BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. 9 . Lesson 5. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. In. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. Lesson 2. Lesson 4. and Jain system of education.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. discusses the regional educational development in India. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Jainism and their educational implication. The need. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era.

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4 Buddhist system of Education 1.5.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1.4.1.6.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.5.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1.1.1.5.3.6 Education during British Era 1.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.6.1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1 1.1.1.5 Jain system of education 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .2 1.3.LESSON 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.6.1.1.6.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.4.6.5.1.1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1.1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1.1.

1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. has a long past history starting in vedic education.1. That 12 .1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. both present and future. The history of education passed through Buddhist.3.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. you will be able to: 1.1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. in opinion.1. elucidate the education during British Era.1.7 1.8 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 1.1. British system of education presented the modern western model. 1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. but English in taste. India.1. Muslim and British periods. Education in India.1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. describe the Jain system of Education 4. “a class of persons. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.1. in morals and in the intellect”.6. Indian in blood and colour.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.9 1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.6. 1.

16. Method of Study. 5. 4. 13. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. 6. Immediate Aim Vocational. Individual Teaching. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Method of Instruction. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Teacher as Parents. 14. however. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. 8. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. and to agriculture and trade. from eternal to immorality 2. generally. the monitorial plan was followed. questioning by the pupil. The immediate aim of education. 13 . Self-Control and Self-Discipline. not en masse by the class method. High Status of Teachers. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. 9. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Education was a private affair of the people. Education of Moral. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Curriculum. Forests as Centres of Education. Free and Accessible. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Residential Schools. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. to light. followed by explanation by the teacher.knowledge was real. 11. Pupils were taught. It was not merely intellectual. No State Control on Education. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Where pupils were many. as it is generally considered to be at present. with grants of land or money. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. from darkness. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. 3. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. religious and spiritual. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. 12. 10. individually. It was also moral. Role of Travel in Education. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. if they thought fit to do so. Religious and Spiritual. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. There was. managed entirely by Brahmans. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y.

girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.17. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. studied Vedas. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. It was suited to the needs of the society. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. 1. Wide-Spread Education in Women. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today.1. 2. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. lived a life of celebacy.3. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . They were very cordial and intimate. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.

disease and death of the human beings. except the Chandals. use of intoxicating things. dressed himself in yellow clothes. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. After attaining the age of 20. had the right to receive education. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. taking things without being offered. Education was imparted through the. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Right contemplation 1. the handicapped. the most significant of which were the following 1. It was denied only to the ill. Right means of livelihood 6. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Right activity 5. Right memory 8. which included abstaining from theft. I take Refuge to Dharma. impure conduct. 2. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Consequently.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. use of cosmetics. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. 15 . Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. I take Refuge to Sangh. Right thought 3.1. Right endeavour 7. medium of Pali. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. etc.4. he was qualified to become a monk. 1. every class in society. Right knowledge 2. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. watching dances or listening to music. the student had his head shaved of all hair. partaking of food at prohibited times. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Right speech 4. killing of any living being. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. in which. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12.C.

Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive.4. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. assumptions. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. Whatever its nature and extent. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. Life is in a flux. along with education in script writing. therefore. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. depth and range. education was impart in art. so long as it successfully does so. women occupied a position inferior to men.3. beg for alms. changing the goals. It comprehended education in writing. 1. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. handicrafts. medicine. aspirations and. the science of taming and training animals. nothing is of any permanent consequence. however. magic. etc. meaning. nature. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. eat food thrice a day. etc. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. 7. and. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. etc. animal husbandry. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. As reality is becoming. be considered the aim of education It. These are called later Buddhist schools. commerce. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. archery. knowledge of reviving the dead. objectives of human life. agriculture. a continuous change creating 16 . Even at this stage. control over sensuous activities. has no metaphysical value for life. cottage industries. 3. Later on. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. Initially. On this occasion. archery. wear three items. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. the presence of the monks was essential. geology. 5. Hence. 6. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. 8. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. bodily gestures. elephant lore. approach. it is regarded as true”.. of clothes. military science. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. a change is not only total but also perpetual. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. arithmetic and religious discussion. 4. 2. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. After this ritual.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. i. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. it is much older than the latter. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. Validity is effective and consequences. whatever works are true and good. However. Write Eight fold path . Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. such as. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. goes to Vardhaman. 1. and its refusal to believe in supreme God.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6.new and peculiar situations. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Its chief feature. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In fact.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching.1. 5. therefore. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’.5.e. Jainism insists 17 . and to give it a shape that it has today. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable.. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. its pessimistic outlook on life. however. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Education must. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas.

There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. b) Not utter falsehood.1. b) Right knowledge. 5. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. 7. 3. thought and deed. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment.5. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. c) Right conduct. 4. 1. Development of personality as an individual. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. e) To renounce the world. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. As such. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. 6. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. and is to be redeemed and liberated.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. c) Not to steal. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 8. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. more stress on individual aims. 10. but on both. rather than the interpretation of the universe. 3. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. They are: a) Not to injure. 2. Hence. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 2. it has a foot in both the words. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 1. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. 9. 18 . d) To lead a celibate life. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. and believe in happiness to all. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim.

success and love. 4.5.4. 8.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. practised and not only aspired for. 2.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Hence. that would be socially desirable. What are Triratnas ? . 2. and should bring happiness to all. Jiva is essentially karmic. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. Teaching should be social and tolerant. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. education should develop sense of discrimination. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. 19 . education must be action based and ideally oriented. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Teaching must develop these faculties. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Belief in transmigration of soul.5. 3. 3. therefore. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. here and now. 5.

2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.6. To set up separate departments of. Bombay. 1.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. primary 20 . In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. 2. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service.6. with rally and rout. 1. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. 1.6. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. 1. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. and not for life.1. North West Province and Punjab. 1953).1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal.6. Madras. philosophy and literature of Europe.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.1. However. science. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India.

This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men.6. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. Later on. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. 1. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.K. 1. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. • Secondary education.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 .education was neglected. at the primary level.6. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. 1. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. Then the prevalent education was anti-national.6. self-respecting and competent. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. namely. In 1882. • Universal free primary education. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. To ensure qualitative improvement. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. secondary education became a step towards university. The universities dominated the secondary education. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. At that time M.

7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. After this stage. 10. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12.At the primary stage (6-11 years). The objective of education was to provide 22 . all children are to have a common curriculum.

8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. 5. Right speech. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. followed by explanation by the teacher. It was suited to the needs of the society. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. military science. 3. b. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. 2. The immediate aim of education. along with education in script writing. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. etc. Right contemplation.education of European literature. 23 . a. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. the science of taming and training animals. Right thought. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. archery. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. handicrafts. geology. Right memory. education was impart in art. arithmetic and religious discussion. Right means of livelihood. Right endeavour. establishment of universities. During the Buddhist period. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Right activity.1. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. questioning by the pupil.1. 3. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. 4. Right knowledge. 1. 4. 2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The system of education was well-organised. 6. science and English language.. 1. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools.

New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Right conduct. Right faith. (2007). Development of Educational System in India. 1937 1. b. 1882. a. Right knowledge. Improvement of Literature. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 24 . New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 10. 9. more stress on individual aims. (2005). Ltd. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Development of personality as an individual. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science.C. Aggarwal. J. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.7.C. Sharma. (1984). 11. J. b. Hence. Y. (2009). Sargent report 12. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Singh. History of Indian Education System. a. R.1. and Nath. Ltd. c. 8. Y.K.K.

The 25 .3 Kothari Commission 1.2.6 1.2 1.9 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.1 1.2.7 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.2.4 1.2.3.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.5 1.3.2.3.1 University Education Commission 1.3.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2.LESSON 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2.2.2.8 1.2.

conditions of the teachers.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11.2. Post-graduate 26 . National Council for Women’s Education 5. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. technical. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India.2. expansion of vocational. standard of teaching. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. National Board of Teacher Education 10.3. vocational education. Kothari (1964-66) 8. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. 2.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. curriculum.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. secondary and higher education. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. S. analyse the progress of education in free India.2. you will be able to: 1. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1. technological engineering. There had been vast institutional expansion. girls and women education besides primary. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. examination system. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. diversification of courses of studies.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1. New Educational Policy. explosion of enrolment. medical and legal education. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. 1986 1.

utility and financial outlay. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. Education is the key to our allround development.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. A meaningfully Partnership. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation.3.2. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. The Essence and Role of Education. accumulated over the years. the chairman of University Grants commission. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Government of India. quantity. quality. 1986. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . 1966.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. 3. National System of Education. However. Problems of access. 4. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country.3. Therefore. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.3. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. 1952. in January 1985. Finally.teaching. 1. research et. the New National Policy on Education. D. 2. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar.S. 1. material and spiritual. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. A.2. Education for Equality.2. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. Kothari. 1.

They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. The UNESCO Report. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. the concepts of work experience. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality.2. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. the minorities and the handicapped. Thus. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. By working with hands. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2.” Thus. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. 28 . adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. attitudes. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. It can train practical aptitudes. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations.

but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. Besides. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. According to. In 1955. co-ordinations. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. if he wishes. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. the Commission. “It may be described. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. it will conduce self.” The Mudaliar Commission. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. As such. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. “The aim of these colleges. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. The Radhakrishnan Commission. With adequate planning.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. The Education Commission." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling.

In addition. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. Therefore. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. the semester and credit system. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work.ot her. etc. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. The Central Advisory Board of Education. With a view to relating education to the life. for quality of life in the rural areas. admission requirements to vocational courses. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. raising the special facilities. the rigid streaming of courses. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. Subsequently. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. the..

which offer scientific. In short. meaningful.2. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions.. who conceived the System of Basic Education. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. The wave of Basic Education. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. technological courses including Agriculture. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed.and the world of work. preferably spinning and weaving. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Commerce. 31 . Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. The Father of Nation. manual work resulting in either goods or services. meaningful. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. According to committee. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. aimed at this goal. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. felt that education should be centred around a craft. which swept the country for over two decades. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.defined S UP W as “purposive. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. 1.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. which are useful to the community. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. giving importance to productivity in the national development. etc. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject.

Work practice. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. so that it is educational in essence. 2. Community work and social service. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Health and Hygiene 2. 3. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Productive 2. Food 3. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Shelter 4. Culture and recreation 6. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. The teachers should make use of. Educative and 3. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. as far as possible. Experimentation with materials. locally available materials and tools. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. be that the work involved is: 1. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Clothing 5. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. 4. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Some Hints to Teachers 1.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. 32 . tools and techniques and 3. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning.

It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. slum clearance. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. Check on educated unemployed 4. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. improve discipline.2. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Community Service In-1972. as far as possible. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Education through work The SUPW should. 6. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. It can become an instrument to build character. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. Merits of the Programme 1. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Productive Work 33 . the local community should be actively associated. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. 1.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. inculcate a faith. removal of illiteracy. etc. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood.5. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. To make education more realistic.

if not productive. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define SUPW 34 . helping the adults in festivals and Functions. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . in turn. etc. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. traffic control. should involve itself in the educational effort. AICTE was set up in year 4. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. skills and better future for the children. offering first aid. The community. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. helping the adults-in productive work. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood.

1. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. 1952 3.2.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. which are useful to the community. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 3.2. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. c. Radhakrishnan 2. 1. 6. Dr.1. Write short note on SUPW.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1955 4. 2. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. a. meaningful. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. f.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. e. 35 .2. d. manual work resulting in either goods or services.

(2007).2. and Rao. B. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.. P.K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.P. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. A.1.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. History of Education.(2005). Ltd. and Nath. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. Rao. Y.K.K. History and Problems of Indian Education. History of Indian Education System. Y.P.D. : Sharma. New Delhi: A. Amala. Publishing Corporation. R. (2005). 36 .C. V. J. (2007). Development of Educational System in India. Singh. Anupama.H. (2009).

3. Being the supreme law of the country.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.9 1. 1950. establishing the structure. for a total of 117.369 words in the English language version. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3.3.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3.3. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.3. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. 1949. assuring its citizens of justice.3. it came into effect on January 26. 37 . and liberty.3. containing 395 articles.7 1. there is an official Hindi translation. directive principles and duties of citizens.3.1 1.8 1.6 1.1 Significance of DPSP 1.4 1.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. Besides the English version. equality.3. democratic republic. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.5 1. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3. procedures.2 1.

are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. you will be able to: 1. with Dr. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. 38 . for 166 days. 1. According to the constitution. Through them. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. Dr. Two days later. 1947. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1947. learn the role of central and state government on education. 1. The Assembly met.3. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. social.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. legal and environmental. 1. embodied in Part IV of the constitution.3. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. 4. After many deliberations and some modifications. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. economic.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 2. spread over a period of 2 years. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. 3. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. 1950. the Drafting Committee was appointed. On August 29. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24.In the August 14. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4.3. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. administrative. political. in sessions open to public.3. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. understand our Indian constitution. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights.

