This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
In. discusses the regional educational development in India. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. 9 . The need. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. Lesson 4. and Jain system of education.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Jainism and their educational implication. Lesson 5. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Lesson 2. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education.
188.8.131.52.1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 184.108.40.206 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1.2 1.5.6 Education during British Era 1.5 Jain system of education 1.3.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.6.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.5.1.LESSON 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.4.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.6.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .22.214.171.124 Charter Act of 1813 1.5.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 126.96.36.199.
6. 1. elucidate the education during British Era. The history of education passed through Buddhist. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. in morals and in the intellect”. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.6. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. has a long past history starting in vedic education. describe the Jain system of Education 4. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. Muslim and British periods.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.8 1.3.1. 1. India.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.1. you will be able to: 1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1.1.9 1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. Education in India. “a class of persons.1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.1. Indian in blood and colour. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. both present and future. but English in taste. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. British system of education presented the modern western model.7 1. in opinion. That 12 . 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.1.1.
corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. religious and spiritual. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. 8. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. questioning by the pupil. It was also moral. 13. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Religious and Spiritual. Education was a private affair of the people. 9. as it is generally considered to be at present. 3. to light. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. 14. No State Control on Education. with grants of land or money. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Pupils were taught. Free and Accessible. individually. The immediate aim of education. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. There was. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. High Status of Teachers. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. the monitorial plan was followed. Individual Teaching. from eternal to immorality 2. from darkness. and to agriculture and trade. Method of Instruction. 6. generally. 16. Residential Schools. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Education of Moral.knowledge was real. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Teacher as Parents. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. 4. Where pupils were many. Method of Study. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Role of Travel in Education. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. 10. Immediate Aim Vocational. 12. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. 11. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. followed by explanation by the teacher. 13 . however. managed entirely by Brahmans. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. 5. It was not merely intellectual. if they thought fit to do so. not en masse by the class method. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Forests as Centres of Education. Curriculum.
It was suited to the needs of the society. studied Vedas. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.17. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . 2.3. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent.1. It was freely available to all those who wanted. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Wide-Spread Education in Women. They were very cordial and intimate. lived a life of celebacy. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.
every class in society. which included abstaining from theft. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. the handicapped. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. watching dances or listening to music. Right memory 8. Right knowledge 2. I take Refuge to Dharma. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. dressed himself in yellow clothes. impure conduct. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. in which. use of cosmetics. Right endeavour 7. partaking of food at prohibited times. Right means of livelihood 6. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves.C.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Education was imparted through the. the student remained in a state of Shramana. had the right to receive education. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. Right contemplation 1. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. except the Chandals.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Right speech 4. the student had his head shaved of all hair. taking things without being offered.1. 1. the most significant of which were the following 1. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. 15 . Consequently. I take Refuge to Sangh. he was qualified to become a monk. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. After attaining the age of 20. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. medium of Pali. Right activity 5. Right thought 3. use of intoxicating things. It was denied only to the ill. etc. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. 2. killing of any living being.4. disease and death of the human beings.
etc. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. etc. and. so long as it successfully does so. It comprehended education in writing. nothing is of any permanent consequence. has no metaphysical value for life. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. 7. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. archery.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. be considered the aim of education It. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. meaning. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. wear three items. education was impart in art.3. military science. Life is in a flux. objectives of human life. the science of taming and training animals. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. Later on. 8. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. aspirations and. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. control over sensuous activities. however. magic. commerce. knowledge of reviving the dead. a continuous change creating 16 . Even at this stage. 5. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. a change is not only total but also perpetual. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. beg for alms. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. cottage industries. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. depth and range.4. After this ritual. archery. women occupied a position inferior to men. 2. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. the presence of the monks was essential. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. These are called later Buddhist schools. it is regarded as true”. agriculture. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. 6. On this occasion. nature. animal husbandry. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. 4. assumptions. arithmetic and religious discussion. Initially. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. As reality is becoming. 1. Whatever its nature and extent. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. of clothes. etc. handicrafts. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. changing the goals. eat food thrice a day. elephant lore. 3. medicine. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. Hence. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. along with education in script writing. bodily gestures. therefore. geology. approach. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’..
