SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I
regional imbalances and variations in different environment. Lesson 2. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. In. Jainism and their educational implication. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Lesson 4. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. discusses the regional educational development in India.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. The need. Lesson 5.
. and Jain system of education. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west.
2 Aims of Jain system of Education 188.8.131.52 Education during British Era 184.108.40.206 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 220.127.116.11.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.2 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929)
.18.104.22.168.5.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 22.214.171.124 Features of Buddhist system of Education 126.96.36.199 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 188.8.131.52 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 184.108.40.206.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 220.127.116.11 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1.1
EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD
STRUCTURE 1.6.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 18.104.22.168 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.5.5 Jain system of education 1.LESSON 22.214.171.124.
7 1. 1. “a class of persons. Education in India. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.1. Muslim and British periods.3.1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. That
. British system of education presented the modern western model. The history of education passed through Buddhist.6.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.1. in morals and in the intellect”. but English in taste.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.9 1.1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.6.1. has a long past history starting in vedic education. 1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. 1. India. elucidate the education during British Era. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. describe the Jain system of Education 4.1. both present and future.8 1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. in opinion.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. you will be able to: 1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1.1. Indian in blood and colour.1.
4. 9. The immediate aim of education. however. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. 3. It was not merely intellectual. from darkness. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Curriculum. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. with grants of land or money.
. 6. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. and to agriculture and trade. It was also moral. Where pupils were many. Religious and Spiritual. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Free and Accessible. as it is generally considered to be at present. 14. No State Control on Education. not en masse by the class method. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. questioning by the pupil. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. managed entirely by Brahmans. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. if they thought fit to do so. Forests as Centres of Education. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Education was a private affair of the people. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Pupils were taught. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Education of Moral. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. There was. 8. individually.knowledge was real. 11. 16. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. 13. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. generally. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Immediate Aim Vocational. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. High Status of Teachers. Method of Study. Role of Travel in Education. to light. Teacher as Parents. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. the monitorial plan was followed. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. followed by explanation by the teacher. religious and spiritual. 10. Individual Teaching. 12. from eternal to immorality 2. 5. Residential Schools. Method of Instruction.
Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education?
3. studied Vedas. It was freely available to all those who wanted. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education?
. Wide-Spread Education in Women. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. lived a life of celebacy. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. 2. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India.1. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. It was suited to the needs of the society. They were very cordial and intimate. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education?
.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
the handicapped.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. use of cosmetics. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. 2. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. use of intoxicating things. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. except the Chandals. which included abstaining from theft. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. every class in society.4
BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. Right knowledge 2.1. Right endeavour 7. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms.4. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. killing of any living being. It was denied only to the ill. he was qualified to become a monk. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. I take Refuge to Dharma. taking things without being offered. the most significant of which were the following 1. Education was imparted through the. etc. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. After attaining the age of 20. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Right thought 3. disease and death of the human beings. Right memory 8. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Right means of livelihood 6. impure conduct. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. watching dances or listening to music. had the right to receive education. I take Refuge to Sangh. 1. Consequently. in which. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Right contemplation 1. Right speech 4.
. the student remained in a state of Shramana. the student had his head shaved of all hair. Right activity 5.C. medium of Pali. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. partaking of food at prohibited times.
bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. cottage industries. education was impart in art. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. the presence of the monks was essential. medicine. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. wear three items. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. a continuous change creating
. so long as it successfully does so. beg for alms. These are called later Buddhist schools. 2. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results.3. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. etc. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. archery. On this occasion. etc. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. a change is not only total but also perpetual. and. knowledge of reviving the dead.. elephant lore. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. changing the goals. of clothes. archery. animal husbandry. handicrafts. along with education in script writing. Even at this stage. bodily gestures. After this ritual. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. approach. Life is in a flux. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. 4. meaning. 1. Whatever its nature and extent. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. has no metaphysical value for life. 6. aspirations and. 5. women occupied a position inferior to men. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. however. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. eat food thrice a day. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. 3. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. the science of taming and training animals. etc. depth and range. arithmetic and religious discussion. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. military science. Initially. geology. As reality is becoming. nothing is of any permanent consequence. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. control over sensuous activities. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. agriculture. therefore. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. commerce. It comprehended education in writing.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. 7. be considered the aim of education It. Later on. magic. objectives of human life. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. assumptions. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. Hence. nature.4. it is regarded as true”. 8.
is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder.e. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals?
6.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. whatever works are true and good. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. such as. goes to Vardhaman.1. i. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas.new and peculiar situations. 1. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. therefore. it is much older than the latter. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. 5. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. however. In fact. its pessimistic outlook on life.. Jainism insists
. Its chief feature. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. However. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Validity is effective and consequences. and to give it a shape that it has today. Education must. Write Eight fold path . But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education?
9. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. d) To lead a celibate life.1. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. c) Right conduct. but on both. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. 7. 8. 6. 1. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. e) To renounce the world. and is to be redeemed and liberated. b) Not utter falsehood. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. b) Right knowledge. 2. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. They are: a) Not to injure. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. and believe in happiness to all. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. rather than the interpretation of the universe. 2. c) Not to steal. 1. 5. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 4. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. Hence.
. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. As such. Development of personality as an individual. it has a foot in both the words. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. restoring the ideal character of the jiva.5. 3. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. more stress on individual aims.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 3. thought and deed. 10.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone.
hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Jiva is essentially karmic.
Knowledge is through senses and meditation. education should develop sense of discrimination. here and now.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
1. that would be socially desirable. Belief in transmigration of soul. What are Triratnas ?
. 3. practised and not only aspired for. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Teaching must develop these faculties. success and love. Hence. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. therefore. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 8. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas.5. Teaching should be social and tolerant.4. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education?
. 2.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
1. 5.5. the precious principles of life that bring happiness.
. and should bring happiness to all. 3. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. 4.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. 2.
Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”.1. To set up separate departments of.6. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. However. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods.
. 1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.6. 1. and not for life.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.6. Madras. science. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. North West Province and Punjab.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. with rally and rout. philosophy and literature of Europe. 2.1. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. 1. 1953).4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. Bombay.
they named these schools as polytechnic schools. 1. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. The universities dominated the secondary education. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. To ensure qualitative improvement. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. namely.K. 1. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. secondary education became a step towards university.6. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. At that time M. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education.6. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams.education was neglected. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. The broad outlines of the report are as follows:
. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. In 1882. 1. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937).5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929)
Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations.6. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. at the primary level. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. • Secondary education. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. self-respecting and competent. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. • Universal free primary education.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. Later on. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools.
The objective of education was to provide
. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813?
.At the primary stage (6-11 years). all children are to have a common curriculum. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission?
12. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. After this stage. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial.1.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year
1. 10. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11.
education of European literature. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools.1. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. education was impart in art.1. It was suited to the needs of the society. arithmetic and religious discussion. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Right contemplation. military science. 4. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. etc. The immediate aim of education.
. Right memory. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. a.
1. b. handicrafts. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. geology. 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. along with education in script writing. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. the science of taming and training animals. Right thought.. Right speech. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. Right means of livelihood. Right knowledge. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. 5. 4. 2. 2. During the Buddhist period. archery. questioning by the pupil. The system of education was well-organised. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. establishment of universities. 3. science and English language. 6. Right endeavour. 3. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. followed by explanation by the teacher. Right activity. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.1. Aggarwal. (1984).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. 8. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 10. J. Development of Educational System in India. 11. and Nath. 1937 1. Hence. Ltd. c. Improvement of Literature. Y. b. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Development of personality as an individual.K. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. b. Ltd. 9. J.7. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2009).
. Right conduct. Singh. a. Right faith. Right knowledge. (2005). a. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science.C. History of Indian Education System. Sharma. 1882. more stress on individual aims.K. R. (2007).C. Y. Sargent report 12.
126.96.36.199.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.9 1.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.4 National Policy on Education 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.2
THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA
STRUCTURE 1.2 1.3.5 1.7 1.3.6 188.8.131.52.2.LESSON 1.3 Kothari Commission 1. The
.2.8 184.108.40.206.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.1 University Education Commission 1.2.1 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.4 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.
technical.conditions of the teachers. There had been vast institutional expansion. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. you will be able to: 1.3. Post-graduate
.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. S.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. Kothari (1964-66) 8. girls and women education besides primary. standard of teaching. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. curriculum. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9.2. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. secondary and higher education. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. expansion of vocational. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. medical and legal education. New Educational Policy. 1. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. technological engineering. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. explosion of enrolment. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. 2. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1986
1. National Board of Teacher Education 10. examination system. National Council for Women’s Education 5.2. vocational education.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES
The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. diversification of courses of studies. 1. analyse the progress of education in free India.
in January 1985. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. the chairman of University Grants commission. Kothari.
1. 3. D. quantity. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. 2. accumulated over the years. 4. utility and financial outlay. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. 1966. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. However. Education for Equality. The Essence and Role of Education. A meaningfully Partnership. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. All possible efforts will be made on the removal
. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3. A. quality. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1986.3.teaching. 1952. the New National Policy on Education. Finally.S.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education.3. material and spiritual. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. research et. 1. 1. Government of India. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. Therefore. Problems of access. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education.2. Education is the key to our allround development.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. National System of Education.2.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964.2. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States.
attitudes. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. It can train practical aptitudes. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. By working with hands. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. the concepts of work experience. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. The UNESCO Report. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. the minorities and the handicapped. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education.2. Thus. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools.” Thus. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year
1. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes.
a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. As such. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. it will conduce self.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. if he wishes." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. co-ordinations.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. the Commission. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the
. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. The Radhakrishnan Commission. “The aim of these colleges.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. In 1955. According to. “It may be described.” The Mudaliar Commission. Besides. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. The Education Commission. With adequate planning. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses.
” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. Therefore. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. raising the special facilities.ot her. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. the rigid streaming of courses. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. With a view to relating education to the life. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. for quality of life in the rural areas. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. etc.. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. the. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. admission requirements to vocational courses. T h is Co mmit t ee
. In addition. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. The Central Advisory Board of Education. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. Subsequently. the semester and credit system. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education.
It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. felt that education should be centred around a craft. under the diversified curricula of seven streams.and the world of work. which swept the country for over two decades.. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. The wave of Basic Education. etc. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. meaningful. manual work resulting in either goods or services. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed.
. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. preferably spinning and weaving. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. Commerce. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. technological courses including Agriculture. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. giving importance to productivity in the national development. which are useful to the community.2. The Father of Nation.defined S UP W as “purposive. In short. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. who conceived the System of Basic Education. meaningful. 1. According to committee. aimed at this goal. which offer scientific.
From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. locally available materials and tools. Work practice. as far as possible. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. be that the work involved is: 1. so that it is educational in essence. 4. Productive 2.
Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. 2. Clothing 5. Food 3. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2.
. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. tools and techniques and 3. 3. Some Hints to Teachers 1. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Culture and recreation 6.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Experimentation with materials. Community work and social service. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Health and Hygiene 2. Educative and 3. The teachers should make use of. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Shelter 4. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment.
2. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. To make education more realistic. Education through work The SUPW should. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. improve discipline. 1. removal of illiteracy. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. slum clearance. It can become an instrument to build character.5. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Check on educated unemployed 4. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. Productive Work
. as far as possible. the local community should be actively associated. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. 6.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. Merits of the Programme 1. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. inculcate a faith. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. etc. Community Service In-1972.
AICTE was set up in year 4. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. should involve itself in the educational effort. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. Define SUPW
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. traffic control. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. What are the work areas in SUPW
6. The community. helping the adults-in productive work.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. if not productive. etc.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. offering first aid.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. in turn. skills and better future for the children.
1.2. 2. a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Radhakrishnan 2.9
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. d. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. which are useful to the community. f. manual work resulting in either goods or services. b. 3. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.
1. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. 1955 4. 1952 3. Dr.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.2. c. e.1.
.2. Write short note on SUPW. meaningful.
P. V. History of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Y.. History and Problems of Indian Education. (2005).H. P. History of Indian Education System. (2007). Anupama.1.2. Y. Rao.P.K. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.K. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. and Rao. Development of Educational System in India.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. B. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. (2009).D.C. Singh. (2007). R. Amala.
. Publishing Corporation. A.(2005). and Nath.K. J. : Sharma. New Delhi: A. Ltd.
EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION
STRUCTURE 1.3. 1950. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. establishing the structure.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.4 1. for a total of 117. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. assuring its citizens of justice.7 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. it came into effect on January 26.3. directive principles and duties of citizens. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.9 1.369 words in the English language version. procedures.3. equality.8 1.3. 1949.1 Significance of DPSP 1. containing 395 articles.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.220.127.116.11.3.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.6 1.5 1. democratic republic.1 1. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.3. and liberty. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. Besides the English version.2 1. Being the supreme law of the country.3.
. there is an official Hindi translation.3.3.
analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. for 166 days. Through them. learn the role of central and state government on education. 1. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. the Drafting Committee was appointed. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. 1. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. political. 1947. 1947. According to the constitution. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. in sessions open to public. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. spread over a period of 2 years. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. with Dr. social. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. understand our Indian constitution.
. 4. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. 2.In the August 14. legal and environmental.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. Dr. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution.3. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. The Assembly met. 3. economic. 1. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. 1950.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. administrative. After many deliberations and some modifications. Two days later.3. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. On August 29.3. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. you will be able to: 1. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws.
and shall. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Right to work. make effective provision for securing the right to work. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. No abuse of children. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. men and women. Condition for dignity of children. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Appropriate concentration of wealth. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Liking wage etc. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Organisation of village panchayat. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy.government. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. That the health and strength of workers. Protecting health of the workers. Equal justice and free legal aid. for workers. The State shall.
