. History The rise and fall. ozone layer deplet ion. t heir role in preventing pollution. nuclear warfare. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. greenhouse effect. etc. trees reducing noise pollution. (ii) Air pollution. population. water scarcity. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. etc. air pollutants from industries. nuclear energy. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . ozone depletion. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. windmills. relation between population and pollution. food chain and food-web. are the topics which may be taught in History. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. change in climate may be added. biogas plants.. use of pesticides. importance of nitrogen cycle. natural way of controlling pests. excellent recreation sites. balance of nature. effects o f CFC. role of trees in building economy. industrial survey. supplying timber for various uses. noise pollution. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. need for conservation. of civilizations. sources. industrial pollut io n. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. use of medicinal plants. evolution.

Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 2. 9. Providing. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control.may be inc ded in Geography. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 8. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. aims and scope. 5. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 4. 13. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. group discussions and seminars. 6. 3. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 10. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community.5. animal and plants. 4. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. 12.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Peepal and Tulsi. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 249 . Organising conferences. 7. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 11. 14.

old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. used oils down the drain. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. 6. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. it will cause pollution. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Never put any left over chemicals. 5. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. all these can cause serious pollution. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Send their waste oil. If it is done. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Reuse carrier bags. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. World Environmental falls on 250 . especially plastics. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Don’t burn any waste. Use public transport wherever it is possible.

etc. etc. Harmony with the nature . orderliness and beauty). Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. values and habits. depletion of ozone. potable water. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry.5. CFCs. and 251 . Conservation of natural resources. To arrange for visiting speakers.. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. dest roying nat ural habitats. Social responsibilit y (common good. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. To provide reference materials for children’s use. To arrange visits or expeditions. rather than conquest and mastery.). Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. developing desirable attitudes. To provide materials needed for practical work. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. diversity and stability. The groups may exchange. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. viz.4. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. nuclear wars. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Concern for species. Att itudes of balance towards nature. (cleanliness.mat erials. loss of bio-diversity. concern for others).8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. deforestation. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes.

9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. preserving natural cycles. 252 .Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. 4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.5. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.5. 4.5. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4.

new problems from science and technology. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . 4. Udaiveer. air pollutants from industries. b. Awareness. (2007). ozone layer deplet ion. Environment and Human Rights. 6. water scarcity. (2004).K. effects. June 5 7. New Delhi : Sharma. Social responsibilit y (common good.K. To provide reference materials for children’s use. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.\ 4. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. a. Knowledge. Environmental Education. a. Environmental Education. b. a.2. To provide materials needed for practical work. T. S. Ltd. 5. 3. reasons. explosion deforestation. greenhouse effect. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. (ii) Air pollution. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. (2007). concern for others). Education for values.K. Providing. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising conferences. New Delhi : Authors Press. over exploitation of ground water. Ltd. Rapid population growth. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Modern Problems of Education. group discussions and seminars. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Kuldeep.. a. S. Y. b. (1997). Publications Pvt.K. sources of pollution. relat ion between population and pollution. Anmol Publications Pvt. sources. population. acid rain.5. importance of nitrogen cycle. b. 8. Nanda.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. Universal Education. the emancipation of spirit. According to Rusk'.3. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. It is self-realisation. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. in fact. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. Education according to idealism. Spiritual Development. Education must contribute to development of culture. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. should be universal in nature. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments.” 5.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve.our life. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. Therefore. promote and transmit it to rising generation. The universe is regarded as a thought process.1.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. moral. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. enrichment and transmission of culture. man is essentially a moral being. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage.

Ethics. Learning through discussion. So cognition (knowing). 3. the school is a garden. The teacher serves as a living model for the students.3. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. subjects like Languages. 5. Mathematics etc. a spiritual guide for the child. However.” 5.1.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching.1. hygiene. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only.3. an indispensable necessity. 2. Learning through questioning. affecting (feeling). “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method.the spiritual qualities of mankind. According to idealism. Philosophy. Learning through lecturing. Science. According to Frobel. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. no doubt. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. 4. 5. History. He carries the child from darkness to light. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. He sets the environment in which education takes place. should be there. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. So health. so subjects like Religion. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . For this no particular method has been suggested. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Herbert advocated instruction method. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum.” He is thus. The plant can grow. and collation (striving) should find due place. It considers teacher as. Learning through reading.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. So he should embody. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. Learning through imitation. For intellectual development. friend and guide. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race.

formal lessons or examinations. Perfection of Human Machine.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.preservation. 2. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. text books. In the words of Ross.1. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.perfection and beauty. time tables.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.1. 5. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self.4. curricula. "Education should make 263 • . Ross explains. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.

