This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
and Jain system of education. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Lesson 4. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. 9 . Jainism and their educational implication. discusses the regional educational development in India. The need. Lesson 2. Lesson 5. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. In. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education.
5.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 22.214.171.124 Buddhist system of Education 126.96.36.199.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 188.8.131.52 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.1.LESSON 1.1.1 184.108.40.206 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 220.127.116.11 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168 Jain system of education 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.5.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.6 Education during British Era 22.214.171.124.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.
1.1.1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. you will be able to: 1.9 1. 1.6.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.7 1. has a long past history starting in vedic education. India. 1. Muslim and British periods.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. Education in India. That 12 .1. The history of education passed through Buddhist. but English in taste. British system of education presented the modern western model.1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. elucidate the education during British Era.1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. 1.3. “a class of persons.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.6. in morals and in the intellect”.8 1. Indian in blood and colour. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. both present and future.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.1.1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. describe the Jain system of Education 4. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. in opinion.
if they thought fit to do so. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. Free and Accessible. 16. It was also moral. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. 10. Individual Teaching. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. 14. Curriculum. Education of Moral. No State Control on Education. generally. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Education was a private affair of the people. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Pupils were taught. There was. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Role of Travel in Education. Religious and Spiritual. questioning by the pupil. as it is generally considered to be at present. 4. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. Method of Instruction. High Status of Teachers. religious and spiritual. The immediate aim of education. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. It was not merely intellectual. Forests as Centres of Education. Where pupils were many. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. 12. Method of Study. 3. 11. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. from darkness. 8. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. with grants of land or money. individually. and to agriculture and trade. 13. 13 . Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. from eternal to immorality 2. Teacher as Parents. managed entirely by Brahmans. the monitorial plan was followed. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Immediate Aim Vocational.knowledge was real. 9. to light. Residential Schools. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. however. 6. 5. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. not en masse by the class method. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. followed by explanation by the teacher. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service.
Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values.1. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. It was suited to the needs of the society. lived a life of celebacy. 2. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3.3. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. Wide-Spread Education in Women. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony.17. It was freely available to all those who wanted. They were very cordial and intimate. 1. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. studied Vedas. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . besides preparing for worldly pursuits.
Right means of livelihood 6. It was denied only to the ill. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. had the right to receive education. Consequently. medium of Pali. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. Right endeavour 7. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Education was imparted through the. After attaining the age of 20. use of intoxicating things. Right contemplation 1. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. dressed himself in yellow clothes. partaking of food at prohibited times. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. Right thought 3.1.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. impure conduct. etc. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. taking things without being offered. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. watching dances or listening to music. in which. Right memory 8. the student remained in a state of Shramana. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. which included abstaining from theft. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. every class in society. 1. killing of any living being.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. disease and death of the human beings. 2. he had to perform the Pababja ritual.C. the most significant of which were the following 1. the handicapped. use of cosmetics. I take Refuge to Sangh. Right activity 5. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. 15 . I take Refuge to Dharma. he was qualified to become a monk. Right speech 4. except the Chandals.4. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. the student had his head shaved of all hair. Right knowledge 2.
objectives of human life. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. military science. Life is in a flux. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. wear three items. 2. Initially. therefore. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. elephant lore. knowledge of reviving the dead. meaning. 4. agriculture. Later on. the science of taming and training animals. nature. however. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. Hence. On this occasion. 1. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. magic. bodily gestures. archery. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. eat food thrice a day. 5. assumptions. arithmetic and religious discussion. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. After this ritual. etc. etc.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. depth and range. of clothes. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. so long as it successfully does so. animal husbandry. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. along with education in script writing. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. the presence of the monks was essential. 7. changing the goals. knowledge of animal cries and sounds.3. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. beg for alms. Even at this stage. cottage industries. control over sensuous activities. it is regarded as true”. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. be considered the aim of education It. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. education was impart in art.. women occupied a position inferior to men.4. geology. It comprehended education in writing. a change is not only total but also perpetual. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. has no metaphysical value for life. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. and. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. archery. These are called later Buddhist schools. As reality is becoming. 6. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. Whatever its nature and extent. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. approach. a continuous change creating 16 . etc. handicrafts. aspirations and. 3. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. medicine. nothing is of any permanent consequence. 8. commerce. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation.
Its chief feature. however. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. Education must. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. it is much older than the latter. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Jainism insists 17 . Write Eight fold path . and its refusal to believe in supreme God. In fact. 1. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. Validity is effective and consequences. its pessimistic outlook on life. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism.. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. However. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.new and peculiar situations.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. and to give it a shape that it has today. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him.1. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. whatever works are true and good. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. goes to Vardhaman.e. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. therefore. 5. i. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. such as.5.
Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. e) To renounce the world. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. 2. 4. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem.1. 7. As such. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 1. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. 3. b) Right knowledge. and is to be redeemed and liberated. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. Hence. 1. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. 6. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. 3. They are: a) Not to injure. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. it has a foot in both the words. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. d) To lead a celibate life. 9. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. rather than the interpretation of the universe. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. and believe in happiness to all. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. b) Not utter falsehood.5. 18 . Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. c) Not to steal. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. 5. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 10. but on both. 2.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. more stress on individual aims. thought and deed. c) Right conduct. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. 8. Development of personality as an individual.
4. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. here and now. Jiva is essentially karmic. 4. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Belief in transmigration of soul. the precious principles of life that bring happiness.5. therefore. 3. education should develop sense of discrimination. Teaching must develop these faculties. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 2. 1. practised and not only aspired for. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. 5. that would be socially desirable. and should bring happiness to all. 3.5. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . 8.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 19 . Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. success and love. Teaching should be social and tolerant. education must be action based and ideally oriented.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Hence. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 1. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. What are Triratnas ? .
In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). Madras.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.6. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.1. Bombay.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report.1. philosophy and literature of Europe.6. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. 1953). 1. 1. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. However. North West Province and Punjab. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. primary 20 . They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. To set up separate departments of. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. with rally and rout. and not for life. 1. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. science. 1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own.6.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854.6. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. 2. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time.
In 1882. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. 1. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. The universities dominated the secondary education. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education.education was neglected. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. Later on.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . 1. namely. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. they named these schools as polytechnic schools.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944.6. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. secondary education became a step towards university. • Secondary education. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. at the primary level.6. At that time M. 1. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. • Universal free primary education. self-respecting and competent. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. To ensure qualitative improvement.6. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools.K. Then the prevalent education was anti-national.
commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. 10. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. all children are to have a common curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . The objective of education was to provide 22 . Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education.At the primary stage (6-11 years).7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. After this stage. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.
2. archery. b. questioning by the pupil. a. During the Buddhist period. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. 2. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. etc. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. establishment of universities. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. followed by explanation by the teacher. It was suited to the needs of the society. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. Right contemplation. education was impart in art. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. geology. Right speech.. arithmetic and religious discussion. Right endeavour. 5. Right memory. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools.education of European literature. the science of taming and training animals. handicrafts. along with education in script writing. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 4. Right knowledge. 1. military science. Right thought. The system of education was well-organised.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. Right means of livelihood. 3.1. The immediate aim of education. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. science and English language. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. 6. 23 . teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Right activity. 1. 3.
9. 1882. Sharma. b. (2005). (1984). Ltd. Right faith. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Y. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. (2007). 10. Right knowledge. Improvement of Literature. J.7. History of Indian Education System. Aggarwal. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.C. 11. J. Hence. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 1937 1. Development of personality as an individual.C. a. Y. b. 8. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. more stress on individual aims.K. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Singh. R. a. Right conduct. 24 . c.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Sargent report 12. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education.K. Development of Educational System in India. (2009). Ltd.1. and Nath.
2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.2 126.96.36.199.3.2.6 1.4 1.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.1 University Education Commission 1.8 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.5 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.9 188.8.131.52.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.LESSON 184.108.40.206 1.2.2. The 25 .3. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.3 Kothari Commission 1.1 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.2.2.
standard of teaching.3. technological engineering. expansion of vocational. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. Post-graduate 26 . Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. There had been vast institutional expansion. vocational education. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. S. National Board of Teacher Education 10. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. technical. analyse the progress of education in free India. secondary and higher education.conditions of the teachers. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service.2. medical and legal education. curriculum. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. New Educational Policy. 1986 1. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. 1. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. diversification of courses of studies. examination system. National Council for Women’s Education 5. 1. girls and women education besides primary.2. 2. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. explosion of enrolment.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. Kothari (1964-66) 8.
teaching.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. accumulated over the years.2. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education.2. D.S. material and spiritual. Government of India. the chairman of University Grants commission.2. Education is the key to our allround development. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. quality. 4. 1952. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. However. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. 1966. 1986. 2. 1. Kothari. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. Education for Equality. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education.3. A.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. Therefore.3. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. 1. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. 3.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. the New National Policy on Education. A meaningfully Partnership. quantity.3. Problems of access. research et. Finally. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . in January 1985. National System of Education. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. utility and financial outlay. 1. The Essence and Role of Education.
Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs.” Thus. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. By working with hands. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. the concepts of work experience. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education.2.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. the minorities and the handicapped. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. attitudes. It can train practical aptitudes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. 28 . They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Thus. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. The UNESCO Report. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life.
co-ordinations.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. As such.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. In 1955. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. the Commission. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. The Education Commission. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 .” the Kothari Commission mentioned." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. “It may be described. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. it will conduce self. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. if he wishes. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. The Radhakrishnan Commission. According to. With adequate planning. “The aim of these colleges.” The Mudaliar Commission. Besides. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop.
du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. In addition. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly.. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. the. the semester and credit system. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. Subsequently. the rigid streaming of courses.ot her. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. raising the special facilities. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. The Central Advisory Board of Education. With a view to relating education to the life. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. Therefore. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. admission requirements to vocational courses. etc. for quality of life in the rural areas.
NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. felt that education should be centred around a craft.defined S UP W as “purposive. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. etc.2. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. meaningful. preferably spinning and weaving. which offer scientific.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. In short.. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. The wave of Basic Education. manual work resulting in either goods or services. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. which swept the country for over two decades. which are useful to the community. Commerce. who conceived the System of Basic Education. 31 . technological courses including Agriculture. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. meaningful. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. The Father of Nation. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. aimed at this goal. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. According to committee. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence.and the world of work. 1. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. giving importance to productivity in the national development.
Work practice. Productive 2. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Community work and social service. tools and techniques and 3. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Health and Hygiene 2. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. so that it is educational in essence. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Educative and 3. be that the work involved is: 1. Shelter 4. 2. 32 . 4. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Culture and recreation 6. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Experimentation with materials. The teachers should make use of. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. locally available materials and tools. Clothing 5. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. 3. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. as far as possible. Food 3. Some Hints to Teachers 1. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage.The aim of SUPW according to the committee.
etc. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. 6. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. To make education more realistic. inculcate a faith. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. as far as possible. improve discipline. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. Merits of the Programme 1. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Productive Work 33 . It can become an instrument to build character. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. 1.5. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. Check on educated unemployed 4.2. removal of illiteracy. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. the local community should be actively associated. Community Service In-1972. slum clearance. Education through work The SUPW should. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. skills and better future for the children.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Define SUPW 34 . in turn. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . The community. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. helping the adults in festivals and Functions.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. offering first aid. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. AICTE was set up in year 4. helping the adults-in productive work. traffic control. should involve itself in the educational effort. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. if not productive.
9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Write short note on SUPW. b. 3.2.1. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 2. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. e.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. which are useful to the community. 1952 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. c. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.2.2. 1. d. manual work resulting in either goods or services. Radhakrishnan 2. a. f. 1955 4. 1. 35 . Dr. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. meaningful. 6. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5.
Rao. B..(2005). and Rao. Publishing Corporation. Anupama. R. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. 36 .K. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.1. History of Education.P. (2005). A.2. Amala. and Nath. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi: A. (2009). : Sharma. History and Problems of Indian Education. (2007).C. (2007). P.K. Ltd.P. History of Indian Education System. Y. Development of Educational System in India. V.D.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Y.H.K. J. Singh.
It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.3.3.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. it came into effect on January 26.4 220.127.116.11 1.3. Being the supreme law of the country.3.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. 1950. directive principles and duties of citizens. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.3. and liberty. there is an official Hindi translation. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.1 Significance of DPSP 1. establishing the structure. Besides the English version.369 words in the English language version. containing 395 articles. assuring its citizens of justice.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. for a total of 117.3.5 1. equality.3. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. 37 . 1949.9 1.8 1. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. procedures. democratic republic.1 1.6 1.7 1.3. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3.3.
According to the constitution. administrative. in sessions open to public. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. spread over a period of 2 years. Dr. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. with Dr. After many deliberations and some modifications. social. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. for 166 days.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy.In the August 14. 38 .3. you will be able to: 1. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Two days later. 1. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. understand our Indian constitution.3. 1. On August 29. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. The Assembly met. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. 1950. 3. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws.3. 4. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. 1947. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. learn the role of central and state government on education. political. 2. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. 1947. legal and environmental. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. Through them. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands.3. economic. the Drafting Committee was appointed.