Appropriate concentration of wealth. Minimising inequalities in status. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Article 39A. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Equal pay for both sex. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Article 43. Right to work. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. That the health and strength of workers. in particular. and shall. Article 42. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Article 41. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Protecting health of the workers.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. provide free legal aid. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. No abuse of children. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Equal justice and free legal aid. old age. 39 . That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. and in other cases of undeserved want. The State shall endeavour to secure. Liking wage etc. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Article 40. men and women. for workers. The State shall. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Condition for dignity of children. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities.government. on the basis of equal opportunity. Organisation of village panchayat. Protecting children from exploitation. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. sickness and disablement.

in particular. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. to all workers. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. agricultural. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. See also Article 21A). for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Article 49. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Article 48A. Article 47. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. by suitable legislation or in any other way. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Participation of workers in management of industries. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. The State shall endeavour to provide. Uniform civil code for the citizens. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. and. (Original Article 45. [declared by or under law made by 40 . work. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. 2002 for “45. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. a living wage. in particular. Article 48. industrial or otherwise. Note: Subs. Article 43A. in particular. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Article 45. The State shall take steps. Article 46. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Article 44.

The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article.Parliament] to be of national importance. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. as the case may be. disfigurement. disposal or export. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. Separation of judiciary from executive. Article 45 . 1. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. removal. 2.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Promotion of international peace and security. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. from spoliation. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. destruction. Article 50. may be law determine”.3.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. 2002. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. Article 51. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Article-21A Right to Education. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security.

his guardian has given his consent thereto. 4.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. and. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. 8. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. caste. and shall protect them. iii. if such person is a minor. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. 2002. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. 7. in particular. ii. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. from justice and all forms of exploitations. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities.” 42 . race. 6. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. 5. 3. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. language or any of them”. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act.

primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. 43 . style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. & 1.9. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. 2. The central government determines targets and promotes education. the forms. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Educational Reforms From time to time. wherever necessary or desirable. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. for its vocabulary.3. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. and by drawing.

6. private agencies etc. 7. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . to achieve the desired ends. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. 5. Local bodies and private enterprise.. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. So as to encourage education on right lines. 4. The following pilot projects. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. So that they may work well. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Production of suitable for children and adults f. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc.3. the state governments. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. etc. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. All India Council of Medical Science. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. By starting these projects. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. 8.

etc. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. training and statistics.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. are published by it. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. 9. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. handicapped. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. 12. books. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. 4. education for women.3. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. reports etc. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. 1. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. research. 11. 10. is the state responsibility. 1. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. The 45 . 3.

Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Explain Directive principles 2. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.3. Write short notes on a. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . 46 . 5. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. articles in the Directive principles.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Article 45 b. Article 46 4. Article 21A c.3.

are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. b. Describe the educational role of State Government. Dr. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. a.3. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 4. a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1. Article 29 and 30 7. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Ambedkar 2. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Article 45 .Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. The Directive Principles of State Policy. Article 46 5. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Development of Hindi Language 6. 3. Article-21A Right to Education. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. 2002. 2002. a. may be law determine”. 47 . Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b.5. b. Clearing House function 9.

S. (2008). B. (2004). Dash. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.1. N. L.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. (2007). S. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. K. (2009). Bhatia. 48 . Ghosh. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. K and Narang C.

religious education should be broad based.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.3.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4.4.4.4.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism. Jainism.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4.4.3.4.4.4.7 1.1 1.4 Moral education 1. Christianity.2 1.8 1.4. Buddhism etc.4. Islam.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4. Students should be 49 .1 Why Moral Education 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4.4.3.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4.6 1.5 1.

As result of which..2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). integrity. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. "In A multireligious society like ours. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. beauty and goodness so that 50 .encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. duty-consciousness. you will be able to: 1.and dedication. Thus. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. religious education and the concept of secularism. state meaning and need for moral education 1.” Education broadens human outlook. India' can produce men of character. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. In the complicated and complex society of today. 1. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment.4. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life.4. According to E. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.D. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. know the position of religious education in our country 3. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong.

realizes God in himself. at least occasionally.4. 1. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. 1. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education.3. "In view of the provision in the Constitution.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. it is clear that the State has no religion.” From the above. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. As our country is a country of diverse religions. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. all citizens are free to follow any creed. According to Article 19. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. According to Article 22. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. Hence. In short. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. Viewing the defects of religious education. religion and democracy are same. 1947 we achieved our freedom. through religious practices and 51 . castes and creeds. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. Thus. No religious tax can be imposed on them.3. if not regularly.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. rancour. As a matter of fact. They thought that any kind of narrow. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate.4. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. Children attend these organizations.

Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. It helps to modify habits attitudes. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. and what is evil.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. for the development of the individual and the society. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. If unreleased. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. Good education. intellectual and physical faculties of children. one fully developed. aggressive. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. which help him for the development of his character. when he becomes an adult. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. He also learns about social. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character.teachings. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. which can mould. moral and spiritual values. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . temperament etc. what is done and what is not done etc.. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). It is religious education. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. As a result of which.

Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. 3. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”.3. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. towards the society. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. This should not be allowed to happen. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. If we open the pages of history. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. 1. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1.4. which is the basic need of a democratic life. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. 53 . The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. 2. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. Therefore.

The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. they should be discussed in the right earnest.5. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. examples of patriotism. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write Article 22 2. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. 11. Gurudwara as. 10. Since all religions have virtues. churches and mosques 7. 9. stories of moral greatness. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. therefore.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . fellow-feeling.4. For this. Life histories of great persons of the world. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.

5.4. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Patriotism. 4. The content of the curriculum. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. let men see well of one another. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Satyam (truth). “Let all be happy and free from disease. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. 8. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 6. Non-injury. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Fearlessness. is that which develops moral values. Moral education. Asvada (Control of palate). let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 55 .acquisitiveness). Cultivation of emotions. 2. 7. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Ahimsa (Non-violence). It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. in the home. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 7. They will play their role effectively. Purity. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Service to others.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 8. the methods of teaching. 5. 2. 3. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 1. 3. 4. 1. students. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness).4. therefore.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Without moral values. Aparigarha (Non. 6. Self sacrifice.

Simple texts and stories concerning different. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. 3. Good manners. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Secondary Stage 1. 4. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography.4. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. discipline.9. National unity and Spiritual values. religions may be included in the syllabus. 2. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. 3. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Asatyam (Non-thieving). Good temper. Integrity. Efficiency. 1. In the school programme.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. minutes in the morning for group singing. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Sharivashram (Physical work). The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Unity of mankind. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Discipline. 10. loyalty and self-sacrifice. 56 . Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. 11. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. The School Assembly should be held for a few.

the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. 57 .4. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. love of humanity. Silent meditation should be encouraged. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. should form a normal part of school programme. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. University Stage 1. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. In this connection. patriotism and self-discipline. 5. 5. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. In other words.

The School Assembly should be held for a few. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. In short. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. b.4.1. Discuss the aims of Religious education. 1. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. Sri Prakasa 6 . a. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.4. a. the. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 58 . According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. Training of Character 3. For this. a. 1959 5. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b.4. 2. 2. minutes in the morning for group singing. 1. 4.

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Siddiqui. (2003). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2004).P.4. Publishing Corporation. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A. 59 . J. (2008). Ltd. Pahuja. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2008). B. Theory and Principles of Education. (2007). K and Narang C.H.1. M. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.H. N. L.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Dash. P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C. N. K. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Bhatia.

8 1.5.5.5.3 1.12 1.5. 60 .9 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.e..5.6 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.5. disparities between provinces/States. i. Although.5.1 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.2 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.10 1.7 1.5.5.5.11 1.5 1.4 1.5.

roads. 8. 3. waters. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. 2.5. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. work hard towards this end. for example.5. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 6. 61 . Selfishness of the regional political leaders. etc. 1. you will be able to: 1. know the education suited to different environments. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. This leads to separatist movements. They therefore. understand the regional educational development in India 3. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. energy. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.1.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region.5. they take appropriate measures.5.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 4. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. 1. Accordingly. 7. 1.

The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. Tight security arrangements should be made. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. on the basis of regional development may be formed. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . 2.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. 4. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. There are many reasons for this during the British rule.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. some States became educationally far advanced. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. and. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. some average. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. • Separate States (of course viable States). 62 . • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. Secularism. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still.5. while others remained educationally backward. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. 3. Therefore.

Silchar. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. Tezpur. library buildings. Regional Centres of IGNOU.392. approved proposals worth Rs. academic buildings.14. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. etc. NIT. Itanagar.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. NERIST. remained under developed. Nagaland and NEHU. 1. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. Jammu and Kashmir. Guwahati. These projects are in various stages of implementation. the Union Government.g. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. Mizoram. However. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. etc. In the Central sector. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Funds amounting to Rs. the State Governments. and provision of informal education to enable those.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. Rs. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. while some States like Bihar. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. 63 . certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e.After the Planning Process has originated. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Out of this. Central Universities of Assam.84 crore was released in 2005-06.5.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. Even in each State. books. After the attainment of independence. scholarships.480.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. since its inception in 1998-99. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has.. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice.

the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. A provision of Rs. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. Moreover. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.187. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.500. 64 . is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.501. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.8 per cent in 05). The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.57 crore and Rs.40. Out of this an amount of Rs. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.05 crore and Rs. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.261.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.5.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. too.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Government expenditure on education.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. Tezpur University. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. During 2003-04.

North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Tamil Nadu.5. The Chandigarh Administration. too. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. notes the study. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. too. Medical education. Karnataka. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. 1. engineering and R&D. Listing the positives. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. To add to the woes. Karnataka. Andhra Pradesh. too. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Moreover.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . is very low compared to Southern and western parts. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. pharma. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Kerala and Gujarat. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). for which 16 sites.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. telecom. for instance. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. health services and welfare of the citizen population. English.

and so on. the teaching methods. Hence it is called as need-based. when he will not be sure of time. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. even actually looking at the watch. taking the average in the middle. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. the socio-physical conditions. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. life-oriented and environment slanted. in which the learners live. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. Of course. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. the working days: an academic . the interests. which a non-tribal person cannot do. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. the curricular subjects. 66 . In the same manner. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. The working hours of educational institutions. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. the needs. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs.year. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Then education become realistic and idealistic. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. The living conditions. the vocations. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. For a learner living in a rural area. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. while the former does not.

12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. 67 .5.5. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . to suit education to different environments? 1.

Education in Developmental Arena.K. S. some States have become more developed than others b. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. Giridhar. (2001). during the British rule.H. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. C. remained undeveloped 3. some of areas which were under the native rulers.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 68 .2. Education Scenario in India.G. A. New Delhi: Authors press. a. (2008). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. (2002). (2001). Dubey. S.5. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Educational Development in India. and Nair. 60% 1. R. Salim.N.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

71 . International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. National Integration. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. semi literate and illiterates. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. secularism and democracy through Indian education. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. community development. school community and mass media.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept.

6.1.6.4 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.2 2.1.9 2.8 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.6 Education for Secularism 2.3 2.5.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1.LESSON 2.1 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1.1.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.5.7 2.1.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.6.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.1.1.1.1.

This is the political aspect of democracy. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. you will be able to: 1. In the matter of admitting students in schools.1. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it.2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. The students may be associated with the management of the school. socialistic and secular state.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. understand the concept of democracy.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. socialism and secularism 2.1. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. socialism and secularism 2. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. 2.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. Democracy thus means power of the people. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. 2. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. colour or wealth. 3) Provision of Manual Work. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. Abraham Lincoln. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 73 . Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow.1. for the people by the people”. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. there should be made no distinction of caste. creed.

8) Opportunities for Social Service. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. 2. debates. There are different brands of socialism. declamation contest etc. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 12) Visits to Legislatures. Democracy means 2. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life..1.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. may be planned. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. it soon spread all over the world. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 74 . 11) Student Parliament. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

5.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society.1.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. none high”. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 2.5. oppression and disparity. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. Under it. free from exploitation. the wealthy and the poor.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. but on the path of non-violence. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 7) Special facilities for girls. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 2) Socialism aims at equality. the prince and the peasant. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.1. 2. 75 . service and cooperation.

The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Everyone says. According to Holydake.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. secularism is being propagated. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. Write any two main features of socialism. 5. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. 2. “India is a secular-country. "which seeks the development of physical. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 11) State schools. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. 76 .” In every political and educational corner.

Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. education etc.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. During the recent past. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. 3) It permits freedom of worship. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. 8) It believes in co-existence. should be independent of religion. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. people started believing in regionalism. “Webster further says. 77 . “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. fraternity.1. 2. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. People have different religions and they have different beliefs.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. Moral values have to be imbibed. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness.6. A large number of people is uneducated. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. liberty. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life.opposed to religious education. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. That is why. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. In this type of prevailing situations.6. the belief that the state morals. Equality. 9) It stress free inquiry.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. 5) It implies tolerance. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. There is need of making the people open minded. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. people have narrow mindedness. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2.1.

1) Moral Education. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. Religious Education.1. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. education. While doing so. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.6. There should be some internal checking of the material being. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. In the celebration of each such function. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. 2. In the hands of such teachers.presented by the students in the gathering.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. The very sight of the building. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. tours and trips may be organized. Patiala. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. students belonging to different religions should be associated. No doubt. that the central string of all religions is one. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain.

this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. The term secularism was first used by 8. No doubt. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Secularism 9. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.1. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. The word “Seculum” means 7. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. 2.