. and in other cases of undeserved want. on the basis of equal opportunity. sickness and disablement. The State shall endeavour to secure. Minimising inequalities in status. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Article 42. Article 43. old age. provide free legal aid. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Article 40. Protecting children from exploitation. Article 41. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. in particular. Article 39A. Equal pay for both sex.
Provision for free and compulsory education for children. (Original Article 45. industrial or otherwise. The State shall endeavour to provide.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Article 43A. Uniform civil code for the citizens. by suitable legislation or in any other way. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Article 49. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. a living wage. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Article 44. work. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. [declared by or under law made by
. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Article 46. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. in particular. to all workers. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Article 48. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. 2002 for “45. in particular. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. The State shall take steps. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Article 45. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. agricultural. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Note: Subs. Article 48A. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. and. Participation of workers in management of industries. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Article 47. See also Article 21A). in particular. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country.
disfigurement.3. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. disposal or export. Promotion of international peace and security. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. 2. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Article 50. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. Article-21A Right to Education. Separation of judiciary from executive.Parliament] to be of national importance. removal. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Article 51. from spoliation. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. may be law determine”. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. destruction. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2002. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. as the case may be. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. Article 45 .4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood
. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy?
Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. and shall protect them. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. 5. language or any of them”.”
. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. ii. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. 2002. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. caste. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. his guardian has given his consent thereto. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. 6. 7. 3. in particular. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i.
8. from justice and all forms of exploitations. and. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. iii. if such person is a minor. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. race. 4. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections.
to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. for its vocabulary. and by drawing. Write Article 21 A and Article 45?
4. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.3. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. 2. &
1.9. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION
1. the forms. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. The central government determines targets and promotes education. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. wherever necessary or desirable. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Educational Reforms From time to time.
Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas
. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Local bodies and private enterprise. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. 8. All India Council of Medical Science. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. 5. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. private agencies etc. the state governments. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. to achieve the desired ends. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. 4. Production of suitable for children and adults f. So as to encourage education on right lines. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. 6. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. So that they may work well. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society.. By starting these projects. The following pilot projects. 7. etc.3. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states.
Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. Material concerning nation-wide interests. research.3. The
. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. 4. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. 1. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. 12. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. training and statistics. 10. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. 3. is the state responsibility.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. reports etc. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. handicapped.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 11. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. 9. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. 1. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. education for women. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. are published by it. etc. books.
1.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.3. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Article 46 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Article 45 b. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write short notes on a. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India?
8.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. articles in the Directive principles. Article 21A c. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. 5. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government?
9. Explain Directive principles 2. Write any two functions of State Government of Education?
. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45.
9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Ambedkar 2.3.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Article-21A Right to Education. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 3. a.
.5. Clearing House function 9. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. The Directive Principles of State Policy. b. Describe the educational role of State Government.
4. 1. a. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Dr. a. Article 46 5. 2002. Development of Hindi Language 6. Article 29 and 30 7. Article 45 . for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 2002. b. may be law determine”. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.
Dash. K. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.
. K and Narang C. B. (2008). (2009). L. S. Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. (2007).
Bhatia. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N.3. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.1. S. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. New Delhi: Shipra Publications.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta.
1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.18.104.22.168.4.2 1. religious education should be broad based. Jainism.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 1.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1. Islam.4.4 Moral education 1.1 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.4. Christianity.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4. Students should be
. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.6 1.4.8 1.4.7 22.214.171.124.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.4.3. Buddhism etc.126.96.36.199 1.
naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. As result of which. you will be able to: 1. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. Thus.D. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. know the position of religious education in our country 3.4.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions.4. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion.and dedication. state meaning and need for moral education 1.” Education broadens human outlook. India' can produce men of character. According to E. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. "In A multireligious society like ours. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. In the complicated and complex society of today. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. integrity. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. duty-consciousness.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. religious education and the concept of secularism. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). beauty and goodness so that
. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment.
our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. all citizens are free to follow any creed. They thought that any kind of narrow.3.3. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal.4. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. through religious practices and
. if not regularly. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. 1947 we achieved our freedom. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. As our country is a country of diverse religions.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. According to Article 22. 1.” From the above. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. castes and creeds. Thus. Hence.4. at least occasionally. According to Article 19. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. As a matter of fact. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. No religious tax can be imposed on them. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. rancour.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. religion and democracy are same. Children attend these organizations. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. 1. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. it is clear that the State has no religion. In short. Viewing the defects of religious education.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. realizes God in himself.
Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. for the development of the individual and the society. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. intellectual and physical faculties of children. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. moral and spiritual values. which can mould. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion.. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). one fully developed. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. and what is evil.
Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Good education. what is done and what is not done etc. when he becomes an adult. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. If unreleased. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. As a result of which. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. temperament etc. He also learns about social. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. It is religious education.teachings. which help him for the development of his character. It helps to modify habits attitudes. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people
. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. aggressive. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions.
The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning.4. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. 2. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. 3. This should not be allowed to happen. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. towards the society. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. which is the basic need of a democratic life. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. If we open the pages of history. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society.3.
. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. 1. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Therefore.
The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools?
1. therefore. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. 10. they should be discussed in the right earnest. examples of patriotism. stories of moral greatness. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. churches and mosques 7. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians
8. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.4. 11. For this. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6.5. 9. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Write Article 22
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Life histories of great persons of the world. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Gurudwara as. fellow-feeling.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two aims of religious education?
3. Since all religions have virtues.
4. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. 1. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Non-injury. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Patriotism. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 2. 7.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. in the home. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). therefore. Satyam (truth). 5. Swadeshi (Patriotism). they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society.
. “Let all be happy and free from disease. Fearlessness. is that which develops moral values. 8. 6. the methods of teaching. let men see well of one another. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Brahmacharya (celebacy). an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. 4. The content of the curriculum. Moral education. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Purity. 4. 5.acquisitiveness). Aparigarha (Non. 6. Cultivation of emotions. Self sacrifice. 8. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. students. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. 2. 1. Asvada (Control of palate). let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Service to others. Without moral values.4. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. They will play their role effectively. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 3.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 3. 7.
1. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics.4. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Integrity. Good manners. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Good temper.9. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. 3. In the school programme.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. National unity and Spiritual values. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Unity of mankind. 2. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. 11. religions may be included in the syllabus. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Asatyam (Non-thieving). Discipline. 10. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Secondary Stage 1.
. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . 3. 4. Efficiency. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Simple texts and stories concerning different. minutes in the morning for group singing. discipline. Sharivashram (Physical work).
Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 4. should form a normal part of school programme. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . 2. In this connection. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. In other words. 3. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. patriotism and self-discipline. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction?
6. Silent meditation should be encouraged. 5. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme.
. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. love of humanity. University Stage 1.
4. Sri Prakasa 6 . minutes in the morning for group singing. In short.
. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.1. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 2. 1.
4.4.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. The School Assembly should be held for a few. 1.4. Training of Character 3. a. 2. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. b. Discuss the aims of Religious education. b. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid
blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. For this.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. a. 1959 5. the. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. a.
Ltd. Publishing Corporation. (2003).
. K and Narang C. (2008).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.4.H. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2007). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.P. N.
Pahuja. J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.H. K. Theory and Principles of Education. (2004). N.C. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A. New Delhi :
Siddiqui. L. Anmol Publications Pvt. M. B. P.1.
but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.10 1.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.5 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.2 188.8.131.52 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.12 1.
.5.8 1.e.11 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
184.108.40.206.1 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.9 220.127.116.11 1. i.5.LESSON 5
REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
STRUCTURE 1. Although.3 1.5.5..7 1. disparities between provinces/States.
Selfishness of the regional political leaders. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. They therefore. they take appropriate measures. understand the regional educational development in India 3. 1. waters. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 1. 4. 7. 6. for example. you will be able to: 1. energy. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.5.5. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. know the education suited to different environments.1. 3. work hard towards this end.
. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. This leads to separatist movements.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Accordingly.5.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 2. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. roads. 5.
1.5. etc. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF
Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. 8.
some average. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. Therefore. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided.
. 4.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. on the basis of regional development may be formed. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. and. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. • Separate States (of course viable States). some States became educationally far advanced. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. 3. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. while others remained educationally backward. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. Secularism. Tight security arrangements should be made. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. 2. education as a fundamental human right was recognized.
The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1.5.
. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. However. academic buildings. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. Silchar. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. Out of this.480. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. books. while some States like Bihar. NIT. scholarships. library buildings.After the Planning Process has originated. Regional Centres of IGNOU.84 crore was released in 2005-06. These projects are in various stages of implementation. since its inception in 1998-99. In the Central sector. Rs.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. NERIST. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. Nagaland and NEHU. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. Funds amounting to Rs. remained under developed. Jammu and Kashmir. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. the State Governments. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. After the attainment of independence.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005.392. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Central Universities of Assam. Even in each State. Mizoram. etc. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. Guwahati. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. and provision of informal education to enable those. etc. approved proposals worth Rs. the Union Government. Tezpur. Itanagar.14.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. 1. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted.5.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner.
40. Moreover. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.57 crore and Rs.8 per cent in 05).40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.05 crore and Rs. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.261. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. During 2003-04. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Tezpur University.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION
The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.
. Government expenditure on education. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.5. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.187. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. Out of this an amount of Rs. too.501. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. A provision of Rs. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010
pharma. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. engineering and R&D. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. for which 16 sites. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all
. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Karnataka. telecom.5.
1. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development.
The number of teachers in most of the Northern states.
Listing the positives. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. Andhra Pradesh. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. too. Karnataka. notes the study. for instance. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction.
Moreover. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. too.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Medical education. Kerala and Gujarat.
Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. English. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). too. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Tamil Nadu. health services and welfare of the citizen population. To add to the woes. The Chandigarh Administration. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats.
Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. when he will not be sure of time. The living conditions. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. Then education become realistic and idealistic. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. while the former does not. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. taking the average in the middle. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. life-oriented and environment slanted. the socio-physical conditions. the working days: an academic .year. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. In the same manner. the curricular subjects. For a learner living in a rural area. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. Of course. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. and so on. the interests. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding.
. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. The working hours of educational institutions. the needs. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. even actually looking at the watch. the vocations. which a non-tribal person cannot do. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. the teaching methods. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. in which the learners live.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Hence it is called as need-based.
5.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance?
. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. to suit education to different environments? 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region?
1.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. 2. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education?
3.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
Education Scenario in India. remained undeveloped 3. 60% 1. (2002). and Nair. (2001). S. some States have become more developed than others b. R. Education in Developmental Arena. C. some of areas which were under the native rulers. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. a.G. Salim. Educational Development in India. New Delhi: Authors press. Giridhar. Dubey. during the British rule.N.H.
. (2008). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.K. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001). A.5. S.2.
UNIT – II
Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept.
. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. National Integration. secularism and democracy through Indian education. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. school community and mass media. community development. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Of all the human factors in the school system. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. semi literate and illiterates.
LESSON 2.1.3 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 18.104.22.168.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124.1.8 2.6.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.5.4 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1
IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.1 2.1.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.2 126.96.36.199 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.6 Education for Secularism 2.1 Main features of Socialism 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206.
‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.2. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. This is the political aspect of democracy. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. Abraham Lincoln. socialism and secularism 2. socialistic and secular state.
. 2. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. Democracy thus means power of the people.1. The students may be associated with the management of the school.1. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. there should be made no distinction of caste. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. for the people by the people”.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. 5) Encouragement to Group Work.
2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. understand the concept of democracy. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group.1. creed. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. you will be able to: 1. colour or wealth. In the matter of admitting students in schools.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. 3) Provision of Manual Work.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. socialism and secularism 2. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy.1. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy.
7) Promotion of Self-Expression. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln?
3. 11) Student Parliament.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. 12) Visits to Legislatures. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India.1. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. declamation contest etc.. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. it soon spread all over the world. Democracy means 2. debates.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum.
2. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at.
. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. may be planned. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. There are different brands of socialism. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work.
Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. service and cooperation. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.1. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. the wealthy and the poor. oppression and disparity.
. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 2. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. free from exploitation. Under it.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 2) Socialism aims at equality. but on the path of non-violence.
2. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. none high”.5. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.1. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.5. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. the prince and the peasant. 7) Special facilities for girls.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools.
Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’.
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” In every political and educational corner. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students.1. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. 11) State schools. secularism is being propagated. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. According to Holydake. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values.
2. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. "which seeks the development of physical. Write any two main features of socialism. “India is a secular-country. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth.
5. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. Everyone says.
. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. education etc. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness.1. 9) It stress free inquiry. should be independent of religion. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. fraternity. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. 5) It implies tolerance. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. 3) It permits freedom of worship. “Webster further says. In this type of prevailing situations. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society.1. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. the belief that the state morals. liberty.6. people have narrow mindedness. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. Equality. There is need of making the people open minded. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. A large number of people is uneducated. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. During the recent past.6. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. people started believing in regionalism. 8) It believes in co-existence. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. Moral values have to be imbibed. That is why. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation.opposed to religious education. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is.
4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. that the central string of all religions is one. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING
In the schools. 2. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. Patiala. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. education. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. it has then everlasting impact on their
. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. The very sight of the building.6. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. tours and trips may be organized. 1) Moral Education.1. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. Religious Education. students belonging to different religions should be associated. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. In the hands of such teachers.presented by the students in the gathering. No doubt. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. There should be some internal checking of the material being. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. In the celebration of each such function. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. While doing so. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
2.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Define Secularism
9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook
10. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. The term secularism was first used by 8.7 LET US SUM UP
. No doubt.1. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. The word “Seculum” means 7.
5. 6. What are the implications of socialism on education
2. c. for the people and the people”.1. colour or wealth.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. 4. Since socialism stands for equality. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. In the matter of admitting students in schools. 3. Abraham Lincoln. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. 4. The students may be associated with the management of the school. d.