Organisation of village panchayat. on the basis of equal opportunity. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. No abuse of children. Liking wage etc. Appropriate concentration of wealth.government. The State shall. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. for workers. 39 . and shall. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Protecting children from exploitation. Condition for dignity of children. Article 40. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Article 42. Equal justice and free legal aid.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. men and women. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. The State shall endeavour to secure. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Equal pay for both sex. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. in particular. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. sickness and disablement. That the health and strength of workers. provide free legal aid. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Article 43. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Minimising inequalities in status. Right to work. Article 39A. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Protecting health of the workers. Article 41. old age. and in other cases of undeserved want.
by suitable legislation or in any other way. a living wage.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Article 43A. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. Participation of workers in management of industries. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Article 48A. Article 46. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Article 47. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. (Original Article 45. work. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Article 44. in particular. The State shall endeavour to provide. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Article 48. See also Article 21A). in particular. Article 49. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. to all workers. Note: Subs. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. in particular. [declared by or under law made by 40 . agricultural. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. 2002 for “45. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. and. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 45. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. industrial or otherwise. The State shall take steps.
from spoliation. 2002. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. may be law determine”. destruction. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Article 50. Article 45 . “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. disposal or export. disfigurement. 2. removal. as the case may be. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . maintain just and honourable relations between nations. Promotion of international peace and security.3. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus.Parliament] to be of national importance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. Article 51. Separation of judiciary from executive. Article-21A Right to Education. 1. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security.
his guardian has given his consent thereto. 5. iii. language or any of them”. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. and shall protect them. 2002. 6. race. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i.” 42 . Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. ii. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. 3. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. 7. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. caste. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. from justice and all forms of exploitations. 4. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. in particular. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. if such person is a minor. and. 8.
Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. the forms. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. for its vocabulary. and by drawing. The central government determines targets and promotes education. Educational Reforms From time to time.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. wherever necessary or desirable. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . 43 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. & 1. Article 351 gives importance to 6. 2. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.3. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education.
4. Organisation For carrying out educational plans.. Local bodies and private enterprise. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society.3. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. 7. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. the state governments. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. All India Council of Medical Science. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. By starting these projects. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. The following pilot projects. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. 6. to achieve the desired ends. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. 5. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. So as to encourage education on right lines. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Production of suitable for children and adults f. etc. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . private agencies etc. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. 8. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. So that they may work well.
It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. 10.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. The 45 . research.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. training and statistics. 3. 9. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. education for women. 4. etc. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. reports etc. 1. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. 1. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. 11. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Material concerning nation-wide interests. 12. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. handicapped. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. books. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. are published by it.3. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. is the state responsibility. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms.
1. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? .3. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1. articles in the Directive principles. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. Article 21A c. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Article 45 b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. 46 .7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Explain Directive principles 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Article 46 4.3. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Write short notes on a. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.
47 . b. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article-21A Right to Education. 2002. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. may be law determine”. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Article 46 5. Describe the educational role of State Government. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Dr. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Article 45 . Clearing House function 9. 4. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. 3. Article 29 and 30 7. a. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. b.3. 2002. The Directive Principles of State Policy. a. Development of Hindi Language 6. 1. Ambedkar 2. a.
New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2007). (2008). Bhatia. Dash. B.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. 48 . Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. S. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd.1. (2004). (2009).3. K. Ghosh. N. S. L. K and Narang C. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1. Islam.2 1.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 18.104.22.168 1.4. religious education should be broad based.4.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India. Students should be 49 . Jainism.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3.1 1.4.3. Buddhism etc.22.214.171.124 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4.4. Christianity.4.4.7 1.4 Moral education 1.6 1.4.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.4.
Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. enumerate the aims of religious education 4.. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).” Education broadens human outlook. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. duty-consciousness. According to E. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life.4. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment.4. As result of which. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. integrity. know the position of religious education in our country 3. state meaning and need for moral education 1.D. 1. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. you will be able to: 1.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. beauty and goodness so that 50 . The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. religious education and the concept of secularism. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. "In A multireligious society like ours. India' can produce men of character.and dedication. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. Thus.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. In the complicated and complex society of today. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline.
it is clear that the State has no religion.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education.” From the above. realizes God in himself. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. Children attend these organizations. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. castes and creeds.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. religion and democracy are same. As our country is a country of diverse religions. through religious practices and 51 . idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. No religious tax can be imposed on them. at least occasionally. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. They thought that any kind of narrow. As a matter of fact.4. 1. rancour. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. According to Article 22. Viewing the defects of religious education. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. 1947 we achieved our freedom. Hence. According to Article 19. 1. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. In short.3. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world.3. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. all citizens are free to follow any creed. Thus.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines.4. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. if not regularly. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education.
It helps to modify habits attitudes. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character.. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. which help him for the development of his character. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. As a result of which.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. for the development of the individual and the society. It is religious education. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. intellectual and physical faculties of children. aggressive. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. and what is evil. one fully developed. which can mould. If unreleased. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna).teachings. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. He also learns about social. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. temperament etc. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. what is done and what is not done etc. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. Good education. moral and spiritual values. when he becomes an adult. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice.
“Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. 2. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. 53 . Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. This should not be allowed to happen. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. which is the basic need of a democratic life. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument.3. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. If we open the pages of history. 1. 3. towards the society. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Therefore.4. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal.
Since all religions have virtues. For this. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. fellow-feeling. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. 9. examples of patriotism. 11. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. 10. Write Article 22 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.5.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Gurudwara as. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. stories of moral greatness. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Life histories of great persons of the world. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. churches and mosques 7. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. therefore. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values.
Swadeshi (Patriotism). Non-injury. Service to others. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels.acquisitiveness).4. They will play their role effectively. Cultivation of emotions. 7.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Self sacrifice. Brahmacharya (celebacy). This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 5. 2. in the home. students. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. 2. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 4. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Asvada (Control of palate). Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Patriotism. therefore. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. Ahimsa (Non-violence).6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 8. The content of the curriculum.4. 4. Moral education. Fearlessness. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 3. “Let all be happy and free from disease. 6. 8. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 5. 7. Without moral values. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 6. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Aparigarha (Non. Purity. 55 . the methods of teaching. Satyam (truth). they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). 1. is that which develops moral values. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 1. let men see well of one another. 3.
minutes in the morning for group singing. Secondary Stage 1. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. 4. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Discipline. discipline. 3.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 11. Integrity. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Unity of mankind. National unity and Spiritual values. In the school programme. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Good manners. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. 3. 56 . Sharivashram (Physical work). 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . 10. The School Assembly should be held for a few.4. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Efficiency. 1. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. religions may be included in the syllabus. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Good temper. Asatyam (Non-thieving). 2. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Love for humanity and Self-discipline.9. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Community singing should also be encouraged 2.
In this connection. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. 3.4. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. patriotism and self-discipline. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. love of humanity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. University Stage 1. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. 57 . List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. In other words. 2. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. should form a normal part of school programme. 4. Silent meditation should be encouraged. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. 5. 5. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year .
a. 2. b. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. 1. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion.4. b.4. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Discuss the aims of Religious education. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b.1. the.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. 2. 1. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. Sri Prakasa 6 . Training of Character 3. minutes in the morning for group singing. 1959 5. 58 . For this. a. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. In short. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. a. 4. The School Assembly should be held for a few.4. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.
(2003). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. J. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). New Delhi : Siddiqui. N. B. P. Theory and Principles of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. L. New Delhi: A. Publishing Corporation. Pahuja. K.1. Dash.P. K and Narang C. Bhatia. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2007).4. (2004).H. Anmol Publications Pvt. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.C.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2008). M. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.H. N. 59 .
4 1.5.6 1.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.9 1.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5.. disparities between provinces/States.10 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.2 1.5 1.5. i.5.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.7 1.5.1 126.96.36.199.5.8 1.e.3 188.8.131.52 1.11 1. 60 . Although. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.
4.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 5. Accordingly. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. 3. 7. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. 1.5. they take appropriate measures. work hard towards this end. know the education suited to different environments. roads. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 61 . Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. 1. 8. 6. This leads to separatist movements. They therefore.5. understand the regional educational development in India 3. waters.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. for example. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.5. you will be able to: 1. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. etc. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. 1. energy. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.1. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 2.
which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only .6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. while others remained educationally backward.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. some States became educationally far advanced. and. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. Secularism. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. • Separate States (of course viable States). 3. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. 62 . The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. Therefore. some average. on the basis of regional development may be formed. Tight security arrangements should be made.5. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. 2. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. 4. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned.
84 crore was released in 2005-06.. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. Guwahati. Silchar. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. 1. After the attainment of independence.5. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. approved proposals worth Rs.14. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. Central Universities of Assam. etc. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. academic buildings. Funds amounting to Rs. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. remained under developed. Rs. Regional Centres of IGNOU.480. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. books. scholarships. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. NERIST. Jammu and Kashmir. Itanagar. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Tezpur. Mizoram. NIT.392. and provision of informal education to enable those. library buildings. while some States like Bihar. since its inception in 1998-99. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. etc. 63 .” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. the State Governments.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. These projects are in various stages of implementation. the Union Government. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. Even in each State. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. Nagaland and NEHU.After the Planning Process has originated.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner.g. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. In the Central sector. Out of this. However.
57 crore and Rs. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.40. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. During 2003-04.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. too.8 per cent in 05). A provision of Rs.5.261. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. 64 .500. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. Tezpur University.501. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. Moreover. Government expenditure on education.05 crore and Rs. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).187.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. Out of this an amount of Rs. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.
A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction.5. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. for which 16 sites. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. English. too. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Andhra Pradesh. Medical education. Listing the positives. Tamil Nadu. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. for instance. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. engineering and R&D. To add to the woes. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. notes the study.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. too. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Karnataka. Kerala and Gujarat. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). The Chandigarh Administration. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. telecom. Moreover. 1. Karnataka. pharma. too. health services and welfare of the citizen population.
the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. Then education become realistic and idealistic. Of course. when he will not be sure of time. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. even actually looking at the watch. taking the average in the middle. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. For a learner living in a rural area. the needs. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. which a non-tribal person cannot do. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. the working days: an academic . 66 . which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. The living conditions. and so on. Hence it is called as need-based. the interests. the curricular subjects.year. the vocations. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. life-oriented and environment slanted.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. In the same manner. the socio-physical conditions. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. the teaching methods. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. in which the learners live. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. while the former does not. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. The working hours of educational institutions. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life.
2.5. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.5. to suit education to different environments? 1. 67 . Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.5. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1.
Education Scenario in India.5. a.H. and Nair. Educational Development in India. Dubey. (2001). some of areas which were under the native rulers. Salim.N. Giridhar. (2002). (2008). Education in Developmental Arena.2. S.K.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2001). some States have become more developed than others b. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. during the British rule.G. 68 . C. R. New Delhi: Authors press. remained undeveloped 3. A. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. S. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. 60% 1.
UNIT – II 69 .
71 . secularism and democracy through Indian education. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. school community and mass media. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. community development. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. National Integration.
9 2.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 184.108.40.206 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.1.7 220.127.116.11.2 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168.1.6 Education for Secularism 2.LESSON 2.5.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.4 2.6.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 22.214.171.124.8 2.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1.1 2.1 Main features of Socialism 2.3 2.
socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. In the matter of admitting students in schools. socialism and secularism 2. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. 2.1. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. 73 .1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. 2. socialistic and secular state.1. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. The students may be associated with the management of the school. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. understand the concept of democracy. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. creed. Abraham Lincoln. you will be able to: 1. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. socialism and secularism 2.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. 3) Provision of Manual Work. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. colour or wealth. for the people by the people”. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. This is the political aspect of democracy. Democracy thus means power of the people. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. there should be made no distinction of caste.2.1.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility.
may be planned. it soon spread all over the world. debates.1. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. Democracy means 2. There are different brands of socialism. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. declamation contest etc. 11) Student Parliament. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 74 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life.. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students.
1. Under it. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 2. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. oppression and disparity. but on the path of non-violence.1. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 2. 75 . 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. the wealthy and the poor.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. free from exploitation. 7) Special facilities for girls. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. the prince and the peasant. service and cooperation. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low.5. none high”.5. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 2) Socialism aims at equality.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Write any two main features of socialism. 11) State schools. "which seeks the development of physical. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools.” In every political and educational corner. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. secularism is being propagated. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. “India is a secular-country. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. Everyone says.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 76 . According to Holydake.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. 5.
6) It has faith in rational thinking. 5) It implies tolerance. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. 8) It believes in co-existence.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. 3) It permits freedom of worship. people have narrow mindedness. fraternity. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. In this type of prevailing situations. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas.6. 77 . “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. “Webster further says.6.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. people started believing in regionalism. education etc. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact.1. should be independent of religion. During the recent past. That is why. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. Equality. There is need of making the people open minded. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. 2. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. the belief that the state morals. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.1. 9) It stress free inquiry. liberty. A large number of people is uneducated. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended.opposed to religious education. Moral values have to be imbibed.
students belonging to different religions should be associated. tours and trips may be organized. There should be some internal checking of the material being.6. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. In the celebration of each such function. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. No doubt. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. that the central string of all religions is one. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 .presented by the students in the gathering. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Patiala. While doing so. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. The very sight of the building. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. 2. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. 1) Moral Education. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. education.1. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. In the hands of such teachers. Religious Education. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based.
No doubt.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The word “Seculum” means 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The term secularism was first used by 8. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Define Secularism 9. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions.7 LET US SUM UP 79 .1. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. 2. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10.
