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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. In. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. Lesson 4. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. Jainism and their educational implication. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. 9 . The need. discusses the regional educational development in India. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. Lesson 2. and Jain system of education. Lesson 5.
1.4.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1 Charter Act of 1813 1.LESSON 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.6.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.5 Jain system of education 1.1 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 22.214.171.124 Buddhist system of Education 1.6.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.2 126.96.36.199.5.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 188.8.131.52 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.3.6 Education during British Era 184.108.40.206.1.4.1.
10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1.7 1.6. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. Muslim and British periods. 1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.1.3.1. “a class of persons. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. in opinion.1.8 1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1.9 1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. 1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. has a long past history starting in vedic education.1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. Indian in blood and colour. Education in India. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. both present and future. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. The history of education passed through Buddhist. India. That 12 .6.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.1.1.1. 1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. but English in taste. describe the Jain system of Education 4. British system of education presented the modern western model. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. in morals and in the intellect”. you will be able to: 1. elucidate the education during British Era.
Rulers of the country could subsidies it. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Residential Schools. the monitorial plan was followed. 13. 4. Education was a private affair of the people. followed by explanation by the teacher. 12. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. with grants of land or money. 5. if they thought fit to do so. questioning by the pupil. from eternal to immorality 2. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. There was. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Pupils were taught. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Free and Accessible. Curriculum. Where pupils were many. Immediate Aim Vocational. managed entirely by Brahmans. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. 16. 10. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. not en masse by the class method. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. and to agriculture and trade. 14. High Status of Teachers. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Forests as Centres of Education. 11. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. No State Control on Education. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Teacher as Parents. 3. Role of Travel in Education. individually. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Individual Teaching. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. The immediate aim of education. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. from darkness. It was not merely intellectual. Method of Instruction. Method of Study. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. religious and spiritual. 6. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. to light. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. as it is generally considered to be at present. Education of Moral. however. 8.knowledge was real. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. It was also moral. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. 13 . Religious and Spiritual. generally. 9.
besides preparing for worldly pursuits. It was freely available to all those who wanted.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. lived a life of celebacy.1.17. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. 1. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Wide-Spread Education in Women. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. It was suited to the needs of the society. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. 2. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. studied Vedas. They were very cordial and intimate. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 .
After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Education was imparted through the. Right thought 3. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. the student remained in a state of Shramana.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. the handicapped. use of intoxicating things. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Right activity 5. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. every class in society. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. dressed himself in yellow clothes. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. had the right to receive education. 15 . disease and death of the human beings. Right memory 8. Right contemplation 1. Consequently. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. which included abstaining from theft. he was qualified to become a monk. taking things without being offered. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. 1. 2. impure conduct. watching dances or listening to music. etc. Right speech 4. Right endeavour 7. It was denied only to the ill. Right knowledge 2. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. I take Refuge to Sangh. the most significant of which were the following 1.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. the student had his head shaved of all hair.C. use of cosmetics. in which. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. medium of Pali. I take Refuge to Dharma. except the Chandals. Right means of livelihood 6. killing of any living being. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. After attaining the age of 20.1. partaking of food at prohibited times.4.
According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. so long as it successfully does so. Life is in a flux. magic. depth and range. assumptions. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. Whatever its nature and extent. geology. a change is not only total but also perpetual. handicrafts. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1.. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. 5. After this ritual. control over sensuous activities.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. Initially. along with education in script writing. 4. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. changing the goals. arithmetic and religious discussion. medicine. 3. bodily gestures. etc. beg for alms. 6. and. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. a continuous change creating 16 . These are called later Buddhist schools. Even at this stage. archery. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. therefore. women occupied a position inferior to men. agriculture. of clothes. education was impart in art. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. be considered the aim of education It. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. 8.3. it is regarded as true”. etc. commerce. elephant lore. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. As reality is becoming. etc. the science of taming and training animals. animal husbandry. 2. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. eat food thrice a day. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. however. 1. Hence. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. Later on. On this occasion. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. meaning. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. aspirations and. has no metaphysical value for life. objectives of human life. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. 7. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. approach. It comprehended education in writing. wear three items. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. cottage industries. nothing is of any permanent consequence. archery. the presence of the monks was essential. military science. nature.4. knowledge of reviving the dead.
and to give it a shape that it has today.5. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. i. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. its pessimistic outlook on life. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. it is much older than the latter. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Validity is effective and consequences.1. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. However. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. Its chief feature.e. Education must. In fact. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. goes to Vardhaman. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. whatever works are true and good. Write Eight fold path . therefore. however. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. such as. Jainism insists 17 .new and peculiar situations. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. 5.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable.
Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. 10. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life.1. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. As such. 3. They are: a) Not to injure. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. thought and deed. 8. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. more stress on individual aims. b) Right knowledge. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. 5. but on both. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. 3. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. d) To lead a celibate life. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. c) Right conduct.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Hence. 7. 2. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith.5. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. e) To renounce the world. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. 18 . 4. c) Not to steal. Development of personality as an individual. b) Not utter falsehood. and is to be redeemed and liberated. 9. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 6. 1. 1. 2. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. and believe in happiness to all. it has a foot in both the words.
2. therefore. Belief in transmigration of soul.4. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. 3. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Teaching must develop these faculties. Hence. 4. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. the precious principles of life that bring happiness.5. education should develop sense of discrimination. 1. education must be action based and ideally oriented.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and should bring happiness to all. 8. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. What are Triratnas ? . 19 . Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 1. 3. Jiva is essentially karmic. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. here and now. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. success and love. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 5. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . 2. practised and not only aspired for. that would be socially desirable. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.
primary 20 . science. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. 1953).6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. 1. 1. North West Province and Punjab. with rally and rout. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal.6.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. However. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts.6. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. Madras. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). Consequent to Macaulay's Minute.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service.1. 2. and not for life.1. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. To set up separate departments of. philosophy and literature of Europe. 1. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.6.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. 1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own.6. Bombay.
and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. at the primary level. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. 1. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937).6. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education.6. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. 1. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. 1. In 1882. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. Later on. secondary education became a step towards university. • Universal free primary education. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. namely. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. At that time M. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. • Secondary education. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. The universities dominated the secondary education. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. To ensure qualitative improvement.K.education was neglected. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. self-respecting and competent.6.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. After this stage. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1.1. all children are to have a common curriculum. 10.At the primary stage (6-11 years). children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. The objective of education was to provide 22 .7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire.
Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. a. arithmetic and religious discussion. 2. archery. b. Right activity. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. handicrafts. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. questioning by the pupil. 6. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Right memory. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. geology. 3. 4. Right contemplation. along with education in script writing. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. followed by explanation by the teacher. etc. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. 4.1. It was suited to the needs of the society. Right knowledge. The system of education was well-organised.1. 23 .education of European literature. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. Right speech. education was impart in art. 3. Right means of livelihood. 1. 2. The immediate aim of education.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. science and English language. the science of taming and training animals. 5. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. Right thought.. establishment of universities. military science. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. During the Buddhist period. Right endeavour. 1. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents.
Development of personality as an individual. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. (2007). Right knowledge. 11. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Ltd.1. a. Right conduct. 10. (2009). c. History of Indian Education System. Singh. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Y. more stress on individual aims.K. Sargent report 12.C. 1937 1. b. 1882.C. Improvement of Literature. Y. a. J. 8. 24 . and Nath. (1984).7.K. Sharma. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Aggarwal. R. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Development of Educational System in India. Right faith. b. Hence. Ltd. 9. J. (2005).
1 220.127.116.11.6 1.2.3 Kothari Commission 1. The 25 .2.2.7 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 1.8 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.1 University Education Commission 1.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.2 1.3.LESSON 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.3.4 126.96.36.199 Secondary Education Commission 1.4 National Policy on Education 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.9 1.2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.
conditions of the teachers. Kothari (1964-66) 8. National Council for Women’s Education 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. standard of teaching. girls and women education besides primary.2. expansion of vocational. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. medical and legal education. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. explosion of enrolment.2. secondary and higher education. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. vocational education. Post-graduate 26 . The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. technical.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. New Educational Policy. There had been vast institutional expansion. diversification of courses of studies.3. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. National Board of Teacher Education 10. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. examination system. curriculum. 1986 1.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. S. technological engineering. analyse the progress of education in free India. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3.2. 2. 1.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. 1. you will be able to: 1.
1. 2.3. A meaningfully Partnership.3. quality. Finally. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. quantity.2. However. D. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. National System of Education.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. 1986. Problems of access. 4. 3. The Essence and Role of Education. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Kothari.S.3. A. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. Government of India. 1966. material and spiritual. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. Education is the key to our allround development. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. the chairman of University Grants commission. in January 1985.2. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . Education for Equality. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. the New National Policy on Education.teaching. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. accumulated over the years. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. Therefore. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. research et. utility and financial outlay.2. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. 1. 1.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. 1952.
facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Thus. The UNESCO Report. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. the concepts of work experience. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage.” Thus. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the minorities and the handicapped. By working with hands. It can train practical aptitudes.2. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. 28 . the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. attitudes. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. co-operation and implementation of the scheme.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. As such. Besides. In 1955. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. if he wishes. “The aim of these colleges. it will conduce self. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. the Commission. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. co-ordinations." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. With adequate planning. The Radhakrishnan Commission. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. The Education Commission. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. According to.” The Mudaliar Commission.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. “It may be described. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 .
In addition. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. Therefore. etc. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. admission requirements to vocational courses. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. the. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. the rigid streaming of courses.. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. The Central Advisory Board of Education.ot her. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. for quality of life in the rural areas. raising the special facilities. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . the semester and credit system. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. Subsequently. With a view to relating education to the life.
giving importance to productivity in the national development. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. According to committee. which are useful to the community.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. meaningful. who conceived the System of Basic Education. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum.defined S UP W as “purposive. felt that education should be centred around a craft. which swept the country for over two decades. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained.and the world of work. etc. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. which offer scientific. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. 1. aimed at this goal. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. meaningful. technological courses including Agriculture. Commerce. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. In short. The Father of Nation. The wave of Basic Education.. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. preferably spinning and weaving.2. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. 31 . manual work resulting in either goods or services.
enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. 4. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. 3. Clothing 5. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. 32 . analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. tools and techniques and 3. Educative and 3. Work practice. Some Hints to Teachers 1. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Culture and recreation 6. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Community work and social service. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Health and Hygiene 2. Productive 2. Food 3. The teachers should make use of. so that it is educational in essence. as far as possible. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. be that the work involved is: 1. 2. Experimentation with materials. Shelter 4. locally available materials and tools.
the local community should be actively associated. 6.2. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. inculcate a faith. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. slum clearance. etc. removal of illiteracy. as far as possible. 1. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Merits of the Programme 1. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. It can become an instrument to build character. improve discipline. Reduction of gap in work and education 2.5. To make education more realistic. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Education through work The SUPW should. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Check on educated unemployed 4. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. Community Service In-1972. Productive Work 33 . attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages.
What are the work areas in SUPW 6. if not productive. The community. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. helping the adults-in productive work. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. offering first aid. Define SUPW 34 . The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. etc. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. skills and better future for the children. AICTE was set up in year 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. in turn. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. should involve itself in the educational effort.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. traffic control. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other .
Radhakrishnan 2. 3. b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. which are useful to the community. 1. Write short note on SUPW. d. 35 . manual work resulting in either goods or services. Dr. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. 2. 1. e. 6. 1955 4. 1952 3. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. f. c.2. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.2. a. meaningful.2.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India.
New Delhi : Shipra Publications. B. J. 36 .H. Ltd.2.P. Anupama. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Development of Educational System in India.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. History and Problems of Indian Education. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.P. Rao.1. Y. New Delhi: A. (2007). and Rao.K. V.(2005).C. Amala.D. History of Indian Education System. (2005). Publishing Corporation. R. P.K. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. History of Education. : Sharma. Singh. (2009). (2007). A.. and Nath. Y.K.
democratic republic. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.4 1. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. procedures.369 words in the English language version.3.3.3. Besides the English version.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2 1. 37 .3. directive principles and duties of citizens. assuring its citizens of justice.3.1 1.3.7 1. containing 395 articles.5 1. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.9 1. 1949. 1950.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3.3.8 1.3. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. for a total of 117. establishing the structure. equality. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.6 1.3. there is an official Hindi translation. Being the supreme law of the country. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.3. and liberty. it came into effect on January 26.1 Significance of DPSP 1.3.
Dr.3. 1947. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. On August 29. 3. administrative. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. According to the constitution.3. with Dr. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. After many deliberations and some modifications. learn the role of central and state government on education. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.In the August 14. The Assembly met. 1950. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. you will be able to: 1. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. 1. 1. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. economic. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. spread over a period of 2 years. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. understand our Indian constitution. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. legal and environmental. in sessions open to public. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. the Drafting Committee was appointed.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. 4. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. for 166 days. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. Two days later. political.3. 1947. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. Through them. 38 . social. 2.3. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 1. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members.
within the limits of its economic capacity and development. old age. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. on the basis of equal opportunity. Article 39A. for workers. men and women. and shall. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Equal justice and free legal aid. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Equal pay for both sex. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Condition for dignity of children. 39 . The State shall endeavour to secure. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. Liking wage etc. That the health and strength of workers. Protecting health of the workers. Article 41. provide free legal aid. Protecting children from exploitation. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Appropriate concentration of wealth. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Article 43. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Article 40. in particular. Article 42. make effective provision for securing the right to work. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Right to work. sickness and disablement. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. The State shall.government. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. No abuse of children. and in other cases of undeserved want. Organisation of village panchayat. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. Minimising inequalities in status.