2. b. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Power of the people 2. a.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. Provision of Manual Work. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. creed. Socialism aims at equality. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. Equal Opportunities for Admission. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. The two can move only in the consonance with each other.1. George Jacob Holydake
. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. This present age 7. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. a. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. a. Tuition free education b. Socialism aims at social justice.9
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Respect of Individual Personality. 5. there should be made no distinction of caste. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. b.
School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. (2008). Anmol Publications Pvt.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2004). Ltd. New Delhi :
Pahuja. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J.C. Theory and Principles of Education. Mohanty. Dash. B. (2007).8. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools
2. a. L. K. It permits freedom of religion.1. It treats all religions on an equal footing. 10. Ltd. (2005).
Bhatia. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Modern Trends in Indian Education. J. b.
. N.” 9. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. education etc. should be independent of religion. b. K and Narang C.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. the belief that the state morals. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. a. P. (2003).
220.127.116.11.3 2.2.10 18.104.22.168.2 2.7 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.22.214.171.124.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.LESSON 126.96.36.199 2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 188.8.131.52 2.2
ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY
STRUCTURE 2. knowledge and experience of one
.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.1 2.4 2.2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.
social and moral aspects. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. moral. aims and objectives of the school. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. It involves physical. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. and 4. as it is t he aim o f modern education. understandings.
. who are placed in his custody. mental. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental.2. as citizens. application.2. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. social. A teacher is first and foremost. The developmental roles of children. as workers. emotional.
2. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. as learners. a r e 1. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. therefore.generation to another. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. 3. skills. development. 2. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. 2. you will be able to: 1. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. as persons.an instructor of school children.
4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. emotionally. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. Teacher as a Citizen
Next. morally. culturally confident. experiences and acceptance. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. 2. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. a part of their day in
. mental. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. motivated. social and emotional health. inquisitive. 3. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. Teacher as a Parent
Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a.All education should lead to better behavioural development. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. intellectually. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. morally. economically effective. physically fit for socially efficient. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. He is to become an active member. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. member of his community at the outset. and aesthetically to become. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. mentally. 1. He has to look after their physical. The students live. socially. The following are some of such roles described in brief. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens.2. 2. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association
Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner.
there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. and most of hours. creeds. languages and religions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. 4. They will be spending with their parents. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs
In addition to the above cited roles in the community. solve them. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Unless. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. fine art associations. science club.the school being under the custody of teachers. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. Dr.
. List out the role of teachers towards community development
. activities of the society into which he is born. faiths. photographic clubs. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. India is a land of many castes.
It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. national anthem and other national songs. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of
. At the primary stage the importance of stories. narrow-minded provincial. poems. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. 1. with straight backs and look up at the skies. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. ‘We should not become parochial. b. Let us. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis.2. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . The only process is the process of education. It should broaden the outlook. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. c. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. Sampurnanand remarked. stand up straight. social studies. therefore. the citizens of the Republic of India.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. the study of language and literature. a. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. this integration of the Indian people. Nehruji has explained this as.” Regarding the role of education. Radhakrishnan. should be emphasised. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state.” 2.5. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. and make into one strong national unit. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. Re-orientation of the Curriculum.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. folklore and teaching of social studies. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.is.
7. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. debates. symposia. t he st udent s and t he community. 8. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Textbooks.different social sciences. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Taking Pledge. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. 2. 4. dramatics and youth festivals. National Days—January 26. ACC. 5. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. 6. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Student Camps. Scouts and Guides. and picnics. 10. educational excursions. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. tours. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. 9.
. Reverence of National Flag. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Singing of National Anthem. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Uniform for School Children. militar y training like the NCC. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Co-Curricular Activities. Celebrations of National Days. 3. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. languages and literature. sports.
They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc.
. 12. iv. region or religion. colour. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Open-Air Dramas. School Projects. 15. flora and fauna. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. Educational and Travel Documentaries. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. 13. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. 14. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING
Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. language. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Students Exchange and Tours. v. Admissions to schools.2. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Recognition of Institutions. ways of thinking and doing things. 2. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste.5. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics.11. ii. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. 16. iii. Admissions.
Define National Integration
3. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Community dinners.2. ix.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. 2.
viii. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students?
. vii.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL
International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just
. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee?
5. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. irrespective of national boundaries. cultures and races on equal bases.vi. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. camps.
F. Therefore. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. In a very real sense.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. and the healthy development. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. This. 4.2. Strong has observed. C. 2. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. Teachers
. 3.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. if it happens. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. patriotism is not enough.. 6.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Dr. (c) fairly tales.” 2. 5. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. 2. often in connection with anniversaries.as important as that of a national citizenship. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations.2. of his body and mind. Organising of debates and. that war. the international level. therefore. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.6. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”.e.friendships between children of different countries. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. (b) stories of children of other lands.6. Radhakrishnan states. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.
a German. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. Indian and American. Russian. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should not be propagandists.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding
7. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. Impartial in their Treatment. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. an Englishman. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students
. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race.” Well Informed About World Situations. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries.
understand and indiscipline: 1.2. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . Soon after they leave their educational institutions. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only.
Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well.Another major. the education function can be carried. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. If this is done. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. majority of people are. and help the students to over . 4. It does not prepare students for life. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. As the school is but a miniature society. 3. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. there is wide spread frustration among all people.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. leading to. Wide Spread Frustration . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. Chronic Poverty .Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students.2. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than
. 5. Defects of the educational System . 2. which results in agitation and aggression language. Devaluation of Values .
2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5.
. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.democratic nature. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. love. fellow feeling.2. etc. List out the factors causing social tension in schools
. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. 2. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. community development. sympathy and good will among the nations. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him.
2.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
8. co-operation. 4. 3. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 184.108.40.206 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 220.127.116.11 Functions and role of schools in the society 18.104.22.168 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 22.214.171.124 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 126.96.36.199 Radio as an agency of education 188.8.131.52 Television as an agency of education 184.108.40.206 Press as a medium of education 220.127.116.11 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
18.104.22.168 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 22.214.171.124 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
126.96.36.199 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
188.8.131.52 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
3. the invention of the printing press.
2.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. “All the citizens of the community. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
3.V. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. Crow and Crow write. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Museums. Define community. led to the printing of books. Now internet is being used. He taught his students orally. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. During the course of time. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the
. In fact. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. periodicals. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Emphasising this thing. To make them achieve their aim. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Hence. are increasingly used in education. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Moreover. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Then came newspapers. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. books. art galleries. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided.
It is also an important source of entertainment. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. for the teacher through school broadcasts. It stimulates curiosity and interests. 2. Various talks. A lot of work by way of pre. Thus.
. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. art. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching.telecast. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Effective means of presenting music. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. 2.G.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. music. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. In collaboration with the experts. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. rather than on picture. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. Students listen various talks. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. languages. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom.6. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. the teacher still occupies. Thus. Important happening inventions. current affairs and other areas. social studies. It enlightens public opinion. “Listening participation” in current history. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. In the emphasis is on sound. politics. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Reynolds. the place of importance. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students.classroom teachers. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching.3. dram appreciation. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force.
While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. at recreational centers. At present. fol classical music. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. at any place. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. at drawing room.
. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. 3. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. Participation of local teachers and pupils. mathematics. style.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. plays. at play. projects or creative activities. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. development of lessons. Before presenting the programme. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. travel talks. Team-teaching demonstrations. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. 4. School concerts. Making learning an open system. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. 5. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. informal and non-formal education. audibility and presentability. speech. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 184.108.40.206 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
220.127.116.11 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 18.104.22.168 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
4.2 2.3.5 2.7 22.214.171.124 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.3.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 126.96.36.199.LESSON 188.8.131.52.4.4.1 2.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.8 184.108.40.206 Agencies of Non formal education 220.127.116.11.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.3 Advantages of formal education 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.6 18.104.22.168.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4
FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
the most important agency of formal education. 4. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises.4. 8.4.4. open school.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.
. 3. School is. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. 2. Education. the temple. compare formal and non formal system of education. 2.4. In ancient time in India. Education organised by some agency.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. 7. To realize this objective of education. 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 2. 6.3. the learner are acquainted. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. his mental alertness.2. 5. it was mostly. the community. 9. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 4. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. the mass media et. open university. you will be able to: 1. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. 3. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 2. say the Government or the private enterprise.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school.. starting and ending at -a particular age. imparted at the residence of the teacher. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. the family. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period.
It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals.
2. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. Some education systems have separate middle schools. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. as well as vocational education and training. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. or academic degrees. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. or post secondary education.4.3. such as a high school or secondary school. Through early formal education.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. the elements of language are first learned. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. capacity. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education.3. In general. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.2. diplomas. Concepts of proportion. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. also called tertiary. depending on the jurisdiction. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. structured education. Higher Education: Higher education. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate
. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. third stage.a secondary education.4. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years.
4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. 4. children with disabilities. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. and remote dwellers.
is an important agency of formal education.which will help for nation's development. What are levels of formal educational system?
. late beginners etc. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Agencies can be classified as 2. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. 2.
2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit &
3. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. that is intended to serve identifiable
. Write any two characteristics of formal education?
.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities.4. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.
staffed. systematic. Therefore. to help themselves. planned. adults as well as children. Non-formal education includes adult education. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. systematic.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. etc.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system.e. Open university. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. According to Malcolm A.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. adding up to a true learning society. it is a more effective tool for rural development. one could say that non-formal education is an active. continuing education and on the job oriented education.formal education. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. financially supported life formal education. Adiseshiah. open learning.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. However. until 1970 it had not been defined. It is functional. Thus. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. admissions. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. it has its own valid claim to reality.learning client take some learning objectives. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. i. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. It unlocks the doors of development plans.. It is deliberate. It is much more responsive to needs and change. curriculum. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. place of instruction. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. “Non-formal education should
.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.
S. place of education. evaluation etc.learning pattern.4. socialism. co-curricular activities.
• • •
To help the student to acquire languages skills.
. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. age. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth.
To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.” According to H.e.renewal. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge.” 2. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Process of sharing. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. Preparation for future needs. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. To develop in the student.be marketable and vocationalised.
The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. It should lay emphasis on the self. modes of teaching. curriculum.
• • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.4. 3. i. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. 2. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter.S. Part-time education. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. Covering life span of an individual. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. Flexibility in various aspects of education. Lawrence. national integration. 4. To help industrial workers to better their skills. the Ideas of citizenship. admissions. 6. 7. self. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. 5.4.4. 2.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. exploring. international understanding.
Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. 3. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country.
. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. •
2. 7.4. Senior Secondary.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. 6. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. school dropouts. 10.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 3. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 4. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. Eradication of adult literacy. in villages and those who live in towns. Universalisation of primary education. working adults.4.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To offer Secondary. 2. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 8. 2. 9. 5. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. publication and information dissemination. Technical. 4.4.4. Meeting the omissions of formal education. 5.
To better qualifications. All-round development i. self-employment iii. if organised in isolation. To increase knowledge and 2. Again. To make if. others are formal and informal. etc. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. 2. effective in modern societal context. 4.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. Therefore. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes
. 3. 2. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. farm. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute.4. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college .full time to learners – can be home. library. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii.4. public libraries. etc. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. factory.2. centres of correspondence education. Radio and television. training centres in factories. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.4. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. Institutions for formal education. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. open space. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs.. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems.
Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define non formal education. 7.6 7
Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Lecturing T. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
5. Give examples of non formal education?
. Correspondence lesson. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Face Contact programmes. Teaching to face teaching. List out any two aims of non formal education.V. Written tests. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
. institution. Essay Assignments and short answer questions.
. 6. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods.
b. 2. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.4. School 3. The school. a. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.
2. the college and the university come under this category. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Open learning and Correspondence Courses.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society.4. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Open School.
7. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. 4. Higher Secondary level and University level. Pre-school level. Secondary level.4. 5. a.2. b. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. systematic. Primary level. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education.
. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. Open University.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal.
2. 3. Formal and Non Formal 2. adults as well as children.” 6. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.
9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Anmol Publications Pvt. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2008). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Bhatia. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. K and Narang C. Ltd. Ltd. S. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2008). Education in Emerging India. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2004). (2007). (2003). Gupta. New Delhi :
.C. K. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. J. Pahuja. (2005). P. Mohanty.2. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. B.4. Theory and Principles of Education. N. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. L. N. Dash.
5.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 22.214.171.124.3.3.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.5.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.4 Open University 2.7 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.3 Objectives of Open University 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 Characteristic features of open University 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.5.4 Need for Open University 184.108.40.206.5.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.1 2.4.4.LESSON 2.5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.6 2.5
CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
STRUCTURE 2.5.2 2.5.4.
farmers. It is a continuous process.5. understand the meaning of continuing education 2.5.3. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. It is a lifelong process. This knowledge may be in political field. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.
In India. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. characteristics of open university 4. For them. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically.5.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. Thus. industries. continuing education is a boon. However. know the need and objectives of open university. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. Any person. 2. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. 2. you will be able to: 1.2.5. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. give the meaning. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. economic field or such other fields. Under these circumstances. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. labourers and half educated individuals. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not
Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. deteriorating to his character and personality. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas.literate person. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Thus.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI
As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation.V. Radio and T. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. On the other hand. Cinema. T. 2.V. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. For them too continuing education is essential. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress.directly related to his job. After the achievement of independence. Doctors. On the other hand. The objectives of National Literacy Mission
. if he gets opportunity to develop them. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Radio.5. Throughout the country. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action.3. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. Block Development Officers. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. cultured and progressive. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. are also contributing their might for the purpose. Persons engaged in health services.
especially women. habits of people of other lands. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (17) modern international and national events. Of course.V. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it.3. (10) first aid. 5. 2. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. Inspite of the great efforts.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 6. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. 2. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (6) folk stories. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (14) information about bringing up young children. (16) liking. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. 4. (8) psychology of adults. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons.. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. we have not been able to achieve our targets. 3. (15) music. These books are not very useful. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (4) the fundamentals of economics. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. 7. (9) fundamentals of philosophy.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (7) folk songs.5. 2.5. (2) basic religious matters. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy.3. (1) ancient history. (13) psychology of child behaviour.