In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. a. George Jacob Holydake 80 . d. Socialism aims at equality. 2. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. there should be made no distinction of caste. creed.1. b. 6. 4. Equal Opportunities for Admission. 5. a. Provision of Manual Work. 5.1. 3. b. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Respect of Individual Personality. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. Power of the people 2. c. colour or wealth. for the people and the people”. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. secularist and socialistic attitude among students.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. Socialism aims at social justice. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Abraham Lincoln. a. 4. Since socialism stands for equality. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. The students may be associated with the management of the school. This present age 7. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. 3. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Tuition free education b. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.

(2007). Ltd. B. K. J. J. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2003). New Delhi : Pahuja. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. a. N. (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. 81 . (2004). New Delhi : Shipra Publications.1. Mohanty. 10.C. It permits freedom of religion. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. L. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. P. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2008). N. should be independent of religion. education etc. It treats all religions on an equal footing. the belief that the state morals. b. a. Dash. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society.8. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Bhatia. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.” 9. b. K and Narang C.

1 2.2 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.6.5.2.6.2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.9 2.2.2.LESSON 2.2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.1 International understanding in the school 2.7 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.4 2.2.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2.8 2.2.2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.5.10 2.3 2.2.

you will be able to: 1. as workers. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. social and moral aspects. mental. development. social. It involves physical. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values.an instructor of school children. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. as persons.2. 2.2. 2. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. therefore. application. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. 2. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. aims and objectives of the school. who are placed in his custody.generation to another. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. 83 . and 4. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. as it is t he aim o f modern education. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. 3. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. understandings. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. A teacher is first and foremost. a r e 1. as citizens. moral. skills. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. The developmental roles of children. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. emotional.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. as learners.

vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. 2. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. emotionally. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community.2.All education should lead to better behavioural development. motivated.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. physically fit for socially efficient. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. morally. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. a part of their day in 84 . morally. mental. intellectually. Teacher as a Citizen Next. The following are some of such roles described in brief. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. social and emotional health. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. 1. economically effective. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. culturally confident. mentally. member of his community at the outset. The students live. 2. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. experiences and acceptance. 3. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. socially. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. He is to become an active member. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. He has to look after their physical. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. inquisitive. and aesthetically to become. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen.

List out the role of teachers towards community development . the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. solve them. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. and most of hours. It 85 .2. languages and religions. India is a land of many castes. photographic clubs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Dr. activities of the society into which he is born.the school being under the custody of teachers.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Unless. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. They will be spending with their parents. 2. creeds. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. 4. fine art associations. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. science club. faiths. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas.

It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. Radhakrishnan. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. poems. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. c. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis.” 2. folklore and teaching of social studies. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . The only process is the process of education.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. therefore. and make into one strong national unit. At the primary stage the importance of stories.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. this integration of the Indian people. ‘We should not become parochial. with straight backs and look up at the skies.” Regarding the role of education.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. social studies.2. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . Let us. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. It should broaden the outlook. narrow-minded provincial. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice.5. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. a. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. should be emphasised. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. Nehruji has explained this as. Sampurnanand remarked. stand up straight. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. the citizens of the Republic of India. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. national anthem and other national songs. 1. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer.is. b. the study of language and literature.

In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Celebrations of National Days. debates. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. and picnics. 7. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Scouts and Guides. 10. 5. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. 4. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. National Days—January 26. 87 . ACC. Singing of National Anthem. 9. dramatics and youth festivals. educational excursions. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. symposia. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. 6. Student Camps. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Taking Pledge. languages and literature. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Textbooks. Reverence of National Flag. 2. t he st udent s and t he community. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. militar y training like the NCC. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. sports. Uniform for School Children.different social sciences. tours. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. 3. Co-Curricular Activities. 8. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important.

16. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. iv. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. ii.5. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. Recognition of Institutions.11. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. 88 . For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. 12. 13. Open-Air Dramas. colour. Students Exchange and Tours. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. language. Admissions. ways of thinking and doing things. 15. 2. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. flora and fauna. Educational and Travel Documentaries. region or religion. 14. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. iii. School Projects. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . v.2. Admissions to schools. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. irrespective of national boundaries. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. vii. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. cultures and races on equal bases. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students.2. camps. Define National Integration 3.vi. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Community dinners. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. viii. ix.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained.

that war. Organising of debates and.6. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. 5.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.F. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it.as important as that of a national citizenship. if it happens.” 2. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. 6. of his body and mind. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”.friendships between children of different countries. the international level. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. 4. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war.6. Strong has observed. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Teachers 90 . 2. (c) fairly tales. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. C. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. often in connection with anniversaries. Radhakrishnan states. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. 3. 2. patriotism is not enough. (b) stories of children of other lands.. and the healthy development. This.2.e. therefore. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. Therefore. Dr.2. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. In a very real sense.

They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . Impartial in their Treatment. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. They should not be propagandists. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew.” Well Informed About World Situations. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Russian. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. an Englishman. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. a German.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Indian and American.

they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. the education function can be carried.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. understand and indiscipline: 1.2. As the school is but a miniature society. leading to.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students.Another major. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . Devaluation of Values . out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. and help the students to over . It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. 4.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. majority of people are. Chronic Poverty . 2.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. It does not prepare students for life. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. 3.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. If this is done. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. there is wide spread frustration among all people. which results in agitation and aggression language. Wide Spread Frustration . Defects of the educational System . they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. 5. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.2. Soon after they leave their educational institutions.

2. 2. community development. 3. co-operation. etc. 2. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. 4. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . sympathy and good will among the nations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students.2. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner.democratic nature. love. 5. 2. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. fellow feeling. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 93 . Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. are increasingly used in education. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Define community. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. Hence.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. He taught his students orally. Emphasising this thing. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Crow and Crow write.V. art galleries. 2. To make them achieve their aim. Now internet is being used. periodicals.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. “All the citizens of the community. During the course of time. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. In fact. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. Then came newspapers. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. books. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. led to the printing of books. Moreover. the invention of the printing press. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Museums.

current affairs and other areas. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. 2. for the teacher through school broadcasts. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them.6. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Thus. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. “Listening participation” in current history. A lot of work by way of pre. Students listen various talks. In the emphasis is on sound.telecast. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Thus. music. In collaboration with the experts. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. art. the place of importance. languages. It enlightens public opinion. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. 2. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion.3.classroom teachers. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Reynolds. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers.G. the teacher still occupies. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. Important happening inventions. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. politics. It is also an important source of entertainment. social studies. rather than on picture. dram appreciation. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. Various talks. 101 . Effective means of presenting music.

dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. plays. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. At present. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. Team-teaching demonstrations. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. School concerts. development of lessons. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. fol classical music. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. 3. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. at recreational centers. at drawing room. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. mathematics. speech. style. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Making learning an open system. Participation of local teachers and pupils. 102 . projects or creative activities. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. at any place. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. travel talks. 4. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. informal and non-formal education. audibility and presentability. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. 5. Before presenting the programme. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. at play.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.1 2.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.4.LESSON 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.2 2.4.4.7 2.4.4.3.4.4.4.3 Advantages of formal education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.4.4.4.4.6 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .2 Levels of formal education system 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.3.4.4.4.5 2.3.8 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4.3.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.4.

3. 5. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught.4. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. 2. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.4.3. 2. 2. Education associated with a degree or certificate. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. say the Government or the private enterprise. 2. 2. compare formal and non formal system of education. 8.4. the most important agency of formal education. 4. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school.4. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. the mass media et. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. 7. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. his mental alertness.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the learner are acquainted. the temple.2. you will be able to: 1. imparted at the residence of the teacher. it was mostly. To realize this objective of education. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 4. the family. 9. Education. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. open school. the community. 110 . understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. In ancient time in India.. 6. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. School is. Education organised by some agency. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 3. open university.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. starting and ending at -a particular age.

the elements of language are first learned. also called tertiary. or academic degrees.3. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. usually between the ages of zero or three and five.a secondary education. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Concepts of proportion.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. 2.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Higher Education: Higher education. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. third stage. Some education systems have separate middle schools. diplomas. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.3. structured education. or post secondary education. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society.4.4. In general. capacity. Through early formal education.2. such as a high school or secondary school. as well as vocational education and training. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. depending on the jurisdiction. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years.

4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. children with disabilities. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . 3. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Agencies can be classified as 2. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. is an important agency of formal education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. Write any two characteristics of formal education? .4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.3. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. and remote dwellers. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.4. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs.4. What are levels of formal educational system? . 2. late beginners etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.which will help for nation's development.

i. curriculum..e. place of instruction. to help themselves. financially supported life formal education. It is functional. adding up to a true learning society. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population.learning client take some learning objectives.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. It is deliberate. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. admissions. adults as well as children. Therefore.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. planned. it is a more effective tool for rural development. etc. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. systematic. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. However.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. According to Malcolm A.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. Non-formal education includes adult education. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. Open university. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. systematic. staffed. It unlocks the doors of development plans. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education.formal education. “Non-formal education should 113 . one could say that non-formal education is an active. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Adiseshiah. Thus.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. open learning. It is much more responsive to needs and change. it has its own valid claim to reality. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. until 1970 it had not been defined. continuing education and on the job oriented education.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’.

Lawrence. national integration.e. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs.” According to H. Part-time education. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. co-curricular activities.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. curriculum.4. evaluation etc. 6. the Ideas of citizenship. To develop in the student.renewal. age. 114 .4. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. international understanding. 5. Covering life span of an individual.” 2.4.S. 7. Process of sharing. socialism. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills.learning pattern. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. self. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.4.be marketable and vocationalised. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. Flexibility in various aspects of education. It should lay emphasis on the self. 3. modes of teaching. admissions. 4. exploring. Preparation for future needs. i.S. To help industrial workers to better their skills. 2. 2. place of education. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.

Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up.4. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. 6. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 5. 115 . Universalisation of primary education. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. 10. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. Senior Secondary. 4. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. in villages and those who live in towns. • 2. 3. 4. 7.4. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 2. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. To offer Secondary. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 9. working adults. Eradication of adult literacy. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 3. Technical. publication and information dissemination.4. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. Meeting the omissions of formal education. 5.4. school dropouts. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. 8.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. 2.

effective in modern societal context. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. To make if. To better qualifications. public libraries.full time to learners – can be home. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. factory. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. open space. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. etc.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. All-round development i.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. etc. Again. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 .4.2. if organised in isolation. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. 2. Institutions for formal education. library. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . training centres in factories. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. 4. 3. To increase knowledge and 2. others are formal and informal. Radio and television. self-employment iii. centres of correspondence education.4.4. Therefore. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. 2. farm.

Teaching to face teaching. institution. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give examples of non formal education? . . 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Correspondence lesson. 117 .6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. 6. Face Contact programmes.V. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. radio. Define non formal education. 7. Lecturing T. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Written tests. List out any two aims of non formal education. .

adults as well as children.” 6.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. the college and the university come under this category. Pre-school level. School 3. 2.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. 4. Formal and Non Formal 2.4. 4.4. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 5. Secondary level. b. Higher Secondary level and University level. a.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. 2. 7. 3. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. b. Open School. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Open University. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Primary level. 118 . systematic. Explain the different levels of formal system of education.2. a. 2. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. The school. Open learning and Correspondence Courses.

Bhatia. (2005). Mohanty. (2003). (2004). P. (2007).2. J. Education in Emerging India. S. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : 119 . J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. N. Dash. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. L. Modern Trends in Indian Education.4. K. Pahuja. N. B. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. K and Narang C. (2008). Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Gupta.C. Theory and Principles of Education.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2008).

5.5.5.3 Objectives of Open University 2.1 2.5.5 2.5.2 2.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.4.7 2.6 2.5.3.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.5.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.3.5.5.LESSON 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.5.4.5.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.5.4 Need for Open University 2.4 Open University 2.3.4.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.3.4.5.4.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.

It is a continuous process.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. Thus. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. 2.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. know the need and objectives of open university. labourers and half educated individuals. characteristics of open university 4. It is a lifelong process. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. For them. economic field or such other fields. give the meaning. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. you will be able to: 1. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. This knowledge may be in political field.5.3. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. 2. Education is for refinement and enlightenment.5. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. industries. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 .5.2. continuing education is a boon. However. Under these circumstances.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person.5. Any person. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. farmers. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies.

Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. cultured and progressive. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas.3. For them too continuing education is essential. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. are also contributing their might for the purpose. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Radio and T. On the other hand. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest.V.V. Throughout the country. T. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. 2. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. On the other hand. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas.5. Persons engaged in health services. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. deteriorating to his character and personality. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society.directly related to his job. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Doctors. Thus. After the achievement of independence.literate person. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Block Development Officers. Radio. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Cinema.

(4) the fundamentals of economics. 2. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation.5.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. and Radio. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it.5. (17) modern international and national events. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. habits of people of other lands. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. 2. especially women. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 6. Inspite of the great efforts. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (6) folk stories. (16) liking. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. we have not been able to achieve our targets. (8) psychology of adults. (10) first aid. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (15) music. (13) psychology of child behaviour. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons.. (14) information about bringing up young children. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. These books are not very useful. 3.V.3.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1.3. (7) folk songs. (1) ancient history. Of course. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (2) basic religious matters. 5. 7. 123 . 4. 2.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely.