Therefore.1. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Zoology. subjects like history. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality.4. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Naturalistic curriculum. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. geography should also be included in the curriculum. “Education finds its purpose. Chemistry. Literature. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. It stresses basic sciences. Biology. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Education should.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. 264 . 4. • 5. rational harmoniously balanced. Punishment is given by nature in its own way.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. In all. Arithmetic. There is no place for religious and moral education.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. It emphasises physical and health education 5. is based on the nature of the child. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. therefore. It is based on the psychology of the child. useful and mature child. Botany etc Language. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. education should develop the child into Joyous.

Learning through observation. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. the stage. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Learning by doing.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. 4. Learning through experience. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Heuristic method.1. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Rousseau says. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.1. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Dalton Plan. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. a provider of an ideal environment. 2. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4.1. 5. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching.4.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. a supplier of materials and opportunities. 5. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. In the .5.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. It discards all rigid. he should be taught by experience alone. 3.

The individual has not only to adjust himself. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. 5.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based.5. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. All Round Development of an Individual. of human personality is in terms of his physical. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Geography. Social Science.5. Agriculture. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Physical training.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. 5. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Continuous Growth.1. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education.1. Sciences. is true. Subjects. The aim of educational development. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously.absolutism of idealism. diversified and flexible. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. History. social and moral aspects. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. intellectual. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Vocational and 266 . Personal Social Adjustment. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Social Efficiency. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment.

He has to be active. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. should find proper place. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. Learning by Doing. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. The subjects. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. 5.1. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles.1. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.” 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. a senior partner and a sincere guide.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. a teacher occupies an important position. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism.Technical Education. alert and resourceful.5. He must be trained. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .

Sex Education. 5.1. Biography Philosophy. Mathematics. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. literary or humanistic education. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Population Education.1. Literature. liberal. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Biology. specific. rich and happy. Art.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. The basic tenets of realism are 1. 3.6. Crafts. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. practical. 5. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic.6. History.5. 5. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Education is preparation for a complete living. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. 3. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 2. It favours child-centered. Satisfaction of individual and social needs.1. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. 2. scientific and psychological education. intellectual. 4. 4. Study of Subjects like Language.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Astrology. Chemistry. Music and Dance. Psychology. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. easily and pleasantly.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . certainly and clearly.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.6.5.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.6.

Rousseau 5. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Self Realisation b. Languages.1. Learning through experience b. 6.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Tours / Excursion e. Learning through discussion. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Learning through imitation. Experimentation d. e. Learning through lecturing. pragmatism and realism. Universal Education 2. 5. & curriculum. c. has no end other than growth. 5. Demonstration and Observation 270 .1. a. Geography. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim.7 LET US SUM UP We have. a. Education according to pragmatism. Agriculture. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Child centered c.1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Physical training.5. b. Sciences. Learning through reading. naturalism. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Social Science. in this lesson. a. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. d. 5. 3. Vocational and Technical Education. Self preservation & Self expression 4. History. Learning through questioning. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2.

(2007). K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.5. Ltd. New Delhi : Bhatia. P. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Publishing corporation. K. Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. of Pathak. 271 . O. (2004). (2003). Theory and Principles of Education. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. N. New Delhi : A. (2007). P.H. L. Pahuja.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. R.P.1. Foundations of Education.P.

2.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2.2.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.4 Views about teacher 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.2.2 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.3.2.2.4.4.3 Methods of Teaching 5.2.3.2 Curriculum 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.3 Methods of teaching 5.3.2.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2 Curriculum 5.4.2.2.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.3. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.3.5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .2.4.4.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.5.2.2.2.1 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.4 Views about teacher 5.3.1 Aims of Education 5.2.LESSON 5.

a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.5.7 5.8 5.2. Tagore was a poet.4 Role of the teacher 5. you will able to: 1.2. 5. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.2.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. content and methods.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.2. 5. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.6 5. mind and spirit. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. 273 . economic and political reconstruction in our country.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.2. an artist. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.5. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. Gandhiji was primarily a social.2. 3.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. 2.2.