. and Radio. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education.
T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. of educational opportunities. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left
. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. attendance restrict ion. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. lack of time etc. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. NLM was launched in the year 2. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns.4. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4
O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M
Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. What is the objectives of NLM?
3. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate?
2.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.
unobserved. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. Mention any two characteristics of Open University?
. 5.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 2. the higher the degree of openness. b. d. 3. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. No one is too old or too late to learn. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education is not a once for-all process. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. c. its education is not class room based but home based. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. 4. Which was the first open university in India? . e. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. 2. IGNOU was established in the year 6. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world.
An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e.4. it makes use of educational techno logy.5. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. and in teaching. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. but
. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification.
4. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 4. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. 5. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l.4. 3.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. 2. 2. cho ice o f co ur ses. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 6. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education.
.who did not get it. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. Mo re o ver. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. it a ims at wider and hig her. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.5. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 3. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced.5. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 2. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 2. 4. or who realised too late that they need it. supplementing the existing provision.
no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. 8. List out any four methods of Open University? .
B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Therefore.4. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. 4. Every day. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living.
1. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. Self instructional materials. a state or nation. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. 2.2. Enlist any two objectives of Open University?
. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Tutor Comments.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. school drop outs. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n .
2. semi – literates. 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. you have learnt the concept. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
7. a society. 7. 5. In the present day world.5.5. Correspondence tuition.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. 8. Laboratory works. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3.
. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons.
a. d. 7. which may include house wives. youth. 4. a. 7. 3. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification.
8. Broad casting lectures c. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. b. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. Explain the objectives. 1985.
.5. aspirants for continuing education. need and characteristics of Open University. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 9. a. unskilled workers and other professionals. Write about the philosophy of Open University
2. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. (2) basic religious matters. b.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6.
2.ambitious learners. P r int med ia b. its education is not class room based but home based. Television Lessons. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. 2. 6. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 8. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. agricultural and industrial workers.5. (1) ancient history. 1988. cho ic e o f co u r ses.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.
Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.K.. (2007).5. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Ltd. Modern Problems of Education. L. S. Reddy. R. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.S. K. (2001). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K and Narang C.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Udaiveer. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. (2004).2.
. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2004).
UNIT – III
New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. and teacher education. which may claim the attention of those concerned. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. All which is the need of the hour. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. its causes and remedial measures. wastage and stagnation. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. Examination reform.
. examination. the education of women. In Lesson 2. Training teachers for all levels of education.
.8 3.1.2 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.4 3.5 220.127.116.11.1 3.1
STRUCTURE 3.1.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.7 3.2 EFA – How? 3.6 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.3.3 New initiatives.
directed that. may be political. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. social. therefore. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. Therefore. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). Eradication of Illiteracy. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. (EOI) 2. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. economic or cultural.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. “The State shall
. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy.1. education received added importance and significance. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. understands the country. On the other hand. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. 2. Continuing Education (CE) 1.1. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI).
3. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3.3.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. you will be able to: 1.
From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. After the attainment of independence.
.endeavour to provide. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. 3. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Therefore. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Universalization of Retention. It enables the parents to send their children to School. Continuing Education (CE). Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Three Stages for Universalization. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . Universalization of Enrolment. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. the national Government under. rights and responsibilities. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment.
Write Article 45. UNESCO Bulletin states. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us.1. then to 1976.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1995 (for upper primary stage).1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education?
2. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal.
. This target had to be revised to 1970. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India.3. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. Therefore.
3. 1990. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. later to 1988. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is safe to assure. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. present and future. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. educational enterprise.
2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. 12. 8. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. 11. In order to make the programme of education for all community. 3. The Social Education.1. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. 5. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Jams and Jellies. Apart from primary education. their enrolment and retention. etc. problem of literacy. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. NAEP. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. FELF. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Emphasis must be given on health education. Education of the Impaired. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. adolescent and adult. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 6. slum areas. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). we have to develop the programme of Adult education. sex. By undertaking survey. and Women’s education programme should be improved. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. rural areas. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. creed. 9. Education of Girls. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Early childhood education should be streamlined.
. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Disabled. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). their social economic status and occupations.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. 10. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. 3.3. nutrition education and sports and games.
According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.
3. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.1. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Expand MLL and SSA
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.3.1. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA?
4.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. 4.3. Wastage and Stagnation. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.e.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES
W AS TAG E
The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. If any child drops out from the school before completing the
School Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness
.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school
poor standard of institutions
higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. it is considered as wastage.
(a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas
1. Familial Factors .
Personal Factors .first stage of education.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage :
unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools
parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home
over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and
excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The personal factors responsible for wastage are
Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties
Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments
lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education
2. Social Factors .
. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Enumerate the causes of Wastage.
. 7. Define Wastage.
. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation?
They are described hereunder :1. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.The following factors.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. relating to home. School Factors . Family Factors .3.1. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES
Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Societal Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation
. school or society. in his home. Personal Factors . rural or urban 3. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.
9.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. mid-day meals. etc. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.
. stationary. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation?
. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. uniforms.
Universalization of Enrolment c.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. a. 4. b. “The State shall endeavour to provide.1.
.1.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. improvement of curriculum. therefore. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. directed that. a. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Minimum Levels of Learning b. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education.
3. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. a.3. 4. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 3. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 3. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.” 3.. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. Hartog Committee. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation.1. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. Universalization of Provision b. Universalization of Retention 2. 6.
improve examination system.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. introduce graded curriculum. Social Factors
8. New Delhi:
. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. School Factors d. Sharma.K.K. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Hemchand. a. Personal Factor b. (2001). 3. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. S. S. (2007). Crescent Publishing Corporation. (2008).N. Problems of Elementary Education. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. b.1. 9. Familial Factors c.7. T. a.
3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 18.104.22.168.7 Open book examination 3.5 New evaluation procedures 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.1 22.214.171.124.4.2.2
STRUCTURE 3.1 Problems of examination 3.7 Let us sum up
.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2 3.4.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.LESSON 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2 Grade System 220.127.116.11 Modern reforms of examination 3.4 Question banks 3.5.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 18.104.22.168.5.6 Inspection and Supervision 22.214.171.124.
Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.2. suggest the new evaluation procedures. you will be able to: 1.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION
There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. 3. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.
3. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. 126.96.36.199.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION
One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.3.2.2. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. managing of co-educational schools is 148
. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. 3.2.9 3. 4. Besides. but on the other.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.
separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances.
3. etc. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers.3..2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. which the educational authorities have to face. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. by providing free education and liberal scholarships.2. They may cause problems relating to discipline.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. etc.
3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. roadside Romeoism.
4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated
5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. schools for them wherever necessary. waiting rooms for girl students. etc. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage.
. If the students are in sufficient number. They develop secondary sex characteristics. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. hostel facilities. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. The following steps should be taken up.
the examination system has an important role to play. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. public administrators and statesmen. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. conduct of internal examinations. 3. assessment and Finance. appointment of paper-setters. teachers. Write any two advantages of Co-education?
3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. It is considered as a major sub-system. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.4.2.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. Instruction. With the mass growth of educational enterprise.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. public interested in education.
. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. the net-work of examination system has also become vast.
announcement of results. invigilators. etc. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. examiners. tabulators. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. etc.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. establishing reliability. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted.printing and distribution of question papers. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. training of examiners. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different
. etc. introducing objective-based testing. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. etc. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters.2. scrutinizers. validity and practicability. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. values. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. etc. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 3.4. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction.
6) With reference to scoring procedure.. 2) From the angle of content of education.4. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. 3) With respect to method of teaching. Subjects. halo-effect. lack of objectivity etc. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. Rote memorisation. it can be said that they become examination-oriented.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education.
3. Vagaries in making.
. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc.. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested.2. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. it s a common experience that subjectivity. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. not meant to be assessed in the examinations.. stereotyped questions. do not appeal to the students and parents. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. which they are expected to study. may also discredit them. 7) In connection with the question papers. takes the place of comprehensive learning. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable.
Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. may be introduced. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Spot valuation. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. re-numbering of answer scripts. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
. revaluation. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. etc. List any two merits of examination. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately.a part of internal assessment. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. What are the major areas of problems of examination?
3. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination.
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students..develop true love for education. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . 4.
we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.2. In this system. It is complicated.
More autonomy is given to students. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970.5. skills are given importance. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.3. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. 3.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth.2.
Practical limitations are there. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features:
3. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the
. Their interests. Every paper is treated equal. The new scheme of assessment.5. attitudes.2. he is given extra credit points. In actual practice. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. When a person chooses to work extra. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. The students can take any course offered in any department.
An example is a seminar.5. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.good. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. poor. While designing syllabus. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. In the new system. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120.poor. This system reduces comparison of marks. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D
Avoids or less comparison.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. or as a 4 credit course. The one shot written examination is not an effective
. only the total credits to be earned is specified. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. courses can have weightages defined. v.
Less understanding by the parents. 3. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits.discipline. Groupism is encouraged. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. These weightages are called credits.2.
It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. 3.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.2. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. However.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. 3. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students.2.5.2. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.
3. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.5. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.
there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. List any four new evaluation procedures. However.5.2. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. In the hierarchy.
. There are no proper procedures for selection. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and
• • • • • •
.2. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
5.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Therefore. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. recruitment.
3. What is the reason for introducing grade system?
complaints and compliments. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. laboratory equipment. finding out whether the prescribed text. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. etc.• • •
• • •
administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. etc.qualified personnel. staff. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. library books. whether the syllabus has been covered. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. inspecting the class-room teaching. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools.6. taking up the follow-up programmes. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. of late. in contrast. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. books are followed. finding out the adequacy of. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. playgrounds. school buildings. disciplinary problems.. submitting of the inspection reports. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. in a sense. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. When they are fully realised. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. Separation of Inspection and Supervision.
3. interpersonal relationships and so on. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. wherever necessary. 1. requirements. Academic inspection. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. qualifications.2. being realised as two different functions..
. They are. whether proper teaching methods have been followed.
recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. aptitude. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. courses. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. course in either educational..Ed. 3. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought.Ed. or. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. once in five years.2. at least. modern.. Similarly. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. their professional knowledge.
. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. In the case of departmental candidates. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. In the light of these conceptualisation. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Insistence on specialisation in the B. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. M.
Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.
. 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. 3. 4. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System.2. 5.2. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. examination reforms and supervision and inspection.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit.2.
It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Grade System. b. a. c.
3. d. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
7. b. a. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
3. a. b. Administration. 2. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. Instruction. assessment and Finance. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 3.
Question banks. Open book examinations.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. (2005). Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. a. Multiple sets of question paper. b. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . (2004). Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Vaidya.2. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. New
. a. a. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. History and Problems of Education in India.
3. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.
Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. b. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. R and Sharma. Educational Reforms. (2002). Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. S.a part of internal assessment. Problems of Education in India. b. K. c. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline.
5. K. 7.4.
2.3. identify the needs of rural India and social.2 3. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.9 3. 3.3.LESSON 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.10 3. 188.8.131.52. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.6 3.3.7 3.3 3. 4.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.8 184.108.40.206 3.5 3.3.4 3.
.3.3. you will be able to: 1.3
HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.
This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. 2. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education.3.. University Education. The Calcutta Madras.specialisation programmes 3. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. e. Consequent on the recommendations. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates.e. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . 10 years of general Secondary Education. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta.. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. i. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. etc. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. in Andhra Pradesh. 8 years of general education. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Similar is the case with some other States.. the Banaras Sanskrit College. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively
. Commission emphasised to continue. The. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. and 3 years of First Degree Course. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1.g.3.. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i.e.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education.
2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to
Higher Education. 8.
3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a.confidence in students. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. However. who desire to change from one stream to another. general rise
in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. and.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 7. to imbibe. 5.3.a sense of dignity of labour. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. economical and political. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. 10. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. to prepare. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. cultural and economic development of the country. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . habits of hard work and develop .so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. Provision for transfer of credits to students. educational channels. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes
. social. 3. b. Genera l Objectives are
1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. 5) to help for the social. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . is also a plus point . to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 6. historical.
Here the choice of subjects is provided for. 3. cultural and' religious tolerance. Psychologically. on one hand. and that required to enter the tertiary level. Sociologically it is undesirable. 1. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education.3. etc. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. cooperativeness. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Philosophically it is not the conception. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. social justice. international understanding. democratic living. The General Educational Spectrum. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of
.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. at the other. to develop national character. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. and.national integration..
Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. Commerce and other disciplines. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. vegetable growing. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. rural health. Science. such as Agriculture.3. educational and cultural services. horticulture. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. In the matter of language. In our country. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. chemistry. 3. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. and vocations based on dairy-farming. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. technological. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially.
. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. All these need for an. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. the rural areas have suffered very much. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. technical. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. industrial agricultural production is growing. physics or mathematics. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. 2. fish culture. In the vocational spectrum. Agriculture is the main occupation. or other machinery. India is a land of villages. professional.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education.— tube-wells. commerce. medical plants. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. commerce. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Biology. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs.
social justice. etc. interests and aptitudes of the students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education.3. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum.etc. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. In time. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education?
3. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage?
.. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? .7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India.. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. the local resources available. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. 3. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. 4. There had been favourable reaction from the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. can be ensured. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . and
5. and the needs. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. In this way. In this it may be concluded.
K.3. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. Vocational Sepctrum. a. Dash. b. (2008). (2005). a. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. J.C.3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1.3. N. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. B.3. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. 3. 3. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi :
. habits of hard work and develop .a sense of dignity of labour. 3. objectives. (2007). 3. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2001). Calcutta University Commission 2. a. S. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. we studied the history. b. Modern Trends in Indian Education. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. General Educational Spectrum and b. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. Mohanty. J. Ltd.3. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage?