List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. attendance restrict ion. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. lack of time etc. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. of educational opportunities. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.5.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. 2. NLM was launched in the year 2. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background.

c. 4. it makes use of educational techno logy. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. its education is not class room based but home based. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. Which was the first open university in India? . An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience.unobserved. 5. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. Education is not a once for-all process. b.4. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system.5. d. but 125 .” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. 3. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. 2. the higher the degree of openness. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. No one is too old or too late to learn. 2. e. IGNOU was established in the year 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and in teaching. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning.

who were deprived of t he same earlier. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. supplementing the existing provision. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1.5. 4.4. cho ice o f co ur ses. it a ims at wider and hig her. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. Mo re o ver. 2. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education.5. 5. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 2. 4. 3. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n.4. 2. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes.who did not get it. 6. or who realised too late that they need it. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 126 . D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 2. 3. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n.

Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. In the present day world. 127 . new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. 6. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Every day. 3. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Tutor Comments. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. school drop outs. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . 1. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. a state or nation. List out any four methods of Open University? . Self instructional materials.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. 8.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Therefore. a society. 2.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking.5. Laboratory works. 5. 7. 2. you have learnt the concept. semi – literates. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living.5. 8. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. Correspondence tuition.

128 . which may include house wives. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. a. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals.5. (2) basic religious matters.5. Explain the objectives. 1988. 3.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. agricultural and industrial workers.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Television Lessons. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. P r int med ia b. 1985. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 4. (1) ancient history. 7.ambitious learners. unskilled workers and other professionals. its education is not class room based but home based. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. 2. aspirants for continuing education. need and characteristics of Open University. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. a. Broad casting lectures c. 9. 8. 2. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. d. youth. b. 7. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. 6. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 8. a. (4) the fundamentals of economics. b.

Udaiveer. (2004). S. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 129 .K. R. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Modern Problems of Education. Reddy. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. K and Narang C. Ltd. K. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. (2007). (2004).S.. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.5.2. L. (2001).

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

All which is the need of the hour. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. wastage and stagnation.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. the education of women. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. which may claim the attention of those concerned. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. Examination reform. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. In Lesson 2. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. its causes and remedial measures. Training teachers for all levels of education. examination. 133 . and teacher education.

134 .

1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.3.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.LESSON 3.1.1.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.2 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.6 3.4 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3. 135 .3 New initiatives.8 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5 3.3.3.1.1.7 3.2 EFA – How? 3.1.1.1.1.

Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. On the other hand. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. (EOI) 2. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). “The State shall 136 . understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. Eradication of Illiteracy. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. education received added importance and significance.3. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986.1. Continuing Education (CE) 1.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development.1. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI).3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. Therefore. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. understands the country. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. 3. 2. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. social. therefore. you will be able to: 1. economic or cultural. directed that. may be political.

the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. 3. After the attainment of independence. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. rights and responsibilities. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Universalization of Enrolment. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Due to the adoption of democratic system. 137 . It enables the parents to send their children to School. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. Continuing Education (CE). the national Government under. Therefore. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school.endeavour to provide. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Three Stages for Universalization. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . Universalization of Retention.

So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. then to 1976. educational enterprise.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. 138 . We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960.3. Therefore.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. 3. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. 1990. This target had to be revised to 1970. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. UNESCO Bulletin states. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. Write Article 45. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. later to 1988. It is safe to assure. 1995 (for upper primary stage). Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. present and future.1.

In order to make the programme of education for all community. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. 8. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. their enrolment and retention. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. adolescent and adult. FELF. and Women’s education programme should be improved. slum areas. Jams and Jellies. Disabled.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. Education of Girls. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. sex. Apart from primary education. problem of literacy. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. 3. 10. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. 12. their social economic status and occupations. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. Emphasis must be given on health education. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. nutrition education and sports and games. Education of the Impaired. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. 11. The Social Education. rural areas. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme.1. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. the art of preparing fruit-juice. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. 3. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4.3. 5. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. NAEP. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. Early childhood education should be streamlined. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. 139 . etc. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. 9. creed. By undertaking survey. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. 6. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all.

Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.1. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.3.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.e. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. 4.1. Expand MLL and SSA . Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Wastage and Stagnation. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. 3. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.

The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Familial Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. it is considered as wastage. Personal Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.first stage of education.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . School Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. Social Factors .

. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 7. . 142 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Define Wastage.

School Factors . relating to home. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. school or society.1.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .The following factors. Personal Factors . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. Family Factors . in his home. They are described hereunder :1. rural or urban 3.3. Societal Factors .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.

144 .discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. uniforms. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Stagnation? 9. stationary. etc. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. mid-day meals. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.

Universalization of Enrolment c. a. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA.1.1. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. 3. improvement of curriculum. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.1.. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.3. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 4. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. 4. Hartog Committee. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. a. therefore. “The State shall endeavour to provide. a. 3. 6. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. 3. Minimum Levels of Learning b.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. 2. Universalization of Retention 2. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. 145 .8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. directed that. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. b.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community.” 3. Universalization of Provision b.

New Delhi: 146 .1. (2007). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. a.K. introduce graded curriculum.7. School Factors d. 3. Crescent Publishing Corporation.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. S. (2008). (2001). New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Familial Factors c. T. b. improve examination system. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Social Factors 8. 9. Personal Factor b. Hemchand. S.N. Sharma. Problems of Elementary Education. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.K. a.

4.3.7 Let us sum up 147 .2.2 3.2.4.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.5.1 3.2.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.6.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.4 Question banks 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.LESSON 3.2.5.2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2.2.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.5.2.5.5.3.2.2.2.5 New evaluation procedures 3.2.5.2.2.2.1 Problems of examination 3.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.5.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.4.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2 Grade System 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.7 Open book examination 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2.

it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.9 3.8 3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.3. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. suggest the new evaluation procedures. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . 3. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. 3. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.2. Besides.2.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. 3.2. but on the other.3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .2. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. 3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.2. you will be able to: 1. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. etc. 149 . thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. waiting rooms for girl students. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex..3. which the educational authorities have to face. They may cause problems relating to discipline. They develop secondary sex characteristics. etc. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. The following steps should be taken up. 3. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. roadside Romeoism. hostel facilities. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education.2. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. etc. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. schools for them wherever necessary. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. If the students are in sufficient number. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt.

the net-work of examination system has also become vast. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.2. teachers. Instruction. It is considered as a major sub-system. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. assessment and Finance. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. public administrators and statesmen. 3. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the examination system has an important role to play. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. conduct of internal examinations.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 150 . appointment of paper-setters.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. public interested in education.

2. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. tabulators. values. etc. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. invigilators. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. etc. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. scrutinizers. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . payment of remuneration to paper-setters. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. etc. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. validity and practicability. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. etc. introducing objective-based testing.printing and distribution of question papers. etc. training of examiners. examiners. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees.4. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. 3. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. establishing reliability. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. announcement of results.

halo-effect. it can be said that they become examination-oriented.. 3) With respect to method of teaching. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. 2) From the angle of content of education. lack of objectivity etc. do not appeal to the students and parents. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. stereotyped questions. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested.4.2. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. takes the place of comprehensive learning. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. Subjects. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. Rote memorisation. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. which they are expected to study. 152 . The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable.. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. 7) In connection with the question papers. Vagaries in making.. 3. may also discredit them. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. it s a common experience that subjectivity.

Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t.a part of internal assessment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. .Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. may be introduced. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. revaluation.. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. List any two merits of examination. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. re-numbering of answer scripts. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. 4. Question Books may be developed in all schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . etc. 153 .develop true love for education. Spot valuation. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students.

the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . 3. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . attitudes.2. It is complicated.2. When a person chooses to work extra. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. The students can take any course offered in any department. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times.2. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. In this system. he is given extra credit points.5. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. In actual practice. Every paper is treated equal. Their interests. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. The new scheme of assessment. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.5.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Advantages More autonomy is given to students.3. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. skills are given importance.

or as a 4 credit course. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. v.discipline. In the new system. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. An example is a seminar. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper.good. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . courses can have weightages defined.2.5.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. 3. Groupism is encouraged. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. These weightages are called credits. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. only the total credits to be earned is specified. poor.poor. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. This system reduces comparison of marks. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. While designing syllabus. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course.

However. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education.2.5.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. 156 . If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.2. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. 3. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. 3.2. 3. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.5. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.

and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.5. Therefore. What is the reason for introducing grade system? .6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions.2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. recruitment. 3. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . In the hierarchy. List any four new evaluation procedures. However.3. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. There are no proper procedures for selection. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. 6. . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.2. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.

Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. laboratory equipment. in contrast. etc. being realised as two different functions. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. in a sense.qualified personnel. playgrounds. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. qualifications. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. staff. wherever necessary. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. whether the syllabus has been covered. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. 3. They are. of late. Academic inspection. library books. requirements.2. submitting of the inspection reports. finding out whether the prescribed text. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. 158 . etc. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. finding out the adequacy of. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. complaints and compliments. inspecting the class-room teaching. interpersonal relationships and so on. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. When they are fully realised.6.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. taking up the follow-up programmes. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. disciplinary problems. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. school buildings. There has been dearth of properly trained and well.. 1. books are followed..

or. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. In the light of these conceptualisation. M. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. modern.. courses. Similarly. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo.Ed. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life.2. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace.Ed. Insistence on specialisation in the B. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. their professional knowledge. at least. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives.. In the case of departmental candidates. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. once in five years. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. 3. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. aptitude. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. 159 . course in either educational. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection.

a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India.2. b. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. c. 160 . Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country.2. 3. Administration. a.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Grade System.2. 3. assessment and Finance. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. b. 3. Instruction.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. 3. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. 4. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. b. 2. a. d. 5.

Question banks. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. (2005). To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. 3. c.a part of internal assessment. b. History and Problems of Education in India. 7. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Educational Reforms.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Multiple sets of question paper. K. a. S. 5. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Open book examinations. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. a. R and Sharma. K.4. New 161 . Problems of Education in India. (2004). a. Vaidya. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. (2002). New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma.2. b. b. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.

3.3. 2.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3. 3.3.3.8 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3.5 3.10 3.3. 162 . 4.3.3.LESSON 3. identify the needs of rural India and social. 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.3 3.3.3.6 3. you will be able to: 1.4 3.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.7 3.1 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. 5. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.9 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.2 3.

the Banaras Sanskrit College. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. in Andhra Pradesh. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1..3. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. 8 years of general education.. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919.specialisation programmes 3. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Similar is the case with some other States.. 10 years of general Secondary Education. e. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. University Education. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. The. and 3 years of First Degree Course. 2.e. Commission emphasised to continue..3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.e. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . i. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. etc. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country.3. Consequent on the recommendations. The Calcutta Madras.g.

habits of hard work and develop . It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage.a sense of dignity of labour. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. to prepare. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. b. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. 3. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. 5) to help for the social. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. cultural and economic development of the country. economical and political. social. 10. 7. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. and. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. 8. However. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . Provision for transfer of credits to students. historical. educational channels. who desire to change from one stream to another. is also a plus point .4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 6. 5. to imbibe. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students.confidence in students.3. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students.

There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. at the other. cultural and' religious tolerance. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. on one hand.national integration. and that required to enter the tertiary level. and.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. etc. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . Here the choice of subjects is provided for. democratic living. Philosophically it is not the conception. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. international understanding. The General Educational Spectrum. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. Psychologically. cooperativeness. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. 1.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies.3. Sociologically it is undesirable. 3. social justice. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students.. to develop national character. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities.

commerce. In our country. or other machinery. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. India is a land of villages. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. educational and cultural services. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. chemistry. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. industrial agricultural production is growing. Biology. 2. the rural areas have suffered very much.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected.— tube-wells. physics or mathematics.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. 166 . The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. horticulture. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Commerce and other disciplines. In the vocational spectrum. Science. Agriculture is the main occupation. technical. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. vegetable growing. and vocations based on dairy-farming. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. fish culture. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. commerce. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. 3. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students.3. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. professional. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. All these need for an. rural health. such as Agriculture. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. technological. medical plants. In the matter of language.

. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. etc. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. interests and aptitudes of the students. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. social justice.3.. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. In time. 4. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. In this it may be concluded.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. and 5. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. can be ensured. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. There had been favourable reaction from the students. the local resources available. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . In this way. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses.etc. and the needs.

3.3. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. J. 3.C. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. to imbibe. (2001). b. 3. a. Anmol Publications Pvt.3. a. General Educational Spectrum and b. Calcutta University Commission 2. Mohanty.K. (2008).3. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. S. a.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. N. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.a sense of dignity of labour.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2007). New Delhi : 168 . to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4.3. objectives. b. (2005). Vocational Sepctrum. B. Ltd. Dash. 2. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. we studied the history. J. Modern Trends in Indian Education. 3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. habits of hard work and develop .