It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. (Original Article 45. Article 45. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. a living wage. in particular. Article 47. industrial or otherwise. See also Article 21A). Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Article 44. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Participation of workers in management of industries. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Article 48. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Uniform civil code for the citizens. work. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 48A. to all workers. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. The State shall take steps. Article 46. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Article 49.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 43A. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. in particular. [declared by or under law made by 40 . By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. 2002 for “45. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. by suitable legislation or in any other way. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. The State shall endeavour to provide. and. Note: Subs. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. in particular. agricultural. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds.
Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. from spoliation. as the case may be. maintain just and honourable relations between nations.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. Article 50. 2002.Parliament] to be of national importance. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 45 . foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. disfigurement. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Separation of judiciary from executive. Article-21A Right to Education. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. destruction. 1. Article 51. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. 2.3. disposal or export. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. may be law determine”. Promotion of international peace and security. removal.
his guardian has given his consent thereto. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. in particular. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. 4. 7. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. 8.” 42 . from justice and all forms of exploitations. 3. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. 2002. 5. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. iii. caste. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. and shall protect them. ii. if such person is a minor. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. race. language or any of them”. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. and. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. 6.
Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Educational Reforms From time to time. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. for its vocabulary. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. The central government determines targets and promotes education. and by drawing. & 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 43 .9. 2. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. wherever necessary or desirable. the forms. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education.3. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4.
Local bodies and private enterprise. 7. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. etc. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. the state governments. Production of suitable for children and adults f. So that they may work well. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. All India Council of Medical Science.. private agencies etc. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. 8. By starting these projects.3. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. 6. The following pilot projects. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. 4. 5. So as to encourage education on right lines. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. to achieve the desired ends. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country.
Material concerning nation-wide interests. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. training and statistics. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. education for women. 9.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. 10. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. books. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. are published by it. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. 1. 3. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. 12. reports etc. 11. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. etc. 4. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. research.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas.3. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. is the state responsibility. The 45 . 1. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. handicapped. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education.
articles in the Directive principles. Article 21A c. Article 46 4.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Article 45 b. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Write short notes on a. 5. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . 1. 46 .7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education.3.3. Explain Directive principles 2. 1.
3. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. a. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.5. The Directive Principles of State Policy. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. a. 2002. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Article 45 . Article 46 5. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Development of Hindi Language 6. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Dr. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8.3. Article 29 and 30 7. 1. may be law determine”. a. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 47 . Ambedkar 2. b. Article-21A Right to Education. Clearing House function 9. Describe the educational role of State Government.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 4. 2002. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. b.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”.
(2009). Education in Emerging Indian Society. 48 . L. (2004). N. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. (2008). Education in Emerging Indian Society. Dash. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. S. S. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Ghosh.1.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta.3. Bhatia. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K and Narang C. K. B. (2007).
188.8.131.52.3.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.3. Students should be 49 . religious education should be broad based.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1. Christianity.6 184.108.40.206.2 1.4. Buddhism etc.4.5 1.4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.4. Jainism.1 1.4 Moral education 1.3.8 1.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.7 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4. Islam.
The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. duty-consciousness. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. In the complicated and complex society of today. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. you will be able to: 1. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline.4. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends.and dedication. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.D. According to E. understand the relationship between religion and education 2.4. integrity. religious education and the concept of secularism. know the position of religious education in our country 3. "In A multireligious society like ours..” Education broadens human outlook. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). Thus. As result of which. India' can produce men of character. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. 1. beauty and goodness so that 50 . it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. state meaning and need for moral education 1.
"In view of the provision in the Constitution. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. Viewing the defects of religious education. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. religion and democracy are same. 1. 1947 we achieved our freedom. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. it is clear that the State has no religion. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. In short. at least occasionally. According to Article 19.3. No religious tax can be imposed on them. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. if not regularly.4.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. through religious practices and 51 . It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. As our country is a country of diverse religions. As a matter of fact. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. castes and creeds. According to Article 22. Thus. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. Children attend these organizations. all citizens are free to follow any creed. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. rancour. Hence.” From the above.4. realizes God in himself. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. 1.3. They thought that any kind of narrow.
In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good.. If unreleased. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. As a result of which. It is religious education. moral and spiritual values. which can mould.teachings. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. one fully developed. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. which help him for the development of his character. and what is evil. aggressive. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. Good education. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. temperament etc. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. for the development of the individual and the society. when he becomes an adult. intellectual and physical faculties of children. It helps to modify habits attitudes. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . and other impulses are often denied direct expression. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). what is done and what is not done etc. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. He also learns about social.
Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. 53 . towards the society. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. 2. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. which is the basic need of a democratic life.4. Therefore. This should not be allowed to happen. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel.3.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. 3. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. If we open the pages of history. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. 1.
4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. fellow-feeling.4. Since all religions have virtues. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Write Article 22 2. Gurudwara as. 9.5. examples of patriotism. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Life histories of great persons of the world. stories of moral greatness. therefore. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. 10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. For this. churches and mosques 7. 11. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.
the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. the methods of teaching. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. “Let all be happy and free from disease. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. is that which develops moral values. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. It they learn what morality is in their early years. 3. Satyam (truth). 2.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Self sacrifice. Asvada (Control of palate). Cultivation of emotions. 6. therefore. 8. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 5. Without moral values.4. 8. 7. Purity.4. Moral education. Patriotism. in the home. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. Service to others. let men see well of one another. Fearlessness. 1. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Aparigarha (Non. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 5. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. students.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 55 . an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). 4. 6. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. 7. 4. 2. They will play their role effectively. 3. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Ahimsa (Non-violence).acquisitiveness). 1. Non-injury. The content of the curriculum. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Brahmacharya (celebacy).
In the school programme. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Integrity.4. Secondary Stage 1. 11. 4. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. National unity and Spiritual values. religions may be included in the syllabus. 3. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Good manners. The School Assembly should be held for a few.9. Good temper. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Unity of mankind. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . 2. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. 3. Asatyam (Non-thieving). The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. 56 . 10. Efficiency. Sharivashram (Physical work). One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. 1. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Discipline. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. minutes in the morning for group singing. discipline.
The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. In other words. 2. should form a normal part of school programme. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this connection. 5. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Silent meditation should be encouraged. 57 . Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. love of humanity.4. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. patriotism and self-discipline. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. University Stage 1. 4. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. 3. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes.
b. Sri Prakasa 6 . a. 2. Training of Character 3. Discuss the aims of Religious education. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. a. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. For this. 58 . They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. minutes in the morning for group singing. a. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. 2.4. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. 1959 5. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.4. 1. In short.1. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. b. The School Assembly should be held for a few.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.4. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. the. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion.
H. L. Dash. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Bhatia.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Theory and Principles of Education. B.4. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. M. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2004). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Publishing Corporation. (2008). K. New Delhi: A. N. Ltd. New Delhi : Siddiqui. J. N. (2008).1. 59 . (2003). K and Narang C. Pahuja.P. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.H.C.
5. disparities between provinces/States.5. Although.4 220.127.116.11. i.7 18.104.22.168 1.5.5. 60 .5 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.e. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1..2 1.5.12 22.214.171.124 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5.10 1.3 1.11 1.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.6 1.1 1.
4. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. This leads to separatist movements. 61 . 1. 6. 3. etc. energy. you will be able to: 1. understand the regional educational development in India 3. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. work hard towards this end. 1.5. 1.5. 2. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. they take appropriate measures. 7. They therefore.1. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 8. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. waters.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. Selfishness of the regional political leaders.5.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. 5.5. Accordingly. know the education suited to different environments. roads. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. for example.
on the basis of regional development may be formed. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. 2. Tight security arrangements should be made. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1.5. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. Secularism. 62 . Therefore. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. 3. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. some average. while others remained educationally backward. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. and.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. 4.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. • Separate States (of course viable States). some States became educationally far advanced. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II.
After the Planning Process has originated. Regional Centres of IGNOU. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. 1. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. while some States like Bihar. and provision of informal education to enable those. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. approved proposals worth Rs.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. These projects are in various stages of implementation.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. books.. remained under developed. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. Silchar. Funds amounting to Rs.84 crore was released in 2005-06. Out of this. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. In the Central sector. etc. Guwahati. Jammu and Kashmir. Even in each State. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. academic buildings. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. the State Governments.g. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. NIT.5. Itanagar.14. Mizoram. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. Central Universities of Assam. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. scholarships. However. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. etc. NERIST. Tezpur. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has.392. Rs. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. the Union Government. After the attainment of independence. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. Nagaland and NEHU. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity.480. 63 . freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. since its inception in 1998-99. library buildings.
NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Government expenditure on education. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.500. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west).60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.8 per cent in 05).8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.05 crore and Rs. 64 .40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.187. A provision of Rs.261. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. During 2003-04.57 crore and Rs. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.501. Tezpur University. Moreover. Out of this an amount of Rs.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.5. too. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.40.
is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). notes the study. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. 1. for which 16 sites. too. too. engineering and R&D. too. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. is very low compared to Southern and western parts.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. Listing the positives. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. English. pharma. Karnataka. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level.5. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. telecom. Karnataka. Andhra Pradesh. To add to the woes. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Moreover. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. for instance. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Tamil Nadu. Kerala and Gujarat. The Chandigarh Administration. Medical education.
when he will not be sure of time. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. while the former does not. life-oriented and environment slanted. Then education become realistic and idealistic. The living conditions. the interests. Of course. the socio-physical conditions. the needs. In the same manner. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. the working days: an academic . Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes.year. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. the vocations. taking the average in the middle. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. in which the learners live. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. the teaching methods. Hence it is called as need-based. even actually looking at the watch. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. the curricular subjects. 66 . For a learner living in a rural area. which a non-tribal person cannot do. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. The working hours of educational institutions. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. and so on. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed.
11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.5. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5. 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.5. to suit education to different environments? 1. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. 67 . 2.
Educational Development in India. and Nair.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Education Scenario in India. (2001). New Delhi: Authors press. Dubey. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.K. during the British rule. (2001). C.H. (2002).5. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. R. 68 . some of areas which were under the native rulers. some States have become more developed than others b.2. S.G. (2008). Education in Developmental Arena. a. remained undeveloped 3. 60% 1. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Giridhar.N. A. S. Salim.
UNIT – II 69 .
characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. school community and mass media. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. community development. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. 71 . secularism and democracy through Indian education. National Integration. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. semi literate and illiterates.
6.8 126.96.36.199 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.1.3 188.8.131.52 2.1 2.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 184.108.40.206.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.6.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 220.127.116.11.1.1.2 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.6 Education for Secularism 2.7 2.4 2.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .LESSON 2.1.1.
the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. In the matter of admitting students in schools. understand the concept of democracy. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy.1. creed.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.2. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. Democracy thus means power of the people. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality.1. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. there should be made no distinction of caste. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. colour or wealth. socialism and secularism 2. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. for the people by the people”.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. 2.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. The students may be associated with the management of the school. 73 . 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. This is the political aspect of democracy. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. 2. Abraham Lincoln. 3) Provision of Manual Work. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. you will be able to: 1. socialistic and secular state.1. socialism and secularism 2.
hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together.1. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. declamation contest etc.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. 74 . especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. 12) Visits to Legislatures. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 11) Student Parliament. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. it soon spread all over the world. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. may be planned. debates. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Democracy means 2. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. There are different brands of socialism. 2.
none high”. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 2. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low.1. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. but on the path of non-violence.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. service and cooperation. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. free from exploitation. the employer and the employee are all on the same level.5. 7) Special facilities for girls. 75 .5. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling.1. 2) Socialism aims at equality. Under it. 2. the wealthy and the poor. the prince and the peasant. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. oppression and disparity. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. 76 . "which seeks the development of physical. Everyone says. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. According to Holydake. 2. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 11) State schools. 5. “India is a secular-country. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. secularism is being propagated. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values.1. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. Write any two main features of socialism.” In every political and educational corner.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’.
there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. “Webster further says. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. There is need of making the people open minded.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. liberty. 5) It implies tolerance. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. Moral values have to be imbibed. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. 8) It believes in co-existence. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. 2) It permits freedom of religion.1.6. During the recent past. A large number of people is uneducated. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. In this type of prevailing situations. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. the belief that the state morals. That is why.opposed to religious education. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2.1. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. should be independent of religion. people have narrow mindedness. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. fraternity. 77 . 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. 2.6. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. Equality. people started believing in regionalism. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. 3) It permits freedom of worship. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. 9) It stress free inquiry. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. education etc. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life.
there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. The very sight of the building. Patiala. that the central string of all religions is one. In the celebration of each such function.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. 2. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 .presented by the students in the gathering. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. students belonging to different religions should be associated. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. 1) Moral Education. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. tours and trips may be organized. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show.1.6. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. In the hands of such teachers. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. education. Religious Education. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. While doing so. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. No doubt. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. There should be some internal checking of the material being.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Define Secularism 9.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved.1. 2.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. No doubt. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. The term secularism was first used by 8. The word “Seculum” means 7.