'Man is neither mere intellect. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. mind and soul of children He further observed.3. righteousness. through life and for life. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. 5. self-restraint and service of humanity. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. It really provides opportunity for character building.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. In the words of Gandhiji. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education.2. strength of mind. "I attach more. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. His scheme of education is life centred.supporting. 274 . it is education of life. nor the gross animals body. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words." Dignity of Labour. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.

the realization of the ultimate reality. leather work have been suggested. Mother-tongue.2. Only good individual forms a better society. Drawing and Hindustani. Individual and Social Aims. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations.3. Music. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. wood work. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders.Training for Leadership. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. 5. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Art. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. "Development of the moral character. development of the whole all were directed: towards. gardening. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. General Sciences. According to Gandhi. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . metal work.

Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.2. proficient. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.2. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.3.3. Basic education is other wise known as 4.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. men of 276 .trained. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

5. He also advocates freedom for the child. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says.knowledge. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. 3. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. That is why. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots.2.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . Education must be child centered. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

5. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. • Cult of non-violence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.3. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.2.2. He believed in the oneness of humanity. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.4.2. he was a true Vedantist 5.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. 5.K. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. • Education should involve manual work. He was deadly against untouchability. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. Gandhi in 1937. • Ideal of citizenship. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .” Like all other ideals. He was a true patriot.

he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Religion and Psychology.Mother tongue and other Indian languages.Language and Literature . Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Therefore. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. sentiment. he said. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. International understanding. Dance. Music. International Understanding. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. the more dedicated and devoted. That way only. Chemistry. deeper in. Tagore said.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. It should help. Civics. stronger in power than ever before. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. etc. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. (vi) Philosophy. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. them solve problems of day to day life." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. It should help the learner have good physique. "Mankind must realise a unity.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Botany.4. wider in range.2. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. 279 . General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Geography. complete manhood could be attained. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Zoology. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. could help in forging unity among all.

The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. Activity Method Heuristic Method. 5.2. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.4. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. 280 . 5. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.2.” He further says.2. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children." 5. Tagore rightly says.4.4. In 1921.

Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. race. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. 281 . Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. 9. 10. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. It is open to all irrespective of country. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6.g. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi.

2.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Concept of Education.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual.” 5.2. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education for Self-realization. 4. Education for strong Moral Character. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. 3. According to him. Book learning. work and deeds come out of it. 2.5. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Education for Self-reliance. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Education should make a person self-reliant. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 .1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Purity of thought. man making. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues." He was against the theoretical type of education. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Freedom. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself.5. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all.

There the teacher provided just guidance to them. Of course. philosopher and guide to the students He.the learners on different students in the discussion. 5. Religion.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth.5. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. Thirdly he wished that games. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Discussion Method. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . The teacher should be the facilitator.2.5. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching.5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Philosophy and Theology. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. 5. Secondly he wanted Science. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. 5. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. A physically strong person is the need of the society. And above all.2.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. engineering and technical subjects. Education for Physical Development. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. 6.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Education should help in the physical development of an individual.2. Swami. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Every individual should be trained for concentration. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses.5. 283 . That will serve the purpose of education fully.

5.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. of course. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims.2. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. 12.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. Write short notes on Basic education. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. ears and eyes. We have seen that Tagore.2. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 LET US SUM UP We have. 3.Substantiate your answer. in this lesson. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. Gandhiji as a Idealist. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. naturalist. 2. Their educational ideas. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. and pragmatist . legs. 284 . Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher.

Basic education. 10. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Heuristic Method. Explain Vishwabharathi. Meditation and concentration c. Activity Method b. Cult of non-violence. a. Self-Study b. Self realization.4.2. gardening. Debate and Discussion Method. 5. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. 3. b. metal work. c. wood work. Learning by Doing c. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Teaching while Walking b. Nai Talim 4. 9. 11. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 2. 8. 5. Technique of Correlation 6. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. a. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 5. leather work have been suggested. Education should involve manual work. a. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. c.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. f. d. a. Activity Method d. e. Ideal of citizenship. 1937 7. Discussion Method 285 .