4.4.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2 3.4. Education contributes to human development.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.6 3.4.4.12 3.11 3.4.4. but the lighting of a fire”.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4.4.13 3.5 3.10 3.1 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3. social and 169 .LESSON 3.9 3.4.4.8 3.7 3.4.3 3.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.4.

While women constituted only 9. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. community and nation is universally acknowledged. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. higher education of girls developed immensely. 3. although we have miles to go. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. Teaching and Fine Arts.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877.4. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. you will be able to: 1. 3. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. In the post —independence period. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916.4. cultural and political development of the individual. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. particularly 170 . A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. Nursing. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. family. Dr. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. economic. The relevance of women’s education to social.higher education in particular.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. During the year 1937. These courses were. Education . the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. There is a close connection between education and development. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. For the first time in the history of India. analyze the women and distance education. Home Economics. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up.

0 16.1 24. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. Coimbatore. levels and professions.9 27. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. Kodaikanal. In 1950-51. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.T Women University. out of 9200 and odd colleges.0 Today. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.65 lakhs in 1994-95. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.4. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. 3. Mother Teresa Women University.2 22. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .4.4.0 32. in our country. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).N. The idea of women’s education for equality. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.1 31. Even today. In the rest of the country.2 29.9 14. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. Mumbai.0 43. 3. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. Yet. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.women.D. we have more than 1200 institutions.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.

36 3.83 47.17 52. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.that of boys.1 and 14.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .34 33. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.1 respectively. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.46 82. 3. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? . GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.63 Female % 34.66 66.4. 3.44 35.56 64.53 34.4%) prefer Arts subjects.47 65. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.27 89.73 10.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .4.4.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.54 12.

higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. promoted and increased. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. They gave up their studies to enter home life. Also. financial difficulty of the parents. distance of the college or university from home. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. 173 . Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. particularly. In college. etc. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. The major hurdles. what is the need for higher education for her.4. irrelevance of the content of education. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. she will only learn fashion. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. According to a survey. Book banks should be established.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Thus. marriage is a very common I factor. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. In every third family. and coeducation may spoil her character.hinders the girls from getting higher education. 3. curriculum not suited to their requirements.

Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. and the limitations of the conventional education system. is the only tool for realising empowerment. Distance education is a boon to women. It enables to study.4. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. which is the most dynamic factor of development.economic disabilities faced by women.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Empowerment in a nutshell. It is a productive investment. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. 3.4. resources and socio . It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Education. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Full-time employment. space.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. There are constraints of time. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. 3. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. It also brings about 174 . Geographic distance of educational institutions.

Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. on their own. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. 3.4. legal awareness and economic independence. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. higher learning. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . This can be achieved through reflection. Women are partners in development. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. The major objectives of women's higher education. Empowerment is an active. education of women is of paramount importance. empowerment means being assertive. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. for full development of our human resources. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. education of women must be given priority in national plans. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them.

Scholarships and concessions for women. especially so in the developing countries. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. who are eager to take up courses.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. has to be implemented at the earliest. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. But their number is small. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. will encourage them to venture new grounds. The local administration. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Better opportunities.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . The educational institutions. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Reservation for women. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. 3.4. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. 176 . 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. which had been the sole domain of men. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. which is pending for a long time. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving.

It also must help women to discover their latent abilities.9%). the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. IDP Education. Australia. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. especially in developing countries like African countries. Also. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. But. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent.4. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%).11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. capacities etc. Chief Executive.000 women in the country. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100.. According to Lindy Hyam. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. engineering and related technologies (16. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education.8%).3 percent. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. talents. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. 3. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? .1%) and architecture and building (38.

K. community and the nation. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. 3. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. 3. 2. 3. (2000). S.to the family. 4. create the right attitude towards life. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. (2007). SNDT Women’s University. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Women Education.4. 4. R. Coimbatore. Pattanaikj. and Suryalatha. SNDT Women’s University.R. Coimbatore.4. (2008). Mother Teresa Women University. Mumbai. individuals and society b.4. S. A. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. A. Women and Education. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. Rajasthan 5. R. (2005). Annakodi. and Swain. 43% 6.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Mishra. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Mumbai.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. 178 . a. Women Education. Rao. Kodaikanal.C. Centre for Women’s Studies. R. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.

5.5.5.4 3.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .7 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.6 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5 3.5.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. whole.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.1 3.5.2 3.10 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.9 3.5.3 3.LESSON 3.personality of children in and out of school.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. They should be trained. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.8 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5.5.11 3.

3.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. Shorter working hours.5. equality and justice. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. 180 . 5.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. 4. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. Dearth of new technology of teaching. and national character. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. 3. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. understanding and strong desire for international peace. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. social and emotional integration. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. know the pre service and in service training facilities. Lack of physical facilities.5. national consciousness. international. understand the training teachers for Primary.

Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. higher secondary teacher education. a Diploma course and a Degree course. levels. Inadequate training in practical skills. students. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. inservice and extension education programmes. 3. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. and M. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. At the diploma level. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. etc. Lop-sided curriculum.Ed.Ed. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. the centre. 3. (NCERT) New Delhi.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. it is called the Extension teacher Education. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training.5. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Depending on the levels. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. If the student teachers are working teachers. the primary teacher education. it is called the In-service teacher education. who have not been trained earlier. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years.5. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . the secondary teacher education. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. the state Government..Less qualified teacher educators. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. and the collegiate teacher education..

Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. etc. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . 3. collegiate cells. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs .. depart ments etc. Education cells. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory .5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Evaluation unit. Expand NCERT 2. Educational teehnology cells. Also Guidance Bureaux. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . are established. state Institutes of Educat ion. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Science Education units. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. extensio n service. non-formal.

Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. material conditions relating to libraries. schools and sister institutions.. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities .. and so on.Ed. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . laboratories. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. audio visual aids.. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . degree. which should include experience in the primary schools too. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. which help breaking isolation from one another . The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . to improve curricular programmes. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. to ensure teacher competence. primary and secondary school teachers. to offer consultative services. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . should be improved on a top priority basis. despite its vast expansion.Ed. to prescribe conditions for recognition. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. and 183 . which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas.

secondary education. methodology and evaluation. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. Meanwhile. etc. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. Psychology of Students. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . To meet this exigency. Hence. Induction Courses. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Agriculture.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. The problem. Workshops. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. not came up once again. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. and XII. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. though no pre-service training. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. 184 . the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. whether they should have professional education or. Organisation of Content Courses. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Modern Methods of Evaluation. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. etc. Modern Techniques of Teaching. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education.

Ed. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. These facilities are available for regular students. (Education) are organized by 185 . Ajmer..Ed.Ed.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.’s are elig ible for M. Courses leading to B. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.Ed. Post-Graduates also undergo B.. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. For re-orienting the teachers. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.. Degree. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.. State Institutes of Education. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. in Education.’s for Ph. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.D. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. All B Ed.Ed.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . Degree and M.. 3. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions..S. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.A. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education..A. (Education) and M. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. courses and M. training. Pre-service training is for those.Ed. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.5. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. M..

5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.5. 6.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. 3. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. (Ed. 5.. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession.A. of conduct—written or unwritten. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. However. they should be conscientious . established by tradition and teachers of the past. (Ed). So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively.). 186 . 4. What is the role of ERIC? .A. . 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face..some Faculties of Education of some Universities. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . Hence the employability of M. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . and B. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations.5. The necessity is however this.5. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. 5. 2. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 3. 3. Bhopal.3. Dearth of new technology of teaching.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 4.5. 3. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. 6. a. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. However. a. Shorter working hours. a. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. b. Explain code of conduct for teachers.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. b. 2. Discuss the problems of teacher education. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 187 . Ajmer. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. they should be conscientious. these problems are not as such cannot be solved.

3.D. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Ltd Aggarwal. (2009). A. (2010). Mohanty.5. Teacher Education.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. Corporation. P. and Teacher Education.N. Publication Pvt. B. Teacher Education. Tewari. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . (2003). J.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

economic and educational developments. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. The person’s environment is equally important. preservation of nutrients. the focus is on the school health programmes. communicable diseases and their prevention. 191 . objectives. common ailments of children. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. If the diet is poor. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. objectives. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. Since food is the source of nutrients. nutritional deficiency diseases. objectives and role of the physical education. consuming the right amounts becomes important. In lesson 1. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. In lesson 4. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. Lesson 5 explains the meaning.

192 .

1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.e. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.8 4.1.11 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. The programmes of school health education are quite important.5 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.4 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.9 4.1. mental.1.3 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. physical.10 4.7 4.LESSON 4. emotional and social.1. It is a miniature society.1.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody.1.1. 193 .2 4.1 4.6 4.

Instruction. 4. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1.1. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. list the common ailments of children 3. 2. content of health education. you will be able to: 1. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. 10. e. 4. cleanliness and healthful living.1. 11. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. know the need for sex education. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 3. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 9. understand school health programmes 2. training in first aid and etc. To develop certain skills concerning health. 4. explain the importance of First aid 5. 8. 6. 5.. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students.g. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. 194 . To develop healthy health habits among children. To give information regarding health rules. to his family and to the community at large. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. training of teachers and evaluation.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 7.

There should be good drainage facilities. etc. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided.C.1. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. ( iii) sanit at io n.G. 5. as described below 1. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . (ii) communit y healt h. The school buildings should be spacious. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. (xl) mental health. inoculation against cholera. Triple Antigen Vaccination. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. (v) safety education. There should be regular water supply. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. 2. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. typhoid.. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. is imperative. excusing late. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes.4. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. (vi) nutrition education. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. The surroundings of schools should be clean. suitable furniture.. direct lighting. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. First aid facilities should be made readily available. cleanliness weeks.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. B. 4. B. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. 2. (xii) smoking education etc. “Play-for-all” programmes. vaccination. The flooring should not be damp. (x) choice aid use of health services and products.coming or absence. Vaccination for small pox. play festivals. organisation of school health days. proper doors and windows. 3. Arranging better transportation facilities. minimizing the travelling distance. (viii) first aid.

wounds. C. if epidemic is wide-spread. • Take nutritious food. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. insect stings. burns. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves.. drowning. etc. poisons. dislocations. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. • Close the schools. • Keep all rooms clean. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • Have adequate rest and sleep. D. bleeding. 196 . isolate and notify. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. scalds. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. • When sleeping in groups. fainting (epileptic fit). Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. • Find out the cases. fractures. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. sports and games in the interest of their health. cuts. and other accidents. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms.

pain in the joints. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. There are three stages in any communicable disease. measles etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. chicken pox. So they easily get illnesses.. 4. polio. tuberculosis. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. which are – cold. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. backache. Mention the school health programmes. These diseases are called communicable diseases. headache. cough. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection.1. Once these germs get into the body. water or bodily contact. They are: i) The incubation stage.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. 4. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. fever. asthma. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the Health curriculum 3. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

eating food which is not clean. The virus is present in the secretions of throat.It is caused by measles virus. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Measles . Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold.When a child suffers from scabies.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. cough and fever. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Diarrhoea . Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. etc. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Children catch cold from persons having cold. unhygienic living conditions. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Hence it is called a killer disease. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. unhygienic bottle feeding. Mumps . Others make the children very weak. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. This is caused by cold virus. sugar and water. Common Cold .is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. head-ache and cough. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Scabies . rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Ear Infections . Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Throat is affected. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. 198 . There may also be fever accompanied by cough. The child may have fever. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Some suffer cold due to allergy. The following are the common communicable diseases. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. The symptoms include cold. Tonsilitis . Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. After three or four days of fever.This disease is caused by bacteria.

Diphtheria . the child may die. It begins with fever. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. 5. 199 . These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. the child is not able to breathe. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. As the disease progresses. Shortly. If proper treatment is not given. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. raised pink spots appear on head. separate.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. What are communicable diseases? 6.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. By scratching he causes secondary infections.• • • • Chicken Pox . The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. face and waist. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. Expand DPT . Typhoid . The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The child may also have diarrhoea. Enlist the common ailments of children.

1. dislocation. drowning. 200 . which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. it is a subject of art. fiction. 3. 2. Wounds .Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Sex is popular. bruises. Drowning . films and jokes. etc.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. cuts. and Community Work and Social Service. sprains. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. fainting. snakebites.1.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. Sprains . man-woman behaviours. swelling. It has its rightful place in education too. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. exciting and body-oriented. simple fractures. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. so-called sex books and periodicals. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. In such cases. bleeding. It is both biological and psychological. wounds.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. eye injury. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. and films. 4. scorpion stings.g. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. 5. head injury. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. 4. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual.4. Cuts and Bruises . sprains.

The home. Should the boys and girls. In secondary schools. In today's liberal and interactive society. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. 2. celibacy are age.old values. they would be treading the path of sure doom. health.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. the school. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. B. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. sex education is being recommended in schools. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. Hence. in their ignorance. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. but preserve them from disaster and disease. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. 3. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. try experimenting with their bodies.. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. the religious organisations. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. The values of life.

C. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. What are the major components of Sex Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there will no crisis in its implementation.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. 4. 202 .9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. when the courses are already overloaded. common ailments of children.1. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. first aid and sex education. Teacher education institutions are. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. hence. communicable diseases and their prevention. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. the school health programmes. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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209 . What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Mention the food nutrients 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. If you look at the definition carefully.4. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.2.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.2. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. minerals. Let us talk about each of these aspects. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. 210 . is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected.