3. to imbibe.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. 2.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.
4.4.7 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.9 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.10 220.127.116.11.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 18.104.22.168 3. Education contributes to human development.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3. but the lighting of a fire”.13 3.8 3.1 3.4.2 3.LESSON 3.4.11 3.6 22.214.171.124.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
126.96.36.199. social and
“Education is not the filling of a trail.4
STRUCTURE 3.12 3.4.
4. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. although we have miles to go.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. While women constituted only 9. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. cultural and political development of the individual. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. Education . The relevance of women’s education to social. For the first time in the history of India. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country.higher education in particular. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. During the year 1937. you will be able to: 1. economic. analyze the women and distance education. These courses were. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence.4. 3. community and nation is universally acknowledged. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Nursing. Teaching and Fine Arts. particularly
. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. Home Economics. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . 3. There is a close connection between education and development. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. In the post —independence period. family. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. higher education of girls developed immensely. Dr. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University.
women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). in our country.women. Even today.4
ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS
In the post Independence period. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.D.0 32. Mother Teresa Women University. Kodaikanal. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than
3. levels and professions. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. 3.1 31. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.4.4. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. Mumbai.1 24.N. we have more than 1200 institutions. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.65 lakhs in 1994-95. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. In 1950-51.9 27.4. Coimbatore. The idea of women’s education for equality.0 16.2 29.9 14. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.2 22.T Women University. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.0 43.0
Today. Yet. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. out of 9200 and odd colleges. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. In the rest of the country.
73 10.54 12.that of boys.36
3.4. Which was the first Women’s University in our country?
.4%) prefer Arts subjects.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that
.17 52.63 Female % 34.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.46 82.4. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India?
. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.66 66.1 and 14. 2. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education?
.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.4.56 64. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. 3.53 34.
3.44 35. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.34 33. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1.1 respectively.47 65. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.27 89.83 47.
financial difficulty of the parents. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. In every third family.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. what is the need for higher education for her. They gave up their studies to enter home life. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. distance of the college or university from home. irrelevance of the content of education. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters.4. curriculum not suited to their requirements. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. she will only learn fashion. According to a survey. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. etc. The major hurdles. Also. Thus. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. particularly. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters.
. In college. marriage is a very common I factor. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. 3. and coeducation may spoil her character. promoted and increased. They argue that when their daughter need not earn.hinders the girls from getting higher education. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. Book banks should be established. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so.
It enables to study. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment.4. It is a productive investment. Full-time employment.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. 3. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. space.economic disabilities faced by women. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. There are constraints of time. It also brings about
Distance education is a boon to women. is the only tool for realising empowerment. Geographic distance of educational institutions.4. and the limitations of the conventional education system. resources and socio . It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Empowerment in a nutshell. which is the most dynamic factor of development.
3. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Education.
which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. 3. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education
system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies:
Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. empowerment means being assertive. Empowerment is an active. education of women must be given priority in national plans. Women are partners in development. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. legal awareness and economic independence. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. higher learning. on their own. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. for full development of our human resources.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. The major objectives of women's higher education.4. education of women is of paramount importance. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media
. This can be achieved through reflection.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment.
GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. will encourage them to venture new grounds. Reservation for women. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. The educational institutions. who are eager to take up courses. Scholarships and concessions for women. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. especially so in the developing countries. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops.4.
3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. 3.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. has to be implemented at the earliest. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. But their number is small. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. Better opportunities. which had been the sole domain of men. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. which is pending for a long time. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. The local administration.
. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community.
It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. engineering and related technologies (16.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education?
. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations.3 percent. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.8%). Also.1%) and architecture and building (38. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace
.000 women in the country.9%). Chief Executive. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. especially in developing countries like African countries. 3. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. talents. IDP Education. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. Australia. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. According to Lindy Hyam. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. But. capacities etc..4. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%).
Pattanaikj. and Suryalatha. Mother Teresa Women University. Mumbai.to the family. Coimbatore. (2007). Annakodi. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. individuals and society b. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. and Swain. (2008). a.4. 2. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life
3. Mishra. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.
. 4. R. 3.4. 3. Rajasthan 5. community and the nation. 43% 6.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. S.4. A. S. Rao.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. SNDT Women’s University. R. Coimbatore. create the right attitude towards life.K. SNDT Women’s University. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. (2000). Women Education. Kodaikanal. (2005). Mumbai. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. A. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. R.R. Centre for Women’s Studies. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Women and Education.
3.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera.C. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Women Education. 4. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.
12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5.8 3.7 3.4 3.2 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5.1 3.11 188.8.131.52 3.5 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.6 3.9 3.5.5
STRUCTURE 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.personality of children in and out of school.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3. whole.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.10 184.108.40.206. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. They should be trained.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. so as to enable them to acquire
.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.LESSON 3.5.
Shorter working hours. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. international.5. 3. 4. social and emotional integration.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. national consciousness. equality and justice. understanding and strong desire for international peace.
. you will be able to: 1. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. and national character. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching.5. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. understand the training teachers for Primary. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Lack of physical facilities.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. 5. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. know the pre service and in service training facilities. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner.
2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . and the collegiate teacher education.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. who have not been trained earlier. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. Lop-sided curriculum. the primary teacher education..Less qualified teacher educators.Ed. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. and M. Depending on the levels. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course.5. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. At the diploma level.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities.. it is called the In-service teacher education. higher secondary teacher education.5. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and
. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. etc. the centre. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. If the student teachers are working teachers. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education.Ed. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. levels. (NCERT) New Delhi. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. students. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors.
3. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. the state Government. it is called the Extension teacher Education. the secondary teacher education. Inadequate training in practical skills. inservice and extension education programmes. 3. a Diploma course and a Degree course.
• the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose .Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Educational teehnology cells. Science Education units. Education cells. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate
3. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. non-formal.. Evaluation unit. depart ments etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. Write any two problems of Teacher Education?
. are established. extensio n service. Also Guidance Bureaux.5. etc. collegiate cells. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. state Institutes of Educat ion. Expand NCERT 2.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers
The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory .
which help breaking isolation from one another . degree.. laboratories. material conditions relating to libraries. schools and sister institutions. to offer consultative services.•
• • • • (B)
manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified .. primary and secondary school teachers. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary.Ed. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. to prescribe conditions for recognition.. The following defects are note-worthy
• • •
it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240.
The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. to improve curricular programmes. audio visual aids. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. to ensure teacher competence. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. and so on. should be improved on a top priority basis. Training of Secondary School Teachers
The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . despite its vast expansion.Ed. which should include experience in the primary schools too.
Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. and
it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. methodology and evaluation.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. etc. Organisation of Content Courses. not came up once again. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Agriculture. Modern Methods of Evaluation.secondary education. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. Induction Courses. Workshops.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. though no pre-service training.
. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. The problem. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Hence. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . etc. Modern Techniques of Teaching. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers
As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. To meet this exigency. and XII. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Psychology of Students. Meanwhile. whether they should have professional education or.
A.Ed. These facilities are available for regular students.Ed. training. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. For re-orienting the teachers.. (Education) are organized by
. State Institutes of Education.. courses and M. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
3. Courses leading to B. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.A.Ed.Ed.. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.Ed. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. All B Ed.5. in Education.D.... Degree. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. (Education) and M. Point out two defects in primary teacher training
.’s for Ph.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.’s are elig ible for M.S. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.Ed. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. Ajmer. Post-Graduates also undergo B. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. M. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training..7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. Degree and M. Pre-service training is for those. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.
Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.List any two code of conduct for teachers?
. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. 3. What is the role of ERIC?
. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.
4.A. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. established by tradition and teachers of the past.). code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . (Ed. they should be conscientious . 6.. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. (Ed). CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.
. Hence the employability of M. and B.A.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. .some Faculties of Education of some Universities. 5. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.5. However. of conduct—written or unwritten.
Dearth of new technology of teaching. b. 4. 5. National Council of Educational Research and Training. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Shorter working hours.
3. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.5. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. However.
4. a.5. Bhopal.
. The necessity is however this.3.
6.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. 3. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b.9 LET US SUM UP
The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training.5. 2. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations.
3. 2. they should be conscientious. a. Ajmer. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. b. Explain code of conduct for teachers. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. these problems are not as such cannot be solved.
5. Teacher Education. Ltd Aggarwal. (2009). and Teacher Education. Tewari. Teacher Education. (2003). A. J.D. (2010). P. Mohanty. B.3. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing
.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.N. Corporation. Publication Pvt.
UNIT – IV
the focus is on the school health programmes. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. nutritional deficiency diseases. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. In lesson 1. need for population education and impact of population growth on social.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. If the diet is poor. objectives. preservation of nutrients. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. objectives and role of the physical education.
. objectives. The person’s environment is equally important. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. communicable diseases and their prevention. Since food is the source of nutrients. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. In lesson 4. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. common ailments of children. economic and educational developments.
1. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1.1.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.9 4.5 4.e. for giving health education to the children under its custody.1 4.1
SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES
STRUCTURE 4.4 4.LESSON 4.6 4.1.
. physical.1.1. mental.2 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
4.1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i. emotional and social.3 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.11 4.1.8 4.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. It is a miniature society.10 4.1.7 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.
3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1.. 5. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. 11. 3. e.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. 8. 4. 2. to his family and to the community at large. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health.g. 4. explain the importance of First aid 5. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself.1. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. cleanliness and healthful living. know the need for sex education. Instruction. To develop certain skills concerning health. content of health education. To give information regarding health rules.
. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 7. understand school health programmes 2. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. training in first aid and etc. 10. training of teachers and evaluation. 4. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. 9. To develop healthy health habits among children.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. you will be able to: 1. 6. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. list the common ailments of children 3. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community.
(iv) co mmunicable diseases. suitable furniture. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. 2. play festivals. direct lighting. 4.4. Triple Antigen Vaccination. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. 5. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. minimizing the travelling distance. is imperative. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. There should be regular water supply. First aid facilities should be made readily available. There should be good drainage facilities. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. (v) safety education. ( iii) sanit at io n. excusing late. arranging class rooms in the ground floors.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A.G. (viii) first aid. B. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. 2. inoculation against cholera. etc. Arranging better transportation facilities. 3. (xl) mental health.C. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. The flooring should not be damp. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. proper doors and windows. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. (vi) nutrition education.1. (ii) communit y healt h.. organisation of school health days. “Play-for-all” programmes. B. (xii) smoking education etc. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games.coming or absence. typhoid. The surroundings of schools should be clean. cleanliness weeks. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to
.. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. The school buildings should be spacious. Vaccination for small pox. vaccination. as described below 1.
bleeding. burns. • When sleeping in groups. insect stings. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. if epidemic is wide-spread. • Keep all rooms clean. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. fainting (epileptic fit). poisons. fractures. dislocations. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. etc.. • Find out the cases. cuts. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. D.
C. • Close the schools. sports and games in the interest of their health. • Have adequate rest and sleep. • Take nutritious food. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes.
. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. and other accidents. isolate and notify. drowning.•
afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. wounds. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. scalds.
Once these germs get into the body. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. These diseases are called communicable diseases. headache. tuberculosis. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. cough. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children.1. List out the Health curriculum
3. They are: i) The incubation stage. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and
. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage.
2. water or bodily contact. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. pain in the joints. chicken pox. Mention the school health programmes. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. There are three stages in any communicable disease. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. So they easily get illnesses.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. which are – cold. asthma.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. measles etc.1. backache.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. fever. polio.
4. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school..
4. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses.
start affecting the body systems. unhygienic living conditions. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Important salts and water are lost in this process. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. The child may have fever.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. This is caused by cold virus. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. head-ache and cough. Diarrhoea . etc. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Some suffer cold due to allergy. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. unhygienic bottle feeding. Measles . Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. eating food which is not clean. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. cough and fever. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. The following are the common communicable diseases. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added.When a child suffers from scabies. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Hence it is called a killer disease. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Ear Infections .One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. After three or four days of fever. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Scabies . sugar and water. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Hence liquid diet is recommended. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Others make the children very weak. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Tonsilitis . The symptoms include cold.
. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough.It is caused by measles virus. Common Cold . Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Throat is affected. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Mumps .is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system.This disease is caused by bacteria.
Chicken Pox . the child is not able to breathe. By scratching he causes secondary infections.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Diphtheria . It begins with fever. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days.
. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. raised pink spots appear on head. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
5. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Typhoid . The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Expand DPT . As the disease progresses. The child may also have diarrhoea. Enlist the common ailments of children. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are communicable diseases?
6. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. face and waist.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. separate. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. the child may die. If proper treatment is not given. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. Shortly.
Drowning . first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. It has its rightful place in education too. snakebites. 4.1. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. sprains. simple fractures.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. dislocation. it is a subject of art.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. drowning. man-woman behaviours.1. 3. etc. eye injury. Sex is popular.
4. fiction. so-called sex books and periodicals.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. fainting. head injury.4. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. cuts. It is both biological and psychological. films and jokes.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts.g. swelling. bruises. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual.
. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. 2. Sprains . bleeding. Cuts and Bruises . 5. and Community Work and Social Service.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. In such cases. wounds. exciting and body-oriented.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. Wounds . and films. sprains. scorpion stings.
sex education is being recommended in schools. try experimenting with their bodies. in their ignorance. In secondary schools. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. health. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. The home. but preserve them from disaster and disease. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. Sex education has the major components as follows:
1.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. they would be treading the path of sure doom. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives
. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. the religious organisations.
Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex
A. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. B.. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease.old values. the school.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. In today's liberal and interactive society. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. 2. celibacy are age. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. 3. The values of life. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. Hence. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Should the boys and girls.
the school health programmes.