This present age 7. In the matter of admitting students in schools. 4. 2. 4. b. Equal Opportunities for Admission. colour or wealth. 5. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. Tuition free education b. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. for the people and the people”.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2.1. Abraham Lincoln. The students may be associated with the management of the school. 5. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. creed. c. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. a. Respect of Individual Personality.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. Socialism aims at social justice. d. secularist and socialistic attitude among students.1. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. 3. there should be made no distinction of caste. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Provision of Manual Work. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Power of the people 2. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. b. Socialism aims at equality. Since socialism stands for equality. a. 6. a. 3. George Jacob Holydake 80 .
(2007). Dash. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.C. (2008). (2003). It treats all religions on an equal footing. Modern Trends in Indian Education. K and Narang C. 10.8. Ltd. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. b. It permits freedom of religion. Bhatia. should be independent of religion. New Delhi : Pahuja. the belief that the state morals. Ltd. K.1. (2004). b. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Mohanty. a. (2005). Anmol Publications Pvt. N. P. B. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.” 9. 81 . Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N. J. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Theory and Principles of Education. L. a. J. education etc.
2.2.9 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 126.96.36.199.2 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.10 188.8.131.52. knowledge and experience of one 82 .4 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 184.108.40.206 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.1 International understanding in the school 220.127.116.11 2.LESSON 18.104.22.168.2.3 2.1 22.214.171.124 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.7 2.2.
The developmental roles of children. 3. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. mental. as citizens. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. as it is t he aim o f modern education. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. 2. 2. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. a r e 1.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. 83 . understandings. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. development. 2.2. aims and objectives of the school. emotional. who are placed in his custody. It involves physical. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. moral. skills. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. therefore. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. social.an instructor of school children.generation to another. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. as learners. as workers. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. you will be able to: 1. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. as persons. application. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. and 4. A teacher is first and foremost.2. social and moral aspects. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils.
teacher has to play the role of a citizen. and aesthetically to become. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. member of his community at the outset. 2. 3. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. motivated. a part of their day in 84 . 1. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. morally. He has to look after their physical.2. 2. socially. intellectually. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. morally. He is to become an active member. mental. emotionally. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. social and emotional health. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. inquisitive. economically effective.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a.All education should lead to better behavioural development. experiences and acceptance. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. mentally. Teacher as a Citizen Next. culturally confident. physically fit for socially efficient. The following are some of such roles described in brief. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. The students live. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs.
2. and most of hours. Unless.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. fine art associations. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. languages and religions. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened.the school being under the custody of teachers. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. solve them. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. photographic clubs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. activities of the society into which he is born. faiths. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. It 85 . 2.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. 4. India is a land of many castes. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. They will be spending with their parents. creeds. science club. Dr. List out the role of teachers towards community development .
‘We should not become parochial. national anthem and other national songs. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. and make into one strong national unit.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. narrow-minded provincial. with straight backs and look up at the skies. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. should be emphasised. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. Nehruji has explained this as. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. social studies. the citizens of the Republic of India.” Regarding the role of education. the study of language and literature. Sampurnanand remarked. therefore. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. 1. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man.5. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. c. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. stand up straight. this integration of the Indian people. poems.2. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. folklore and teaching of social studies. Radhakrishnan. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. It should broaden the outlook. a. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. At the primary stage the importance of stories. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. b. Let us.” 2. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr.is. The only process is the process of education.
educational excursions. Co-Curricular Activities. National Days—January 26. symposia. Reverence of National Flag. 7. 9. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Celebrations of National Days. 5. 6. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. Scouts and Guides. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. and picnics. 10. 3. t he st udent s and t he community. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. debates. 87 . 4. 2. Textbooks. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Taking Pledge. Student Camps. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. dramatics and youth festivals. Uniform for School Children. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. languages and literature.different social sciences. tours. 8. sports. Singing of National Anthem. militar y training like the NCC. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. ACC.
Admissions. School Projects. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. flora and fauna. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. ii. Admissions to schools. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery.11. 12. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. language. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour.5. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. 15. colour. iii. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. iv. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 16. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. 14. Students Exchange and Tours. ways of thinking and doing things. Recognition of Institutions. Open-Air Dramas. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste.2. v. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. 13. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. 2. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Educational and Travel Documentaries. 88 . on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. region or religion.
All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. viii. Community dinners. cultures and races on equal bases. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. 2.2. vii. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. irrespective of national boundaries.vi. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. camps. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. ix. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Define National Integration 3.
Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. Strong has observed. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.” 2.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. 2. often in connection with anniversaries. 6.6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. 2. In a very real sense.6. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. Dr. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. C.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. if it happens. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war.2. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. the international level.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. 4.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.friendships between children of different countries. Therefore. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .F.2. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. of his body and mind. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. (c) fairly tales. 3.e. Radhakrishnan states. This. 5. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child.as important as that of a national citizenship. Teachers 90 . and the healthy development. that war. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. therefore. (b) stories of children of other lands. patriotism is not enough. Organising of debates and.
colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Russian. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. an Englishman. Indian and American.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Impartial in their Treatment. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . a German. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should not be propagandists. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts.
2. majority of people are. 4. 3. Defects of the educational System . out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. there is wide spread frustration among all people.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. 5. leading to. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. the education function can be carried. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. If this is done. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . Wide Spread Frustration .come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. Devaluation of Values . and help the students to over . Soon after they leave their educational institutions. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. As the school is but a miniature society.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. understand and indiscipline: 1. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. It does not prepare students for life.2.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. 2. which results in agitation and aggression language.Another major. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. Chronic Poverty .
National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. fellow feeling. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. co-operation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. 2.2. sympathy and good will among the nations. 3. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . List out six characteristics of a good teacher. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 2.2. love.democratic nature. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. etc.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. community development. 93 . 4. 2. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. 5.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 126.96.36.199 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 188.8.131.52 Functions and role of schools in the society 184.108.40.206 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 220.127.116.11 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 18.104.22.168 Radio as an agency of education 22.214.171.124 Television as an agency of education 126.96.36.199 Press as a medium of education 188.8.131.52 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
184.108.40.206 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 220.127.116.11 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
18.104.22.168 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
22.214.171.124 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
To make them achieve their aim.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. are increasingly used in education.V. Hence. periodicals. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. the invention of the printing press. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . During the course of time. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. books. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Define community.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. In fact. led to the printing of books. He taught his students orally. art galleries.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. “All the citizens of the community. Emphasising this thing. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Moreover. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Then came newspapers. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Crow and Crow write. Now internet is being used. Museums.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities.
Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. the place of importance. It is also an important source of entertainment.telecast. Thus. 101 . Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. languages. It enlightens public opinion. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. In the emphasis is on sound. dram appreciation. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Important happening inventions. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. A lot of work by way of pre. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. 2. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Effective means of presenting music. rather than on picture. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher.6. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Reynolds.classroom teachers. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Thus. 2. for the teacher through school broadcasts. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. “Listening participation” in current history. the teacher still occupies. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Students listen various talks. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. art. In collaboration with the experts.3. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Various talks.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. current affairs and other areas. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts.G. politics. music. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. social studies.
but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. mathematics. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Making learning an open system. at recreational centers. 3. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. at play. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. School concerts. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Team-teaching demonstrations. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. projects or creative activities. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. travel talks. 102 . 4. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. plays. at any place. fol classical music. speech. 5. Participation of local teachers and pupils. audibility and presentability. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. At present. development of lessons. informal and non-formal education. style. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Before presenting the programme. at drawing room.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 126.96.36.199 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
188.8.131.52 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 184.108.40.206 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
4.3.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.6 2.3.3 Advantages of formal education 220.127.116.11 2.5 2.4.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.2 Levels of formal education system 18.104.22.168.5 Agencies of Non formal education 22.214.171.124.LESSON 2.4.2 2.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.7 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4 Limitations of formal education 184.108.40.206 2.4.4.
compare formal and non formal system of education. School is.2. Education. 4. the community. 2. the mass media et. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. 6. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.4. 2. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. the most important agency of formal education. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 2. say the Government or the private enterprise. 110 . Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. open university.. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. In ancient time in India. Education organised by some agency.4. open school.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. 2. the temple.3. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. the family. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. 4. 3. 3. his mental alertness. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught.4.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. imparted at the residence of the teacher. 7. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. the learner are acquainted. you will be able to: 1. it was mostly. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. 2.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. starting and ending at -a particular age. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 9.4. To realize this objective of education. 5. 8.
the elements of language are first learned. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Some education systems have separate middle schools. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. or academic degrees. depending on the jurisdiction. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing .2. structured education. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. third stage. 2. as well as vocational education and training. In general. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence.a secondary education. such as a high school or secondary school. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals.3.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. or post secondary education. and relations are formed and developed through normal play.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Through early formal education. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. also called tertiary. Higher Education: Higher education. diplomas.3. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Concepts of proportion. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six.4. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. capacity.4. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools.
3. children with disabilities. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 .4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1.which will help for nation's development. late beginners etc.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. 4. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. 2. What are levels of formal educational system? .4. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. is an important agency of formal education.4. and remote dwellers.3. Agencies can be classified as 2. 2. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. Write any two characteristics of formal education? .
systematic. adults as well as children. Adiseshiah.. adding up to a true learning society. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction.e.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. to help themselves. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. planned. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. staffed. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. Therefore. However. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. etc. i. it has its own valid claim to reality. It is functional. Non-formal education includes adult education.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. admissions.learning client take some learning objectives.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. one could say that non-formal education is an active.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. financially supported life formal education. It is much more responsive to needs and change. Thus. systematic. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. Open university. “Non-formal education should 113 . work and the opportunity to put learning to use. It is deliberate. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. curriculum. it is a more effective tool for rural development. place of instruction. continuing education and on the job oriented education.formal education. open learning.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. It unlocks the doors of development plans. until 1970 it had not been defined.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. According to Malcolm A.
To develop in the student.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. admissions. Flexibility in various aspects of education. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things.e. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. 114 . 6. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter.be marketable and vocationalised.4. Preparation for future needs. self. Lawrence. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. curriculum.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. Covering life span of an individual. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. the Ideas of citizenship. international understanding.S. To help industrial workers to better their skills.4. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. 3. It should lay emphasis on the self. modes of teaching.learning pattern. 4. age. Process of sharing. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. co-curricular activities. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. 7. place of education. i.renewal. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. socialism.4.4.S. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. exploring. 2. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. 5. Part-time education. national integration. evaluation etc.” 2. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. 2.” According to H.
Eradication of adult literacy. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 4. 9. 4. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 2.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Universalisation of primary education. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. Meeting the omissions of formal education. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. • 2. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 6. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 5. 7. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge.4.4. 8. Technical. publication and information dissemination.4. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. school dropouts. working adults.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. 3. Senior Secondary. 2. in villages and those who live in towns. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. To offer Secondary. 5. 3. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. 115 . 10.4.
To make if. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. Radio and television. Institutions for formal education. centres of correspondence education. factory. training centres in factories. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home.. self-employment iii. 2.full time to learners – can be home. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute.4. 4. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. etc. library. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. effective in modern societal context. public libraries.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. To increase knowledge and 2. others are formal and informal.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. farm. Again. All-round development i. etc. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . 3. open space.4. To better qualifications.2.4. Therefore. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. 2. if organised in isolation.
7. Define non formal education. Lecturing T.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. List out any two aims of non formal education. 117 . Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. . Face Contact programmes. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Written tests. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Correspondence lesson. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6. institution. Give examples of non formal education? . Teaching to face teaching. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.V. radio. Essay Assignments and short answer questions.
7.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. 2. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society.2.4. the college and the university come under this category. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.” 6. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. The school. Primary level. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Pre-school level. 5. b. Open School. a. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. 4. adults as well as children. 4. a. Secondary level. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. School 3. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. systematic. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Open University. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. b.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Higher Secondary level and University level. 118 . 3.4. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. 2. 2. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Formal and Non Formal 2. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4.
K and Narang C. New Delhi : 119 . Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Dash. Anmol Publications Pvt.2.4. B. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008). J.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Education in Emerging India. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2003). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). P. (2008). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J.C. Gupta. (2004). Pahuja. K. S. L. N. Ltd. N. (2007). Modern Trends in Indian Education. Mohanty. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Bhatia. Theory and Principles of Education.
220.127.116.11.3 Objectives of Open University 2.LESSON 18.104.22.168 2.2 2.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.1 22.214.171.124 Continuing education for persons in service or business 126.96.36.199 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 188.8.131.52.4 Need for Open University 184.108.40.206 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .220.127.116.11.6 2.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.3.4 Open University 2.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 18.104.22.168 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.7 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.
farmers. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. 2. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. For them. know the need and objectives of open university. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. economic field or such other fields.3. characteristics of open university 4.2. Under these circumstances.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Any person.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. Education is for refinement and enlightenment.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. continuing education is a boon. However. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.5.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India.5. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. 2. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. industries. labourers and half educated individuals. Thus.5. you will be able to: 1. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 .5. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. It is a lifelong process. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. This knowledge may be in political field. 2. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. It is a continuous process. give the meaning.
if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. are also contributing their might for the purpose. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress.V. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Thus. On the other hand. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Cinema. Throughout the country.V.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. deteriorating to his character and personality. Radio and T.5. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas.literate person. Persons engaged in health services. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Block Development Officers. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . For them too continuing education is essential. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Radio. if he gets opportunity to develop them. T. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. Doctors.directly related to his job. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. 2. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. After the achievement of independence.3. cultured and progressive. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. On the other hand.
5. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (16) liking. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (13) psychology of child behaviour.V. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy.5. 3. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. (2) basic religious matters. (15) music. 123 . 2. (17) modern international and national events. 2. habits of people of other lands. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. 2. These books are not very useful. 4. (7) folk songs. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (14) information about bringing up young children. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. especially women.3. 5. we have not been able to achieve our targets. (8) psychology of adults. 6.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. (10) first aid. and Radio. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (6) folk stories. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities.. (1) ancient history.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. Inspite of the great efforts. 7. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education.3. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. Of course.
2. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. lack of time etc. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. of educational opportunities. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. NLM was launched in the year 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. attendance restrict ion. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University.5. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.4.5. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.
c. d. e. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. it makes use of educational techno logy. and in teaching. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. 5.unobserved. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. 2. its education is not class room based but home based.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a.5. b. No one is too old or too late to learn. but 125 . It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. Which was the first open university in India? . IGNOU was established in the year 6. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? .4. 2. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. the higher the degree of openness. Education is not a once for-all process. 4. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e.
126 .4. 2. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 2. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. who were deprived of t he same earlier. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 3. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 4.4. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. or who realised too late that they need it.5. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. 2. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 4. supplementing the existing provision. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. 6. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 2. 3. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment.5. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. Mo re o ver.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. cho ice o f co ur ses. 5. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes.who did not get it.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. it a ims at wider and hig her. annu al wr it t en examinat io n.
Therefore. Tutor Comments. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. a society. 4. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 8. Self instructional materials. school drop outs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes.2. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Correspondence tuition. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. 2. you have learnt the concept. 5. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. semi – literates. 6.5.4. 127 . Laboratory works. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. In the present day world. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 8. 1. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. Every day. 7. 3. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . a state or nation.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. List out any four methods of Open University? .5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y.5. 2. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost.
need and characteristics of Open University.ambitious learners. Broad casting lectures c. unskilled workers and other professionals. Television Lessons. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 3. its education is not class room based but home based. 128 . 8. aspirants for continuing education. 1985. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 7. Explain the objectives. youth. 2. 8. P r int med ia b. cho ic e o f co u r ses. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. d. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. 1988. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 6.5. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. a. 2. a. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 9. a. which may include house wives. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. (4) the fundamentals of economics. b.5. 7. b. agricultural and industrial workers. (2) basic religious matters. 4. (1) ancient history.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.
(2004).K. Reddy. K and Narang C. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. R. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. (2007).5. Modern Problems of Education. L.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ltd.S. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. (2004). S. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.2. (2001). 129 . Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Udaiveer. K.. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.
UNIT – III 131 .
and teacher education. its causes and remedial measures. the education of women. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. Training teachers for all levels of education. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. In Lesson 2. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. which may claim the attention of those concerned. wastage and stagnation. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Examination reform. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. examination. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. 133 .CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. All which is the need of the hour.
22.214.171.124 EFA – How? 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 126.96.36.199 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.7 188.8.131.52 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.2 3.8 3.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.3.3 New initiatives.4 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3. 135 .6 184.108.40.206 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.LESSON 3.3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.3.1.1 3.
On the other hand. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. (EOI) 2. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. you will be able to: 1.1. social. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI).2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. directed that.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy.1. “The State shall 136 .” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). understands the country.3. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. 2. education received added importance and significance. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. economic or cultural. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Therefore. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. 3. Eradication of Illiteracy. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. Continuing Education (CE) 1. may be political. therefore. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE).
it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Universalization of Enrolment. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. It enables the parents to send their children to School. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Due to the adoption of democratic system. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Therefore. Continuing Education (CE). within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment.endeavour to provide. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. rights and responsibilities. After the attainment of independence. Universalization of Retention. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. 3. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. the national Government under. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. 137 . The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Three Stages for Universalization.
we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. Write Article 45. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1990. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. It is safe to assure. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. UNESCO Bulletin states. later to 1988. Therefore. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. educational enterprise. 138 . So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. 1995 (for upper primary stage).1. present and future. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. 3. This target had to be revised to 1970. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. then to 1976. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing.3.
10. Disabled. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. problem of literacy.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. 12. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). we have to develop the programme of Adult education. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. sex. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. 139 . This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). 5. 6. 9. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. nutrition education and sports and games. their enrolment and retention. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. creed. Emphasis must be given on health education. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. and Women’s education programme should be improved. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. 3. In order to make the programme of education for all community. their social economic status and occupations. 11. Education of Girls. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. etc.1. Education of the Impaired. The Social Education. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. By undertaking survey. slum areas. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. Jams and Jellies. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. NAEP. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. FELF. Early childhood education should be streamlined. 8. adolescent and adult. Apart from primary education. 3.3. rural areas.
3. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. 4.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.e. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.3. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.1. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Wastage and Stagnation. Expand MLL and SSA .
Social Factors .first stage of education. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . School Factors . Personal Factors . Familial Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. it is considered as wastage.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .
.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Define Wastage. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. . 142 . Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 7.
Societal Factors . a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. School Factors . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.1. in his home.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. school or society. Personal Factors . rural or urban 3. They are described hereunder :1.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. relating to home.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . Family Factors .3.The following factors. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.
appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. uniforms. mid-day meals. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . 144 . Define Stagnation? 9. stationary.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc.
Universalization of Provision b.3. Universalization of Retention 2. 4. 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.1. 2. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. 4. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. directed that.1. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. 145 . “The State shall endeavour to provide. 3. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. improvement of curriculum. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. 3. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a.. therefore. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Hartog Committee. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education.1. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Universalization of Enrolment c.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. a. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc.” 3. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Minimum Levels of Learning b. a. 6. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA.
K. Familial Factors c. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Problems of Elementary Education. S. New Delhi: 146 . School Factors d.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 3.1. introduce graded curriculum. Sharma. 9.K. b. improve examination system. Social Factors 8. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers.7. a. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. a.N. T. Personal Factor b. (2008). (2001). S. Crescent Publishing Corporation. (2007). Hemchand. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.
2.4.1 Problems of examination 3.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.2.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.5.LESSON 3.4.2 22.214.171.124 Inspection and Supervision 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 126.96.36.199 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2.5 New evaluation procedures 3.2.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.7 Open book examination 3.5.4 Question banks 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 188.8.131.52 Let us sum up 147 .184.108.40.206.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.5.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.1 3.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 220.127.116.11.2 Grade System 3.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.
3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.2. Besides. 3.9 3. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.3. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . 3.3.2. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. 3. but on the other. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.2.2.8 3. 4. you will be able to: 1. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. suggest the new evaluation procedures. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.2.
3. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. 149 . thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. which the educational authorities have to face. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. If the students are in sufficient number. roadside Romeoism. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. hostel facilities. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. etc. 3. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. waiting rooms for girl students. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. They develop secondary sex characteristics.. The following steps should be taken up. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age.2. etc. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. etc. They may cause problems relating to discipline.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. schools for them wherever necessary. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty.
so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. appointment of paper-setters. public interested in education. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. Instruction.2.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. assessment and Finance.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. the net-work of examination system has also become vast.2. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.4. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is considered as a major sub-system.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. conduct of internal examinations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. teachers. 150 . the examination system has an important role to play. public administrators and statesmen. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils.
etc. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. training of examiners. 3. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom.4.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. introducing objective-based testing. invigilators. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. tabulators. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. examiners. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. etc. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. establishing reliability. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 .printing and distribution of question papers. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. announcement of results. etc. values. etc.2. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. validity and practicability. etc. scrutinizers. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation.
Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. it s a common experience that subjectivity.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. 152 . instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. lack of objectivity etc. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. Vagaries in making.4. 7) In connection with the question papers. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. 3. not meant to be assessed in the examinations.. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. 3) With respect to method of teaching. may also discredit them. do not appeal to the students and parents. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording.2. takes the place of comprehensive learning. halo-effect.. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. Subjects. stereotyped questions. 2) From the angle of content of education. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested.. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. Rote memorisation. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. which they are expected to study. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc.
Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .develop true love for education. revaluation. List any two merits of examination.a part of internal assessment. Spot valuation. Question Books may be developed in all schools.. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 153 . etc.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. . Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. re-numbering of answer scripts. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. may be introduced. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination.
When a person chooses to work extra. In actual practice. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. In this system. The new scheme of assessment. skills are given importance. Advantages More autonomy is given to students.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970.5. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .3.2. It is complicated. Every paper is treated equal. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. 3. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.5. Their interests. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. attitudes.2. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.2. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . The students can take any course offered in any department. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. he is given extra credit points. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.
this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course.poor. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. poor. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. While designing syllabus. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . The human error of evaluation is ± 10. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. v. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. courses can have weightages defined. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. These weightages are called credits. or as a 4 credit course. An example is a seminar. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Groupism is encouraged.discipline.good. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development.2. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. 3. This system reduces comparison of marks. In the new system.5. only the total credits to be earned is specified. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses.
156 . most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. 3.5. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.5. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. 3. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.2. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.2.2. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. 3. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.5. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. However.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.
there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. There are no proper procedures for selection. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. In the hierarchy.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. . recruitment.5.3. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. 3. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. Therefore. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. However. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India.2. List any four new evaluation procedures. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.
books are followed. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. complaints and compliments. 158 . Academic inspection. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. requirements.qualified personnel. inspecting the class-room teaching. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. playgrounds. interpersonal relationships and so on.. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. finding out the adequacy of. 3. of late.. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. laboratory equipment. Separation of Inspection and Supervision.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. etc. wherever necessary. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools.2. whether the syllabus has been covered. being realised as two different functions. library books. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. in a sense. submitting of the inspection reports.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. disciplinary problems. staff. finding out whether the prescribed text. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner.6. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. When they are fully realised. taking up the follow-up programmes. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. in contrast. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. They are. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. school buildings. 1. qualifications. etc.
2.Ed. Being a special category of educational administrative officers.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors.. course in either educational. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. Insistence on specialisation in the B. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. 3. In the light of these conceptualisation. courses.Ed. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. Similarly. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. modern. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. aptitude. once in five years. 159 . Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. M. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. at least. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. their professional knowledge. In the case of departmental candidates.. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. or.
It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 4. a. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. a.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 160 . Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Grade System. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Instruction. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 3. c. 3.2. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. assessment and Finance. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. 3. b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. a.2. 3. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. b.2. d. 3. Administration. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System.
(2004).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Vaidya. R and Sharma. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. c. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline.4. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.2. Educational Reforms. b. Problems of Education in India. b. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers.a part of internal assessment. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. S. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. (2002). History and Problems of Education in India. b. (2005). Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. K. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . K. Question banks. Open book examinations. New 161 . and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. a. a. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. 7. 5. Multiple sets of question paper. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. a. 3.
4.2 3.3.9 3.3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3.8 3. 162 .4 3.5 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3.1 3. identify the needs of rural India and social.18.104.22.168 3.3. you will be able to: 22.214.171.124.10 3.3 3.6 3. 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.LESSON 3. 2. analyze the general and vocational spectra. 5.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.
which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . University Education. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. i. e. etc. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates.. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. 2. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. and 3 years of First Degree Course.specialisation programmes 3. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre.g. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States.. The. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i.3. Consequent on the recommendations.. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education.. Similar is the case with some other States. in Andhra Pradesh.e. the Banaras Sanskrit College. 10 years of general Secondary Education. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. The Calcutta Madras. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. Commission emphasised to continue. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country.e. 8 years of general education.3.
is also a plus point . 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. b. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities.a sense of dignity of labour. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. However. to imbibe. cultural and economic development of the country. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. to prepare. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. and. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . who desire to change from one stream to another. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. 10. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. Provision for transfer of credits to students.3. 5) to help for the social. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . 3. 7. habits of hard work and develop . 5. social. 6. historical. 8.confidence in students. educational channels. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. economical and political.
3. international understanding. and that required to enter the tertiary level. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. to develop national character. at the other. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. on one hand. cooperativeness. democratic living. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. social justice.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions.. Sociologically it is undesirable. The General Educational Spectrum.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. 1. Philosophically it is not the conception. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. Psychologically. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as.3. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. cultural and' religious tolerance. etc.national integration. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. and.
commerce. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. technological. professional. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. 3. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. 166 . the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. technical. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. chemistry. Agriculture is the main occupation. Biology. commerce. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. and vocations based on dairy-farming. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. In our country. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. rural health.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. In the vocational spectrum. such as Agriculture. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. Science. fish culture. educational and cultural services. Commerce and other disciplines. All these need for an. vegetable growing.— tube-wells. physics or mathematics. India is a land of villages. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. In the matter of language. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. the rural areas have suffered very much.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. medical plants. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. 2. industrial agricultural production is growing. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. horticulture. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. or other machinery. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially.3.