1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age).2. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. Those in the west also tend to eat rice.sedentary. paratha and poori. for example. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. dosa are typical of the south. construction labourer).g. 4. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. activity level and physiological stress. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. Preferences/customs are also important.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. People in the east of our country prefer rice. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. These are: region where the person resides and income. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety.one in the morning and the other at night. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. There is no point. it is also specific to a given activity level . The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. the social and religious practices of that region. Even within given States there is considerable variation. A balanced diet is specific firstly. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days.6. In other words. In the case of adults.g. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. moderate or heavy work. sex. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems.

fat and sugar tend to increase. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. One must. for example. Having more money. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. while another may hate them. income plays a vital role. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. however. as important for the rich as for the poor. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. nuts and dry fruits. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. Among the social factors. vegetables and fruits. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. These determine the acceptability of foods. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. taboos related to food may play an important role. Even among flesh foods. As income increases. customs. One person may be fond of milk products. However. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. Including these 212 . If you think of your own religious group. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. As you read this discussion. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. In addition to these. however. however. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets.planning the diet. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. Judicious selection of food is. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer.

For this. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. over-eating or under. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. 213 . 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. green leaves.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. etc. 8) Walk a while after eating. but they should be thrown away. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 8. mouth. meat. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. fruits. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. List out any two healthy food habits. if the teachers have good food habits.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. Define balanced diet. eggs .eating is hazardous. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. 17. 7) One should eat what is needed to live .

Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. c. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. d. Corneal xerosis. Bitot’s spots.2. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. preservation of nutrients. e. In fact. Conjuctival xerosis. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Vitamin D 5.2. Keratomalacia 3. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Beri Beri 4. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. 4. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Night blindness. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. good nutrition is essential for good health.4. 4. When the diet is inadequate.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Explain food nutrients 4. Discuss good food habits.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b.2.

mouth. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. (2004). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. R. (2005). Health and Nutrition Education. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s .M. Chopra.N. (2008). 7. A Text Book of Foods. Sri Lakshmi B. (2008). A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. a. Food and Nutrition Education. minerals. P. Nutrition Science.C. R.6. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Hands.2. b. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. 4. a . b. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. (2009). Food should be consumed after eating well. Food and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . Nutrition and Dietetics. S. 8.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum.

3.3.8 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.13 4.3. 216 .6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.12 4.10 4.3.3 Impact on Education 4.7 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3.3 4.9 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.3.4 4.3.6.3.3.2 4.3.5 4.3.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3.3.LESSON 4.1 4.3.6.11 4.6.

It is not sex education. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. It is a much wider co ncept. economic and educational development 3. describe the impact of population growth on social. and the consequences of these processes. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. his societ y and the world. Population Education. his family. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning.4. state the meaning. 217 . therefore.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. you will be able to: 1. characteristics and changes for himself.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. understand the importance of small family norm 5. 4.3.3. population characteristics. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. the causes of population change. the stress is.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. Whenever we talk of sex education. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. objectives and need for population education 2. family planning and sex education etc.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. community. There is some difference. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. aims at providing the younger generation.

5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.3.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. the nation and the world. 4.3. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. the family. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Population Education 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .4. the society.

4. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. Every second two thousand children are being born. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age.6. When the family is small. which will not be possible without population control. social welfare schemes can be implemented well.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. economic and educational development of the country. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. health and happiness of its citizens. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. the family programmes are also handicapped. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. 219 .1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Family is considered as a social unit.3. With the larger families.3. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. 4.

They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. in cinema halls and theatres. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. unemployment. The gulf between them is widening further.6. and so on.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. Many students herded in a small room. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. in buses and trains.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. teacher index.3. 220 .2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious.e.3. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. Swollen cities. in parks and other places of public gatherings. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. lack of proper health care. 4. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. facility for drinking water. In developing countries. organization index and material index.6. pollution of the environment. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. there is an inverse relationship between population and development.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio.. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. toilets. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. heavy intern I migration etc. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. i. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. 4. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too.

3. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. and laboratory equipments. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. There would be very few audiovisual aids. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject.. bar graphs etc. can be studied in science and health education. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. There would be poor library facilities. essays. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. blank verses etc.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. 221 . can be taken up. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Social Studies Statistics on population education. family planning etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. reproduction. Regional Language. even text books would be in short supply. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hindi and English. thus. less space facilities. less budget for education.

3. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. causes of deaths etc. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. United States of America. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 9. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. They may arrange them as per average density of population. China. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. 11. Uttar Pradesh. 10. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala.4. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Brazil. Canada.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 14. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. 13. area and average density of population. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. 4. 2. 12. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. West Bengal. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Children with the help of parents.3. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Bihar. deaths. Children may compare two families. 15. 7. 8. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 5.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people.be opened in their schools. Comparing life in various respects in two families. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. 18.3. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. 16. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. 17. we have no right to stop 223 . age at marriage. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. preferences for sex.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. values and role children etc. The question. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”.

“He who is responsible for population growth. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).to emphasize family planning services. 4. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. More than 45 years ago. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. should be overcome at the intellectual levels.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. Since the program's inception.4-6..4 births per woman in mid-1990s. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. continued . In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. The Family Welfare Program. and the child survival components of the news: program. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. at varying places in different regions. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. especially the expansion of child immunization services . The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.their entry into the world”.were implemented 224 .3. however. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. which education can only do.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. on an overall basis.

a focus on health promotion. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. the community appears willing to pay for services. Therefore. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive.earlier than the safe motherhood components. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. Moreover. and the World Conference on Women. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. In October 1997. men. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. reliance on local women as community health workers. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. In April 1996. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. and nominal fees for services. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. At these meetings. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. expansion of services to unmarried women. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. Local programs vary in their approaches. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 .

What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. involving the community. economic and educational development 4. 1997).3. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. What are the goals of RCH? 4. Its main purposes are to create awareness. 3. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. community. 4.3. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.emphasizing the needs of the client. 226 . What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. Describe the impact of population growth on social. family. nation and the world.

Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. b. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. characteristics and changes for himself. his society and the world.4.3. 6. 4. 5. 227 . To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. China. a. Canada. the causes of population change. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. area and average density of population. Brazil. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. and the consequences of these processes. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. b. bar graphs. less space facilities. a. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. 7. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. a. population characteristics. his family.” 2. less budget for education. United States of America. 3. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.

(2005).3. Reddy. Udaiveer. Jayapoorni. (1992). New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Kantikar. (2005).K. Modern Problems of Education. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. N. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. V. T. Changing attitudes to Education in India. A.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Coimbatore. Bhende. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. J.4. (2002). Centre for Women’s Studies. Principles of Population Studies. 228 . Ltd. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004). Modern Trends in Indian Education.

4.4.4.4.8.4.4.3 Indigenous games 4.4 Lead up games 4.8.5 4.4.4.6 4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.8.4.1 Minor games 4.10 4.11 19.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.LESSON 4.4.4.4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .2 Major games 4.4.2 4.3 4.7 4.9 4.4 4.8.1 4.

state the meaning of Physical Education 2. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. moral fitness and emotional fitness. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. as it should 230 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. 4. mental alertness. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. perseverance. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. team spirit. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. which forms its most valuable assets. leadership and balance in defect.4.4.4.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. the youth of the country. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. 4. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.4.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. social fitness. The concept of physical education has been made broader. you will be able to: 1. full records of physical activities should be maintained. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. classify the different types of games. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.

moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. They are inseparably united together. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Every individual is a part of society. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. obedience to rules. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Therefore. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . team spirit. They go hand in hand. To be more precise. leadership. The educational efforts at home. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education.

ment al. Regarding the significance of physical education. a sound health. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. “Physical education does neither train up the soul.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. 4. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. Rousseau states. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. mo ral.4. pleasing manners. Physical exercises. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind.” The Secondary Education Commission. nor body but the whole man. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. C.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. game and sports.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks.” Montaigue writes. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. Just like Education. H. Buck has observed that 232 . Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency.

efficiency and character. strength. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.” 4. elegance. endurance. flexibility and power.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief.” In brief. etc. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. happiness. speed. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. resourcefulness and smartness. Froebel says. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. coordinative abilities.a properly directed physical education should result in health. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. 233 . Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development.4. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. “If we wish to develop the whole being. we must exercise the whole human being. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. initiative. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society.

Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Every age has its artists. While wars. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. these fundamental things have always been present. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. including all racial groups and historical ages.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. plagues and famines. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. its adherents and its enemies. they may form gangs. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Tournaments foster this sentiment. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. 234 (i) (ii) . poetry and painting. If no opportunity is provided to the students. in greater or lesser degree. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. systems of government. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students.

and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. self. 3. etc. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination .(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. to develop tolerance.\ to develop perseverance. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. bravery and interest in games and sports.sacrifice. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. 235 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. obedience. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. 2. B. respect for rules. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. Write any two importance of Physical Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 9. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 16. 12. defects. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Be punctual. 7. 5. 10. 8. Act as a leader. Be self-confident. 2. . Keep the field ready for the activities. 13. Usually parents. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 15. students.4. 14. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. and readmission after they have recovered. Be sportive. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. 4.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 3. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Haag. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Be in the uniform. 11.H. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed.4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Always keep the whistle ready. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Be well-prepared. and. Posture screening should be done. Inform health principles. injuries among pupils should be made. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 236 1. 4. is essential. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. 6. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must.

1.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls.4.4. the play. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. 2.8. As such they are well enjoyed by children. chasing. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. 4. 4. less equipment and less expense.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. Moreover. Indigenous games. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. frolic and jo y. 4. their development is handicapped. Lead up games. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. 3. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Such inst incts as imitation. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. 237 .

Tennikoit. on sea-shore.. On lawns. finding the partner. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. For each game the rules are many. Ball Badminton. Tennis. wherever the kids assemble. the play equipment. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. the number of players and substitutes. Kabaddy etc. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Jumping. bowling etc. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. 238 . on mountain tops and on river beds. the games can be modified according to convenience. couple tag. skipping. heading.8. Cricket. women take part most of the games. Except a few games. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. Basket Ball. on hard courts. Soft Ball. muffling. They are played for a shorter duration. catching. Shuttle Badminton. Jump the stick clay and so on. dribbling. over ball pass Relay. pitching. Volley Ball. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. While many of them are played in the open playfields. zig zag relay. Throwing. stopping. under ball pass Relay. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children.4. trapping. spiking. hitting. Hockey. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. boosting. driving. These games require varied skills such as running. with implements or without implements. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. benefit in playing minor games. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. snatching the kerchief. Hopping. 4. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Khokho. some of them are played indoors.With a very few rules. The dimension of the posts and nets. Dodging. They are rules approved by the International Associations. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles.

4. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . 4.4. They have an abundant social value. An example for indigenous game is 8. List out some major games. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. 7. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. For example. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. All the fundamental tactics. birth. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. they are in existence. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. festivals connected with religion and public functions. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8. and . They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. these games being popular. While observing the players in action.4. death. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games.8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. On occasions like marriage.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Games may be classified as 6. Kho-kho.

Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. b. to secure physical health b. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.4. 2. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. b. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. 4. to develop physical stamina. 4. a. Minor and Major 240 . c. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 4. 2. a. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Briefly discuss the different types of games. 4.4. a. 5. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a.4. Posture screening should be done. b. 3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. 3. d. aims and objectives and need of physical education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.

New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers.4. Tennikoit. Health. Khokho 8. Mohanty. (2009). 241 . (2008). Shuttle Badminton. J.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews.K. Tennis. Kabaddy 7. G. 4. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Handbook of Physical Education. Soft Ball. (2005). Volley Ball. J. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2008). Aggarwal. J. Physical Education and Sports. Krishna murthy.C.6. Hockey. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Khokho. Cricket. Basket Ball. Foot-ball. Ball Badminton.

5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.9 4.5.5.5.5.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.5.6 4.5.10 4.11 4.2 4.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.7 4.1 4.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.5.5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .LESSON 4.5.5.8 4.5.3 4.4 4.1 Natural Environment 4.5.5.

Broadly. 3. role of teacher in environmental conservation. Essential knowledge about the Environment. 4. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Attitude. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. 4. 243 .5. Knowledge. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. aesthetic and educational factors. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. The best place to start such learning is school. Details are given below: I.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. Participation. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. education about the environment and education through the environment. 2. it covers the following elements: 1. Awareness. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. economic. list out the types of environment 3. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2.5. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. social. Evaluation Ability. 3. 5. 2. population explosion and resource depletion could be. you will able to: 1.5. political. Skills. 6.educat ion for the environment. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. 4. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A.

heat sink and wind flow in cities. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation.B. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. • Biological magnification E. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Oxidants Other pollutants. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. 244 . Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. F. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. a. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. D. 2. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur.