Equal Opportunities for Admission. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. 3. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. b. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Abraham Lincoln.1. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. for the people and the people”.1. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. 4. Respect of Individual Personality. colour or wealth. c. The students may be associated with the management of the school. d. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. b. This present age 7. creed. a. Provision of Manual Work. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Socialism aims at equality.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. a. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. a. Since socialism stands for equality.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. Socialism aims at social justice. Power of the people 2. 6. 5. there should be made no distinction of caste. 3. Tuition free education b. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. 2. George Jacob Holydake 80 . 4. 5.
Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. B.” 9. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K.1. N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J. K and Narang C. 81 . Modern Trends in Indian Education.C. Anmol Publications Pvt.8.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2005). Mohanty. b. (2004). It treats all religions on an equal footing. Dash. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 10. (2007). New Delhi : Pahuja. Ltd. N. Theory and Principles of Education. (2003). should be independent of religion. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. the belief that the state morals. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. b. (2008). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. P. education etc. Bhatia. a. It permits freedom of religion. a. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. L. Ltd.
2.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .10 18.104.22.168.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.LESSON 2.8 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2 22.214.171.124 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.4 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.7 2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2.9 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.5.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 184.108.40.206 2.
2. as learners.2. development. 2. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. as it is t he aim o f modern education. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. understandings. emotional. A teacher is first and foremost. therefore. as citizens.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. social and moral aspects. It involves physical. you will be able to: 1. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. The developmental roles of children.generation to another. mental. 83 . The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. as workers. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. a r e 1. aims and objectives of the school. and 4. application. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. who are placed in his custody. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. moral. 2. skills. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. 3. as persons. 2.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils.an instructor of school children. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. social.
member of his community at the outset. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. socially. motivated. Teacher as a Citizen Next. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. The students live. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. 1. mental. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. 2. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. morally. 3. The following are some of such roles described in brief. social and emotional health. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. experiences and acceptance. emotionally.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. culturally confident. 2. morally. mentally. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. intellectually. and aesthetically to become. He has to look after their physical. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society.2. inquisitive.All education should lead to better behavioural development. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. a part of their day in 84 . economically effective. physically fit for socially efficient. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. He is to become an active member.
They will be spending with their parents. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. and most of hours. science club. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Unless. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. solve them. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. 2.2. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. India is a land of many castes. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. fine art associations. activities of the society into which he is born. creeds. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. It 85 . it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. 4. faiths.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. Dr. List out the role of teachers towards community development . photographic clubs. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning.the school being under the custody of teachers. languages and religions. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward.
social studies. ‘We should not become parochial.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. and make into one strong national unit. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. therefore. poems. stand up straight.” Regarding the role of education. Nehruji has explained this as. the study of language and literature.” 2. c. At the primary stage the importance of stories. 1. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. Let us. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one.is.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. a. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. the citizens of the Republic of India. folklore and teaching of social studies. It should broaden the outlook.5. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. Sampurnanand remarked. b. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. should be emphasised. national anthem and other national songs. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. with straight backs and look up at the skies. The only process is the process of education. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer.2. this integration of the Indian people. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. narrow-minded provincial. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . Radhakrishnan.
educational excursions. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. National Days—January 26. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. dramatics and youth festivals. 10. 2. ACC. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. militar y training like the NCC. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. tours. 6. Uniform for School Children. 3. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. 9. 87 . Taking Pledge. Reverence of National Flag. t he st udent s and t he community. Textbooks. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Celebrations of National Days. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Student Camps. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. and picnics. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. 5. debates. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. 8. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. Co-Curricular Activities. sports. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. languages and literature. Scouts and Guides. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. symposia. 7. 4. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country.different social sciences. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Singing of National Anthem.
colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . Students Exchange and Tours. v. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. Educational and Travel Documentaries.11. 12. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. colour. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. Admissions. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa.5. School Projects. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. iv. Recognition of Institutions. region or religion. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. Open-Air Dramas. ways of thinking and doing things. 88 . 2. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. flora and fauna. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places.2. Admissions to schools. 14. language. 15. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 16. 13. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. iii. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. ii.
vii. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. viii. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Define National Integration 3. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. irrespective of national boundaries. camps. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes.2. Community dinners. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. 2. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. ix.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. cultures and races on equal bases.vi. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students.
than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.friendships between children of different countries. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”.F. that war.2. Therefore. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. (b) stories of children of other lands. 5. Teachers 90 . lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. Strong has observed. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.” 2. 2. if it happens. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .2. the international level. often in connection with anniversaries.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it.as important as that of a national citizenship.e. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. 4. 6. 3. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. 2. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. This. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. Radhakrishnan states.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.. of his body and mind.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. (c) fairly tales. In a very real sense. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. therefore. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. Dr. and the healthy development.6.6. C. Organising of debates and.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. patriotism is not enough. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged.
a German. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Impartial in their Treatment. They should not be propagandists.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. an Englishman. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts.” Well Informed About World Situations. Russian. Indian and American. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries.
It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. understand and indiscipline: 1. and help the students to over . Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .2. Wide Spread Frustration . These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. 4. Devaluation of Values .2. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students.Another major. As the school is but a miniature society. 2. leading to. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. majority of people are.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. 5. which results in agitation and aggression language. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. It does not prepare students for life. Defects of the educational System . there is wide spread frustration among all people. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. the education function can be carried. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. 3. If this is done. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. Chronic Poverty .Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.
love.democratic nature. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 2.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. 2. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. co-operation. 93 . 5. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. 2. 4. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. fellow feeling. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.2. sympathy and good will among the nations. 3. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. community development.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 220.127.116.11 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 18.104.22.168 Functions and role of schools in the society 22.214.171.124 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 126.96.36.199 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 188.8.131.52 Radio as an agency of education 184.108.40.206 Television as an agency of education 220.127.116.11 Press as a medium of education 18.104.22.168 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
22.214.171.124 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 126.96.36.199 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
188.8.131.52 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
184.108.40.206 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
Moreover. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Hence. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. In fact. 2. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Emphasising this thing. art galleries. To make them achieve their aim. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. During the course of time. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. Museums. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. He taught his students orally. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. periodicals. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. the invention of the printing press. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Crow and Crow write. Define community. led to the printing of books. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Then came newspapers. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. are increasingly used in education.V. Now internet is being used.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. “All the citizens of the community. books.
1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. music. It enlightens public opinion. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. rather than on picture. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. In the emphasis is on sound. 2. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Effective means of presenting music.3. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. Various talks. Thus. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. 2.6. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. current affairs and other areas. Important happening inventions. Reynolds. the place of importance. It is also an important source of entertainment. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. “Listening participation” in current history. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. languages. Thus. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. dram appreciation.telecast. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”.G. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. In collaboration with the experts.classroom teachers. Students listen various talks. social studies. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. politics. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. art. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. A lot of work by way of pre. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. 101 . the teacher still occupies.
plays. at recreational centers. travel talks. speech. at drawing room. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. at any place. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. projects or creative activities. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. School concerts. 3. 5. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. Before presenting the programme. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. development of lessons. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. audibility and presentability. At present. at play. Team-teaching demonstrations. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Participation of local teachers and pupils. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. style. 102 . informal and non-formal education. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. Making learning an open system. fol classical music. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. 4. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. mathematics.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 220.127.116.11 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
18.104.22.168 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 22.214.171.124 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
4 Non formal educational system 2.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.8 184.108.40.206.4.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.2 2.7 220.127.116.11.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 18.104.22.168 Advantages of formal education 22.214.171.124 Limitations of formal education 2.3.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.LESSON 2.1 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 126.96.36.199 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.6 2.5 2.
In ancient time in India.4. the most important agency of formal education. Education. starting and ending at -a particular age.4. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 4. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. open university. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.2. School is. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. 3. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. 5.4. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. open school. compare formal and non formal system of education. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. the temple. the family.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. 2. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. the learner are acquainted. 7. you will be able to: 1. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 2.4. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college.3. 2. imparted at the residence of the teacher. 4. 9. 2. 6. Education associated with a degree or certificate. the community.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. the mass media et. Education organised by some agency. To realize this objective of education. 2. it was mostly. 110 . know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. 8. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. say the Government or the private enterprise. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. his mental alertness.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan..
also called tertiary. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. third stage. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start.a secondary education. Through early formal education. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. capacity. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. and relations are formed and developed through normal play.3. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. 2. diplomas. the elements of language are first learned. such as a high school or secondary school. or academic degrees. or post secondary education. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . as well as vocational education and training. Higher Education: Higher education.4. Concepts of proportion. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. structured education. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection.4. In general. depending on the jurisdiction. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.3.2. Some education systems have separate middle schools.
4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities.which will help for nation's development. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. 3. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. 4. What are levels of formal educational system? . that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. late beginners etc.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. is an important agency of formal education.4. 2. 2. children with disabilities. and remote dwellers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1.4. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . Agencies can be classified as 2.
non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. continuing education and on the job oriented education. curriculum. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. until 1970 it had not been defined. It unlocks the doors of development plans. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction.learning client take some learning objectives. adults as well as children. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. place of instruction. “Non-formal education should 113 . It is functional. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. However.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. to help themselves. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. adding up to a true learning society. Thus.e. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. According to Malcolm A. financially supported life formal education.. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. It is deliberate. it has its own valid claim to reality. Open university. etc.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Adiseshiah. Therefore.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. staffed. planned.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. open learning. It is much more responsive to needs and change. one could say that non-formal education is an active. admissions. systematic. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. it is a more effective tool for rural development. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word.formal education. i. Non-formal education includes adult education.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. systematic.
4. Lawrence. 4. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. 7.4. international understanding. admissions.renewal. curriculum. It should lay emphasis on the self.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Preparation for future needs. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. socialism. Part-time education. 5. the Ideas of citizenship.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things.” 2. To help industrial workers to better their skills.learning pattern. 114 . are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.4. To develop in the student. i. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.” According to H. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. age. modes of teaching. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs.e.4. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. place of education. 2. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. national integration. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. 6. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. self.S. 3. exploring. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth.S.be marketable and vocationalised. Flexibility in various aspects of education. co-curricular activities. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. Process of sharing. 2. evaluation etc. Covering life span of an individual.
Meeting the omissions of formal education. Eradication of adult literacy. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. 4. Senior Secondary. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. 2. 5. 5. 3. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 8. 10. in villages and those who live in towns. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. • 2.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Universalisation of primary education. 115 . • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. school dropouts.4. To offer Secondary. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 2. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. working adults. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 6. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. publication and information dissemination. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 3. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 7. 4. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances.4. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Technical. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country.4.4. 9. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2.
effective in modern societal context. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. others are formal and informal. factory. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college .4. All-round development i. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. if organised in isolation. 4. library.full time to learners – can be home. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. To better qualifications. etc. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies.4.. centres of correspondence education. Institutions for formal education. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. etc. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. Radio and television. To make if. 2. Again. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . 2.4. To increase knowledge and 2. farm. open space. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. training centres in factories.2. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. self-employment iii.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. Therefore. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. 3. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. public libraries.
9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Give examples of non formal education? . very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Teaching to face teaching. Lecturing T. . Face Contact programmes. Correspondence lesson.V. Define non formal education. List out any two aims of non formal education. radio. 6. 117 .6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. . Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Written tests. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. institution. 7. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.
systematic. b. b. 2. adults as well as children. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. 7. 4. a. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. Secondary level. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. a. Primary level. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. School 3.” 6. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 5. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Open School. Pre-school level. 118 . The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. 2. the college and the university come under this category.4.4. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. The school. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Open University. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.4.2. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. Formal and Non Formal 2. Higher Secondary level and University level.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. 3. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss.
4. New Delhi : 119 . B. (2008).2. (2003). Dash. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2005). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N. Pahuja. (2007). J. P. (2004). Bhatia. (2008). K. Mohanty. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. K and Narang C. Gupta. Modern Trends in Indian Education. N. J. Ltd. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Anmol Publications Pvt. S. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. L. Theory and Principles of Education. Education in Emerging India.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.C. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.
3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5.6 2.LESSON 2.5.3 Objectives of Open University 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .4.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 188.8.131.52 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.3.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 184.108.40.206 2.1 2.5.4 Need for Open University 2.4 Open University 2.4.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.7 220.127.116.11.2 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 Philosophy of Open University 2.4.
3. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. 2. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. industries. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. 2.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. understand the meaning of continuing education 2.5. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. It is a lifelong process. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. know the need and objectives of open university. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.5. It is a continuous process. labourers and half educated individuals.2. farmers. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other.5. Under these circumstances. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . Thus. 2. This knowledge may be in political field. characteristics of open university 4. For them.5. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. continuing education is a boon. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. Any person.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. give the meaning. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. you will be able to: 1. However. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. economic field or such other fields.
Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. For them too continuing education is essential. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. Throughout the country. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. T. if he gets opportunity to develop them.3. Doctors.directly related to his job.literate person. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. cultured and progressive. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. On the other hand. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. deteriorating to his character and personality. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature.V. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Persons engaged in health services. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society.5. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Cinema. are also contributing their might for the purpose.V. Block Development Officers. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Radio and T. 2. Radio. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. After the achievement of independence. Thus. On the other hand. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation.