It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. offering sex education as a part of their curricula.
. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. first aid and sex education. C. when the courses are already overloaded. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Teacher education institutions are. common ailments of children.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. What are the major components of Sex Education.1) 2) 3)
as a separate course. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. hence. there will no crisis in its implementation.
4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. communicable diseases and their prevention.1.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 220.127.116.11 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
Mention the food nutrients
2. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to
4. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency?
3. Rickets is the deficiency of
5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia
6.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned.4. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. minerals. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.
.2.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . If you look at the definition carefully. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.2. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.
Let us talk about each of these aspects. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied.
Preferences/customs are also important. Even within given States there is considerable variation. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. In the case of adults. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. A balanced diet is specific firstly. construction labourer). activity level and physiological stress. moderate or heavy work. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. These are: region where the person resides and income. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness.g.6. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. 4. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. it is also specific to a given activity level . for example.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier.g. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. paratha and poori. dosa are typical of the south. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. In other words. the social and religious practices of that region.one in the morning and the other at night.2. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems.sedentary. There is no point. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are
. People in the east of our country prefer rice. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. sex. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). Those in the west also tend to eat rice. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex).
These determine the acceptability of foods. If you think of your own religious group. Having more money. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. nuts and dry fruits. One must. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. however. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems.planning the diet. while another may hate them. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. Even among flesh foods. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. however. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. vegetables and fruits. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. however. income plays a vital role. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. customs. However. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. fat and sugar tend to increase. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. One person may be fond of milk products. as important for the rich as for the poor. As you read this discussion. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. As income increases. taboos related to food may play an important role. Among the social factors. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. for example. Including these
. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. In addition to these. Judicious selection of food is. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods.
2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. mouth. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. eggs . 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . meat. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.eating is hazardous. fruits. green leaves. List out any two healthy food habits.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 8) Walk a while after eating. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. over-eating or under. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define balanced diet. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. etc. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. but they should be thrown away. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 17.
8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too.
. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. For this. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . if the teachers have good food habits.
b. Beri Beri 4. Corneal xerosis.2. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A.2. 4. 4. In fact. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. preservation of nutrients. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Bitot’s spots.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins
2. Keratomalacia 3.2. Vitamin D 5. Conjuctival xerosis. d.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Fatigue and Giddiness
. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. a. When the diet is inadequate. good nutrition is essential for good health. e. Night blindness. Discuss good food habits. Explain food nutrients 4.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. c.4.
New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. a.6. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s.C.M. Sri Lakshmi B. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. (2008). A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.2. (2009). Food should be consumed after eating well. 7. Food and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. P. mouth. b. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
4. Chopra. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Food and Nutrition Education. minerals. a .11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. S.N. b. Nutrition Science. Hands. Nutrition and Dietetics. 8. R. (2008). Health and Nutrition Education. (2005). (2004). A Text Book of Foods. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. R. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation
.3.10 4.6.13 4.4 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.18.104.22.168.6.11 22.214.171.124.LESSON 4.1 4.6.5 4.7 4.3.8 4.3.1 Impact on social development 126.96.36.199 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3 4.2 4.3 Impact on Education 4.
3. Population Education.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population.3. 4.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. therefore. describe the impact of population growth on social. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. economic and educational development 3.4. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. objectives and need for population education 2. Whenever we talk of sex education. his societ y and the world. family planning and sex education etc. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. There is some difference. aims at providing the younger generation. It is not sex education. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. his family. the causes of population change. the stress is. you will be able to: 1.3. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. and the consequences of these processes. characteristics and changes for himself. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. population characteristics. community.
. state the meaning.
4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It is a much wider co ncept. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. understand the importance of small family norm 5. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood.
4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. the society. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. List out any two objectives of Population Education. Define Population Education
2. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.
4.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points:
. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the family. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the nation and the world. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.3. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.3.
Family is considered as a social unit.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed.3. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. With the larger families. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare.6. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. the family programmes are also handicapped. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. social welfare schemes can be implemented well.
. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. When the family is small. economic and educational development of the country.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. Every second two thousand children are being born. which will not be possible without population control. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. health and happiness of its citizens. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. 4. 4.3. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future.
4.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. pollution of the environment. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching.6. teacher index.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. in cinema halls and theatres. Many students herded in a small room.3. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. in parks and other places of public gatherings. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. lack of proper health care. and so on.6. in buses and trains. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. Swollen cities. heavy intern I migration etc. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. In developing countries. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. i. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio.
.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils.e. The gulf between them is widening further. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom.3. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. toilets.. facility for drinking water. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. 4. organization index and material index. unemployment. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index.
Regional Language. less budget for education. can be taken up. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. reproduction. thus. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Hindi and English. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme.. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. There would be poor library facilities. bar graphs etc. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. can be studied in science and health education. less space facilities. Social Studies Statistics on population education. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. blank verses etc. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. even text books would be in short supply. and laboratory equipments.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. family planning etc. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education
4. essays. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There would be very few audiovisual aids.3.
Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times.3. 9. 2. 12. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. 10. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 3. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Canada. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 14. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION
1.4. 7. Children with the help of parents. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Children may compare two families. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to
. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. area and average density of population. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. West Bengal. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 4. They may arrange them as per average density of population. deaths. United States of America. 13. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Bihar. Brazil. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. causes of deaths etc. Uttar Pradesh. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. 15. 5. 8. 11. China. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala.
It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. How will you correlate Population Education?
5. 16. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. Comparing life in various respects in two families. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. preferences for sex. 18. values and role children etc. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. 17. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. we have no right to stop
. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education?
4. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish.3.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size.be opened in their schools. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. The question. age at marriage.
4. and the child survival components of the news: program. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.4-6. More than 45 years ago.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. on an overall basis. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. which education can only do. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . however. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. Since the program's inception. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.were implemented
.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.to emphasize family planning services. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. continued . at varying places in different regions.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).their entry into the world”. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.3. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. especially the expansion of child immunization services . “He who is responsible for population growth. The Family Welfare Program.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.
various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. In April 1996. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. and the World Conference on Women. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. At these meetings. Therefore. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. men. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. Local programs vary in their approaches. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by
.earlier than the safe motherhood components. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. Moreover. the community appears willing to pay for services. In October 1997. and nominal fees for services. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. expansion of services to unmarried women. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. a focus on health promotion. reliance on local women as community health workers. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding.
economic and educational development 4. Its main purposes are to create awareness. 4. What are the goals of RCH?
4. 1997). involving the community. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme?
7. Describe the impact of population growth on social.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. 3. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. family. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. nation and the world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
. community.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual.3.emphasizing the needs of the client.3.
Brazil. a. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. his family. less space facilities. the causes of population change. a. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. characteristics and changes for himself.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. China. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. bar graphs. less budget for education. 3. 6. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. United States of America.4. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. 7. 5.
.3. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. b. population characteristics. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. Canada. area and average density of population. 4. b.” 2. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. a. his society and the world. and the consequences of these processes. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.
Udaiveer.3. Bhende. J. Ltd. T. Coimbatore.K. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. (1992). N.
Modern Problems of Education. A. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.
Jayapoorni. (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005).
Modern Trends in Indian Education. Principles of Population Studies. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Kantikar. (2004). Centre for Women’s Studies.
Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. (2002).
“Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. V. Ltd.4.14 SUGGESTED READING
8.4.4 4.9 4.4.7 188.8.131.52 4.2 Major games 184.108.40.206 4.4
STRUCTURE 4.4.5 4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
.10 4.8.1 4.4.4 Lead up games 220.127.116.11.11 19.3 Indigenous games 4.4.4.LESSON 18.104.22.168 Minor games 4.4.6 4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.
The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. perseverance. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.4. full records of physical activities should be maintained. the youth of the country. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. classify the different types of games. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. 4.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. which forms its most valuable assets. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. moral fitness and emotional fitness. The concept of physical education has been made broader. 4.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. team spirit. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. state the meaning of Physical Education 2.4.4. as it should
. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. leadership and balance in defect.4. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. social fitness.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. mental alertness. you will be able to: 1.
contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. team spirit. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. To be more precise. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. The educational efforts at home. Therefore. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. They are inseparably united together. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. obedience to rules. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s
. Every individual is a part of society. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. leadership. They go hand in hand. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality.
Physical exercises. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences.” Montaigue writes. a sound health.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. 4. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. Buck has observed that
.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. nor body but the whole man. game and sports.” The Secondary Education Commission. C. Rousseau states. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. ment al. Just like Education.4.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. H. Regarding the significance of physical education. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. mo ral.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. pleasing manners.
Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. initiative. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. Froebel says. strength. flexibility and power. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. elegance. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.” In brief. happiness. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. “If we wish to develop the whole being. efficiency and character.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief.
.a properly directed physical education should result in health.4. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. speed. resourcefulness and smartness. coordinative abilities.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. etc. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. we must exercise the whole human being. endurance.” 4.
should help in the spiritual development of the student. these fundamental things have always been present. its adherents and its enemies. in greater or lesser degree. While wars. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Tournaments foster this sentiment. systems of government. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. they may form gangs. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. If no opportunity is provided to the students. plagues and famines. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Every age has its artists. poetry and painting.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work.
. including all racial groups and historical ages. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer.
to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. bravery and interest in games and sports. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x)
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.\ to develop perseverance.(iii) (iv) (v)
to develop rhythmic bodily movements. self. etc. respect for rules. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit.
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
2. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems.
B. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education.
3. to develop tolerance. obedience. Write any two importance of Physical Education.sacrifice.
defects. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. is essential.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Keep the field ready for the activities. Usually parents. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 11. Act as a leader. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. 14. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration.4. Be well-prepared. 15. 5. Posture screening should be done. Be in the uniform.4. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Be self-confident. Haag. 8. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 6. 12. 4. 9. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 3. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. and readmission after they have recovered. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed.
.H.4. 7. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. 10. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Always keep the whistle ready. 2. students. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. injuries among pupils should be made. Be punctual.
1. 4. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 13. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Be sportive. 16. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. and. Inform health principles.
4. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten.4. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. their development is handicapped. Moreover. 2. less equipment and less expense. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.
4. Indigenous games. chasing.
4. Such inst incts as imitation. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Lead up games. frolic and jo y.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. 4.8.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls.
1. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. the play. 3. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.
the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. muffling. They are played for a shorter duration. the number of players and substitutes. heading. women take part most of the games. While many of them are played in the open playfields. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Shuttle Badminton. boosting.. Hopping. Tennikoit. skipping. the games can be modified according to convenience. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. stopping. Jumping. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. They are rules approved by the International Associations.4.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Soft Ball. driving.
. Except a few games. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. Hockey. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. catching. These games require varied skills such as running.With a very few rules. couple tag. on sea-shore. the play equipment. pitching. For each game the rules are many. on mountain tops and on river beds. On lawns. trapping. hitting. 4. with implements or without implements. Kabaddy etc. Khokho. wherever the kids assemble. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Basket Ball. The dimension of the posts and nets. over ball pass Relay. benefit in playing minor games. on hard courts. Throwing. Volley Ball. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. some of them are played indoors. under ball pass Relay. zig zag relay. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Tennis. bowling etc. Jump the stick clay and so on.8. snatching the kerchief. dribbling. finding the partner. Dodging. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Ball Badminton. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. spiking. Cricket.
village folk take a very keen interest and participate.8. What do you mean by lead up games?
. While observing the players in action. death. birth.
7. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. On occasions like marriage. They have an abundant social value. these games being popular.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. All the fundamental tactics. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. 4. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu.4. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. Kho-kho. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. For example. An example for indigenous game is 8.8. Games may be classified as 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out some major games. and . they are in existence.4. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. festivals connected with religion and public functions. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.
Posture screening should be done. to develop physical stamina. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. b. to secure physical health b. a.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. a. 4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.
4. 4. 3. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. physically and emotionally fit and alert.4. c. Briefly discuss the different types of games. d.4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. Minor and Major
. a. 2.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4.4. b. b. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. 5. 2. a. 3. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. aims and objectives and need of physical education.
Khokho 8.4. Hockey. Cricket. (2009). Aggarwal. (2005). Basket Ball. G. Tennis.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Soft Ball. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J. J. (2008). Mohanty. Ltd. Health. Shuttle Badminton.C. Kabaddy 7. Physical Education and Sports.
. Tennikoit. Krishna murthy. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Ball Badminton. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Foot-ball. Handbook of Physical Education.6. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.K. Khokho. (2008).
4. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. Volley Ball.
5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.7 4.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .6 4.10 4.5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 22.214.171.124 4.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.1 4.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as
.5.5.4 126.96.36.199 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.3 4.LESSON 188.8.131.52 Natural Environment 184.108.40.206 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
4.11 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.2 4.5.5.
Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. 2. 6. Knowledge.educat ion for the environment. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment.5.
4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. social.
. list out the types of environment 3. economic. Evaluation Ability. Skills. 4. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Awareness.
4. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Participation.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. it covers the following elements: 1. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 3.5. role of teacher in environmental conservation. Broadly. education about the environment and education through the environment. political. 3. you will able to: 1. aesthetic and educational factors. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. 5. 2.5. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Details are given below: I.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. population explosion and resource depletion could be. The best place to start such learning is school. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. Attitude. Essential knowledge about the Environment.
. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. D. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. 2. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. F. Oxidants Other pollutants.B. • Biological magnification E. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. a. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation.
2. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Control of population growth a. III. 4. 3. Intrauterine device iii. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. 2. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Family planning ii. B. Birth control through education b. economic. Sterilisation. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Socio-economic measures. The human ecosystem II. c. Use of medical science i. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. The pill ii. Persuasion: i.3. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources
. Abortion iv.
2. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment.
. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 1983). Water pollution abatement. List out the major causes of Environmental problems.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. (UNESCO. 3.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
3. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Air pollution abatement ii. Define Environmental Education. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. e) Recycling.
telex.5. He modifies according”.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.4.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.5. -other. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. They interact with each. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. animals and other organisms (biotic).other components of the environment. to his needs. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. way is called environmental or ecological factor. includes the plants. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. a.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. 4. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . Any constituent or condition of the environment. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. b. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. fax agricultural apparatus. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.5.5. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.5. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION
The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following
.5. Biological environment The biological environment. These are biotic components. A change in one brings about a change in the other. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.
social studies. explosion deforestation. desertification
. excellent recreation sites. use of pesticides. maintaining the ecological diversity. change in climate may be added. food chain and food-web. balance of nature. trees reducing noise pollution. air pollutants from industries. ozone layer deplet ion. sources. etc. river systems. of civilizations. noise control. (ii) Air pollution. evolution. industrial survey. reasons. role of trees in building economy. are the topics which may be taught in History. wars and hazards of war. need for bio-diversity. importance of trees in the production of oxygen.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. t heir role in preventing pollution. need for conservation. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. preserving the watersheds. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. industrial pollut io n. ozone depletion. greenhouse effect. acid rain. alternate sources of energy. solar cookers. effects. nuclear warfare. nuclear energy. preventing siltation of dams. effects o f CFC. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . water scarcity.
Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. over exploitation of ground water. biogas plants. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees.. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. relation between population and pollution. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. mineral survey. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. use of medicinal plants. importance of nitrogen cycle. extinction of species. History The rise and fall. natural way of controlling pests. sources of pollut ion. noise pollution. supplying timber for various uses. windmills. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. etc. population.
9. aims and scope. animal and plants. 10. 7. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 14. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. group discussions and seminars. 3.5. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials.may be inc ded in Geography. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 12. 5. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 6. 2. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 13. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 4. 11. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND
P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development:
Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan.
Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 8. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Organising conferences.
. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Peepal and Tulsi. 4. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Providing. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control.
5. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Don’t burn any waste. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. World Environmental falls on
. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. all these can cause serious pollution. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Never put any left over chemicals. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. used oils down the drain.Send their waste oil. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. or form a car pool for everyday travel. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. it will cause pollution. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Reuse carrier bags. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. especially plastics. If it is done.
potable water. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. deforestation. To arrange visits or expeditions. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. CFCs.4. The groups may exchange. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. etc. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. diversity and stability. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. To arrange for visiting speakers. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. concern for others). viz. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Harmony with the nature . orderliness and beauty). values and habits. nuclear wars. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. (cleanliness. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. To provide materials needed for practical work. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. rather than conquest and mastery. loss of bio-diversity. and
. Concern for species. Social responsibilit y (common good.mat erials. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Att itudes of balance towards nature. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. dest roying nat ural habitats. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. etc.. developing desirable attitudes. Conservation of natural resources. depletion of ozone.5.). minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information.
8. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. preserving natural cycles.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.5.
. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.
4.5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4.
3. Modern Problems of Education.. importance of nitrogen cycle. To provide reference materials for children’s use. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Education for values. b. group discussions and seminars.K. Ltd.\ 4. 6. water scarcity. Organising conferences. explosion deforestation. To provide materials needed for practical work. acid rain. June 5 7. a.5. relat ion between population and pollution. air pollutants from industries. (2004). reasons. effects. Environmental Education. Environmental Education. ozone layer deplet ion. Nanda. a. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. 8. sources of pollution. 4. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion.K.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu.K. Publications Pvt. Anmol Publications Pvt. a. population. (1997). S. Knowledge. New Delhi : Anmol
. over exploitation of ground water. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. new problems from science and technology. (2007). b. Environment and Human Rights. sources. Providing. concern for others).K. Ltd. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. T. Social responsibilit y (common good. b. Kuldeep. New Delhi : Authors Press. 5. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Rapid population growth. b.2. (2007). Y. (ii) Air pollution. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Udaiveer. New Delhi :
Sharma. S. a. Awareness. greenhouse effect.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 220.127.116.11 Idealism and aims of Education 18.104.22.168 Idealism and Curriculum 22.214.171.124 Idealism and methods of teaching 126.96.36.199 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 188.8.131.52 Naturalism and aims of Education 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and Curriculum 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and methods of teaching 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 22.214.171.124 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
126.96.36.199 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 188.8.131.52 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
in fact.” 5.
Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum.3.
Spiritual Development. Education must contribute to development of culture. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. man is essentially a moral being. It is self-realisation. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. Therefore.1. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. moral. enrichment and transmission of culture.
Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism."
Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities
. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. Education according to idealism. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. According to Rusk'. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. should be universal in nature.our life. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. The universe is regarded as a thought process. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. the emancipation of spirit. promote and transmit it to rising generation.
3. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. According to idealism. a spiritual guide for the child. 2. So cognition (knowing). and collation (striving) should find due place. 5. Learning through imitation. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Mathematics etc. 4. Learning through questioning. He sets the environment in which education takes place. It considers teacher as.” He is thus. However. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to
. History. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Learning through discussion. For this no particular method has been suggested. friend and guide.” 5. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. For intellectual development. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection.1. Science.the spiritual qualities of mankind.1. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. Ethics.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. So he should embody. subjects like Languages. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. So health. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. 3. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. affecting (feeling). The plant can grow.3. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. Herbert advocated instruction method. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. hygiene. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. 5. Learning through reading. According to Frobel. so subjects like Religion. Learning through lecturing. Philosophy. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. He carries the child from darkness to light. no doubt.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. should be there. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. the school is a garden. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. an indispensable necessity.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. "Education should make
. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.4. time tables. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. formal lessons or examinations.
2. 5. curricula.preservation. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.perfection and beauty.1. Ross explains. text books.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.1. Perfection of Human Machine. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. In the words of Ross. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.
by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Biology.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Therefore. There is no place for religious and moral education. Arithmetic. 4. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Botany etc Language. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Education also aims at helping the individual t. It is based on the psychology of the child. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. In all.4. Zoology. It emphasises physical and health education 5. It stresses basic sciences. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. education should develop the child into Joyous. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics.
. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Chemistry. geography should also be included in the curriculum. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Naturalistic curriculum. Education should. therefore. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. “Education finds its purpose.1.
Autonomous Development of Individuality.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. subjects like history. rational harmoniously balanced. is based on the nature of the child. Literature. useful and mature child.
5. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment.
2. he should be taught by experience alone. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. 4. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. 3. Rousseau says.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Heuristic method.5. Learning through experience.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. a supplier of materials and opportunities. the stage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. 5. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Learning by doing.1. Learning through observation. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .
5.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. a provider of an ideal environment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. In the . It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. It discards all rigid. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching.4.1. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. The main aim of Naturalism is &
4. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. and rebels against the academic and orthodox
.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Dalton Plan.
2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Social Science. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Continuous Growth. intellectual. Social Efficiency. The individual has not only to adjust himself. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. 5.absolutism of idealism. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. History. is true.5. The aim of educational development. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Personal Social Adjustment. diversified and flexible. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Vocational and
.5. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. social and moral aspects. 5. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment.1. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Subjects. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. All Round Development of an Individual. Sciences. Agriculture. Physical training.1. Geography. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He has to be active. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism
. a senior partner and a sincere guide. Learning by Doing. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Methods of teaching should not be fixed.1.5. a teacher occupies an important position. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher.” 5. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy.Technical Education. activities and experience should be integrated properly. The subjects. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.5. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. He must be trained.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. should find proper place. alert and resourceful. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.1.
5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.
Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. The basic tenets of realism are 1. History. 2. Geography are unnecessary
. Astrology.5. specific. Education is preparation for a complete living. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind.1. It favours child-centered. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Population Education.1. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. 4. Chemistry. intellectual. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. liberal. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society.
5. Crafts. Music and Dance. Study of Subjects like Language.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. 4. 2. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist.6. scientific and psychological education. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Mathematics. Biology. 3. 3. 5. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. literary or humanistic education. Biography Philosophy. Sex Education. practical. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Literature.6. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. 5.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real.1.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. rich and happy. Art. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Psychology.
easily and pleasantly.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.1. List out the methods of teaching in realism
.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.6.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. certainly and clearly.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5.
Experimentation d. Education according to pragmatism. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Self preservation & Self expression 4.5. History. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. 6. Learning through imitation. Self Realisation b. has no end other than growth.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Learning through discussion. d. c. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Learning through lecturing. Child centered c. a. Languages. e. Geography.7 LET US SUM UP We have.1. pragmatism and realism. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.1. a. 3. 5. Learning through questioning. in this lesson. b. Rousseau 5. Demonstration and Observation
. Physical training. Universal Education 2. Tours / Excursion e. naturalism. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Agriculture. a. 5. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. 5. Vocational and Technical Education. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Social Science. Learning through experience b. Sciences. & curriculum. Learning through reading.
10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. P. K. New Delhi : A. K and
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Foundations of Education. (2007). of
New Delhi :
Bhatia. O. Narang C. (2004). Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education.5.P. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. (2007).
Theory and Principles of Education.
Pahuja. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Ltd. L.1. Publishing corporation. (2003). N. Anmol Publications Pvt. P.
3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 184.108.40.206 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.2 Curriculum 5.3 Methods of teaching 5.2.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.4 Views about teacher 220.127.116.11.1 18.104.22.168.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.LESSON 22.214.171.124.3 Methods of Teaching 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 126.96.36.199.4.3 Methods of teaching
.188.8.131.52 Aims of Education 5.3. Idealist and Pragmatist 184.108.40.206.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2.1 Aims of Education 220.127.116.11.4 Views about teacher 18.104.22.168 Curriculum 5.3.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA
STRUCTURE 5.2.2 5.2
EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2.1 Aims of Education 5.
2. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.2. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.4 Role of the teacher 5. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.5. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. content and methods. Gandhiji was primarily a social. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. economic and political reconstruction in our country. 2. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. you will able to: 1. Tagore was a poet.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.22.214.171.124 5. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. mind and spirit.2. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.6 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. 5. 3. an artist.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.2. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.5.
. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.2.7 5.
It really provides opportunity for character building. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. 'Man is neither mere intellect. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. through life and for life. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. "I attach more. it is education of life.2.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. nor the gross animals body. mind and soul of children He further observed. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character.3. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim.supporting. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji.
. His scheme of education is life centred." Dignity of Labour. righteousness. self-restraint and service of humanity. In the words of Gandhiji. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. 5. strength of mind. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education.
3. Only good individual forms a better society. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. gardening. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. the realization of the ultimate reality. development of the whole all were directed: towards.Training for Leadership. "Development of the moral character. Drawing and Hindustani. Music. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Art. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Individual and Social Aims. Mother-tongue. 5.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. leather work have been suggested. metal work. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders.2. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. wood work. According to Gandhi. General Sciences. He suggested Home-Science for girls
. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving.
3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. proficient.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.2.3. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji
5. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.trained.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Basic education is other wise known as 4. men of
. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.2. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.2. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. He also advocates freedom for the child. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.knowledge. 3.
5. That is why.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Education must be child centered.3. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST
On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “To develop the spirit is to build character
3. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.2. He believed in the oneness of humanity. Gandhi in 1937. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.2. he was a true Vedantist 5. • Cult of non-violence. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.K.4. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. He was a true patriot. 5.2. He was deadly against untouchability.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. • Education should involve manual work. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.” Like all other ideals.
5. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under:
. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. • Ideal of citizenship.
The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Botany. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Music. Geography. them solve problems of day to day life. It should help. etc. he said. It should help the learner have good physique.Language and Literature . Religion and Psychology. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding.2. Tagore said. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Dance. could help in forging unity among all. wider in range.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. stronger in power than ever before. International Understanding.4. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. International understanding. Civics. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Chemistry.
. "Mankind must realise a unity. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. That way only. Therefore. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. deeper in. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. the more dedicated and devoted. sentiment. complete manhood could be attained. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Zoology. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. (vi) Philosophy.
Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.4.
5. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. 5. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. Tagore rightly says.4. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.
.4. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. Activity Method Heuristic Method. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself." 5.” He further says.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service.2. In 1921. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.2.2. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.
Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. race.g. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e.
10. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. It is open to all irrespective of country. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi.
. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2.
9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8.
2. According to him. Education for strong Moral Character." He was against the theoretical type of education. man making. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. character forming and assimilation of ideas.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Education should make a person self-reliant. Freedom. He believed in to learning or selflearning.5. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. work and deeds come out of it. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building.5. Education for Self-reliance. Education for Self-realization.” 5.2. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Purity of thought. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Concept of Education. Book learning. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. 3.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. 4. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality
And above all.
. 5. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Education for Physical Development. 5.the learners on different students in the discussion.5. philosopher and guide to the students He. That will serve the purpose of education fully.2. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Thirdly he wished that games.5. 6. Only a selfless person can be good teacher.2. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. 5. Swami. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Every individual should be trained for concentration. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta.2. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.5. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses.5. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Discussion Method. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Philosophy and Theology. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Religion. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. engineering and technical subjects. Secondly he wanted Science. Of course. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. The teacher should be the facilitator.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. A physically strong person is the need of the society.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. in this lesson.
. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. 3. Write short notes on Basic education.2. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. naturalist. We have seen that Tagore. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people.
5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. legs. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature.6 LET US SUM UP We have.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. Their educational ideas. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. 2. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. ears and eyes. 5.2.
12. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. of course.Substantiate your answer. Gandhiji as a Idealist. and pragmatist .
Debate and Discussion Method. 10. Activity Method d. b. c. c. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man
12. Ideal of citizenship.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Self realization. Basic education.2. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. a. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. 5. Meditation and concentration c. 3. gardening. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. 8. Heuristic Method. Explain Vishwabharathi. Education should involve manual work. Nai Talim 4. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. e. f. Teaching while Walking b. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Activity Method
b. wood work.4. a. 11. leather work have been suggested. a. d. Technique of Correlation 6. 9. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. a. Self-Study
b. Discussion Method
. 2. 1937 7. Cult of non-violence.