In time. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the local resources available. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? .. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . social justice. In this way. There had been favourable reaction from the students. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum.. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. and the needs. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States.etc. 3. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. 4.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. and 5. interests and aptitudes of the students. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society.3. In this it may be concluded. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. can be ensured. etc.
we studied the history.3. N. 2. General Educational Spectrum and b. a. 3. 3. 3. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. B.3.3.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. habits of hard work and develop . Vocational Sepctrum. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.K.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. J. to imbibe. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Mohanty.3. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2008). (2005).3. New Delhi : 168 . S. Modern Trends in Indian Education. 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. objectives. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. (2001). Calcutta University Commission 2.a sense of dignity of labour. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. a.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.C. b. b. (2007). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Dash. Anmol Publications Pvt. a. J. Ltd.
6 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.9 3.10 126.96.36.199.4.3 3.4.4. social and 169 .4.LESSON 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Education contributes to human development.4.13 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 3.5 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3. but the lighting of a fire”.220.127.116.11 3.2 3.7 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.1 3.12 3.
understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. While women constituted only 9.4. During the year 1937. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. higher education of girls developed immensely. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. For the first time in the history of India. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. 3. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. The relevance of women’s education to social. economic. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. cultural and political development of the individual. community and nation is universally acknowledged. There is a close connection between education and development. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women.4. you will be able to: 1. family. analyze the women and distance education. In the post —independence period. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. These courses were. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. particularly 170 . 3. Dr.higher education in particular.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. Nursing. Home Economics. Education . After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. Teaching and Fine Arts. although we have miles to go.
1 31. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).65 lakhs in 1994-95.0 16.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. in our country. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Kodaikanal. 3. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.2 29. out of 9200 and odd colleges.4.0 Today. levels and professions. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. Even today.0 32. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.0 43. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. In the rest of the country. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .4.2 22. The idea of women’s education for equality.9 27.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.T Women University.1 24. In 1950-51.N. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.4.women. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.D. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. Coimbatore. 3. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. we have more than 1200 institutions. Mother Teresa Women University. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. Mumbai. Yet.9 14. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.
D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.83 47. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . 3.46 82. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.54 12.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .4.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.34 33.56 64.53 34.63 Female % 34. 2.44 35.4%) prefer Arts subjects.47 65.73 10.1 and 14. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? . 3.1 respectively. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.36 3.66 66.17 52.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.27 89.that of boys. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .
she will only learn fashion. In college. curriculum not suited to their requirements. According to a survey. distance of the college or university from home. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Book banks should be established. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. irrelevance of the content of education. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. 173 . 3. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. promoted and increased. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. what is the need for higher education for her. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. Thus. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. marriage is a very common I factor.4. particularly. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. The major hurdles. and coeducation may spoil her character. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the.hinders the girls from getting higher education. etc.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Also. In every third family. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. They gave up their studies to enter home life. financial difficulty of the parents. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education.
is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. 3. 3. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. It enables to study. Full-time employment. Distance education is a boon to women. Empowerment in a nutshell. space. It is a productive investment. Education. is the only tool for realising empowerment.economic disabilities faced by women. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.4. It also brings about 174 . Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Geographic distance of educational institutions. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development.4. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. There are constraints of time. and the limitations of the conventional education system. resources and socio . At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world.
3.4. Women are partners in development.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. This can be achieved through reflection. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. The major objectives of women's higher education.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. higher learning. Empowerment is an active. legal awareness and economic independence. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. empowerment means being assertive. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . education of women is of paramount importance. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. on their own. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. for full development of our human resources. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. education of women must be given priority in national plans. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life.
Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. The educational institutions.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. Better opportunities. who are eager to take up courses. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad.4. Reservation for women. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. The local administration. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. which is pending for a long time. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. has to be implemented at the earliest. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. especially so in the developing countries.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. which had been the sole domain of men.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . But their number is small. Scholarships and concessions for women. will encourage them to venture new grounds. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. 3. 176 . may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops.
Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates.3 percent. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 .000 women in the country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.4. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs.8%). women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. 3. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). talents. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. IDP Education.1%) and architecture and building (38. especially in developing countries like African countries. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. capacities etc.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. Australia. Chief Executive..11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.9%). participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. engineering and related technologies (16. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. But. According to Lindy Hyam. Also.
R. S.4. 3. SNDT Women’s University. a. Rajasthan 5.R. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. individuals and society b. Women Education. Mother Teresa Women University. 4. Kodaikanal. Annakodi. Coimbatore. Rao. 4. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Centre for Women’s Studies. Women Education. Pattanaikj. (2007). (2005).C. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Mumbai.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Mishra. 3.to the family. and Swain.4. Mumbai. SNDT Women’s University. Coimbatore. community and the nation. A. R. S. 2. Women and Education. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. create the right attitude towards life.K. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. 43% 6. R. A. (2000). Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.4. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. and Suryalatha. 178 . 3.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. (2008).
Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 . whole.3 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5.9 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.7 3.6 3.5 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5. They should be trained. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5.5.10 3.4 3.5.11 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5.1 3.8 3.personality of children in and out of school.LESSON 3.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.18.104.22.168 3.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.
Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. equality and justice. and national character. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. 3. know the pre service and in service training facilities. international. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. national consciousness. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction.5. 4. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. understanding and strong desire for international peace. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. 180 . They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Lack of physical facilities. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. Shorter working hours. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. you will be able to: 1. 5. understand the training teachers for Primary.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. social and emotional integration. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country.
4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. and the collegiate teacher education. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. who have not been trained earlier. 3.Ed. If the student teachers are working teachers. 3. students. (NCERT) New Delhi. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. the state Government. At the diploma level. inservice and extension education programmes. and M.5. Inadequate training in practical skills. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years .. etc. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Lop-sided curriculum.Less qualified teacher educators. levels. the centre. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . Depending on the levels. the secondary teacher education. it is called the In-service teacher education.5. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. higher secondary teacher education. a Diploma course and a Degree course. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years.Ed. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. the primary teacher education. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. it is called the Extension teacher Education. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training..
state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. are established. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Evaluation unit. non-formal. Science Education units.. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. extensio n service. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Also Guidance Bureaux. collegiate cells. 3.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Educational teehnology cells. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Expand NCERT 2.5. depart ments etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. state Institutes of Educat ion. Education cells.
despite its vast expansion.. schools and sister institutions.Ed. which help breaking isolation from one another . a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. which should include experience in the primary schools too. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . to improve curricular programmes. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. and so on. and 183 . to offer consultative services. to ensure teacher competence.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . primary and secondary school teachers.. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. to prescribe conditions for recognition. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. material conditions relating to libraries.Ed. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. audio visual aids. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . laboratories. degree.. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. should be improved on a top priority basis.
etc. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. 184 . The problem. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training.secondary education. whether they should have professional education or. Modern Techniques of Teaching. Organisation of Content Courses. Workshops. and XII. Psychology of Students.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. though no pre-service training.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Meanwhile. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. methodology and evaluation. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. To meet this exigency. Modern Methods of Evaluation.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Induction Courses. not came up once again. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Agriculture. etc. Hence. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education.
Degree and M.Ed.. For re-orienting the teachers. in Education. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. These facilities are available for regular students.A. (Education) and M. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.Ed. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. Post-Graduates also undergo B. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. State Institutes of Education. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. (Education) are organized by 185 .Ed.D. Pre-service training is for those. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. courses and M. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.A.Ed.’s are elig ible for M.Ed. training.5. Degree. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. 3. Ajmer. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.’s for Ph. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education... Point out two defects in primary teacher training . (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. M..S. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented... Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates..7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Courses leading to B.. All B Ed.Ed.
they should be conscientious . 4. 3. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.. 186 .. (Ed). 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. and B. 6.A. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. What is the role of ERIC? . 5. (Ed. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned.5. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.A. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. Hence the employability of M.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. However.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. established by tradition and teachers of the past. of conduct—written or unwritten. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession.).
National Council of Educational Research and Training. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Dearth of new technology of teaching. a.5. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. Ajmer. Bhopal. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 3. 4. 2.5. 3. 6. However. b. a. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 2. 5. Shorter working hours. Discuss the problems of teacher education. a.5. they should be conscientious.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 3. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities.3. these problems are not as such cannot be solved.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain code of conduct for teachers. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. 3. 187 . The necessity is however this. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. b.
(2009). and Teacher Education. A.3.5. Corporation. P.D. Tewari. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . (2010). Mohanty. B. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Ltd Aggarwal. (2003). Teacher Education.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda.N. Teacher Education. J. Publication Pvt.
UNIT – IV 189 .
The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. Since food is the source of nutrients. The person’s environment is equally important.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. objectives. economic and educational developments. the focus is on the school health programmes. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important. objectives. common ailments of children. In lesson 4. If the diet is poor. objectives and role of the physical education. In lesson 1. communicable diseases and their prevention. 191 . nutritional deficiency diseases. preservation of nutrients.
for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.3 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.6 4.1. 193 .1.LESSON 4.9 4. emotional and social.5 4.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.8 4.10 4.1 4.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1.1. It is a miniature society.e.1.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.2 4.4 4.7 4. physical.1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. mental.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody.11 4.
2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. cleanliness and healthful living. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 5. list the common ailments of children 3. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. you will be able to: 1.1. To develop healthy health habits among children. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. To give information regarding health rules. e. 11. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community.1. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. 2. 7. 4. content of health education.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. training in first aid and etc. 4. 6.g. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 8. to his family and to the community at large. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. know the need for sex education. explain the importance of First aid 5. 9. Instruction. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. understand school health programmes 2. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. 4. To develop certain skills concerning health. 10. 194 . 3.. training of teachers and evaluation.
direct lighting. The school buildings should be spacious. play festivals. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. as described below 1. (viii) first aid. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided.1. (vi) nutrition education. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body.. excusing late. 2. The surroundings of schools should be clean. (x) choice aid use of health services and products.coming or absence. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A.4. minimizing the travelling distance. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. ( iii) sanit at io n. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . cleanliness weeks. There should be good drainage facilities.. B. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. The flooring should not be damp. Arranging better transportation facilities. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. 4. (ii) communit y healt h. suitable furniture. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. vaccination. B. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. Vaccination for small pox. inoculation against cholera. (iv) co mmunicable diseases.G. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. (v) safety education. 3. “Play-for-all” programmes. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. 2. There should be regular water supply. (xl) mental health. 5. is imperative. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. (xii) smoking education etc. proper doors and windows. Triple Antigen Vaccination. etc. organisation of school health days. typhoid.C. First aid facilities should be made readily available. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students.
196 . etc. sports and games in the interest of their health. dislocations. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. isolate and notify. insect stings. • Take nutritious food. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Have adequate rest and sleep. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. drowning. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. and other accidents.. poisons. C. • Keep all rooms clean. scalds.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • Close the schools. wounds. D. cuts. • When sleeping in groups. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. burns. fainting (epileptic fit). • Find out the cases. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. fractures. if epidemic is wide-spread. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. bleeding.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. water or bodily contact. chicken pox. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. fever. Mention the school health programmes. 4. which are – cold. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. headache. measles etc. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. asthma. List out the Health curriculum 3. Once these germs get into the body. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. 2. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. 4. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air..1. They are: i) The incubation stage. polio. pain in the joints. So they easily get illnesses. backache. cough. tuberculosis.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. These diseases are called communicable diseases. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. There are three stages in any communicable disease. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage.1. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school.
He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. After three or four days of fever.When a child suffers from scabies.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Scabies . The symptoms include cold. unhygienic living conditions. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. etc. This is caused by cold virus. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. head-ache and cough. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Common Cold . cough and fever.This disease is caused by bacteria. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. unhygienic bottle feeding. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. The child may have fever.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. The following are the common communicable diseases.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Tonsilitis . sugar and water. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Hence it is called a killer disease. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Mumps . In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Diarrhoea . nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Measles . Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. 198 . there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Children catch cold from persons having cold. eating food which is not clean. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Hence liquid diet is recommended.It is caused by measles virus. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Others make the children very weak. Ear Infections . One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Throat is affected.
• • • • Chicken Pox . Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. Enlist the common ailments of children. the child may die. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Shortly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the child is not able to breathe.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. raised pink spots appear on head. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. If proper treatment is not given. face and waist.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. The child may also have diarrhoea. Typhoid . Expand DPT . They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. What are communicable diseases? 6. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. By scratching he causes secondary infections. Diphtheria . 199 . It begins with fever. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. separate. As the disease progresses.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings.
The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. and Community Work and Social Service. sprains. scorpion stings. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. wounds. eye injury.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. 4. Sprains . films and jokes.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. Sex is but an integral part of human personality.1. Sex is popular.g. Drowning .Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. bruises. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. It is both biological and psychological. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. 200 . 5.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. 4. bleeding. fainting. 2. and films. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. so-called sex books and periodicals.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. etc. drowning. In such cases. fiction. it is a subject of art. sprains. swelling. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. snakebites. Wounds . simple fractures. exciting and body-oriented.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1.4. dislocation.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. man-woman behaviours. It has its rightful place in education too. head injury.1. 3. Cuts and Bruises . cuts. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in.
We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. In secondary schools. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. try experimenting with their bodies. celibacy are age. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. Should the boys and girls. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. B. health. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. they would be treading the path of sure doom. in their ignorance. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. The home. 3. 2.old values. but preserve them from disaster and disease. The values of life. In today's liberal and interactive society. the religious organisations. sex education is being recommended in schools. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it.. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. Hence. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. the school. We can arm people with knowledge about sex.
when the courses are already overloaded. What are the major components of Sex Education. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. first aid and sex education.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. C. the school health programmes. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. 4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. hence. there will no crisis in its implementation. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. communicable diseases and their prevention. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. Teacher education institutions are. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 202 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. common ailments of children.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 22.214.171.124 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the food nutrients 2. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. 209 . Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients.
Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. If you look at the definition carefully. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. Let us talk about each of these aspects. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. 210 .2. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . minerals. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet.4.2.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s.
2. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. activity level and physiological stress. dosa are typical of the south. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. These are: region where the person resides and income. the social and religious practices of that region. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. paratha and poori. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .g. People in the east of our country prefer rice. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first.sedentary. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). moderate or heavy work. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress).Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. it is also specific to a given activity level . This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. There is no point.one in the morning and the other at night. sex. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. 4. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. A balanced diet is specific firstly. construction labourer).g. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. In other words. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. In the case of adults. Preferences/customs are also important. Even within given States there is considerable variation. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning.6. for example.
Having more money. however. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. taboos related to food may play an important role. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. for example. however. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. Among the social factors. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. as important for the rich as for the poor. One person may be fond of milk products.planning the diet. income plays a vital role. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. however. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. However. nuts and dry fruits. If you think of your own religious group. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. vegetables and fruits. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. customs. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. fat and sugar tend to increase. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. One must. As income increases. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. As you read this discussion. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. Including these 212 . These determine the acceptability of foods. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. In addition to these. Judicious selection of food is. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. Even among flesh foods. while another may hate them. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like.
213 . Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. Define balanced diet. meat.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. fruits. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. 8) Walk a while after eating. mouth. but they should be thrown away. eggs .eating is hazardous. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 8. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. over-eating or under. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 17. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. if the teachers have good food habits. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. List out any two healthy food habits. green leaves. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. etc. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. For this.
e. Bitot’s spots. Conjuctival xerosis. preservation of nutrients. Night blindness. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5.2. 4. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. c.2. Beri Beri 4. a.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. In fact. Explain food nutrients 4. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Vitamin D 5. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. 4. Discuss good food habits. Keratomalacia 3. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A.4.2. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. When the diet is inadequate. Corneal xerosis. b. d.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. good nutrition is essential for good health.
R. A Text Book of Foods. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s.2. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . Sri Lakshmi B. R.6. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. S.M. Food and Nutrition Education. mouth. (2009). (2008). vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. b.N. Food and Nutrition Education.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. Hands. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. 7. Chopra. Nutrition Science. (2005). 4. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. minerals. 8. Food should be consumed after eating well. b. (2008).C. Health and Nutrition Education. P. (2004). a. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Nutrition and Dietetics. a .
3.13 126.96.36.199 4.3.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.1 Impact on social development 188.8.131.52 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.184.108.40.206 4.8 4.3.9 4.10 220.127.116.11.3.6. 216 .3.3.4 4.12 4.3 4.7 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3 Impact on Education 4.3.LESSON 4.3.5 4.11 4.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.
his societ y and the world. community. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. state the meaning.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. It is not sex education.3. objectives and need for population education 2. 4. Population Education. It is a much wider co ncept.3. There is some difference. describe the impact of population growth on social. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education.4. characteristics and changes for himself. economic and educational development 3. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. the stress is. 217 . the causes of population change. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. and the consequences of these processes. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. therefore. population characteristics. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.3. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. aims at providing the younger generation. family planning and sex education etc. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. his family. you will be able to: 1. Whenever we talk of sex education. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. 4. understand the importance of small family norm 5.
3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. the nation and the world.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two objectives of Population Education. the family.3. 4.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. Define Population Education 2. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.4. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.
which will not be possible without population control. When the family is small. Every second two thousand children are being born. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. the family programmes are also handicapped. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. With the larger families.3.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. 219 . 4. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Family is considered as a social unit. 4. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. economic and educational development of the country.3. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. health and happiness of its citizens. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country.6. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum.
leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. and so on. The gulf between them is widening further. 220 . It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. organization index and material index. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt..3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective.3. lack of proper health care. are the results of demographic pressures on social life.3.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. i.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious.6. teacher index. facility for drinking water.6. Swollen cities. in cinema halls and theatres. toilets. 4. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. 4. in buses and trains.e. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. heavy intern I migration etc. in parks and other places of public gatherings. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. unemployment. Many students herded in a small room. pollution of the environment. In developing countries.
It has got to be integrated with other subjects. reproduction. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. blank verses etc.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff.. and laboratory equipments. Social Studies Statistics on population education. can be taken up. Hindi and English. essays. even text books would be in short supply. There would be very few audiovisual aids. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. family planning etc. There would be poor library facilities. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. less space facilities. Regional Language. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. bar graphs etc. less budget for education.3. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. thus. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. can be studied in science and health education. 221 . The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories.
area and average density of population. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 10. 15. deaths. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 8. 14. 2. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. 4. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Children may compare two families. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Canada. 5. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Brazil. causes of deaths etc. 9. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. West Bengal.3. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. 12. 7. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Children with the help of parents. 11. Uttar Pradesh. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. They may arrange them as per average density of population. 3. 13.4. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . United States of America. Bihar. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. China.
How will you correlate Population Education? 5. 18. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. we have no right to stop 223 . The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. The question. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. values and role children etc. 16. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. preferences for sex. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. 17. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. age at marriage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.be opened in their schools. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Comparing life in various respects in two families. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife.
For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. More than 45 years ago. especially the expansion of child immunization services . at varying places in different regions.their entry into the world”. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. and the child survival components of the news: program. which education can only do. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Since the program's inception. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. fertility levels have declined throughout the country.were implemented 224 . Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage.3. continued . The Family Welfare Program. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. on an overall basis. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .4-6.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. “He who is responsible for population growth. however. 4.to emphasize family planning services. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.
Therefore. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. In October 1997. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free.earlier than the safe motherhood components. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. and nominal fees for services. At these meetings. reliance on local women as community health workers. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. and the World Conference on Women. the community appears willing to pay for services. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. a focus on health promotion. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. Local programs vary in their approaches. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. In April 1996. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. Moreover. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. expansion of services to unmarried women. men. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 .
to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion.3. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Describe the impact of population growth on social.3. community. involving the community. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 226 . 4.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. Its main purposes are to create awareness. 3. nation and the world. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum.emphasizing the needs of the client.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What are the goals of RCH? 4. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. economic and educational development 4. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. 1997). family.
Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union.4. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. his family. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. and the consequences of these processes. Canada. a. b. characteristics and changes for himself. China. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. population characteristics. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. 6. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. 4. 3. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.” 2. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. his society and the world. b. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. bar graphs. a. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. a. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. United States of America. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 7. 5. area and average density of population. Brazil. less budget for education. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. 227 . less space facilities. the causes of population change.3.
(2004). (2005). Ltd. T. N. Udaiveer. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Modern Problems of Education. Coimbatore. Ltd. 228 . Modern Trends in Indian Education. A. (2002).4. Principles of Population Studies. Bhende. Jayapoorni.3. Centre for Women’s Studies. J. (1992). Reddy. Kantikar. V. (2005). “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.K.
11 19.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.2 4.8.2 Major games 4.4.4 4.6 18.104.22.168.1 22.214.171.124.5 4.3 4.7 126.96.36.199 Minor games 4.LESSON 188.8.131.52.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.9 4.3 Indigenous games 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.8.10 184.108.40.206.4.4 Lead up games 4.
leadership and balance in defect. social fitness. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. moral fitness and emotional fitness. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.4. full records of physical activities should be maintained. 4. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. team spirit.4. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. perseverance. you will be able to: 1. as it should 230 . 4. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. mental alertness. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education.4. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. The concept of physical education has been made broader.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education.4. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. which forms its most valuable assets. classify the different types of games.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. the youth of the country.
education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. leadership. The educational efforts at home. They go hand in hand. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Therefore. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. obedience to rules. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. team spirit.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. They are inseparably united together. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Every individual is a part of society. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. To be more precise. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child.
4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. mo ral. a sound health. Regarding the significance of physical education. Just like Education.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. nor body but the whole man. Rousseau states. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field.” Montaigue writes.” The Secondary Education Commission. C. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. pleasing manners. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. H. game and sports. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. 4. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain.4. Physical exercises. ment al. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. Buck has observed that 232 .
without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. 233 . resourcefulness and smartness. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. strength. happiness.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. initiative.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. “If we wish to develop the whole being. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. coordinative abilities. endurance. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. efficiency and character.4. we must exercise the whole human being. Froebel says.” In brief. elegance. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. etc. speed.a properly directed physical education should result in health. flexibility and power. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.” 4. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development.
its adherents and its enemies. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. poetry and painting. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. including all racial groups and historical ages. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Every age has its artists. these fundamental things have always been present. 234 (i) (ii) . If no opportunity is provided to the students. should help in the spiritual development of the student. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. While wars. they may form gangs. plagues and famines. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. systems of government. in greater or lesser degree. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer.
to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. 2. etc. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements.\ to develop perseverance. B. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. bravery and interest in games and sports. obedience. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. self. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. to develop tolerance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. respect for rules. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. Write any two importance of Physical Education. 235 .sacrifice. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . 3.
4. Be punctual. Posture screening should be done. 8. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 15. . 11.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Keep the field ready for the activities. Be self-confident. 7. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Act as a leader. 13. 14. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. 236 1. 16. Be in the uniform. 4. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. students. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Be sportive.H.4. and. 5. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Always keep the whistle ready. and readmission after they have recovered. 3. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. defects. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students.4.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 10. Inform health principles. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 9. Be well-prepared.4. Usually parents. 6. is essential. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. injuries among pupils should be made. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 12. 2. Haag.
237 . 4. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. 4.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. As such they are well enjoyed by children. 1. Such inst incts as imitation. Moreover. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. less equipment and less expense. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.8. 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. their development is handicapped. chasing. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. Lead up games.4.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. Indigenous games. 3. frolic and jo y. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. the play.
Jumping. zig zag relay. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. For each game the rules are many. bowling etc. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. 4. over ball pass Relay. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. the games can be modified according to convenience. snatching the kerchief. Except a few games. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. stopping. Shuttle Badminton. trapping. Jump the stick clay and so on. some of them are played indoors. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Khokho. spiking. benefit in playing minor games. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Hopping.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Basket Ball. Tennikoit. with implements or without implements. finding the partner. on sea-shore.4. on hard courts. boosting. Cricket. under ball pass Relay. 238 .8. Dodging. Volley Ball. pitching. the play equipment. muffling. driving. couple tag. Ball Badminton. the number of players and substitutes. wherever the kids assemble. catching. skipping. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. The dimension of the posts and nets. Kabaddy etc. Throwing. dribbling. On lawns. heading. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. women take part most of the games. Tennis. Soft Ball. While many of them are played in the open playfields. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people.. Hockey.With a very few rules. They are played for a shorter duration. These games require varied skills such as running. hitting. on mountain tops and on river beds.
4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.8. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. List out some major games.8. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. birth.4. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. death. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. On occasions like marriage. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.4. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. and . in these games with zeal and enthusiasm.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Games may be classified as 6.4. All the fundamental tactics. 7. They have an abundant social value. festivals connected with religion and public functions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 4. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. An example for indigenous game is 8. these games being popular. For example. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. While observing the players in action. Kho-kho. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . they are in existence. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.
The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. a. c. Briefly discuss the different types of games. b. a. a.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. d.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. to develop physical stamina. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. 5. 4. b. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 3. Posture screening should be done. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers.4. 3. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. 4.4. 2. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. Minor and Major 240 . a. b. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. aims and objectives and need of physical education. 4.4. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. to secure physical health b.
6. 241 . New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.K. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Ball Badminton. Soft Ball. Shuttle Badminton. Kabaddy 7. Health. Ltd. 4. Khokho. Khokho 8.4. Aggarwal. Basket Ball. G.C. Krishna murthy. Volley Ball. (2005). Cricket. Physical Education and Sports. (2009). J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Foot-ball. J. J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Handbook of Physical Education. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Mohanty. Tennikoit. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. (2008). Tennis. (2008).12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Hockey. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers.
220.127.116.11.5.9 4.3 4.10 4.1 4.8 4.11 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168 Manmade Environment 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.5.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .6 4.5.1 Natural Environment 4.5.LESSON 4.5.4 22.214.171.124 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.7 4.2 4.5.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .
Participation.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. population explosion and resource depletion could be. 243 . economic. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. 4. 5.5. Essential knowledge about the Environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Attitude. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. The best place to start such learning is school. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. list out the types of environment 3. 3. 3. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. 6. aesthetic and educational factors. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. 4. 4. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. social.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Skills. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A.educat ion for the environment. it covers the following elements: 1. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Awareness. 2. Knowledge. Details are given below: I. Evaluation Ability. 2.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. education about the environment and education through the environment.5. Broadly. role of teacher in environmental conservation. political.5. you will able to: 1. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement.
Oxidants Other pollutants. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. D. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. 2. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. • Biological magnification E. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. 244 . Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog.B. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. heat sink and wind flow in cities. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. F. a.
Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Socio-economic measures. The human ecosystem II. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. c. 4. Abortion iv. Birth control through education b. Sterilisation. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Family planning ii.3. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. B. 3. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Control of population growth a. III. 2. economic. Persuasion: i. Intrauterine device iii. Use of medical science i. 2. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. The pill ii. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (UNESCO. Air pollution abatement ii. Define Environmental Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Water pollution abatement. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. 246 . Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 2. 3. e) Recycling. 1983).
any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.5.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 126.96.36.199. fax agricultural apparatus.other components of the environment. 4.5. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. These are biotic components. He modifies according”.5. animals and other organisms (biotic). satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. b. Any constituent or condition of the environment. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. to his needs.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . telex. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. a. way is called environmental or ecological factor. -other. A change in one brings about a change in the other. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. includes the plants. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. Biological environment The biological environment.4. They interact with each. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .
relation between population and pollution. etc. population. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. use of medicinal plants. change in climate may be added. air pollutants from industries. (ii) Air pollution. balance of nature. trees reducing noise pollution. sources. explosion deforestation. alternate sources of energy. water scarcity. extinction of species. History The rise and fall. noise control. river systems. preserving the watersheds. excellent recreation sites. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. mineral survey. solar cookers. preventing siltation of dams. importance of nitrogen cycle. need for conservation. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . use of pesticides. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. greenhouse effect.. supplying timber for various uses. ozone depletion. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. effects. evolution. social studies. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. natural way of controlling pests. nuclear energy. maintaining the ecological diversity. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. role of trees in building economy. food chain and food-web. windmills. etc. reasons. wars and hazards of war.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. are the topics which may be taught in History. biogas plants. sources of pollut ion. acid rain. need for bio-diversity. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. ozone layer deplet ion. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. t heir role in preventing pollution. over exploitation of ground water. nuclear warfare. industrial survey. effects o f CFC. of civilizations. desertification 248 . industrial pollut io n. noise pollution.
aims and scope. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 8. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 2. 3.5. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 12. Peepal and Tulsi. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. 4. 249 . 10. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. 6. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 5.may be inc ded in Geography. 11. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Organising conferences. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 9. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 7. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. animal and plants. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 4. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Providing. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. group discussions and seminars. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 14. 13.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Don’t burn any waste. especially plastics. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. If it is done. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. used oils down the drain. Reuse carrier bags. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Never put any left over chemicals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. 5. Use public transport wherever it is possible. World Environmental falls on 250 . it will cause pollution. all these can cause serious pollution. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden.Send their waste oil. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal.
potable water. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . To discuss the approach to problems or topics. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. CFCs. The groups may exchange. To provide materials needed for practical work. To provide reference materials for children’s use. developing desirable attitudes. diversity and stability. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. values and habits. and 251 . etc. nuclear wars. Concern for species. etc. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. concern for others). To arrange for visiting speakers. deforestation. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. depletion of ozone. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. loss of bio-diversity.. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. orderliness and beauty). dest roying nat ural habitats. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem.mat erials.).4. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. To arrange visits or expeditions. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. Harmony with the nature . Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. Social responsibilit y (common good. Att itudes of balance towards nature. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. viz. Conservation of natural resources. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions.5. (cleanliness. rather than conquest and mastery.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 4. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.5. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. preserving natural cycles. 4. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3.5. 8. 4. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. 252 .9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.
(ii) Air pollution. a. (2004). air pollutants from industries. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Education for values. S. b. Providing. 8.K. Environment and Human Rights. (1997). reasons. Publications Pvt. Ltd. To provide materials needed for practical work. Knowledge. b. Environmental Education. importance of nitrogen cycle. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection.. Ltd.K.K. b. T. Organising conferences. a. Rapid population growth.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. greenhouse effect.K. 5. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . sources. group discussions and seminars.2. a. Environmental Education. 4. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Awareness. June 5 7. S. Udaiveer. effects.\ 4. 3. Social responsibilit y (common good. ozone layer deplet ion. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. sources of pollution. new problems from science and technology. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. 6. New Delhi : Authors Press. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. b. a. water scarcity. Kuldeep. explosion deforestation. Modern Problems of Education. acid rain.5. New Delhi : Sharma. Y. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. (2007). (2007). over exploitation of ground water. population. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. relat ion between population and pollution. Nanda. concern for others).
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 188.8.131.52 Idealism and aims of Education 184.108.40.206 Idealism and Curriculum 220.127.116.11 Idealism and methods of teaching 18.104.22.168 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and aims of Education 126.96.36.199 Naturalism and Curriculum 188.8.131.52 Naturalism and methods of teaching 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 220.127.116.11 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
18.104.22.168 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 22.214.171.124 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
Education must contribute to development of culture. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. Therefore.” 5. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. The universe is regarded as a thought process. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments.3. Universal Education. Spiritual Development. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage.1. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. the emancipation of spirit. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. should be universal in nature. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted.our life. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. moral. enrichment and transmission of culture. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 .” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. in fact. It is self-realisation. man is essentially a moral being. promote and transmit it to rising generation. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. Education according to idealism. According to Rusk'.
a spiritual guide for the child. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only.3. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked.” He is thus. so subjects like Religion. 5. Learning through imitation. It considers teacher as. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Learning through questioning. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. He sets the environment in which education takes place. So health. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. 3. the school is a garden. an indispensable necessity. So he should embody. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. For this no particular method has been suggested. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. no doubt.1. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. So cognition (knowing). a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. 4. Philosophy. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. Learning through reading. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. He carries the child from darkness to light. hygiene. According to idealism. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 .3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. subjects like Languages.the spiritual qualities of mankind.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Herbert advocated instruction method. Learning through discussion. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. However.3.1. should be there. Mathematics etc. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. friend and guide.” 5. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. According to Frobel. Ethics. Science. affecting (feeling). and collation (striving) should find due place. The plant can grow. History. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. 5. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. 2. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. Learning through lecturing. For intellectual development.
List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. 2. "Education should make 263 • . Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. time tables. Perfection of Human Machine. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.preservation.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Ross explains. formal lessons or examinations. text books. curricula.perfection and beauty. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. 5. In the words of Ross.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.4. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
rational harmoniously balanced. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. geography should also be included in the curriculum.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Botany etc Language. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Biology. Naturalistic curriculum.1. Education should. There is no place for religious and moral education. useful and mature child. Literature. subjects like history. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Arithmetic. is based on the nature of the child.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. • 5. Therefore. 4. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. “Education finds its purpose. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. education should develop the child into Joyous. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. It is based on the psychology of the child. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Education also aims at helping the individual t. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Zoology.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution.4. 264 . therefore. In all. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. It stresses basic sciences. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Chemistry. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. 2.1. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Learning through observation. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. he should be taught by experience alone. 4.4. Heuristic method.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. 5.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Learning through experience. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. a supplier of materials and opportunities.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.4. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. Learning by doing. 3. 5. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.5. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . a provider of an ideal environment. the stage. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.1. Rousseau says. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. In the . It discards all rigid. Dalton Plan. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .
The aim of educational development. Sciences. of human personality is in terms of his physical. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously.1. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Continuous Growth.absolutism of idealism.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience.5. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Personal Social Adjustment. diversified and flexible. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Social Efficiency. History. Vocational and 266 . Geography. Physical training. is true. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. The individual has not only to adjust himself.5. Social Science. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. intellectual. 5. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Subjects. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Agriculture.1.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. 5. social and moral aspects. All Round Development of an Individual.
a senior partner and a sincere guide.Technical Education. The subjects. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.1. a teacher occupies an important position.” 5. Learning by Doing. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. 5.5. should find proper place. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. He must be trained. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. He has to be active.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child.5. alert and resourceful. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher.
Mathematics. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. intellectual. 5. Education is preparation for a complete living. practical.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. It favours child-centered.1.1. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood.6. 2. liberal. Sex Education. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Astrology. specific. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. 4. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 4.1. rich and happy.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1.5. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Art. 3. Geography are unnecessary 268 . It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. scientific and psychological education. Psychology. 5. 2. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Literature. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Music and Dance. Population Education. Biography Philosophy. 5. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Study of Subjects like Language. Chemistry. 3. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. History. Biology. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. literary or humanistic education. Crafts.6. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things.
3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. easily and pleasantly.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. certainly and clearly.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 126.96.36.199. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.
Languages. a. Learning through experience b. a.1. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Learning through questioning. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Tours / Excursion e. naturalism. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. a. Learning through imitation. Learning through lecturing. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. History. 3. & curriculum. has no end other than growth. Geography. 5. e.5. Child centered c. d. Rousseau 5.1.7 LET US SUM UP We have. c. Physical training. 5. Education according to pragmatism. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. pragmatism and realism. in this lesson. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Agriculture. Vocational and Technical Education.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Self preservation & Self expression 4. 6. Learning through discussion. Sciences. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Social Science. Self Realisation b. Experimentation d. 5. Learning through reading. b. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Universal Education 2.
(2007).P. O. Ltd. Publishing corporation. of Pathak. (2003). R.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Narang C. Pahuja. Foundations of Education. N. L. Anmol Publications Pvt.5.H. New Delhi : Bhatia. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. (2004). K. New Delhi : A. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2007).1. P. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education.P. P. 271 . Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.2.1 Aims of Education 220.127.116.11 Methods of Teaching 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 18.104.22.168.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2.2.4 Views about teacher 5.2 Curriculum 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.4. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.1 Aims of Education 22.214.171.124.3.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 126.96.36.199 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.4.3 Methods of teaching 272 .3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 188.8.131.52 5.4 Views about teacher 5.2 184.108.40.206.2.1 Aims of Education 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.4.3 Methods of teaching 5.2.LESSON 5.2 Curriculum 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.
2. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.4 Role of the teacher 5. mind and spirit.2.8 5. content and methods. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.2. 3.2. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.7 5.2. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.2. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. 5. 5. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. economic and political reconstruction in our country. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.2.5. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. 273 . He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. you will able to: 1. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.6 5.2.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. Tagore was a poet.5. Gandhiji was primarily a social. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. an artist.2. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.
Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education.3. mind and soul of children He further observed. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. 'Man is neither mere intellect. It really provides opportunity for character building. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. 274 . Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. it is education of life. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.supporting.2.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. strength of mind. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. through life and for life. In the words of Gandhiji. nor the gross animals body. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. "I attach more. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. self-restraint and service of humanity.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. His scheme of education is life centred." Dignity of Labour. 5. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. righteousness. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education.
the realization of the ultimate reality. 5. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. development of the whole all were directed: towards. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . "Development of the moral character. General Sciences. metal work.3. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Drawing and Hindustani. Mother-tongue.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. Art. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies.Training for Leadership. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. gardening. Music. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue.2. Only good individual forms a better society. Individual and Social Aims. According to Gandhi. wood work.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. leather work have been suggested. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development .
proficient. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.trained.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.2. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. men of 276 . It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.2. Basic education is other wise known as 4.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.3. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations.knowledge. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST.3. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. 3. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. Education must be child centered. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots.2. He also advocates freedom for the child. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. That is why. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 .
1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. Gandhi in 1937.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 5. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. 5.3. He was a true patriot.2. • Education should involve manual work.4. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. He believed in the oneness of humanity.K. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.2. • Ideal of citizenship. • Cult of non-violence.2. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.” Like all other ideals. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. He was deadly against untouchability. he was a true Vedantist 5.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.
Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. (vi) Philosophy. "Mankind must realise a unity.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . 279 . Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. sentiment. Zoology. Tagore said.2. he said. Music. That way only. Geography. could help in forging unity among all. International understanding. deeper in. Civics. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Chemistry. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. International Understanding. complete manhood could be attained. Dance. Therefore. Botany. wider in range. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. etc. It should help the learner have good physique. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully.4. stronger in power than ever before. Religion and Psychology. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners.Language and Literature . Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. the more dedicated and devoted. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. them solve problems of day to day life. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. It should help.
Tagore rightly says.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.2. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.4. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. In 1921. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. 5. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. 280 ." 5. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.2.4. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. Activity Method Heuristic Method.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.4. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.2.” He further says. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. 5. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.
9. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. It is open to all irrespective of country. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. 281 . race. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. 10. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1.g. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.
The whole beauty of life is linked with it. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Freedom. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Purity of thought. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. man making. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Concept of Education. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. According to him. He believed in to learning or selflearning. 4. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself." He was against the theoretical type of education. character forming and assimilation of ideas.2. 2. work and deeds come out of it. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues.5.5. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Education for Self-reliance. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Education should make a person self-reliant. 3. Education for strong Moral Character. Book learning. Education for Self-realization.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life.2. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.” 5. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 .
2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. engineering and technical subjects. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. 5. 220.127.116.11. A physically strong person is the need of the society.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Every individual should be trained for concentration. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Religion. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Swami. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. 6.the learners on different students in the discussion. The teacher should be the facilitator. philosopher and guide to the students He. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion.2. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. 283 . Education should help in the physical development of an individual. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. And above all. Of course.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. That will serve the purpose of education fully.5. Thirdly he wished that games. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. 5. Philosophy and Theology. Education for Physical Development.5.5. Secondly he wanted Science. Discussion Method. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts.
7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. in this lesson.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. We have seen that Tagore. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. 5.2.6 LET US SUM UP We have. Their educational ideas.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. Write short notes on Basic education. 12. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. ears and eyes. naturalist. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. 284 .2. of course. 3. Gandhiji as a Idealist. 2. and pragmatist . In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. 5. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Substantiate your answer. legs.
leather work have been suggested. Cult of non-violence. Discussion Method 285 . 11. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Technique of Correlation 6. Activity Method b. 5. Basic education. Heuristic Method. Ideal of citizenship. 5.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. metal work. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. c. wood work. Meditation and concentration c. Nai Talim 4. 5. Debate and Discussion Method. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Activity Method d. 2. Self-Study b. f. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Learning by Doing c. a. 10. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. b. e. c. Self realization. a.2. Explain Vishwabharathi. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Teaching while Walking b. Education should involve manual work. 8. gardening. 3. a. 1937 7. d. a. 9.4.