These books are not very useful.3. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. 7. (6) folk stories. 4. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons.5. (8) psychology of adults. (17) modern international and national events. 2. 6. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. 2. 3. (13) psychology of child behaviour. 2.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.3. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. we have not been able to achieve our targets. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons.V. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 123 . A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it.5. Of course. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. 5.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (14) information about bringing up young children. (10) first aid. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (16) liking. (7) folk songs. habits of people of other lands. (15) music. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation.. (1) ancient history. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (2) basic religious matters. especially women. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. and Radio. Inspite of the great efforts.
of educational opportunities. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 .4. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. NLM was launched in the year 2. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. lack of time etc. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.5. 2. attendance restrict ion. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.5.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
e. Education is not a once for-all process. c. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. 3. No one is too old or too late to learn.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. Which was the first open university in India? . instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. 5. 2. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. but 125 . IGNOU was established in the year 6. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education.5. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? .” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. it makes use of educational techno logy. the higher the degree of openness. its education is not class room based but home based. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. 4.unobserved. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. and in teaching. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. b. 2. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. d. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced.4. 6. 2. 4. 2. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. it a ims at wider and hig her.5. 4. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. who were deprived of t he same earlier. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n.who did not get it. 2. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. supplementing the existing provision. 2. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. 3.4. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. cho ice o f co ur ses. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. 3. 5. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. or who realised too late that they need it. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n .5. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 126 . Mo re o ver. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.
The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 127 . Correspondence tuition. Therefore. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. 6. 8. semi – literates. 3.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . cha ng e t heir life compet ence. Every day. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . List out any four methods of Open University? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. a society. school drop outs. Laboratory works.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Tutor Comments. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. In the present day world. 2. 4. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. Self instructional materials.2. a state or nation. 1. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 7. 8.5.4. you have learnt the concept.
2.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. unskilled workers and other professionals. youth. 6. 8.ambitious learners. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. a. 7. P r int med ia b. its education is not class room based but home based. Broad casting lectures c.5. b. Explain the objectives. 1988. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 8. 1985. which may include house wives.5. 7. 9.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. 3. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. a. a. aspirants for continuing education. d. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. 4. 128 . 2. Television Lessons. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. b. cho ic e o f co u r ses. (1) ancient history. need and characteristics of Open University. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. agricultural and industrial workers. (2) basic religious matters.
K and Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ltd.5. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Modern Problems of Education. Udaiveer. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. (2004). R.. Reddy. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia.K. L. (2007). K. (2001).2. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.S. (2004).8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 129 . S.
UNIT – III 131 .
its causes and remedial measures. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. In Lesson 2. wastage and stagnation. All which is the need of the hour. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. and teacher education. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. the education of women. which may claim the attention of those concerned.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. Examination reform. 133 . Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Training teachers for all levels of education. examination.
8 3.2 EFA – How? 3.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.1.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4 3.3.1 EFA – For whom? 3. 135 .1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.6 3.1.LESSON 3.7 188.8.131.52.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.3 New initiatives.1.5 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.184.108.40.206 3.3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.
Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. 2. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate.3. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. 3. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. directed that. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. you will be able to: 1. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. “The State shall 136 . economic or cultural. Continuing Education (CE) 1. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. Therefore. (EOI) 2. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. therefore. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2.1. may be political. social. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. On the other hand. Eradication of Illiteracy. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. education received added importance and significance. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation.1.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. understands the country. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE).
After the enrolment of the students in school is over.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution.endeavour to provide. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. Continuing Education (CE). Universalization of Retention. After the attainment of independence. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Three Stages for Universalization. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. the national Government under. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. 137 . Universalization of Enrolment. Due to the adoption of democratic system. 3. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . Therefore. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. It enables the parents to send their children to School. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. rights and responsibilities. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage.
Therefore. then to 1976. 138 . UNESCO Bulletin states.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. present and future.1. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. 3. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. 1990. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. Write Article 45. This target had to be revised to 1970. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1995 (for upper primary stage). educational enterprise. It is safe to assure. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. later to 1988.3. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal.
The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. etc. their enrolment and retention.3. slum areas. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. 8. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. rural areas. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. By undertaking survey. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women.1. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. Apart from primary education. 10. 6. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). adolescent and adult. Education of the Impaired. their social economic status and occupations. The Social Education. creed. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. the art of preparing fruit-juice. sex. NAEP.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. and Women’s education programme should be improved. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. Disabled. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. 3. nutrition education and sports and games. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. 11. 5. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. 12. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. Education of Girls. Jams and Jellies. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. problem of literacy. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. 3.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. In order to make the programme of education for all community. 139 . Early childhood education should be streamlined. 9. FELF. Emphasis must be given on health education.
Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. 4. Expand MLL and SSA . Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1.3. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Wastage and Stagnation. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.3. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.e. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.1. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.
Familial Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .first stage of education. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. Personal Factors .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Social Factors . it is considered as wastage. School Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.
. 7. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Define Wastage. .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. 142 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.
It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. School Factors . relating to home.The following factors. school or society. Societal Factors . a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. They are described hereunder :1. Family Factors . Personal Factors .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. rural or urban 3.3.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. in his home.1.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.
casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. mid-day meals. etc. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. stationary. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. 144 .discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Define Stagnation? 9. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . uniforms.
6. 4. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all.3. 3. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. Universalization of Provision b. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. improvement of curriculum.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.” 3. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. 2. 4. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. a. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA.1.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 3. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Hartog Committee. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. a. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Universalization of Retention 2. 3. Minimum Levels of Learning b. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Universalization of Enrolment c.1.. b. “The State shall endeavour to provide. a. directed that. 145 . therefore.1.
T. S. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 3.K. introduce graded curriculum. (2008). Hemchand. S. Sharma. improve examination system.7. Problems of Elementary Education. b. a.K. (2007). (2001).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations.1. Personal Factor b. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. New Delhi: 146 . Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Familial Factors c. Social Factors 8. 9. School Factors d. a. Crescent Publishing Corporation.N.
5.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2.1 Problems of examination 220.127.116.11 Grade System 3.2.1 18.104.22.168.2.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 22.214.171.124 New evaluation procedures 126.96.36.199 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2.LESSON 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 188.8.131.52 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 184.108.40.206.5.5.1 Advantages of Co-education 220.127.116.11 Let us sum up 147 .5.3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2 3.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 18.104.22.168 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 22.214.171.124 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.7 Open book examination 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.4 Question banks 3.2.
2. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2. 3.8 3. Besides. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.2.2. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. you will be able to: 1.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. 4.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. 3. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.2. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.3.9 3. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . 3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. but on the other. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .3. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. suggest the new evaluation procedures.
many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. which the educational authorities have to face. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. schools for them wherever necessary. etc. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty.3. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. If the students are in sufficient number. They may cause problems relating to discipline. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. etc. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. 149 .. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. etc. hostel facilities. waiting rooms for girl students. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. They develop secondary sex characteristics. 3.2. The following steps should be taken up. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. roadside Romeoism.
1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. 150 . It is considered as a major sub-system.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. conduct of internal examinations. public interested in education. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. assessment and Finance. teachers. Instruction. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. public administrators and statesmen.2. the examination system has an important role to play.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. appointment of paper-setters.2. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3.
tabulators. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. 3. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. etc. establishing reliability. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. training of examiners. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. etc. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. values. invigilators. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters.2. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. announcement of results. validity and practicability. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. etc. introducing objective-based testing. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. etc. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. examiners.printing and distribution of question papers. etc.4. scrutinizers.
The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. 3) With respect to method of teaching. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. 152 . Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. may also discredit them. Rote memorisation. 3. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. halo-effect. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. stereotyped questions.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. which they are expected to study. Subjects.4. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested.2... lack of objectivity etc. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. do not appeal to the students and parents. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Vagaries in making. 2) From the angle of content of education.. takes the place of comprehensive learning. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. it s a common experience that subjectivity. 7) In connection with the question papers.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed.
. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. List any two merits of examination. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests.a part of internal assessment.develop true love for education. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. 4. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. 153 . Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. re-numbering of answer scripts. may be introduced. etc. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Spot valuation. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Question Books may be developed in all schools.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. revaluation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination.
Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. The students can take any course offered in any department. attitudes.5. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . It is complicated. Their interests. Every paper is treated equal. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. he is given extra credit points. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure.2.3.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. When a person chooses to work extra. Advantages More autonomy is given to students.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper.5. 3.2. The new scheme of assessment. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination.2. In actual practice. skills are given importance. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. In this system. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.
• To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. These weightages are called credits. only the total credits to be earned is specified. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects.discipline. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. While designing syllabus. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v.good. 3. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. The human error of evaluation is ± 10.5. or as a 4 credit course. Groupism is encouraged. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120.poor. This system reduces comparison of marks. v. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. courses can have weightages defined. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . An example is a seminar. poor. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents.2.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. In the new system.
5. 156 .5.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.2. 3. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. However. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.2. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. the need for re-evaluation should not arise.5. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.2. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. 3. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. 3. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.
setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. What is the reason for introducing grade system? .5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. recruitment. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. There are no proper procedures for selection. In the hierarchy. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.3.2. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. Therefore. 6.2. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. 3. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. List any four new evaluation procedures. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. . However.
No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. taking up the follow-up programmes. etc. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. submitting of the inspection reports. 3. playgrounds. books are followed. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. They are. finding out the adequacy of.. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. inspecting the class-room teaching. Academic inspection. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. laboratory equipment. requirements.2. school buildings. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. in a sense. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. When they are fully realised. interpersonal relationships and so on. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. disciplinary problems. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. etc. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. in contrast. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools.qualified personnel. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance.6.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. 1. finding out whether the prescribed text. staff.. whether the syllabus has been covered. complaints and compliments. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. wherever necessary. library books. qualifications. of late. being realised as two different functions. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. 158 .
3. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. their professional knowledge. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made.Ed. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively.2. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. course in either educational. In the case of departmental candidates. aptitude. at least. M.Ed. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. or. In the light of these conceptualisation.. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments.. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Similarly.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. Insistence on specialisation in the B. once in five years. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. 159 . when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. courses. modern. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions.
Grade System. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. d. a. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. b. 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. b. a. 160 . Instruction.2. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.2. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. 4. 3. b. 2. 3. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System.2. assessment and Finance. c. 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. a.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Administration. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.
Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. R and Sharma. a. K. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. 7. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. b. S. b. (2002). b. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Open book examinations.4. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. a. c. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. (2004). 5. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.2. 3. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. New 161 . Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. K. Multiple sets of question paper.a part of internal assessment. Vaidya. Educational Reforms. Question banks. (2005). History and Problems of Education in India.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Problems of Education in India. a.
state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. identify the needs of rural India and social.3.8 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3. 4.10 3. 3.3.5 3.9 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3. 162 . you will be able to: 1. 5. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.6 3.3.3.LESSON 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3.1 3.3.3 126.96.36.199.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. 3.3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.4 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2 3.7 3.
Similar is the case with some other States.e. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919..3. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education.. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. The Calcutta Madras. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education.. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . and 3 years of First Degree Course. Consequent on the recommendations. The.e. 2. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage.. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. i. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates.specialisation programmes 3. 10 years of general Secondary Education. e. 8 years of general education. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. University Education. Commission emphasised to continue. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.g. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. in Andhra Pradesh. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. etc. the Banaras Sanskrit College. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses .3. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education.
It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. habits of hard work and develop . to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. historical. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. and. 3. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. Provision for transfer of credits to students. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. social. to prepare. 5. educational channels.3. 8. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. However. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . cultural and economic development of the country. economical and political. b. is also a plus point . 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 10. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. 7. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 5) to help for the social. to imbibe.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. who desire to change from one stream to another. 6.a sense of dignity of labour. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved .confidence in students.
The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. Philosophically it is not the conception. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. cooperativeness. and.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. 1. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. on one hand. etc. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. The General Educational Spectrum. Sociologically it is undesirable. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. and that required to enter the tertiary level. to develop national character. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. social justice. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions.3. 3. democratic living. international understanding.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum.. cultural and' religious tolerance. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . Psychologically. at the other.national integration.
Biology. physics or mathematics. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. In our country. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. or other machinery.3. technological. technical. horticulture. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. rural health. and vocations based on dairy-farming. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. educational and cultural services. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. In the vocational spectrum. such as Agriculture. commerce. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. 2. vegetable growing. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Commerce and other disciplines. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. commerce. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. industrial agricultural production is growing. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Science. medical plants. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. professional.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. Agriculture is the main occupation. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. All these need for an. the rural areas have suffered very much.— tube-wells. 166 . India is a land of villages. 3. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. In the matter of language. chemistry. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. fish culture.
List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely .7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. In this way. There had been favourable reaction from the students.. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. 3. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. can be ensured. the local resources available. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. social justice. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In time. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream.etc. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States.. In this it may be concluded. and the needs. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. 4.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. interests and aptitudes of the students. etc. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . and 5. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2.
3.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. b. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. J. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. (2008). 3. a. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.C. b.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (2005). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal.3. habits of hard work and develop . S.3. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.3. (2007). Ltd. to imbibe. General Educational Spectrum and b. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. Dash. J. 2. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Mohanty.3. a.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. we studied the history. New Delhi : 168 . to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Modern Trends in Indian Education. a. B. 3. Vocational Sepctrum. Anmol Publications Pvt. Calcutta University Commission 2. 3. N. objectives. (2001).a sense of dignity of labour.K.3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.