New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Abortion iv. Socio-economic measures. 2. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Sterilisation. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. The human ecosystem II. B. 3. Use of medical science i. III.3. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Birth control through education b. Family planning ii. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Persuasion: i. c. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. economic. 2. 4. Control of population growth a. Intrauterine device iii. The pill ii.

e) Recycling. 3. 3. (UNESCO. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Air pollution abatement ii. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. 1983). Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Water pollution abatement. 246 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Environmental Education. 2.

other components of the environment.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . a. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.5. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. to his needs.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. animals and other organisms (biotic). 4.5. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. -other. fax agricultural apparatus.5. They interact with each. way is called environmental or ecological factor. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.5. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. Any constituent or condition of the environment. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. These are biotic components. He modifies according”. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.5.4. includes the plants. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . A change in one brings about a change in the other. telex. Biological environment The biological environment. b.5.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4.

food chain and food-web. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . importance of nitrogen cycle. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. maintaining the ecological diversity. reasons. role of trees in building economy.. change in climate may be added. use of medicinal plants. greenhouse effect. excellent recreation sites. preventing siltation of dams. air pollutants from industries. biogas plants. use of pesticides. nuclear warfare. History The rise and fall. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. river systems. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. over exploitation of ground water. desertification 248 . wars and hazards of war. social studies. etc. supplying timber for various uses. effects o f CFC. ozone depletion. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. need for conservation. extinction of species. of civilizations. nuclear energy. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. evolution. need for bio-diversity. etc. noise control. industrial survey. preserving the watersheds. industrial pollut io n. alternate sources of energy. balance of nature. solar cookers. natural way of controlling pests. trees reducing noise pollution. sources. effects. acid rain. are the topics which may be taught in History. t heir role in preventing pollution. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. relation between population and pollution. ozone layer deplet ion. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. Physics Topics like conservation of energy.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. population. windmills. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. noise pollution. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. explosion deforestation. sources of pollut ion. water scarcity. (ii) Air pollution. mineral survey.

7. 12. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. 9. 2. 4. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise.may be inc ded in Geography. group discussions and seminars.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 4. 6. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. 10. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Peepal and Tulsi. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Providing. animal and plants. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 8. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 249 . 13. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 5. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 14. Organising conferences. 3.5. aims and scope. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 11. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs.

Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. especially plastics. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. 5. Never put any left over chemicals. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. all these can cause serious pollution. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. it will cause pollution. used oils down the drain. If it is done. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Don’t burn any waste.Send their waste oil. or form a car pool for everyday travel. World Environmental falls on 250 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Reuse carrier bags.

Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. CFCs. nuclear wars. viz. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. orderliness and beauty).4. The groups may exchange. values and habits. Conservation of natural resources. To arrange for visiting speakers. deforestation. Social responsibilit y (common good. depletion of ozone. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. and 251 . etc. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . Concern for species. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem.mat erials. To provide materials needed for practical work. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. concern for others). rather than conquest and mastery. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. etc. loss of bio-diversity. Harmony with the nature . dest roying nat ural habitats. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. developing desirable attitudes. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. potable water. (cleanliness. To arrange visits or expeditions. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion.. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. Att itudes of balance towards nature. To provide reference materials for children’s use.).5. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. diversity and stability. To initiate and develop discussion and debate.

11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 252 .5. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. preserving natural cycles.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.5. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. 4. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. 4. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. 8.

S. T. Ltd. Nanda. 5. a. a. S. Providing. Environmental Education.5. 4. over exploitation of ground water. To provide reference materials for children’s use. (2007). Education for values. New Delhi : Authors Press.K. (1997). 3. b. To provide materials needed for practical work. Rapid population growth. June 5 7. Awareness. Modern Problems of Education. Social responsibilit y (common good. importance of nitrogen cycle. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. a.K. reasons. explosion deforestation. 6. Organising conferences. b.2. relat ion between population and pollution. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. b. Knowledge.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. (ii) Air pollution. 8.K. water scarcity. Kuldeep. Udaiveer. Environment and Human Rights. sources. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . acid rain. concern for others). a.\ 4. population. New Delhi : Sharma. Environmental Education. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Publications Pvt. (2004). new problems from science and technology. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. b. Ltd. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications.. group discussions and seminars. air pollutants from industries. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. effects. Y. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. sources of pollution.K. ozone layer deplet ion. (2007). greenhouse effect.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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Spiritual Development. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. Education according to idealism.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. It is self-realisation.1. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. enrichment and transmission of culture. Education must contribute to development of culture. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation.our life. in fact. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. moral. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. the emancipation of spirit. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. According to Rusk'. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments.” 5. should be universal in nature. man is essentially a moral being.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. The universe is regarded as a thought process. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Universal Education.3. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Therefore. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says.

4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. 5.” He is thus. It considers teacher as. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. However. Ethics.3. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. so subjects like Religion. Learning through lecturing.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. a spiritual guide for the child. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. 2. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. Mathematics etc. Science. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education.1. Philosophy. He carries the child from darkness to light. Learning through questioning. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. hygiene. should be there. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . 3. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. The plant can grow. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. 4.” 5. an indispensable necessity. Learning through discussion. According to idealism. 5. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. Learning through imitation. History. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. So health. According to Frobel. For intellectual development. He sets the environment in which education takes place. So cognition (knowing). subjects like Languages.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Learning through reading. Herbert advocated instruction method.3. friend and guide. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality.the spiritual qualities of mankind. So he should embody. affecting (feeling). the school is a garden.1. no doubt. For this no particular method has been suggested. and collation (striving) should find due place. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming.

5. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. time tables. 2.4.1.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. In the words of Ross.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. curricula. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. text books. "Education should make 263 • . Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.perfection and beauty.preservation. Perfection of Human Machine. Ross explains. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. 5. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.1. formal lessons or examinations.

Zoology. 4. Naturalistic curriculum. Art etc are subsidiary subjects.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Literature. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. It stresses basic sciences.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. subjects like history.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Biology. • 5. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Chemistry. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. education should develop the child into Joyous. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. It emphasises physical and health education 5. therefore. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. rational harmoniously balanced. There is no place for religious and moral education. 264 . by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Therefore. useful and mature child. “Education finds its purpose. It is based on the psychology of the child. Education should. Botany etc Language.4. geography should also be included in the curriculum. is based on the nature of the child. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Arithmetic. In all. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience.1. Education also aims at helping the individual t. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society.

Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development.5. Learning through observation. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method.4. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Learning by doing. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. 3. It discards all rigid. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. 4. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. a provider of an ideal environment. Rousseau says. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. he should be taught by experience alone.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy.1. the stage. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. 2. In the . Heuristic method. Learning through experience. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Dalton Plan. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology.4. a supplier of materials and opportunities. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.1. 5. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists.

5. Personal Social Adjustment. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. All Round Development of an Individual. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. diversified and flexible.5.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Sciences.1. Subjects. 5. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Physical training. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Social Efficiency.5. is true.1. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. intellectual. Vocational and 266 . The aim of educational development. Geography. History. Social Science. social and moral aspects. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Continuous Growth. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency.absolutism of idealism. Agriculture. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices.

Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment.1. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. a senior partner and a sincere guide. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. He must be trained.5.5. should find proper place.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. He has to be active.Technical Education. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. 5. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. The subjects. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.” 5. alert and resourceful. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. a teacher occupies an important position. Learning by Doing.

specific. It favours child-centered. intellectual. 5.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. rich and happy.6. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. 2. 4. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Sex Education. 2. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism.1. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. 5. Chemistry. Population Education. Crafts. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Geography are unnecessary 268 . 3. Biology.6. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Literature. 4. Biography Philosophy. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable.1. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Music and Dance. literary or humanistic education. scientific and psychological education. practical. Psychology. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. 3. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Study of Subjects like Language.1. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. 5. liberal. Art. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Education is preparation for a complete living. Astrology. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Education must cultivate scientific outlook.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things.5. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Mathematics. History.

List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . easily and pleasantly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6.1. certainly and clearly.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.1.6. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.

Rousseau 5. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. has no end other than growth. Tours / Excursion e. a. & curriculum. a. c. 5.1.5. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. e. Agriculture. Learning through reading. in this lesson. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Child centered c.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Vocational and Technical Education. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. naturalism. Learning through imitation. Self Realisation b. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Education according to pragmatism. Social Science. Learning through discussion. pragmatism and realism. Experimentation d. Self preservation & Self expression 4.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Universal Education 2. Learning through questioning. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Geography.1. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. d.1. 5. Sciences. 3. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Learning through experience b. Physical training. History. a. 6. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Languages. b. Learning through lecturing.

(2004). L.5. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. Pahuja. 271 .P. New Delhi : Bhatia. (2007). P.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Theory and Principles of Education.1. K. Anmol Publications Pvt. O. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. (2003).H. New Delhi : A. (2007).P. R. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. Foundations of Education. Narang C. P. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Publishing corporation. Ltd. of Pathak.

2 Curriculum 5.3.2.4.4 Views about teacher 5.1 Aims of Education 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.2.2.LESSON 5.2.5.1 Aims of Education 5.3.3.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.3 Methods of teaching 5.2.4.2 Curriculum 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.5.2.2.4.2.2.4.2 5.2.2.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.1 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2.2.4 Views about teacher 5.4.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.3.3.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.3. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2.2.

Tagore was a poet.4 Role of the teacher 5.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. mind and spirit. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.2.8 5.6 5. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.2. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.2.2.7 5.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. 5.2. an artist. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.2. economic and political reconstruction in our country. 273 . The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. content and methods. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. 2. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. 3. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. you will able to: 1. Gandhiji was primarily a social. 5. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.5.5.

He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. 274 . Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. it is education of life.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. His scheme of education is life centred. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. In the words of Gandhiji. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. mind and soul of children He further observed. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education." Dignity of Labour. self-restraint and service of humanity. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. 5. 'Man is neither mere intellect. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. This can be matched with any modern concept of education.3. through life and for life. strength of mind. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words.2.supporting. nor the gross animals body. "I attach more. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. righteousness. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. It really provides opportunity for character building. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.

other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. According to Gandhi.3. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. 5.2. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development .Training for Leadership.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. "Development of the moral character. leather work have been suggested. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Mother-tongue. Individual and Social Aims. General Sciences. the realization of the ultimate reality. development of the whole all were directed: towards. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Music. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Only good individual forms a better society. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Art. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. metal work. wood work. Drawing and Hindustani. gardening. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.

4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.2.3.3. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.trained. men of 276 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. proficient. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Basic education is other wise known as 4.2.

“To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . 3. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. Education must be child centered. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies.knowledge. That is why. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He also advocates freedom for the child. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. 5.2.

” Like all other ideals.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. He believed in the oneness of humanity. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.K. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.2. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.3. He was deadly against untouchability. 5.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. • Cult of non-violence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. he was a true Vedantist 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He was a true patriot. Gandhi in 1937. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.4.2.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. • Education should involve manual work.2. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . 5. • Ideal of citizenship. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.

2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Dance. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. It should help. he said. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Music. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. them solve problems of day to day life. deeper in. stronger in power than ever before. Civics.4. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Therefore. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Chemistry.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Tagore said. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. wider in range. etc. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. International understanding. the more dedicated and devoted. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in.2. sentiment. complete manhood could be attained. (vi) Philosophy. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. "Mankind must realise a unity. Zoology. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. That way only." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. It should help the learner have good physique. Religion and Psychology. Geography.Language and Literature . To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. International Understanding. Botany. could help in forging unity among all. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. 279 .

It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.” He further says. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.4. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.2. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. Tagore rightly says. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. 280 . Only a good learner can be a good teacher.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. In 1921. 5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.4. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.2. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.2. 5. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. Activity Method Heuristic Method.4. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity." 5.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e.g.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. It is open to all irrespective of country. 10. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 281 . Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. race. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore.

Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Freedom. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Education should make a person self-reliant. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life.5. 4. Education for strong Moral Character. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . character forming and assimilation of ideas.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. work and deeds come out of it.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. 3.” 5.2.5. According to him. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace." He was against the theoretical type of education. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. man making. Book learning. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Purity of thought. He believed in to learning or selflearning. 2. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. Education for Self-realization. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Concept of Education. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education for Self-reliance. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building.2. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual.

4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. 283 . with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Discussion Method. Education for Physical Development. engineering and technical subjects. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. 5. 5. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Swami. Of course.5.5. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Philosophy and Theology.the learners on different students in the discussion.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. That will serve the purpose of education fully. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. philosopher and guide to the students He. 6. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses.2.5. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.2. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Religion. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. A physically strong person is the need of the society. The teacher should be the facilitator. Secondly he wanted Science. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. And above all. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Education should help in the physical development of an individual.2.5. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. 5. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Thirdly he wished that games.

6 LET US SUM UP We have. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. ears and eyes.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. 5.2. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. 2. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. 3. 12. Gandhiji as a Idealist. Their educational ideas. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. We have seen that Tagore. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. legs. of course. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. and pragmatist . What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. Write short notes on Basic education. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. naturalist. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. in this lesson.2. 284 .Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people.Substantiate your answer. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Nai Talim 4. Activity Method d.2. a. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 3. Technique of Correlation 6. metal work. a. 5. Debate and Discussion Method.4. d. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. 5. wood work. c. 1937 7. e. Meditation and concentration c. b. Teaching while Walking b. Discussion Method 285 . Explain Vishwabharathi. Cult of non-violence. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Basic education. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. c. leather work have been suggested. gardening. 9. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. f. Heuristic Method. Education should involve manual work. Activity Method b. a. 5. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. a. Self realization. 2. Self-Study b. 11. Learning by Doing c. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. 8. 10. Ideal of citizenship.