New Delhi : A. K. Pahuja. on Bhatia. N. 286 . C. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. L.2.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. K and Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.5. (2007). P. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. N. (2003). Publishing Corporation. J. B. Ltd. New Delhi : Aggarwal. O. (2002). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2004). Foundations of Education. (2007). Dhiman.H.P.
3.3 5.8 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.5 5.2 5.11 18.104.22.168 5.10 5.3.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.6 5. In this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.3.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.9 5.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.3.4 5.1 5.LESSON 5.
living in the hilly area.. it is identical wit h socializat ion. in the U. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . in Russia or in Japan. the desert area. From the latter point of view. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. Since the demands. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. there is a large number of communities.A. curriculum. the plateau area and 288 . In the former sense. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. is a means to the process. maintained or eliminated. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. In it. While education is a process. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. the plain area.under the direction of the school. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. present behaviour may be modified. curriculum also offers a wide contrast.3. Curriculum is intimately related to education. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. A g o o d curricu lu m. in fact . new behaviour may be acquired. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Both the processes are integrated.3. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. 5.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. While education is learning. state the meaning of curriculum 2. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely.3. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. In the words of Kerney and Cook. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. curriculum signifies situations for learning. in the form of new experience. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan.S. 5. Then in a big country like India.
much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. and 289 . And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. From a slave-country we became secular. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. customs and needs. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. environment. according to modern trends in the educational process. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. However. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. Again. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. it is. studying therein. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. differs from individual to individual. It must differ from locality and from society to society. democratic and socialistic country. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. the learning capacity of children. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. 5. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. Besides craft. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. therefore. irrespective of their needs and environment. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. too. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality.3. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. In fact . A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour.
Knowledge Objective. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. social. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. 3. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. Application Objective. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. 1. They speak of perfect goals. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. They are achievable. specific. They speak of immediate purposes of education. They are visionary goals e. So it is inadequate. e. social. which may or may not be attained. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. in instructional objectives. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. they depend on the political. The word “Curere” means 2. They may be ultimate or proximate. 5. aesthetic and spiritual development. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. individual or Social and so on.. Goals of Secondary Education. general or specific. Vocational Efficiency. Self Realisation. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. of classroom. Goals of Primary Education.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals.g. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. aims.. etc. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. etc. e. remote or immediate. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.g. 290 .. uninspiring and unscientific. eg. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . emotional..3.g. Understanding Objective. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. unsatisfactory. tangible.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture.. moral. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. 4. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. 2. unambiguous and functional. National Integration.
but it includes the totality of experiences. finding them very interesting and captivating.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. According to Crow and Crow. on the playing fields. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. The interests. in the class rooms. heavy fire. abilities. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. needs. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. capacities. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. Crow and Crow remarks.” 291 . “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children.5. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. Raymont rightly says. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. educationists.3.
aptitudes. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Due to these variations and differences. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. moral. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. urges. time in a useful manner. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. capacities and abilities. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. mental. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. tendencies. They often waste it or rather kill it. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways.
a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. Similarly. development of professional capability at all levels. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. organized. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. 3. administrative programme need be planned. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. To ensure success of the process. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. 293 . there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. 2.curricular. phased preparation. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching.
Relation with Life c. 5. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 .9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. in the class room. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. 17. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. principles of curriculum construction. 5.3. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 18.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 10.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. a. 12. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. 1937 19. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.3. 11. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. laboratory.3. Child Centred Education b. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. Run. workshop. library. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning.
Curriculum and Instruction. New Delhi : Authorspress. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. S. Innovations in Education. S. (2007). (2001). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. 295 . N. Bhalla. Lakshmi. P.3. (2007).K. and Sarita Kumari. D. Curriculum Development. New Delhi : Isha Books.5. (2007).S.
4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.3 5.4.1 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 22.214.171.124.10 126.96.36.199 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.7.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .188.8.131.52 5.2 5.4 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.LESSON 18.104.22.168.4.7 Scientific Attitude 22.214.171.124.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.
Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. open-mindedness. Gradually. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth .4. We mean curiosity. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. 297 . They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. superstition or emotion.4. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. newer and newer industries started growing. tolerance for the opinions of others. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. 3. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes.4.during the second half of this century. know the importance of science education. explain the concept of scientific attitude. 5. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. 2.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. in the economic reconstruction of society.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. 4. 5. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not.5. you will be able to: 1. honesty. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century.
So that. Through examinations. 4. 3. Central science workshop. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 2. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work.4.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Devotion towards nature increases. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. After such experience and training. 5. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. seminars and symposiums.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. stipends and appreciations in various ways. models and scientific instruments for laboratories.4. Promotion of science clubs. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Schemes of teaching science. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 6. Through newspapers. Thinking and memory develops. 5. Love for truth enhances. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 3. as well as of the society. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Selection for science education. Principles are formulated. 5. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Organisation of science fairs. 5. 2. 4. 7. 6.
the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. It is. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. 5. Write any two advantages of Science Education. Training of science teachers. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. They ask many questions about the objects they see. 5. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . In the inquiry approach. essential that teachers. which is essential for developing scientific outlook.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force.4. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. each child to “enquiry skill building”.6. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. therefore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. For laboratory and workshop techniques. They encounter many social events as they grow.4. objectivity.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. 7.needs and conditions. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. They experience natural phenomenon. should provide opportunities to. Enquiry teaching is. sex or religion. After presenting the problem.
Giving less directions. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. . 2. 3. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. commands or orders. Appreciating pupils ideas. 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. 3. It requires consistent thinking. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. . 300 . if they like.4. Evidence.6. 5. Social sciences. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. stern pursuit of accurate data. to ask questions and experience things.Herma Wouk. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. 5.books.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. test. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Adopting creative models of teaching. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? .4. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 5.
(Vaidya 2007). Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.4. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. neighbourhood. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. school and society at large.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. friends. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. of vast resources running waste. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. practiced. These include open mindedness. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. and emphasized during the learning process . The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. 5. The students observation. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. to develop among the learners.7. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. To achieve this we should understand what it means. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately.(Smith 2008). For instance. critical thinking and suspended judgments. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. therefore should be unbiased and objective. it must be encouraged. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. keen observation. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning.
Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. understanding and logic. 302 . He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. (Das. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. 2007). or superstitions. think and work it”. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. rumor. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. The intention to respect another’s point of view. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. In considering a situation or a problem. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. 5. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. he studies all aspects of it. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. intuition or wishful thinking”.4. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education.7.
• • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. 5.7. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil.4.4. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly.7.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. but to begin only after careful planning. • 5. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.
List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 304 . 5.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. 5. it must be encourages.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.
Proper example of the teacher c.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. 4. (2000). Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. New Delhi : Anmol Publications.4. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Study of superstitions d. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. 5. Reflections on Scientific attitude. 2. Yadav. b.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. M. Vaidya. a. 5. 3. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools.5. 305 . a. D. S. (2008). a. b. Wide reading b.4. Rao. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Love for truth enhances. b. (2006). Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Planning of activities 5. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. 16. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs.4.S. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. objectivity. N. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Adopting creative models of teaching. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications.B (2008).10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.
10 5. 2.1 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.7 5.5. objectives and characteristics.5.5. 306 . actively.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5. 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 126.96.36.199.5. state the concept.5.5. areas of institutional planning.2 5.4 5. you will be able to: 1.3 5.5.9 5.5.11 5.5 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.LESSON 188.8.131.52.8 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.6 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.
and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. • To make institutional planning more successful. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. teachers and students is not lost sight of. executive as well as public.5. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. which become the bases for further planning at the district. and supplement planning from above. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. in the task of educational planning. every teacher. and each student are regarded as separate entities. Institution should be regarded as the unit. • to involve teachers and school administrators.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. 5.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions.5. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. every parent. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. State and national levels from below. and. • to make planning development-oriented. 5. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly.3. each teacher. and every student in the process of educational planning.
There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. (2) Co. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. Co-curricular activities.curricular Activities. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. etc. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. approved after making necessary modifications.5. Syllabus. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. it becomes the basis for school inspection.• implemented. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning.5. 308 .6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. Classwork. Examinations. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. which will be discussed in the general. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. 5. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. and Personnel services. council and.
Fair distribution of syllabi. Preparation of models. etc. 2. Running science clubs. Celebrating of national and international festivals. 1.No. Organising play-for-all programmes. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Improving the internal assessment. Preparation of audio-visual aids.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Improving the subject competence of teachers. etc. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Organisation of class-room libraries. Preparation of instructional material. Organisation of Pupils. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Equipping of laboratory and library. etc. hobby-centres. scientific and historical excursions. charts and apparatus. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. etc. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Conducting of educational. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. Editing the school magazine. Organisation of Students’ Association. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Courts.
science teachers’ associations. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. teacher-pupil. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. and —pupil-pupil. headmasters associations. co-operation.5. administrator-pupil. involving mainly human materials. teacherinspector. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. administrator-administrator. parent-teacher associations. Administrator-State. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. etc. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. teacher-State. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal.5. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. and solidarity. parents. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. pupils. ii. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. understanding. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. teacher-teacher. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. administrator-supervisor. teacher-managing body. teachers. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. students’ associations.” The human relationships in.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. which are divided as the in. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. pupil310 .
Give your answer as instructed in each question b." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. now-a-days. It covers personnel and material management. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. organisation.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. It is also being modernized to become a technique. Good. teacher-community leader. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. and to serve. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. superintendence. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. pupil-community leader. pupil-non-official functionaries. to attend. control. To administer means to manage. V.5. supervision and superintendence. etc. pupil-parent. social sciences and other disciplines. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. administrator. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. supervision. to carry out. According to C.State. pupil-inspector. organisation and management. teacher-parent. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. 311 . to accomplish.
This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.Any good management will always have good public relations. 11. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . He should be an artist in human relationships. Motiviation . 13. 2. Leadership . 4. Economic Management . Decision Making . Better Human Relationships .He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. Cost-Benefit Analysis .Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. 8. Liasion with the Public . low.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . This is the latest democratic trend in management.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.Of all the approaches. it is not worth-while. 7. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. Those. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . 10. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 6. Worker Participation . 3.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. who occupy the managerial positions. Communication . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 9.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. If the cost benefit ratio is less. Democratic Management . Rapport between the Management and Employees .The manager should have leadership traits.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. The relationship should change from master. If it is more. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. 5. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. 12. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. Socio-Scientific Approach .
Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. objective. 19. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.5. enrichment of curricula. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. improvement of teaching methods. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. and cooperative performance should be ensured. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 5. to improve the quality of education it provides.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained.too. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. 18.These two are. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning.5. 313 . indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. 5. 14.g.
(1995).12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Educational Administration. Communication 5. a. Singh. Decision Making b. Co-curricular activities. (2001).M. Instruction. Fundamental of Educational Management. e. c. APH Publishing Corporation. Examinations. 314 . and Personnel services. Leadership c. a. f. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Tarachand and Prakash.5.K. NUEPA. S.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. 2. H. (2003). a. R. b. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.5. Classwork. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. d. b. Syllabus. Motiviation d. In group and Out group 5. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. it becomes the basis for school inspection. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.5. 4. a.
Common ailments of Children. Inspection and Supervision 3. 1. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.3 Educational Influences of Home. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. 2. Preservation of nutrients. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.1 Gurukula system of education. Community and Mass Media 2. Balanced diet. Sex-education 4. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.1 Primary Education : Education for all.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. social Impact 3. nutritional requirement. Code of conduct for teachers. Economic 315 .3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.Pre-service and In-services facilities.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .2 Secondary Education : Co-education.Preventive measures.1 Inculcation of Socialism.1 School Health Programme. population education. women education and teacher education in India. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.Religious and Modern Education 1. First Aid. 4. physical education and environmental education 5. Realized the problems of school education.teachers should have : 1. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Healthy Food Habit 4. School. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.CORE PAPER . Communicable diseases . Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. Buddhist and Jain system of education. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. higher education.4 India's Secular Policy .5 Regional Educational Development in India .Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.I.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . New evaluation procedures.3 Directive Principles .5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.2 Nutritional deficiencies.Article 45 . wastage and Stagnation 3. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Examination reforms.
Prof. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.4 4. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.S. Ghanta R. 316 . (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. 7.K. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Curriculum and national goals . Realism. and Human Development. Mahatma Gandhi. and Sharma R. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. and Dash B.R. T. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Delhi : University Publications 2. Kalan Paper Packs 10. and Mohanty R. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Sharma. Ram S. Hemchand. Taneja V.C.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. (2005) Foundations of Education. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.Aim. (2004) Problems of Education in India. Naturalism and Pragmatism .K. Saraswathi T. B.4. R. curriculum and teacher's role 5.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Mishra. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Tagore 5.K. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. REFERENCE 1. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Socialization. Pandy V. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.N.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5.1 Idealism. (1999) Culture.N.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. 5. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.K.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.