6 3.5 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.13 188.8.131.52 3.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4. social and 169 .10 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”.4.4.9 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.8 3. Education contributes to human development.4.LESSON 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.3 184.108.40.206 3.12 220.127.116.11.4.2 3.11 3.4.4.
3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .4. Nursing. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. During the year 1937. higher education of girls developed immensely. you will be able to: 1. While women constituted only 9. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. family. There is a close connection between education and development. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. although we have miles to go. analyze the women and distance education. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. The relevance of women’s education to social. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. 3. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. economic. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. 3. In the post —independence period. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. particularly 170 . Education . It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. Teaching and Fine Arts. community and nation is universally acknowledged. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. Dr.higher education in particular.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. These courses were. cultural and political development of the individual. Home Economics.4. For the first time in the history of India.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country.
0 43. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.4.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.1 31. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. levels and professions.0 16. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. Coimbatore. we have more than 1200 institutions.0 32. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.4.D.9 14. Yet.1 24.65 lakhs in 1994-95. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. in our country.2 29.N. In 1950-51.4. The idea of women’s education for equality. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. out of 9200 and odd colleges. In the rest of the country. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. Mumbai.9 27. 3.T Women University. Even today. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. Kodaikanal.women. 3.2 22. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Mother Teresa Women University. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.0 Today. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b.56 64.4.53 34. 3.27 89.73 10. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3.36 3.4. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .4.that of boys.83 47. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .66 66.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .34 33.44 35. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.4%) prefer Arts subjects. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.47 65.46 82.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.54 12.1 and 14.1 respectively. 2.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.63 Female % 34. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .17 52.
amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. 3. she will only learn fashion. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education.4. The major hurdles. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. irrelevance of the content of education. Also. curriculum not suited to their requirements. financial difficulty of the parents. what is the need for higher education for her. distance of the college or university from home. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. particularly. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. They gave up their studies to enter home life. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Book banks should be established. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. Thus. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. marriage is a very common I factor. They argue that when their daughter need not earn.hinders the girls from getting higher education. According to a survey. and coeducation may spoil her character. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. etc. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. In college. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. 173 .6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. In every third family. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. promoted and increased.
space. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. is the only tool for realising empowerment. It also brings about 174 . Geographic distance of educational institutions. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. resources and socio . Education. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women.4. and the limitations of the conventional education system. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Distance education is a boon to women. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Full-time employment. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world.economic disabilities faced by women. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Empowerment in a nutshell.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. 3. It enables to study. 3.4. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. There are constraints of time. It is a productive investment.
legal awareness and economic independence.4. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. education of women is of paramount importance.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. Empowerment is an active. for full development of our human resources. higher learning. Women are partners in development. on their own. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. The major objectives of women's higher education. This can be achieved through reflection. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . empowerment means being assertive. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. 3. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. education of women must be given priority in national plans. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers.
Reservation for women. which is pending for a long time. Scholarships and concessions for women.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. which had been the sole domain of men. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. The local administration. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. 3. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. The educational institutions. Better opportunities.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. who are eager to take up courses. especially so in the developing countries. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. 176 . will encourage them to venture new grounds. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. But their number is small. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. has to be implemented at the earliest. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women.4.
Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . talents. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.9%).. especially in developing countries like African countries. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . engineering and related technologies (16. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations.8%). although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%).11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Australia. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. According to Lindy Hyam. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.000 women in the country.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. IDP Education. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability.4. capacities etc.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. Also. Chief Executive. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. But. 3.3 percent. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.1%) and architecture and building (38. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
C. Coimbatore. Centre for Women’s Studies. Women Education. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. SNDT Women’s University. 43% 6. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. A. Pattanaikj.R.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. 4. Kodaikanal. and Swain. (2000). 2. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. A. (2005).K. S. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. (2007). Women and Education. Annakodi. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. R. community and the nation.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. R. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Women Education.to the family. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Rao. 4. Rajasthan 5. S. 178 . and Suryalatha.4. a. Mumbai.4. Mother Teresa Women University. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. (2008). 3. R. Mumbai. individuals and society b. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. create the right attitude towards life. Coimbatore. 3. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. 3. Mishra.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. SNDT Women’s University.4.
5 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.LESSON 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation. so as to enable them to acquire 179 . There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. They should be trained.5. whole.5.9 3.5.8 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.personality of children in and out of school.5.5.2 3.5.7 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.6 3.3 3.5.11 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4 3.10 3.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168 3.
5. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. national consciousness. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. Dearth of new technology of teaching. social and emotional integration. 180 .3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. equality and justice. and national character. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. international.5. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. understanding and strong desire for international peace. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. 3. know the pre service and in service training facilities. 4. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Lack of physical facilities. you will be able to: 1. Shorter working hours.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. 3. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction.5. understand the training teachers for Primary.
it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. the centre. Depending on the levels.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. etc. a Diploma course and a Degree course.. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. the secondary teacher education.Ed. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . and M. If the student teachers are working teachers. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. it is called the Extension teacher Education. 3. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. (NCERT) New Delhi. 3. inservice and extension education programmes. Lop-sided curriculum. the state Government. At the diploma level. higher secondary teacher education.Less qualified teacher educators. the primary teacher education. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching.. levels.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. students. and the collegiate teacher education. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years .5. Inadequate training in practical skills. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. who have not been trained earlier. it is called the In-service teacher education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors.Ed. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.5. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community.
6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Science Education units. Education cells. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . collegiate cells.5. Educational teehnology cells.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Also Guidance Bureaux. 3. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. extensio n service. non-formal. are established. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. state Institutes of Educat ion. etc.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . depart ments etc. Evaluation unit. Expand NCERT 2.
to improve curricular programmes. laboratories.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. primary and secondary school teachers.. schools and sister institutions. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. to offer consultative services. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training .. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. to ensure teacher competence.. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department.Ed.Ed. material conditions relating to libraries. and so on. degree. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . to prescribe conditions for recognition. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . which should include experience in the primary schools too. despite its vast expansion. and 183 . should be improved on a top priority basis. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. audio visual aids. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . which help breaking isolation from one another .
With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Agriculture. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. though no pre-service training. etc. Modern Techniques of Teaching.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. Organisation of Content Courses. To meet this exigency. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . 184 . Psychology of Students. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. Workshops. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. not came up once again. and XII. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. Hence.secondary education. The problem. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Induction Courses. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. Meanwhile. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. methodology and evaluation. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. whether they should have professional education or. etc. Modern Methods of Evaluation. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education.
for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented..Ed.’s are elig ible for M.’s for Ph.A. All B Ed. courses and M. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training..5. For re-orienting the teachers. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.Ed. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. (Education) are organized by 185 . Degree and M. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. These facilities are available for regular students. training.. Post-Graduates also undergo B. 3.Ed.Ed. State Institutes of Education. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.... Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. (Education) and M.. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.S. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. M. Pre-service training is for those.A. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. Degree.. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. Courses leading to B. Ajmer. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. in Education.Ed.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.D. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.Ed.
6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. (Ed). What is the role of ERIC? . 3. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. However. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. established by tradition and teachers of the past.. 4. 5.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.A. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics.A.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned.5. of conduct—written or unwritten. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. . 186 . Hence the employability of M. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . they should be conscientious . (Ed. 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively.. and B.). as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.
5. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. 4. 3. 3. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 4. Ajmer. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. Explain code of conduct for teachers. National Council of Educational Research and Training.5. a. a.3. 2. 187 . these problems are not as such cannot be solved. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 2. 3. 6. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. 3. b. they should be conscientious. The necessity is however this. Discuss the problems of teacher education. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.5. However.5. b. Bhopal.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Shorter working hours. a. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore.
Mohanty. Teacher Education. Teacher Education. B.N.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. (2009).5. (2010). Publication Pvt. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . P. Ltd Aggarwal. Tewari. and Teacher Education. A. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.3.D. Corporation. (2003). J.
UNIT – IV 189 .
Since food is the source of nutrients. preservation of nutrients. nutritional deficiency diseases. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. objectives. the focus is on the school health programmes. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. common ailments of children. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. communicable diseases and their prevention. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. If the diet is poor. In lesson 1. objectives and role of the physical education. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. In lesson 4. economic and educational developments. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. objectives. 191 . The person’s environment is equally important. consuming the right amounts becomes important. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning.
1.11 4.7 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1.2 4.e.9 4.1.1. mental. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. 193 . physical.LESSON 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.8 4.3 4.1.6 4.1.5 4.10 4. emotional and social.1.1. It is a miniature society.1.4 4.1 4.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.
2. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. understand school health programmes 2. 11. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. 10. explain the importance of First aid 5. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. training of teachers and evaluation. training in first aid and etc. To develop certain skills concerning health. cleanliness and healthful living. know the need for sex education. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1.. e. 8. 7. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. 4. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health.1. 9. 6. list the common ailments of children 3.g. To develop healthy health habits among children. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. to his family and to the community at large. 5. 3. 4. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. To give information regarding health rules. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. Instruction. you will be able to: 1.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 4. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12.1. 194 . To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. content of health education.
(xii) smoking education etc. There should be regular water supply. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. direct lighting. suitable furniture. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. 3. Triple Antigen Vaccination.C. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. First aid facilities should be made readily available. 2. (vi) nutrition education. Vaccination for small pox. The surroundings of schools should be clean. organisation of school health days. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. (ii) communit y healt h.1. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. excusing late. (viii) first aid.. 4.4. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. etc. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases.G. inoculation against cholera. is imperative. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. as described below 1. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. B. “Play-for-all” programmes. 5. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. play festivals. Arranging better transportation facilities. typhoid.coming or absence.. cleanliness weeks. The school buildings should be spacious. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. The flooring should not be damp. minimizing the travelling distance. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. (xl) mental health. vaccination.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. 2. ( iii) sanit at io n. proper doors and windows. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. (v) safety education. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. B. There should be good drainage facilities.
• Re-admit when the child is free of the disease.. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. • Take nutritious food. etc. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. isolate and notify. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. scalds. dislocations. sports and games in the interest of their health. fractures. • Keep all rooms clean. D. fainting (epileptic fit). The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. • Close the schools. wounds.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • When sleeping in groups. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. • Have adequate rest and sleep. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. • Find out the cases. 196 . drowning. and other accidents. bleeding. poisons. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. if epidemic is wide-spread. cuts. burns. insect stings. C.
4. water or bodily contact. These diseases are called communicable diseases. asthma. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. chicken pox. fever. 2. headache.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Mention the school health programmes. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. They are: i) The incubation stage. tuberculosis. So they easily get illnesses. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. List out the Health curriculum 3. There are three stages in any communicable disease. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. cough. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease.. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. measles etc. which are – cold. polio. backache. 4.1.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. Once these germs get into the body. pain in the joints. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Common Cold . The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water.This disease is caused by bacteria. Hence it is called a killer disease. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. 198 . The child may have fever. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. The symptoms include cold. unhygienic living conditions. This is caused by cold virus. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. sugar and water. unhygienic bottle feeding. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. etc. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Diarrhoea .It is caused by measles virus. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath.When a child suffers from scabies. Mumps . Throat is affected. Measles . cough and fever. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. The following are the common communicable diseases. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Ear Infections . Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Children catch cold from persons having cold. head-ache and cough. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. eating food which is not clean. Others make the children very weak. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Tonsilitis . rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Hence liquid diet is recommended.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. After three or four days of fever.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Scabies . Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold.
separate. the child is not able to breathe. What are communicable diseases? 6. As the disease progresses. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Diphtheria . Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. If proper treatment is not given. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. Expand DPT . Typhoid . raised pink spots appear on head. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child.• • • • Chicken Pox . So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. face and waist.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. the child may die. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It begins with fever. The child may also have diarrhoea. Enlist the common ailments of children. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. 5.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Shortly. 199 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. By scratching he causes secondary infections.
Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. simple fractures. 4. etc. and films. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. fainting. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. drowning. so-called sex books and periodicals.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. Sprains . 3.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. man-woman behaviours. Cuts and Bruises . The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. cuts. bleeding. scorpion stings.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. wounds. Drowning . 200 . Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. In such cases.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. it is a subject of art.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education.g. 4. fiction. eye injury. bruises. exciting and body-oriented. Wounds . first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. and Community Work and Social Service. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual.4. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. sprains. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. dislocation. films and jokes. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. Sex is popular.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. 5.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. sprains. head injury. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. 2.1. snakebites. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. It is both biological and psychological.1. It has its rightful place in education too. swelling.
There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Should the boys and girls. The home. celibacy are age. health. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. In secondary schools. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. they would be treading the path of sure doom. but preserve them from disaster and disease. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. B. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. 3. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. try experimenting with their bodies. The values of life. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. In today's liberal and interactive society. sex education is being recommended in schools. in their ignorance. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. Hence.old values. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. 2. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education.. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. the school.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . the religious organisations.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. 202 . first aid and sex education. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. there will no crisis in its implementation. 4. offering sex education as a part of their curricula.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the major components of Sex Education. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. hence. the school health programmes. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. Teacher education institutions are. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. C. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. communicable diseases and their prevention. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. when the courses are already overloaded. common ailments of children.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 22.214.171.124 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. 209 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Mention the food nutrients 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients.
you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected.4. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. minerals. 210 . This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . If you look at the definition carefully.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Let us talk about each of these aspects. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.2. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s .2. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s.