P. L. Foundations of Education.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. New Delhi : Aggarwal. New Delhi : A.5. (2007). 286 .H. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. on Bhatia. Publishing Corporation. Anmol Publications Pvt. Pahuja. (2003). C. (2007). O. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. B. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2002). Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. J. N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. K and Narang C.2. P. K. Dhiman. P. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. N. (2004). Ltd. Theory and Principles of Education.

7 5.5 5.3.10 5.3.6 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.11 5.3.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 . Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.2 5.3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3.3. In this lesson.3.3.3.3.3.3.9 5.8 5.4 5.3 5.LESSON 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3.1 5.

In it.. Then in a big country like India. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. state the meaning of curriculum 2. present behaviour may be modified. in the U. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5.under the direction of the school. the desert area. In the former sense. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. In the words of Kerney and Cook.3. While education is a process. the plateau area and 288 . is a means to the process. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. Both the processes are integrated. the plain area. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. Curriculum is intimately related to education.S. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. curriculum signifies situations for learning.A. While education is learning. curriculum.3. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. From the latter point of view. it is identical wit h socializat ion. living in the hilly area. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. 5. Since the demands. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion.3. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. A g o o d curricu lu m. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. curriculum also offers a wide contrast.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. 5. new behaviour may be acquired. in the form of new experience. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. maintained or eliminated. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. in Russia or in Japan. in fact . you will be able to: 1. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. there is a large number of communities.

After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. customs and needs. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. 5.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. However. it is. In fact . that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. differs from individual to individual. the learning capacity of children. therefore. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. democratic and socialistic country. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. according to modern trends in the educational process. irrespective of their needs and environment. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. From a slave-country we became secular. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. environment. It must differ from locality and from society to society. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. too. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained.3. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. and 289 . Besides craft. Again. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. studying therein.

It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. moral. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. Goals of Primary Education. They may be ultimate or proximate. remote or immediate. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. They speak of perfect goals. Knowledge Objective. 5. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made .g. eg. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. general or specific. unsatisfactory. Understanding Objective. They are visionary goals e. emotional. 290 . individual or Social and so on. The word “Curere” means 2.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. etc. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals.g. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. in instructional objectives. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. They are achievable.g. National Integration. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. uninspiring and unscientific. 1. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. aesthetic and spiritual development. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. of classroom. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes.. e. e. social.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. Self Realisation. which may or may not be attained.. Goals of Secondary Education.3. They speak of immediate purposes of education. they depend on the political. 3.. 2. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. Vocational Efficiency. tangible. etc. aims. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. social. 4... specific. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. So it is inadequate. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. Application Objective. unambiguous and functional.

“Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. The interests. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. finding them very interesting and captivating. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. in the class rooms. abilities.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. According to Crow and Crow. on the playing fields. heavy fire. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. Raymont rightly says. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future.5.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. but it includes the totality of experiences. Crow and Crow remarks. needs. educationists. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.” 291 .3. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. capacities.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.

A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. They often waste it or rather kill it. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. time in a useful manner. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. aptitudes. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. tendencies. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. moral. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. urges.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. capacities and abilities. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. mental. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . Due to these variations and differences. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them.

learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. development of professional capability at all levels. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. To ensure success of the process. phased preparation. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. 2. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. administrative programme need be planned. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials.curricular. 293 . The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. 3. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. Similarly. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. organized. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels.

Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. 18. library. 11.3. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. laboratory. 17. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. 5. Child Centred Education b. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments.3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. 12. workshop. principles of curriculum construction. Run. a. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. 10. Relation with Life c. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. in the class room. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school.3. 1937 19.

12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 295 . and Sarita Kumari. (2007). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.3. Curriculum and Instruction.S. P. (2001). Innovations in Education. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Curriculum Development. S. Lakshmi.K. New Delhi : Isha Books. Bhalla.5. (2007). D. (2007). New Delhi : Authorspress. N. S.

3 5.4.6.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.4.4.4.LESSON 5.4.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.7.9 5.7.4.2 5.4 5.6.4.7.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.1 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.4.8 5.4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.7.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.10 5.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4.5 5.4.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.

They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. tolerance for the opinions of others. 297 .4. Gradually.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. in the economic reconstruction of society.4. 4. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. 5. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. open-mindedness. know the importance of science education. honesty.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. explain the concept of scientific attitude. newer and newer industries started growing. you will be able to: 1.during the second half of this century.4. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . superstition or emotion. 2. 3. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. 5.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. We mean curiosity.5. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively.

So that.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. After such experience and training. Through newspapers. 3. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Thinking and memory develops.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 2.4. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Promotion of science clubs. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life.4. Through examinations. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Principles are formulated. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 5. 5. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Devotion towards nature increases. 4. Central science workshop. as well as of the society. 5. 6. 6. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 7. seminars and symposiums. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. 3. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Schemes of teaching science. Selection for science education. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. 4. Love for truth enhances. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 2. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. 5. Organisation of science fairs. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO.

a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. For laboratory and workshop techniques. Write any two advantages of Science Education.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Enquiry teaching is. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. sex or religion. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look.4. 5. In the inquiry approach. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. each child to “enquiry skill building”.6. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. objectivity.4. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.needs and conditions. After presenting the problem. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Training of science teachers. They encounter many social events as they grow. It is. 5. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . They ask many questions about the objects they see. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. therefore. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. essential that teachers. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. They experience natural phenomenon. should provide opportunities to. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature.

commands or orders. 4. Appreciating pupils ideas. 2. Adopting creative models of teaching. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 5. . offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. 5. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”.6.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. 6. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 3. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. It requires consistent thinking. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.4. 300 . Giving less directions. if they like. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. test. 5. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe.Herma Wouk. . Evidence. stern pursuit of accurate data. Social sciences. 3.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? .4. to ask questions and experience things. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences.books.

it must be encouraged. and emphasized during the learning process . They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. These include open mindedness. For instance. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”.(Smith 2008). They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. neighbourhood. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. To achieve this we should understand what it means. therefore should be unbiased and objective.7. (Vaidya 2007). Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. school and society at large. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. friends. These characteristics of any scientific 301 .1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. to develop among the learners. The students observation. critical thinking and suspended judgments. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. of vast resources running waste. 5.4. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. keen observation. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. practiced.

Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. understanding and logic. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. or superstitions. rumor. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge.4. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. (Das. The intention to respect another’s point of view. he studies all aspects of it. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. intuition or wishful thinking”. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. 302 . The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. think and work it”. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. 5. In considering a situation or a problem. 2007).7. He is patient and reserved in his judgement.

• • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . 5.4. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. • 5.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. but to begin only after careful planning.4. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.7. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.7. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.

see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. 304 . Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. 5. it must be encourages. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. 5. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.4.

Wide reading b. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs.5.S. 5. D. 305 . b. Proper example of the teacher c. M. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Planning of activities 5. (2008). a. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. Vaidya. New Delhi : Anmol Publications.4. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. 5.4. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. a. Rao. S. 2. Study of superstitions d. b. objectivity. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 16. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. 4. b.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. a. N.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Reflections on Scientific attitude. (2000). Love for truth enhances. a.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 3. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. (2006).4.B (2008). Yadav. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Adopting creative models of teaching.

you will be able to: 1.5.LESSON 5.7 5.5 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.2 5. 5.5.8 5.6 5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.9 5.5.5.4 5.5. 306 .10 5.5.5.1 5.3 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. objectives and characteristics.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. 2. areas of institutional planning.5. actively.5.11 5.5.5. state the concept.5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.

Institution should be regarded as the unit.3. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level.5. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . and each student are regarded as separate entities. in the task of educational planning. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. • To make institutional planning more successful. 5. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. • to involve teachers and school administrators.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. each teacher. every teacher. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. every parent.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. and every student in the process of educational planning. 5.5. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. executive as well as public. which become the bases for further planning at the district. State and national levels from below. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. and. teachers and students is not lost sight of. and supplement planning from above. • to make planning development-oriented.

Classwork. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.curricular Activities.5. (2) Co. which will be discussed in the general. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. etc. 308 . The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers.5. and Personnel services. approved after making necessary modifications. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Co-curricular activities. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Syllabus. 5.• implemented. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. Examinations. council and. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion.

Preparation of models.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Organisation of Pupils. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching.No. scientific and historical excursions. 2. 3. Equipping of laboratory and library. Conducting of educational. Courts. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Organisation of Students’ Association. 1. Organisation of class-room libraries. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Running science clubs. etc. Organisation of Self-Government Days. etc. charts and apparatus. Preparation of instructional material. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Improving the subject competence of teachers. Celebrating of national and international festivals. etc. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. hobby-centres. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Improving the internal assessment. Undertaking remedial instruction services. etc. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Organising play-for-all programmes. Editing the school magazine. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Fair distribution of syllabi. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare.

teacher-managing body. involving mainly human materials. administrator-pupil. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body.” The human relationships in.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. etc. and solidarity. administrator-supervisor. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. teacher-teacher.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. and —pupil-pupil. teacherinspector. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. headmasters associations. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations.5. teachers. pupil310 . The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. administrator-administrator. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. science teachers’ associations. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. pupils. which are divided as the in. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. Administrator-State. co-operation. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. parent-teacher associations. parents. students’ associations. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also.5. ii. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. teacher-State. teacher-pupil. understanding.

State. and to serve. organisation. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. supervision. social sciences and other disciplines. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. etc. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. administrator. It is also being modernized to become a technique. supervision and superintendence. to accomplish. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 311 . The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. now-a-days. To administer means to manage. teacher-community leader. V. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. superintendence. According to C. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. to carry out.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. control. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. pupil-inspector. organisation and management.5. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. Good. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. pupil-non-official functionaries. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. pupil-community leader. pupil-parent. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. to attend. It covers personnel and material management. teacher-parent." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”.

If the cost benefit ratio is less.Of all the approaches.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . 7. 9. He should be an artist in human relationships. Socio-Scientific Approach . 11.The manager should have leadership traits.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. Democratic Management . Communication . Leadership . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . Cost-Benefit Analysis . it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. Motiviation . Rapport between the Management and Employees . Better Human Relationships .He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. 8. If it is more.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. Those. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. it is not worth-while.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. low. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.Any good management will always have good public relations.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 6. 12. 4.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 3. This is the latest democratic trend in management. 2. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. Liasion with the Public . Economic Management . 10. Worker Participation . 5. 13. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. The relationship should change from master. who occupy the managerial positions. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. Decision Making .

Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. to improve the quality of education it provides. enrichment of curricula. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. 313 . It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 5. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions.5. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. 14.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. objective. 18. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. improvement of teaching methods.too. 5. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. 19. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance .5.These two are.g. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. and cooperative performance should be ensured.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.

2.5. a. Co-curricular activities. Motiviation d. Decision Making b. Communication 5. a. it becomes the basis for school inspection.5. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. (1995). f. c. H. Examinations. Tarachand and Prakash. NUEPA. 314 . New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. R. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. b. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. e. Syllabus. b. Classwork. a. (2003).K. Educational Administration.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. and Personnel services.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. a.5. Leadership c.M. 4. (2001). Instruction. In group and Out group 5. d. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. b. APH Publishing Corporation. Singh. Fundamental of Educational Management.

4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.3 Directive Principles .5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Healthy Food Habit 4. wastage and Stagnation 3. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.5 Regional Educational Development in India . Community and Mass Media 2.2 Nutritional deficiencies.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.Religious and Modern Education 1. higher education. 2.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.1 Primary Education : Education for all. 1. Communicable diseases .1 Inculcation of Socialism. School. Code of conduct for teachers. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . population education. Realized the problems of school education.Article 45 . Balanced diet.CORE PAPER .teachers should have : 1. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. women education and teacher education in India. First Aid. physical education and environmental education 5.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Common ailments of Children.1 School Health Programme.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Examination reforms. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.4 India's Secular Policy . New evaluation procedures. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Economic 315 . Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Sex-education 4.I.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.1 Gurukula system of education.Preventive measures.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. 4.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.3 Educational Influences of Home. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Preservation of nutrients. social Impact 3. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. nutritional requirement.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.Pre-service and In-services facilities. Inspection and Supervision 3.

(2004) Problems of Education in India. Saraswathi T.4 4.R.K. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.N. Tagore 5. R.K. T. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. (2005) Foundations of Education. (1999) Culture. Realism. and Human Development.Aim. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Socialization. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.K.K. Hemchand. 316 . Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.N. Delhi : University Publications 2.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.C. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Naturalism and Pragmatism . (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Mahatma Gandhi. 7.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Ram S. Ghanta R. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. Pandy V.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. B. 5. curriculum and teacher's role 5. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. and Mohanty R.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.4. Curriculum and national goals .2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.1 Idealism. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. and Dash B.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Taneja V. Sharma. and Sharma R.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. New Delhi: NCERT 3.S. Mishra. REFERENCE 1. Prof.

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