5. metal work. 5. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Learning by Doing c.
K. B. K and Narang C. P. (2007).
Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education.
Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2004).
. Ltd. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
Pahuja. C. (2002). J.2. P.
Bhatia. Publishing Corporation. (2003). New Delhi : A.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2007). L.P. Anmol Publications Pvt.
New Delhi :
Aggarwal. Foundations of Education.H. O. N.5. N.9 SUGGESTED READINGS
Dash. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Theory and Principles of Education.
3.3.4 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.3.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students
.126.96.36.199 5.8 5.5 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.2 5.6 5.3.LESSON 5.3.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.11 5.7 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION
STRUCTURE 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
188.8.131.52 5. In this lesson.9 5.
2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. in the form of new experience. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. there is a large number of communities. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. living in the hilly area. maintained or eliminated. new behaviour may be acquired. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. 5. is a means to the process. the desert area.S. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5.. Since the demands. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. While education is a process. In the former sense. in Russia or in Japan. From the latter point of view. While education is learning. In it. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . Then in a big country like India. you will be able to: 1. Both the processes are integrated.3.under the direction of the school. present behaviour may be modified. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. curriculum. state the meaning of curriculum 2. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture.A. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. the plateau area and
.3. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. 5. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. A g o o d curricu lu m. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. it is identical wit h socializat ion. the plain area.3. in fact . Curriculum is intimately related to education. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. curriculum signifies situations for learning. In the words of Kerney and Cook. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. in the U. One is the individual process and the other is the social process.
The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. In fact . We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. From a slave-country we became secular. differs from individual to individual. environment. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. democratic and socialistic country. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained.3. therefore. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. It must differ from locality and from society to society. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. customs and needs. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. Besides craft. studying therein. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. and
. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. 5. irrespective of their needs and environment. according to modern trends in the educational process. it is. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. Again.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. the learning capacity of children. However. too. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule.
remote or immediate. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. Vocational Efficiency. emotional. e. 4. Application Objective. individual or Social and so on. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made
. They are achievable. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery.3. etc. in instructional objectives. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. They speak of immediate purposes of education.g. tangible. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education.. Goals of Primary Education. The word “Curere” means 2. 2.
5. which may or may not be attained. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS
At this juncture.. of classroom. So it is inadequate. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. etc. uninspiring and unscientific. They are visionary goals e. Self Realisation. They may be ultimate or proximate. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. unsatisfactory. aims. they depend on the political.. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived.(vii)
it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. e. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. National Integration. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Goals of Secondary Education. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. aesthetic and spiritual development. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. moral. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. What is the meaning of curriculum ?
3. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. specific. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. social. They speak of perfect goals. general or specific.. Understanding Objective. 1. unambiguous and functional. social. Knowledge Objective.. eg.g.
should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. educationists.3. on the playing fields. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. in the class rooms. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. According to Crow and Crow. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.”
Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. finding them very interesting and captivating.”
. The old and prevalent curriculum is under.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. abilities.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. Crow and Crow remarks. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.5. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. The interests. but it includes the totality of experiences. heavy fire. needs. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. capacities. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects.
Raymont rightly says.
Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new
.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. aptitudes. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. capacities and abilities. moral. Due to these variations and differences. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. mental. time in a useful manner. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. They often waste it or rather kill it. tendencies. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. urges. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment
according to his needs
Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life.
curricular. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. development of professional capability at all levels. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. To ensure success of the process. 2. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. 3. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel.
. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. Similarly. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. phased preparation. organized. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. administrative programme need be planned. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy.
11. laboratory. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. library. Run. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Relation with Life c.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. 12.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. 17.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. a. workshop. 1937 19. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 18. Child Centred Education b. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. principles of curriculum construction. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 10.
5.3. in the class room. 5. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities
. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum?
5.3. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals.
New Delhi : Authorspress. (2007). New Delhi : Isha Books. Innovations in Education. and Sarita Kumari.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Lakshmi. (2001).5. Curriculum Development.3.
. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava.K. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. (2007). Curriculum and Instruction. (2007). S. N. D. S. Bhalla. P.S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.
4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.7.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 184.108.40.206.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.3 220.127.116.11 Scientific Attitude 5.7.4
PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS
STRUCTURE 5.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.4.4.1 5.10 5.8 5.5 5.4.LESSON 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124.1 Developing scientific outlook 126.96.36.199 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4 5.2 5.4.4.
When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth .
5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. newer and newer industries started growing.4. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.4. We mean curiosity. 2. explain the concept of scientific attitude.
. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. you will be able to: 1. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.
5. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. Gradually.4. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. in the economic reconstruction of society. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. tolerance for the opinions of others. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking.during the second half of this century.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . know the importance of science education. superstition or emotion. 3. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. open-mindedness. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. honesty.
4. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 6. Through newspapers. 3.So that. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work.5
SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION
NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Thinking and memory develops. Love for truth enhances. 4. Principles are formulated. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Central science workshop. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Selection for science education. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian
. 5. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. seminars and symposiums. 2. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. After such experience and training. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Through examinations. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations.
5. Devotion towards nature increases. 7. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. 3. 2.4. stipends and appreciations in various ways. 5.
5. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. 6. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching.4. Organisation of science fairs. Schemes of teaching science. as well as of the society. Promotion of science clubs. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO.
6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. For laboratory and workshop techniques. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. each child to “enquiry skill building”. essential that teachers. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste.
5. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource
. Write any two advantages of Science Education. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. In the inquiry approach. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. It is. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.needs and conditions.6. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. After presenting the problem. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. Enquiry teaching is. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. They experience natural phenomenon. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. should provide opportunities to. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. sex or religion. objectivity. Training of science teachers.4. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other.4. therefore. They encounter many social events as they grow. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life.
5. 7. They ask many questions about the objects they see. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind.
books. 6. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. if they like. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook?
. Evidence. Giving less directions. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”.
. commands or orders. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.
. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook.Herma Wouk. . to ask questions and experience things.
5. 4. Adopting creative models of teaching. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. Social sciences. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. test.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. 2. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. It requires consistent thinking.4.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe.6. 5. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 3. stern pursuit of accurate data. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.4. Appreciating pupils ideas.
therefore should be unbiased and objective. to develop among the learners. and emphasized during the learning process . These include open mindedness. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. critical thinking and suspended judgments. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. 5. keen observation. school and society at large. To achieve this we should understand what it means. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. practiced. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. These characteristics of any scientific
. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”.7. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. it must be encouraged. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. friends. (Vaidya 2007). For instance. The students observation. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. neighbourhood. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents.(Smith 2008). of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. of vast resources running waste. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation.4.
2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. intuition or wishful thinking”. he studies all aspects of it. understanding and logic. 2007). The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. think and work it”. In considering a situation or a problem.4. or superstitions. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained.
. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. 5. (Das. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. rumor. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.7. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes.
4. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.• •
The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.
5. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.
5.4.7. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading
. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. but to begin only after careful planning.7. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.
List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude.4. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook.
5. manuals and reading materials available in school
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude.
. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.• • • • • • •
Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook.
5. it must be encourages. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. practiced and emphasized during the learning process.
5. 3. The intention to respect another’s point of view.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. (2008). the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. 2. Reflections on Scientific attitude.S. a. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. Proper example of the teacher c. M. Yadav. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. 5.
.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. S. 16. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. a.4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Discuss the importance of science education 14. (2006).4. Planning of activities
5.4. a. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. b. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. N. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Study of superstitions d. Vaidya. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. Wide reading b. a. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. 4. D. 5. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Rao.B (2008). The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. b. Adopting creative models of teaching. (2000). New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Love for truth enhances. objectivity. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. b.
2. objectives and characteristics.5.11 188.8.131.52. actively.5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.6 5.7 5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.184.108.40.206.5 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions. you will be able to: 1.3 5.5
.9 5.5. areas of institutional planning.LESSON 5.10 5.5. state the concept. 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.8 5.5.2 5.4 5.
5.5. and each student are regarded as separate entities. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and
. every teacher. • To make institutional planning more successful. executive as well as public. in the task of educational planning. • to make planning development-oriented. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. each teacher. • to involve teachers and school administrators. State and national levels from below. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. and. Institution should be regarded as the unit. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. and every student in the process of educational planning. which become the bases for further planning at the district. and supplement planning from above. teachers and students is not lost sight of. every parent.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.3. 5. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. 5. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level.
it becomes the basis for school inspection.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning.
. 5. Classwork. Co-curricular activities. which will be discussed in the general. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.
Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.•
implemented. and Personnel services. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes.curricular Activities. council and.
Preparation of an Institutional Plan
The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans
5. (2) Co. etc. having the following areas of operation • •
• • • •
Instruction. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. approved after making necessary modifications. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. Examinations.5.
Preparation of audio-visual aids. etc. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Conducting of educational. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. etc. hobby-centres. Improving the internal assessment. What are the areas of Institutional Planning?
. Organising play-for-all programmes. Preparation of instructional material. 1. Organisation of Students’ Association. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. etc. Preparation of models. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Improving the subject competence of teachers. etc. Courts. scientific and historical excursions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Running science clubs. Organisation of Pupils. Fair distribution of syllabi. Editing the school magazine.
3. Organisation of Self-Government Days.No. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. charts and apparatus. Organisation of class-room libraries. Equipping of laboratory and library.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc.
Discipline and Welfare. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children.
Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. administrator-supervisor. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.” The human relationships in. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. understanding. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. teacher-State. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. headmasters associations. administrator-pupil. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. etc. teacher-managing body. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. pupils.5. ii. which are divided as the in. teacher-pupil. teacher-teacher. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. and solidarity. co-operation. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. administrator-administrator. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. science teachers’ associations. parents. involving mainly human materials. teacherinspector. students’ associations. parent-teacher associations. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. and —pupil-pupil.5. Administrator-State. pupil310
. teachers. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system.
teacher-parent. and to serve. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management.
. teacher-community leader. It is also being modernized to become a technique. It covers personnel and material management. pupil-community leader. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. Good. pupil-inspector. organisation. According to C. supervision and superintendence. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. etc. pupil-parent. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. to carry out. administrator. to accomplish. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. to attend. supervision. organisation and management. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.State. social sciences and other disciplines. V. superintendence. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into &
5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. now-a-days. To administer means to manage. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. control.
functionaries.5. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration.
The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent.
The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees.Of all the approaches. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. 6. If it is more. Those. Leadership .Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. who occupy the managerial positions. 12. Cost-Benefit Analysis .Any good management will always have good public relations. 13. 10.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. Better Human Relationships . This is the latest democratic trend in management. Rapport between the Management and Employees . Economic Management . Worker Participation .This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. 2. The relationship should change from master.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. If the cost benefit ratio is less. 7. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. Democratic Management . Communication . 9.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. He should be an artist in human relationships. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 8. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. 11.Management should be efficient and economical
.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. it is not worth-while. 5. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. low. 3.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . Liasion with the Public . Motiviation . 4. without this the efficacy will be handicapped.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. Socio-Scientific Approach . He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. Decision Making .The manager should have leadership traits.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 18. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. 14. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. to improve the quality of education it provides.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained.g. and cooperative performance should be ensured. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.
5. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. enrichment of curricula.
.5. 19.5. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.These two are. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.too. 5. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. improvement of teaching methods. objective. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions.
Classwork. Singh. (2003). (2001). NUEPA. Instruction. Motiviation d. Fundamental of Educational Management. a. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3.5. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. R. Communication
5. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration.
4. Educational Administration. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. b. 2.K. a. Decision Making b. e. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.5.
. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. b. H. (1995).
c. b. APH Publishing Corporation.M. d. Examinations. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. it becomes the basis for school inspection. a.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. a. and Personnel services. Tarachand and Prakash.5. Leadership c. Co-curricular activities. f. S. In group and Out group 5. Syllabus.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.
physical education and environmental education 5. New evaluation procedures.2 Nutritional deficiencies. Sex-education 4. nutritional requirement. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.3 Educational Influences of Home. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. Healthy Food Habit 4.1 Gurukula system of education.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.4 India's Secular Policy . higher education.5 Regional Educational Development in India . Examination reforms. social Impact 3. 2.I.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. women education and teacher education in India.Pre-service and In-services facilities.Religious and Modern Education 1.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. Balanced diet. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. First Aid. Realized the problems of school education.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Economic
. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Preservation of nutrients. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .teachers should have : 1.Article 45 . 1. Buddhist and Jain system of education. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. Community and Mass Media 2.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .3 Directive Principles . 4.1 Inculcation of Socialism.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Inspection and Supervision 3. Communicable diseases . Code of conduct for teachers.1 Primary Education : Education for all. population education.Preventive measures.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.CORE PAPER .5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Common ailments of Children.1 School Health Programme. wastage and Stagnation 3.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. School. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.
K. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. Sharma.N. 7. Hemchand. Ghanta R. Taneja V.
.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Prof.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. New Delhi: NCERT 3. T. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. Ram S. Socialization. R. curriculum and teacher's role 5.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education
5.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9.4.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.N.5
and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Delhi : University Publications 2. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.R.Aim. Mishra. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.1
Idealism. B.K. and Dash B. Kalan Paper Packs 10. (2005) Foundations of Education. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.4 4. and Human Development. 5. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. (2004) Problems of Education in India. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Curriculum and national goals .5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Realism.K. Saraswathi T. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.S.K. Tagore 5. Pandy V. and Sharma R. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. (1999) Culture. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Naturalism and Pragmatism . REFERENCE 1.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . and Mohanty R. Mahatma Gandhi.C.