There is no point. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. In the case of adults. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. sex. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e.sedentary. paratha and poori.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. for example. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. dosa are typical of the south. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days.6. construction labourer). A balanced diet is specific firstly. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. Preferences/customs are also important.one in the morning and the other at night. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. In other words. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .g. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). These are: region where the person resides and income. Rice or rice preparations such as idli.g. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. it is also specific to a given activity level . Even within given States there is considerable variation. the social and religious practices of that region. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. People in the east of our country prefer rice. moderate or heavy work.2. 4. activity level and physiological stress. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.
So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. nuts and dry fruits. for example. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. as important for the rich as for the poor. If you think of your own religious group. In addition to these. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. One person may be fond of milk products. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Even among flesh foods. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. however. however. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. customs. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. income plays a vital role. As you read this discussion. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. fat and sugar tend to increase. However. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. Including these 212 . Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. however. Having more money. These determine the acceptability of foods. taboos related to food may play an important role. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Judicious selection of food is. One must.planning the diet. while another may hate them. Among the social factors. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. As income increases. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. vegetables and fruits. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. attitudes prevalent in a particular region.
Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. meat. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. 8. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. green leaves. mouth. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. over-eating or under. Define balanced diet. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 213 . fruits. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. 17. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. eggs . etc. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . but they should be thrown away. if the teachers have good food habits. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . 8) Walk a while after eating. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. For this. List out any two healthy food habits. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands.eating is hazardous.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished.
2. Beri Beri 4. Corneal xerosis. a. d. Conjuctival xerosis. e.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. good nutrition is essential for good health. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Bitot’s spots.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies.2. 4. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease.2. Vitamin D 5. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. In fact. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. preservation of nutrients. Discuss good food habits. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Keratomalacia 3. Night blindness. c. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. 4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. When the diet is inadequate.4. Explain food nutrients 4. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.
(2004). R. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. minerals. (2008).C. R. Food and Nutrition Education.M.N. mouth. a . 7. Sri Lakshmi B. S. Food and Nutrition Education. b. Food should be consumed after eating well. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . b. Nutrition and Dietetics. Hands. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. (2008). C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s.2.6. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . 8.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. 4. A Text Book of Foods. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. Chopra. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. a. Nutrition Science. P. (2009). A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Health and Nutrition Education. (2005).
14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.126.96.36.199.13 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206.6.11 4.4 4.3.12 220.127.116.11.2 4.3. 216 .6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 18.104.22.168 Impact on Education 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.LESSON 4.8 4.3.2 Impact on economic development 4.5 4.3.1 Impact on social development 4.7 4.3 4.1 4.3.9 4.
his family. and the consequences of these processes. It is not sex education. There is some difference.4. community. economic and educational development 3. the stress is. characteristics and changes for himself. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood.3. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. It is a much wider co ncept. Whenever we talk of sex education. his societ y and the world. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. understand the importance of small family norm 5.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. state the meaning.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. Population Education. you will be able to: 1. population characteristics. objectives and need for population education 2. therefore.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.3. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. 217 . with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. the causes of population change. aims at providing the younger generation. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. describe the impact of population growth on social. family planning and sex education etc. 4. 4.
5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. Define Population Education 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the family. the nation and the world. the society. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.3.3.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . List out any two objectives of Population Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4. 4.
No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Family is considered as a social unit. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous.3. which will not be possible without population control. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. When the family is small. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. 4. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. the family programmes are also handicapped. 219 . Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion.6. 4. Every second two thousand children are being born. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. economic and educational development of the country. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. health and happiness of its citizens. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race.3. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. With the larger families.
. pollution of the environment.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. teacher index. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. Swollen cities. organization index and material index. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. In developing countries.e. and so on. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. facility for drinking water. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. Many students herded in a small room. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. in buses and trains.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. The gulf between them is widening further. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index.6. toilets.3. heavy intern I migration etc. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. unemployment. i. lack of proper health care. in cinema halls and theatres. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. 4.6. in parks and other places of public gatherings. 220 . improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. 4.3.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher.
221 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. essays. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. Regional Language. reproduction. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. Hindi and English. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. even text books would be in short supply. family planning etc. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. There would be very few audiovisual aids. and laboratory equipments. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. less space facilities. Social Studies Statistics on population education. thus. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies.3. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. bar graphs etc. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. blank verses etc. can be taken up. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. There would be poor library facilities.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. there will be lacuna in many other spheres.. less budget for education. can be studied in science and health education.
12. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. 13. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. 8. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Bihar. Brazil. Uttar Pradesh.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. China. Canada. 3. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 2. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths.4. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 5. causes of deaths etc. They may arrange them as per average density of population. 14. Children with the help of parents. deaths. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. 15. 4. 10. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Children may compare two families. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . United States of America. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. area and average density of population.3. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. 9. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. 11. West Bengal. 7. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences.
The question. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. 18. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. age at marriage. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. values and role children etc.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Comparing life in various respects in two families.3. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. preferences for sex. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. 17. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. we have no right to stop 223 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”.be opened in their schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 16. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village.
The Family Welfare Program. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.to emphasize family planning services.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. at varying places in different regions. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. on an overall basis. More than 45 years ago.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.3.their entry into the world”. which education can only do. continued . “He who is responsible for population growth.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).4-6. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3.were implemented 224 . and the child survival components of the news: program. Since the program's inception. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. however. 4. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. especially the expansion of child immunization services .
The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. and nominal fees for services. reliance on local women as community health workers. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. At these meetings. and the World Conference on Women. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. the community appears willing to pay for services. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. men. In April 1996. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better.earlier than the safe motherhood components. In October 1997. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Moreover. Therefore. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. a focus on health promotion. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. expansion of services to unmarried women. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. Local programs vary in their approaches. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 .
family. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process.3. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. economic and educational development 4. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. nation and the world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. 226 . Its main purposes are to create awareness. What are the goals of RCH? 4.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. 1997).emphasizing the needs of the client. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.3. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. involving the community. Describe the impact of population growth on social. community. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
3. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. less space facilities. his society and the world. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. population characteristics. and the consequences of these processes. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 7. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. characteristics and changes for himself.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Brazil. less budget for education. bar graphs. a.” 2. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. area and average density of population. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 4. United States of America. a. his family. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. b. b.3. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. 227 . China. the causes of population change. 5. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Canada. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. 6. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. a.4.
(2002). (2004). Jayapoorni. Ltd. 228 . A. Changing attitudes to Education in India. N. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Bhende. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Ltd. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Udaiveer. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Reddy. T. Principles of Population Studies. (1992). (2005). Kantikar. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.4. Coimbatore. Centre for Women’s Studies.K. (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education.3. J. Modern Problems of Education. V.
3 Indigenous games 4.4 Lead up games 22.214.171.124.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4 4.1 Minor games 4.4.2 4.8.7 4.5 4.11 19.6 126.96.36.199.4.4.LESSON 188.8.131.52.3 4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.10 184.108.40.206.2 Major games 4.9 220.127.116.11 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.1 4.
teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. moral fitness and emotional fitness. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. the youth of the country. The concept of physical education has been made broader. team spirit. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. 4.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4.4. as it should 230 . will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. classify the different types of games. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. social fitness. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. mental alertness. which forms its most valuable assets. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. perseverance. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education.4. full records of physical activities should be maintained. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. you will be able to: 1. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities.4. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. leadership and balance in defect.
They are inseparably united together. Therefore. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Every individual is a part of society. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 .contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. obedience to rules. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. They go hand in hand. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. team spirit. leadership. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. To be more precise. The educational efforts at home. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education.
Buck has observed that 232 .P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal.” The Secondary Education Commission. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. Just like Education. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. “Physical education does neither train up the soul.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India.4. pleasing manners. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. Rousseau states. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. H. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. C. ment al. nor body but the whole man. Regarding the significance of physical education.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. Physical exercises. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. a sound health. 4. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind.” Montaigue writes. mo ral. game and sports.
initiative. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent.4. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength.” In brief. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. “If we wish to develop the whole being. resourcefulness and smartness. etc. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. endurance. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. Froebel says.a properly directed physical education should result in health. flexibility and power. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively.” 4. we must exercise the whole human being. 233 . elegance. strength. speed. happiness. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. efficiency and character. coordinative abilities. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.
Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. they may form gangs. poetry and painting. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Every age has its artists.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. these fundamental things have always been present. in greater or lesser degree. plagues and famines. 234 (i) (ii) . including all racial groups and historical ages. systems of government. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. its adherents and its enemies. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. While wars.
235 . to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. B. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. obedience. to develop tolerance. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. bravery and interest in games and sports. etc. respect for rules.\ to develop perseverance. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. 3. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour.sacrifice. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. self. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. Write any two importance of Physical Education.
2. . 7. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. is essential. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 14. Be well-prepared. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Be in the uniform. defects. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 4. Act as a leader. injuries among pupils should be made. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 5. and readmission after they have recovered. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Usually parents. Keep the field ready for the activities. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. 11. 6. Be punctual. Haag. 16. 4. 9. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. students. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 3. 8.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 13. Be sportive. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students.4. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 236 1. Posture screening should be done. Be self-confident.H.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Inform health principles.4. Always keep the whistle ready. 10. 12.4. and. 15.
4. the play. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. 4. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. chasing. 1. Indigenous games. 4. Such inst incts as imitation. Lead up games.4.8.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. 237 . They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. less equipment and less expense. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. frolic and jo y. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. As such they are well enjoyed by children.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. 4. Moreover. 3. 2. their development is handicapped. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules.
Jumping. Soft Ball. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. catching. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. bowling etc. Except a few games. the play equipment. Throwing. They are played for a shorter duration. zig zag relay. On lawns. on sea-shore. Kabaddy etc. snatching the kerchief.4. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. For each game the rules are many. Shuttle Badminton. Jump the stick clay and so on. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. finding the partner. with implements or without implements. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. skipping. under ball pass Relay. heading. boosting. over ball pass Relay. These games require varied skills such as running. Cricket. Khokho. muffling. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. benefit in playing minor games. They are rules approved by the International Associations. women take part most of the games. The dimension of the posts and nets.With a very few rules. stopping. couple tag. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. 4. Volley Ball. Hopping. some of them are played indoors. spiking. trapping. pitching. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. dribbling.. the games can be modified according to convenience.8. driving. on hard courts. Ball Badminton. hitting. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Tennikoit. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. the number of players and substitutes. Dodging. 238 . Tennis. on mountain tops and on river beds. wherever the kids assemble. Hockey.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Basket Ball. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. While many of them are played in the open playfields.
7. On occasions like marriage. For example.4. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. 4.8.4. festivals connected with religion and public functions. They have an abundant social value.4. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes.8. they are in existence. birth. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . All the fundamental tactics. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. Games may be classified as 6. List out some major games. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. death. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. these games being popular. An example for indigenous game is 8. While observing the players in action. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. Kho-kho. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. and . Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game.
2. 5. Posture screening should be done. c. physically and emotionally fit and alert.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. aims and objectives and need of physical education. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.4. b. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 2. b. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. Minor and Major 240 . 4. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. d.4. to develop physical stamina. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. a.4. 3. 4. 4. Briefly discuss the different types of games. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 3. b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. 4. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. a. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. to secure physical health b.4. a.
Foot-ball. Kabaddy 7. Tennikoit. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Volley Ball. (2009). Ltd. Health. Handbook of Physical Education. Shuttle Badminton. 4. Soft Ball. G.6. Aggarwal. Ball Badminton. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Hockey. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. 241 . J. J. Basket Ball.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. J. Physical Education and Sports. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. (2005).C. Tennis.4. (2008). (2008). Krishna murthy. Mohanty. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Khokho 8. Khokho. Cricket.
2 Manmade Environment 4.5.4 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .18.104.22.168 4.5.LESSON 4.5.6 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.3 22.214.171.124 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.1 4.5.9 126.96.36.199. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.7 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 188.8.131.52.11 4.10 4.1 Natural Environment 4.2 4.
4. 2. 6. economic. social. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4.5. aesthetic and educational factors. you will able to: 1. 243 . Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. political. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Skills. 4. Details are given below: I. it covers the following elements: 1. education about the environment and education through the environment. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. list out the types of environment 3. 5. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. population explosion and resource depletion could be. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. Evaluation Ability.5. 3. role of teacher in environmental conservation. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Broadly.5. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Knowledge. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Attitude. The best place to start such learning is school.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Participation.educat ion for the environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 3. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Essential knowledge about the Environment. 2. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Awareness. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast.
Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. • Biological magnification E. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Oxidants Other pollutants. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. D. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. a. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. 2. 244 . heat sink and wind flow in cities.B. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. F. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle.
Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1.3. Sterilisation. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. 3. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. c. Birth control through education b. Persuasion: i. The human ecosystem II. 4. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Intrauterine device iii. Use of medical science i. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. 2. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . III. economic. Control of population growth a. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Abortion iv. B. Socio-economic measures. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. The pill ii. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Family planning ii. 2.
3. e) Recycling. 1983). (UNESCO. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Define Environmental Education. 2. 246 . Air pollution abatement ii. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Water pollution abatement.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment.