286 . Anmol Publications Pvt.P. (2007). New Delhi : A. Publishing Corporation. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. P. O.H. (2003). Ltd. Dhiman. B. New Delhi : Aggarwal. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2004). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. N. N. L.2. Foundations of Education. K. K and Narang C. C. on Bhatia.5. J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. P. (2007). Pahuja. (2002). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Theory and Principles of Education.

3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .4 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.LESSON 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.6 5.11 5.2 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.3.1 5.3.9 5. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.5 5.7 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.3.3 5.3.3.3.8 5.3.3.3. In this lesson.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.10 5.

From the latter point of view. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. 5. In the words of Kerney and Cook. is a means to the process. maintained or eliminated. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. 5.S. it is identical wit h socializat ion.. In it. present behaviour may be modified. the plateau area and 288 . curriculum. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. Since the demands. the desert area.3. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. new behaviour may be acquired. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. In the former sense.under the direction of the school. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. you will be able to: 1. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. state the meaning of curriculum 2.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. there is a large number of communities. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. A g o o d curricu lu m. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. living in the hilly area. in Russia or in Japan. Curriculum is intimately related to education. curriculum signifies situations for learning. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. While education is learning. in the U. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences.3.3. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s .A. Both the processes are integrated. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. in the form of new experience. Then in a big country like India. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. the plain area. While education is a process. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. in fact .

(v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. studying therein. therefore. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. However. it is. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. and 289 . A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. It must differ from locality and from society to society. differs from individual to individual. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. In fact . From a slave-country we became secular. irrespective of their needs and environment.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. Again. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft.3. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. democratic and socialistic country. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. customs and needs. according to modern trends in the educational process. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. environment. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. 5. too. the learning capacity of children. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. Besides craft. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission.

which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. which may or may not be attained. of classroom. uninspiring and unscientific. in instructional objectives. 290 .. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals..g. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Self Realisation. The word “Curere” means 2. unsatisfactory.. remote or immediate.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. emotional. eg. 4. etc. 2. e. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. 5. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education.g. National Integration. Goals of Primary Education. aesthetic and spiritual development. unambiguous and functional. tangible. They are visionary goals e. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3. social. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. individual or Social and so on. Goals of Secondary Education. aims. moral. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. Understanding Objective. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. social. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. So it is inadequate. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. 1. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . Knowledge Objective. general or specific.. They speak of perfect goals. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. Vocational Efficiency. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. e. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. They may be ultimate or proximate. specific.. Application Objective. They are achievable. They speak of immediate purposes of education. they depend on the political. etc. etc.g. 3.

abilities. educationists. needs. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. but it includes the totality of experiences. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. Raymont rightly says. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. According to Crow and Crow. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. finding them very interesting and captivating. heavy fire. capacities. on the playing fields. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. in the class rooms. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit.3. Crow and Crow remarks.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. The interests. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children.” 291 . The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus.5. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit.

and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. urges. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. tendencies. aptitudes. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. moral.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 .” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. capacities and abilities. time in a useful manner. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. Due to these variations and differences. They often waste it or rather kill it. mental. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties.

development of professional capability at all levels. Similarly. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. 293 . Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. To ensure success of the process. organized. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. 2. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. administrative programme need be planned. 3. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives.curricular. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. phased preparation. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills.

The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 18. 5. 17. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 12.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. workshop. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9.3. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. 5. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. principles of curriculum construction. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . Child Centred Education b. 1937 19.3. a. Run.3. 10. 11. laboratory. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. Relation with Life c. library. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. in the class room.

New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.3. Bhalla. Curriculum Development. N. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. (2007). Curriculum and Instruction. S. 295 . Lakshmi. (2007). S.K.5. New Delhi : Isha Books. D. (2007). P. and Sarita Kumari.S. Innovations in Education. (2001).12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : Authorspress.

4.4.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.7.4.1 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.3 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.7.4 5.4.LESSON 5.4.4.4.7 Scientific Attitude 5.9 5.4.5 5.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.10 5.4.4.6.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.4.7.4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.8 5.7.2 5.6.4.4.

5. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. newer and newer industries started growing.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. in the economic reconstruction of society. honesty. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.during the second half of this century. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees.4. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. explain the concept of scientific attitude. you will be able to: 1. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. 2.5.4. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. Gradually. 4. know the importance of science education. 3. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings.4. 5. open-mindedness. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. superstition or emotion. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. 297 . We mean curiosity. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. tolerance for the opinions of others. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age.

they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life.4. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 5. Organisation of science fairs. 4. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Schemes of teaching science. Through newspapers. Love for truth enhances. Thinking and memory develops. Selection for science education. 5. 3. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Through examinations.4. 2.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 6. Principles are formulated. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 7. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 5. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Promotion of science clubs. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. seminars and symposiums. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 6. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. as well as of the society. 2.So that. Devotion towards nature increases. After such experience and training. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. 3. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Central science workshop. 5. 4.

which is essential for developing scientific outlook. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. 5. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. Enquiry teaching is. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind.4. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . 5. should provide opportunities to. 7. Training of science teachers. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. sex or religion. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. objectivity. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They encounter many social events as they grow. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. each child to “enquiry skill building”. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. They experience natural phenomenon. It is. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. For laboratory and workshop techniques. After presenting the problem.4. In the inquiry approach.6. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. They ask many questions about the objects they see. Write any two advantages of Science Education. therefore. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. essential that teachers.needs and conditions.

6. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . 300 . if they like. 5. . 6. stern pursuit of accurate data. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. commands or orders. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Adopting creative models of teaching.4.4. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. . 2. to ask questions and experience things. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. 5.Herma Wouk. Giving less directions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. test. 5. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. It requires consistent thinking. 4. Appreciating pupils ideas. Social sciences. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Evidence.books.

The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. critical thinking and suspended judgments. practiced. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. friends. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society.4. school and society at large. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. keen observation. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.(Smith 2008). The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. neighbourhood. to develop among the learners. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. of vast resources running waste. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. (Vaidya 2007). To achieve this we should understand what it means. These characteristics of any scientific 301 .Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. it must be encouraged. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. The students observation. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. For instance. therefore should be unbiased and objective. These include open mindedness. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. and emphasized during the learning process . 5. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.7.

The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. or superstitions. 302 . (Das. intuition or wishful thinking”. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. In considering a situation or a problem. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them.4. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. 5. The intention to respect another’s point of view. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. 2007). He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. think and work it”.7. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. he studies all aspects of it. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. understanding and logic. rumor.

7. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. but to begin only after careful planning.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. 5. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.7. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .4. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. • 5. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.4. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.

4. 5. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 304 . List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. 5. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. it must be encourages. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook.

Vaidya. 305 . 5. M.4. 3. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Discuss the importance of science education 14. b. 5. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Study of superstitions d. N. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. a. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. a. 2. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. Proper example of the teacher c. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.4. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs.5. Planning of activities 5. objectivity. a. (2006). b.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Rao. a. b. (2008). New Delhi : Anmol Publications. 16.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. S. Love for truth enhances. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Yadav. D. Wide reading b.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13.S. 4. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. The intention to respect another’s point of view. (2000). Reflections on Scientific attitude.4. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications.B (2008). Adopting creative models of teaching.

5.5.11 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.4 5.5.5.5. state the concept.5.5.8 5. 2.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. objectives and characteristics. 5.5.2 5.10 5.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population. actively.9 5.LESSON 5.1 5. 306 .5 5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. areas of institutional planning.5.5.7 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.6 5.5. you will be able to: 1.3 5.

in the task of educational planning. Institution should be regarded as the unit. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. • to make planning development-oriented. and supplement planning from above. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. 5.3. and each student are regarded as separate entities. and every student in the process of educational planning. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. each teacher. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. executive as well as public. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. teachers and students is not lost sight of. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. • to involve teachers and school administrators. every teacher. 5. which become the bases for further planning at the district. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . • To make institutional planning more successful.5. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. every parent. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. and. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. State and national levels from below.5.

The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. Examinations. Syllabus. Classwork. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. (3) TeachingLearning Aids.5.5. 5.curricular Activities. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. Co-curricular activities. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.• implemented. 308 . There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. and Personnel services. council and. etc. which will be discussed in the general. (2) Co. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. approved after making necessary modifications.