A change in one brings about a change in the other.5.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. Any constituent or condition of the environment. They interact with each.5. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.4. a. telex. b. 4. fax agricultural apparatus. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. -other. Biological environment The biological environment.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.5.other components of the environment. He modifies according”.5. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. to his needs. way is called environmental or ecological factor. animals and other organisms (biotic). These are biotic components. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.5. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.5. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. includes the plants.
trees reducing noise pollution. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. balance of nature. etc. importance of nitrogen cycle. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. supplying timber for various uses. extinction of species. water scarcity. effects o f CFC. noise pollution. of civilizations. sources of pollut ion. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. use of medicinal plants. sources. greenhouse effect. desertification 248 . explosion deforestation. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. industrial pollut io n. nuclear energy. ozone depletion. wars and hazards of war. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. noise control. preserving the watersheds. t heir role in preventing pollution. effects. alternate sources of energy. air pollutants from industries. industrial survey. preventing siltation of dams. History The rise and fall. role of trees in building economy. evolution. social studies. need for bio-diversity. solar cookers. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. food chain and food-web. relation between population and pollution. biogas plants. natural way of controlling pests. ozone layer deplet ion. maintaining the ecological diversity. nuclear warfare. are the topics which may be taught in History. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . mineral survey.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. change in climate may be added. excellent recreation sites. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. acid rain. use of pesticides. etc. (ii) Air pollution. river systems. need for conservation. windmills. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. reasons.. over exploitation of ground water. population.
specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. animal and plants. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 4. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. 4. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 11. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising conferences. 6. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 9. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 2. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Providing. 5. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 12. 10. Developing awareness about environmental issues. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 7. 13. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 249 .may be inc ded in Geography. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. aims and scope. Peepal and Tulsi. 8. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 3. group discussions and seminars. 14.5.
Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. it will cause pollution. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. especially plastics. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. used oils down the drain. Reuse carrier bags. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Don’t burn any waste. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. all these can cause serious pollution. 6. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Never put any left over chemicals. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. World Environmental falls on 250 . 5.Send their waste oil. If it is done.
To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. The groups may exchange. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. rather than conquest and mastery. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. To provide materials needed for practical work. dest roying nat ural habitats. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. To arrange visits or expeditions.5. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. loss of bio-diversity. etc. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Concern for species. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. nuclear wars. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. potable water.4. diversity and stability. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . Harmony with the nature . Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. prevention of irretrievable loss of species.mat erials.. deforestation. etc.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. developing desirable attitudes. Conservation of natural resources. orderliness and beauty). depletion of ozone. To arrange for visiting speakers. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. Att itudes of balance towards nature.). and 251 . CFCs. concern for others). (cleanliness. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. values and habits. viz. Social responsibilit y (common good.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. 4. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.5. 252 .5. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. 8.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. 4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. preserving natural cycles.
Environment and Human Rights.2. group discussions and seminars. a. S. (2007). acid rain. over exploitation of ground water. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . effects. importance of nitrogen cycle. Awareness. Knowledge. T.K. sources of pollution.\ 4. (2004). explosion deforestation. population. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection.. Udaiveer. 3. reasons. a. a. June 5 7. new problems from science and technology. Ltd. water scarcity. b. ozone layer deplet ion. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. S. Y.5. air pollutants from industries. To provide materials needed for practical work. b. 5.K. a. Organising conferences. Environmental Education. 4. New Delhi : Authors Press. concern for others). Publications Pvt. Providing. importance of trees in the production of oxygen.K. sources. greenhouse effect. Social responsibilit y (common good. New Delhi : Sharma. Anmol Publications Pvt. Kuldeep. To provide reference materials for children’s use. 8. b. Ltd. Rapid population growth. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. (2007). Education for values. (1997). To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.K. Modern Problems of Education. (ii) Air pollution. relat ion between population and pollution.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Environmental Education. Nanda. 6. b. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 184.108.40.206 Idealism and aims of Education 220.127.116.11 Idealism and Curriculum 18.104.22.168 Idealism and methods of teaching 22.214.171.124 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 126.96.36.199 Naturalism and aims of Education 188.8.131.52 Naturalism and Curriculum 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and methods of teaching 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 18.104.22.168 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
22.214.171.124 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 126.96.36.199 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
Therefore. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. the emancipation of spirit. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self.3." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. inviolable and hence holy life” In short.our life. in fact. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. enrichment and transmission of culture. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is.” 5. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. should be universal in nature. The universe is regarded as a thought process. Spiritual Development. man is essentially a moral being. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. moral. It is self-realisation.1.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. According to Rusk'. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . Education must contribute to development of culture. Universal Education. Education according to idealism.
the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection.1. Herbert advocated instruction method. For this no particular method has been suggested. Learning through imitation. 5. Mathematics etc. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man.1. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. friend and guide.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types.3.” He is thus. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. 2. affecting (feeling). Ethics. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. 4. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 .” 5. 3. So health. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. and collation (striving) should find due place. so subjects like Religion. History.the spiritual qualities of mankind. Learning through lecturing.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. So cognition (knowing). According to idealism. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. subjects like Languages.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. should be there. no doubt. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. He sets the environment in which education takes place. Learning through discussion. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. However. an indispensable necessity. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked.3. It considers teacher as. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. He carries the child from darkness to light. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Learning through reading. Learning through questioning. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. 5. Philosophy. the school is a garden. The plant can grow. hygiene. For intellectual development. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. a spiritual guide for the child. Science. According to Frobel. So he should embody.
5.perfection and beauty. "Education should make 263 • .4. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Ross explains. Perfection of Human Machine.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. In the words of Ross. 2. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. curricula. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. time tables. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. text books.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.preservation. formal lessons or examinations. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. 5.1. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.
• • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. 264 . useful and mature child. Botany etc Language.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. education should develop the child into Joyous. In all. 4.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. There is no place for religious and moral education. Therefore. Education should. rational harmoniously balanced. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Zoology. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. geography should also be included in the curriculum.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution.4. Literature. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. is based on the nature of the child. subjects like history. Naturalistic curriculum. Arithmetic. Chemistry.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. “Education finds its purpose. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. It is based on the psychology of the child. • 5. Education also aims at helping the individual t. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. therefore. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. It stresses basic sciences. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Biology.1. his interests and inborn tendencies 2.
The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.4. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. 5. 2. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. Dalton Plan. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. a provider of an ideal environment. Heuristic method. Learning through experience. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. he should be taught by experience alone. 4.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. 3. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching.1. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. 5. the stage.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Rousseau says. Learning through observation.1. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. a supplier of materials and opportunities.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. It discards all rigid. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4.5.1. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Here the emphasis is on the individual method. In the . Learning by doing.
The individual has not only to adjust himself.1. The aim of educational development. social and moral aspects. Sciences. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Social Science. Social Efficiency. History. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. intellectual. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Geography. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Subjects. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. 5. All Round Development of an Individual. diversified and flexible. Continuous Growth. 5. Personal Social Adjustment.5. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Agriculture. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Vocational and 266 .2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. is true. Physical training. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses.absolutism of idealism. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. of human personality is in terms of his physical. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices.5.1.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” 5. alert and resourceful. Learning by Doing.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher.1. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. a senior partner and a sincere guide. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Technical Education. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. 5. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. should find proper place. a teacher occupies an important position. The subjects. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. He has to be active. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child.5.1. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. He must be trained. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy.5. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.
3. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Biography Philosophy. History. liberal. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Music and Dance. literary or humanistic education. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Geography are unnecessary 268 . 2. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. scientific and psychological education. Crafts. 5. Psychology. Biology.5. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. intellectual. Literature. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics.6. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic.1. rich and happy. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Chemistry.1. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects.1. specific. Sex Education. 4. Study of Subjects like Language. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. It favours child-centered. 4. 5. 2. Population Education. 3. Art. Astrology.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Mathematics. practical. 5. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Education is preparation for a complete living.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable.6.
1.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.1.6. easily and pleasantly.5. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. certainly and clearly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.
Learning through imitation. 5. a. Learning through questioning. Vocational and Technical Education. 5. a. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. 5.5. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Physical training. 6. Tours / Excursion e. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Agriculture. Languages. e. Universal Education 2.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Self Realisation b. c. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. a. & curriculum. in this lesson.1. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.1. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Experimentation d.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Learning through experience b. has no end other than growth. History. Social Science. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Learning through reading. Rousseau 5. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Child centered c. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization.1. 3. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. d. pragmatism and realism. naturalism. Education according to pragmatism. Learning through discussion. b. Learning through lecturing. Sciences. Geography.
R. of Pathak. Publishing corporation. (2007).P.P.1.5. New Delhi : A. Foundations of Education. O. 271 . (2003).H. P. (2004). Pahuja. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. N. L.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theory and Principles of Education. P. K. Narang C. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi : Bhatia. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers.
3 Methods of Teaching 188.8.131.52.2 184.108.40.206.5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2.1 Aims of Education 220.127.116.11.2.2.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.LESSON 5.4 Views about teacher 5.1 Aims of Education 18.104.22.168.1 Aims of Education 5.3 Methods of teaching 5.2 Curriculum 22.214.171.124.2.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 126.96.36.199 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.4 Views about teacher 5.5.2 Curriculum 188.8.131.52 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.1 5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 184.108.40.206.2.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 220.127.116.11.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.
2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. content and methods. 5. you will able to: 1. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.4 Role of the teacher 5. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. economic and political reconstruction in our country. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. Gandhiji was primarily a social. mind and spirit.2.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. Tagore was a poet. 273 . 3. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. 5.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.7 5. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.5.8 5. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.2.2.6 5.2. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.2. 2. an artist.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.5.2.
3. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. In the words of Gandhiji. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. it is education of life.2. through life and for life. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality.supporting. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education." Dignity of Labour. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. 274 . importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. 5. 'Man is neither mere intellect. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. self-restraint and service of humanity. nor the gross animals body. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. "I attach more. It really provides opportunity for character building. His scheme of education is life centred. mind and soul of children He further observed. strength of mind. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. righteousness.
Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. leather work have been suggested. gardening. Music. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. 5. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. metal work. According to Gandhi.3. wood work. the realization of the ultimate reality. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . Individual and Social Aims. Drawing and Hindustani. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. development of the whole all were directed: towards.2. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Mother-tongue. General Sciences. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Only good individual forms a better society. "Development of the moral character. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Art.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.Training for Leadership.
men of 276 .2. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. Basic education is other wise known as 4. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.2.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. proficient. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.trained. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3.3.
The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education.3. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. That is why. 5.knowledge.2. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education must be child centered. He also advocates freedom for the child. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. 3.
he was a true Vedantist 5. • Ideal of citizenship. • Education should involve manual work. He was a true patriot. 5. He was deadly against untouchability. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. He believed in the oneness of humanity. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. Gandhi in 1937. 5.2. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.K. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. • Cult of non-violence.4.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.3. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.” Like all other ideals.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.2. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.
Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. That way only. Civics. the more dedicated and devoted. 279 . sentiment. them solve problems of day to day life. Zoology. International understanding. complete manhood could be attained. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Geography. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. "Mankind must realise a unity.2. Religion and Psychology. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. stronger in power than ever before. Chemistry. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Music.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. wider in range. International Understanding.Language and Literature . Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. deeper in.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study .Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. etc. It should help. Botany. he said. Dance. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Therefore.4. Tagore said. could help in forging unity among all. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. (vi) Philosophy. It should help the learner have good physique.
Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.4. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.” He further says. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service." 5.4. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.2. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. 280 .4. Tagore rightly says. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. 5. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. Activity Method Heuristic Method. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. 5.2.2. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. In 1921.
Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. 281 . 9. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6.g. 10. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. race. It is open to all irrespective of country. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4.
Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. 4. work and deeds come out of it. Education for strong Moral Character." He was against the theoretical type of education. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Education should make a person self-reliant. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Education for Self-realization. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Freedom. According to him.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says.5.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.” 5. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. Book learning. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. man making.5. Education for Self-reliance. Purity of thought. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. 2. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. The whole beauty of life is linked with it.2. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. character forming and assimilation of ideas.2. He believed in to learning or selflearning. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. Concept of Education. 3.
Philosophy and Theology. Every individual should be trained for concentration.2. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching.5. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Of course. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts.5.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth.2. engineering and technical subjects. 283 . Education for Physical Development. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Thirdly he wished that games.5. 5. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Discussion Method. 6. Swami. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. That will serve the purpose of education fully. 5. The teacher should be the facilitator. 5. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Religion. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Secondly he wanted Science.5.2. And above all. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. philosopher and guide to the students He.the learners on different students in the discussion. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. A physically strong person is the need of the society. Education should help in the physical development of an individual.
Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda.2. Their educational ideas. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. 284 . Write short notes on Basic education. 2. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people.Substantiate your answer.6 LET US SUM UP We have. and pragmatist . In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. 12. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. in this lesson. legs. 5. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. naturalist. of course. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. 5. 3. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. Gandhiji as a Idealist.2.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. We have seen that Tagore. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. ears and eyes. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life.
3.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discussion Method 285 . Meditation and concentration c. 5. 8. a. Activity Method d. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. c. a. a.2. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Ideal of citizenship.4. 10. Technique of Correlation 6. Basic education. 5. Debate and Discussion Method. Self realization. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. 2. b. leather work have been suggested. wood work. 1937 7. f. gardening. 5. a. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 9. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Teaching while Walking b. Education should involve manual work. 11. Heuristic Method. metal work. Self-Study b. e. Nai Talim 4. Learning by Doing c. Explain Vishwabharathi. d. Cult of non-violence. c. Activity Method b. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.
Ltd. C. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. (2007). K and Narang C.P. (2007). N. (2002). on Bhatia. Theory and Principles of Education. L. New Delhi : A.2. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. Pahuja. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.H. 286 . K. (2003). Anmol Publications Pvt. N. B. P. O. Foundations of Education. (2004). Publishing Corporation. J. Dhiman. New Delhi : Aggarwal. P.5. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.
3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3 5.3.3.LESSON 5.3.4 5.9 5.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.6 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.7 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .10 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.1 5.3.11 22.214.171.124.5 5. In this lesson.8 5.
While education is a process. Then in a big country like India.under the direction of the school.S. in the form of new experience. in Russia or in Japan. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. the plateau area and 288 . Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. In the words of Kerney and Cook.. curriculum. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. In the former sense. A g o o d curricu lu m. Curriculum is intimately related to education. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. In it. new behaviour may be acquired. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways.A. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. maintained or eliminated.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. present behaviour may be modified. in fact . it is identical wit h socializat ion. Since the demands. the plain area. is a means to the process.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes.3. state the meaning of curriculum 2. living in the hilly area.3. 5. 5. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. From the latter point of view. While education is learning. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. in the U. curriculum signifies situations for learning. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society.3. you will be able to: 1. the desert area. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . One is the individual process and the other is the social process. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. there is a large number of communities. Both the processes are integrated. curriculum also offers a wide contrast.
(v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. and 289 . according to modern trends in the educational process. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained.3. In fact . differs from individual to individual. it is. customs and needs. too. irrespective of their needs and environment. the learning capacity of children. However.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. Besides craft. studying therein. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. therefore.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. democratic and socialistic country. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. It must differ from locality and from society to society. environment. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. Again. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. 5. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. From a slave-country we became secular. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs.
etc. 5.g. which may or may not be attained. 1. The word “Curere” means 2. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. unsatisfactory.g. Knowledge Objective.. e. They are visionary goals e. individual or Social and so on.. So it is inadequate. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country.. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. tangible. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. Goals of Primary Education. etc. etc. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. general or specific. moral. Vocational Efficiency. They may be ultimate or proximate. National Integration. They speak of perfect goals. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. of classroom. aims. They are achievable. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. remote or immediate. 2. 290 .6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education.3. uninspiring and unscientific. Self Realisation. aesthetic and spiritual development. specific. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. e. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. Goals of Secondary Education. emotional.. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. 4. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. unambiguous and functional. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. they depend on the political. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes.g. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. social. eg. Application Objective. Understanding Objective. They speak of immediate purposes of education. in instructional objectives. social. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals.
heavy fire. needs.5. abilities. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. in the class rooms. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. Raymont rightly says.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. but it includes the totality of experiences. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.” 291 . Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. finding them very interesting and captivating. According to Crow and Crow. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. The interests. Crow and Crow remarks. educationists.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. on the playing fields. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. capacities. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects.3.
“There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. aptitudes.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. capacities and abilities. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. Due to these variations and differences. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. mental. They often waste it or rather kill it. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. moral. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. tendencies. urges. time in a useful manner.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic.
reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. To ensure success of the process. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. 3. organized. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. development of professional capability at all levels. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. phased preparation. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. Similarly. 293 .curricular. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. 2. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. administrative programme need be planned. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Relation with Life c. 1937 19. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. 5.3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. principles of curriculum construction. in the class room. workshop. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. a. 5. Child Centred Education b. 18. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. laboratory. 11.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. 10. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. library. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Run.3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee.3. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. 17. 12. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals.
12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : Authorspress. (2001). N. Curriculum Development. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Lakshmi. P. S.5.K. D. Innovations in Education. S. and Sarita Kumari. New Delhi : Isha Books. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Curriculum and Instruction.3.S. (2007). Bhalla. (2007). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. 295 . (2007).
8 126.96.36.199.4.4.5 5.7 Scientific Attitude 188.8.131.52.4.9 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.6.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 184.108.40.206.7.2 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 220.127.116.11 5.10 5.3 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .6.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4 18.104.22.168 Developing scientific outlook 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.LESSON 22.214.171.124 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4.
Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. superstition or emotion. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.4. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. explain the concept of scientific attitude. newer and newer industries started growing. tolerance for the opinions of others.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . know the importance of science education.4. you will be able to: 1. We mean curiosity.4. 3. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. honesty. 297 . open-mindedness. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth .during the second half of this century. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. 5.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. Gradually. 2.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations.5. 5. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. in the economic reconstruction of society. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking.
Love for truth enhances. Promotion of science clubs. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 4. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. as well as of the society. 3. After such experience and training. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Devotion towards nature increases. 5. 6. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Thinking and memory develops. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Organisation of science fairs. Central science workshop. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Principles are formulated. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs.4. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. seminars and symposiums. 5. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 4.4.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work.So that. 7. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Schemes of teaching science.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. 2. 3. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 2. Selection for science education. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Through examinations. Through newspapers. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. 5. 5. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 6.
The pupils can be allowed to consult each other.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. each child to “enquiry skill building”. Enquiry teaching is.needs and conditions. sex or religion. 5. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. They experience natural phenomenon. It is.6. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils.4. Write any two advantages of Science Education. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. 5. therefore. For laboratory and workshop techniques. They ask many questions about the objects they see. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon.4. After presenting the problem. In the inquiry approach. should provide opportunities to. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. essential that teachers. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Training of science teachers. 7. objectivity. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . They encounter many social events as they grow. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.
3. 6. 3.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. to ask questions and experience things. test. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 4.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. if they like. commands or orders. Giving less directions. Adopting creative models of teaching.4. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. stern pursuit of accurate data. . What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook.books. 5. Social sciences. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. 5.Herma Wouk. It requires consistent thinking. 2. Evidence. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. 300 . stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. . Appreciating pupils ideas.6. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. 5.
These include open mindedness. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. These characteristics of any scientific 301 .Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. For instance. practiced. see and feel the need of developing this attitude.7. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. friends. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society.4. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. to develop among the learners. it must be encouraged. 5. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. To achieve this we should understand what it means. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. keen observation. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. therefore should be unbiased and objective. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude.(Smith 2008). The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. neighbourhood. critical thinking and suspended judgments. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. The students observation. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. school and society at large.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. (Vaidya 2007). The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. and emphasized during the learning process . A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. of vast resources running waste. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents.
He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. In considering a situation or a problem. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. or superstitions. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. 302 . He is patient and reserved in his judgement. The intention to respect another’s point of view. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. 2007). 5. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. rumor. (Das. intuition or wishful thinking”. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. understanding and logic. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. think and work it”.7. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. he studies all aspects of it. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences.4.
• • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .7.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. • 126.96.36.199. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. 5. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. but to begin only after careful planning.
8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. 5. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. 5. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.4. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. 304 . Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. it must be encourages.
The intention to respect another’s point of view. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. Reflections on Scientific attitude. b. Rao. 16.5. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.S. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics.4. Proper example of the teacher c. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. objectivity. Wide reading b. 3. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. M. D. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. 305 . New Delhi : Anmol Publications. Planning of activities 5. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Love for truth enhances. S. Study of superstitions d. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. (2008). 4. b.4. Yadav. 2. Adopting creative models of teaching. a. 5. 5.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. b. (2000). the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. a. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Discuss the importance of science education 14. a.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. N. (2006).B (2008).4. Vaidya. a. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students.
understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.5. 5. objectives and characteristics.6 5.5.9 5. 306 .5.2 5.4 188.8.131.52 5.5 184.108.40.206 5. 2. you will be able to: 1.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5. areas of institutional planning.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.11 5.5.10 5. state the concept.3 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.1 5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.LESSON 5. actively.
to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. executive as well as public. teachers and students is not lost sight of. and every student in the process of educational planning.5. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . which become the bases for further planning at the district. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.3. State and national levels from below.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. each teacher. 5. 5. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. and supplement planning from above. • to make planning development-oriented.5. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. and. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. • to involve teachers and school administrators. and each student are regarded as separate entities. in the task of educational planning. • To make institutional planning more successful. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. every teacher. every parent. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Institution should be regarded as the unit. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans.
and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. it becomes the basis for school inspection. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers.curricular Activities. approved after making necessary modifications.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. council and. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. 5. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. Examinations. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. (2) Co. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members.• implemented. etc. Co-curricular activities. 308 . who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. which will be discussed in the general. Classwork.5.5. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. and Personnel services. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. Syllabus.
Improving the subject competence of teachers. 2. Improving the internal assessment. scientific and historical excursions. Preparation of instructional material. Organisation of Pupils. hobby-centres. etc. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Equipping of laboratory and library. Conducting of educational. Organising play-for-all programmes. etc. Preparation of models. Organisation of Students’ Association.No. etc. Preparation of audio-visual aids. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Organisation of class-room libraries. Editing the school magazine. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Courts. Running science clubs. Fair distribution of syllabi. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . 3. charts and apparatus. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. etc. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Organisation of Self-Government Days.
Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. teachers. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also.” The human relationships in. teacher-pupil. headmasters associations. administrator-administrator. and —pupil-pupil. administrator-supervisor. ii. understanding. students’ associations. pupil310 . Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. and solidarity. teacher-State. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships.5.5. science teachers’ associations. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. pupils. teacher-managing body. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. parent-teacher associations. Administrator-State. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher.group and out-group relationships are as given below i.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. teacherinspector. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. involving mainly human materials. administrator-pupil. co-operation. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. teacher-teacher. parents. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. which are divided as the in. etc.
social sciences and other disciplines. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. pupil-parent. teacher-community leader. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. administrator.State. control. etc. organisation. teacher-parent.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. and to serve. It is also being modernized to become a technique. pupil-inspector. supervision. to attend.5. V. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. 311 . superintendence. now-a-days. pupil-non-official functionaries. It covers personnel and material management. supervision and superintendence. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. Good. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. organisation and management. to accomplish. According to C. to carry out. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. To administer means to manage. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. pupil-community leader. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes.
sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. He should be an artist in human relationships. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions.The manager should have leadership traits. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. 8. Rapport between the Management and Employees . Decision Making . Liasion with the Public . Motiviation .The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees.Any good management will always have good public relations.Of all the approaches. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. Socio-Scientific Approach . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. 3. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . 9. Leadership . He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. 12. This is the latest democratic trend in management. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. low. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. 6. 5. Economic Management .Management should be efficient and economical 312 . If it is more. who occupy the managerial positions. 7.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. 13. Those.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. 2. Better Human Relationships . it is not worth-while. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. If the cost benefit ratio is less. 4. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. Communication . without this the efficacy will be handicapped.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. The relationship should change from master. Democratic Management . Worker Participation . 10.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. Cost-Benefit Analysis . 11.
Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. enrichment of curricula. improvement of teaching methods.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work.5. and cooperative performance should be ensured. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. 14. 313 . the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. 5. characteristics and areas of institutional planning.These two are. objective. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance .g.5. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. 5. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions.too. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. to improve the quality of education it provides. 18. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. 19.
H. and Personnel services.5. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. b. Examinations. Decision Making b. b. a. it becomes the basis for school inspection. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. c. (2003). Tarachand and Prakash.5. S.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. a. Leadership c.5. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. e. Singh. Co-curricular activities. Classwork. (1995). Syllabus. b. 2. a.M. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. f. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. R. a.K. Communication 5. Instruction. Motiviation d. 4. Educational Administration. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. In group and Out group 5. Fundamental of Educational Management. NUEPA. d. 314 . (2001). APH Publishing Corporation. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.
UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.1 Gurukula system of education.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.Pre-service and In-services facilities. Preservation of nutrients. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. 1. wastage and Stagnation 3.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.1 Inculcation of Socialism. population education.CORE PAPER . Examination reforms.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.4 India's Secular Policy .3 Directive Principles .Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.teachers should have : 1. First Aid. Economic 315 . Buddhist and Jain system of education.1 Primary Education : Education for all. Healthy Food Habit 4. higher education.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . New evaluation procedures.Preventive measures. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . physical education and environmental education 5.3 Educational Influences of Home. social Impact 3.2 Nutritional deficiencies. Sex-education 4. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. Community and Mass Media 2.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Realized the problems of school education. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. School. Code of conduct for teachers.1 School Health Programme. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. women education and teacher education in India.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Communicable diseases . 2. nutritional requirement.I. Common ailments of Children. Balanced diet. 4.Article 45 .2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.5 Regional Educational Development in India .3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.Religious and Modern Education 1. Inspection and Supervision 3. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .
R. T. and Mohanty R. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . B. Mahatma Gandhi. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms.K. (2004) Problems of Education in India.4 4. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.1 Idealism. R. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.N. (1999) Culture.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.N.K.4.K. Sharma. Socialization. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Ram S. and Dash B.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Kalan Paper Packs 10. 316 . (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.C. Realism. Curriculum and national goals . Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. curriculum and teacher's role 5. 7.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. (2005) Foundations of Education. Mishra. Delhi : University Publications 2. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Taneja V. 5. Prof. Ghanta R. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Tagore 5. Pandy V. and Human Development. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. Hemchand. Saraswathi T.S. REFERENCE 1.K.Aim. and Sharma R. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. Naturalism and Pragmatism .