Organisation of Pupils. etc.No. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Preparation of instructional material. Organisation of class-room libraries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. scientific and historical excursions. hobby-centres. Organisation of Students’ Association. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Improving the internal assessment. Fair distribution of syllabi. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. etc. etc. 1. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Equipping of laboratory and library. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Conducting of educational. charts and apparatus. Editing the school magazine. 2. Courts. 3. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Organising play-for-all programmes. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Preparation of models. Running science clubs. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. etc.

teacher-teacher. administrator-administrator.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. headmasters associations. parent-teacher associations. teacher-managing body. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. teacher-State.5. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. understanding. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. ii. involving mainly human materials. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. teachers. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. science teachers’ associations.5. pupil310 . administrator-pupil. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. co-operation. etc. teacherinspector. teacher-pupil. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. and —pupil-pupil. administrator-supervisor.” The human relationships in. students’ associations. pupils. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. Administrator-State. which are divided as the in. and solidarity. parents.

It relates to administration of a single educational institution. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. Good. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. to accomplish. pupil-parent. According to C. and to serve. to attend. control. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. organisation." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. V. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. social sciences and other disciplines. supervision and superintendence. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. now-a-days. to carry out. pupil-community leader. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is also being modernized to become a technique. teacher-community leader. teacher-parent. administrator. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. supervision. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. It covers personnel and material management. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. 311 . pupil-non-official functionaries.5. superintendence. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. To administer means to manage.State. pupil-inspector. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. organisation and management.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. etc. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

Management should be efficient and economical 312 . the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. it is not worth-while. Liasion with the Public . Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. Economic Management . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. 8. This is the latest democratic trend in management. Communication . Cost-Benefit Analysis .lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 10. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 3. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. 13.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. Leadership . The relationship should change from master.The manager should have leadership traits. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. Socio-Scientific Approach . 6. 2. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. 4. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. Democratic Management . 11. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. Those.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. If the cost benefit ratio is less.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. Better Human Relationships . without this the efficacy will be handicapped.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Decision Making . 5. low.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. 12. Motiviation .Of all the approaches.Any good management will always have good public relations. 7. 9. Rapport between the Management and Employees . If it is more. He should be an artist in human relationships. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. Worker Participation .Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. who occupy the managerial positions.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees.

5. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. enrichment of curricula. 313 . the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions.5. 14. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 18. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . and cooperative performance should be ensured. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. objective. to improve the quality of education it provides. 19. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. 5. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education.These two are. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.too. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. improvement of teaching methods. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.g.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept.

it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Communication 5.M. Examinations. (2003). Tarachand and Prakash. 2.5. Educational Administration. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. R.5. Classwork. Fundamental of Educational Management. Motiviation d. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. a. c. a.5. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Syllabus. (2001). 4. and Personnel services.K. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Decision Making b. APH Publishing Corporation.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. b. b. Co-curricular activities. S. 314 .11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Leadership c. In group and Out group 5. Instruction. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. a. a. H. Singh. f. d. (1995). to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. b. e. NUEPA.

women education and teacher education in India.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. population education.Preventive measures. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Buddhist and Jain system of education.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Realized the problems of school education. New evaluation procedures. Community and Mass Media 2. Healthy Food Habit 4.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.Article 45 . Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.3 Directive Principles . 4.1 Gurukula system of education. 1. Code of conduct for teachers. physical education and environmental education 5.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.Religious and Modern Education 1. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .Imbalances and Variations in different environment.1 Inculcation of Socialism.3 Educational Influences of Home. School. 2.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .Pre-service and In-services facilities. Sex-education 4. wastage and Stagnation 3. Examination reforms.1 Primary Education : Education for all.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.I. Balanced diet.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.teachers should have : 1. First Aid.2 Nutritional deficiencies. nutritional requirement.CORE PAPER .4 India's Secular Policy . Inspection and Supervision 3.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.1 School Health Programme. Economic 315 . higher education. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. social Impact 3.5 Regional Educational Development in India . Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Common ailments of Children. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. Preservation of nutrients. Communicable diseases .Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.

Aim. curriculum and teacher's role 5.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . T. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Prof. and Mohanty R. Tagore 5.N.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Hemchand.1 Idealism. Realism.N.K. Naturalism and Pragmatism . B. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. and Human Development.C. and Dash B.R.K. Delhi : University Publications 2. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.S. Pandy V. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. Mahatma Gandhi. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.4 4.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. 5. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi: NCERT 3. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. (2004) Problems of Education in India. Mishra. R. and Sharma R.K. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Saraswathi T.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Taneja V. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Socialization.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. 316 . (2005) Foundations of Education. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Curriculum and national goals . Ram S. Sharma. (1999) Culture.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. 7.K.4. REFERENCE 1. Ghanta R. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.