the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism.5. goes to Vardhaman. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. and to give it a shape that it has today. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects.. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’.new and peculiar situations. therefore. Write Eight fold path . 5. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. However. Its chief feature. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism.e. i. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. In fact. such as. Validity is effective and consequences. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. its pessimistic outlook on life. Jainism insists 17 .1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. whatever works are true and good. 1. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. however. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. it is much older than the latter. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. Education must.
it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. more stress on individual aims. Hence. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Development of personality as an individual. b) Right knowledge.1. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. 18 . They are: a) Not to injure. 1. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. 8. 1. 2.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. d) To lead a celibate life. 5. As such. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. rather than the interpretation of the universe. b) Not utter falsehood. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 4. c) Not to steal. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. thought and deed. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. and is to be redeemed and liberated. 3. 10. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. 2.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. e) To renounce the world. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. and believe in happiness to all. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 6. c) Right conduct. 7. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem.5. 3. but on both. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. 9. it has a foot in both the words.
1. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. 5. Jiva is essentially karmic. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 19 . and should bring happiness to all.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. therefore. 8. 2. that would be socially desirable. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. the precious principles of life that bring happiness.4. 4.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. What are Triratnas ? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Belief in transmigration of soul. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . 1. success and love. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. education must be action based and ideally oriented.5.5. 3. Teaching must develop these faculties. 2. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. education should develop sense of discrimination. practised and not only aspired for. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Hence. here and now.
Madras. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. 1. However.1. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. science. philosophy and literature of Europe. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. 1. 1953). The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. Bombay. To set up separate departments of. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854).6.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.6.1. 1. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. with rally and rout.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. 1. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India.6. North West Province and Punjab.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. primary 20 . Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. 2.6. and not for life.
In 1882. 1.education was neglected. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. 1. 1. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. namely. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. Later on. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. To ensure qualitative improvement. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. The universities dominated the secondary education. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams.6. at the primary level. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission).6. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 .7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. At that time M. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937).K. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. • Universal free primary education. • Secondary education. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. self-respecting and competent. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations.6. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. secondary education became a step towards university.
The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. After this stage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.1. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry.At the primary stage (6-11 years). 10. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. all children are to have a common curriculum. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . The objective of education was to provide 22 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11.
6. 1. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. arithmetic and religious discussion. Right activity. etc. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. It was suited to the needs of the society. 5. The immediate aim of education. 4. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. a. Right means of livelihood. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. 4. establishment of universities. along with education in script writing. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. the science of taming and training animals. followed by explanation by the teacher. Right speech.. Right thought. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. 2. 3. handicrafts. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. education was impart in art. 3. archery. Right memory. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil.1. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. 23 . science and English language. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. Right endeavour. geology. The system of education was well-organised. During the Buddhist period. Right knowledge. 2. questioning by the pupil. b. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education.education of European literature. 1. military science. Right contemplation. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education.
24 . 1937 1.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Y. Right conduct. (2009). (1984). J. Sargent report 12. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. 9. 11. 10. b. 1882. (2005). more stress on individual aims. and Nath. Hence. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Singh. 8. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Aggarwal. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. a.K. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Development of Educational System in India.7. Right knowledge. a. Right faith. (2007). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Ltd. b. J. Sharma.C.1. Y. c.C. Development of personality as an individual. R. Improvement of Literature. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K. History of Indian Education System.
2 188.8.131.52.1 184.108.40.206.8 1.9 220.127.116.11 University Education Commission 1.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.7 1.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.18.104.22.168 Secondary Education Commission 1.6 1.LESSON 1. The 25 . Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.3.4 National Policy on Education 1.5 1.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 22.214.171.124.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.3 Kothari Commission 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.3.4 1.
Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. analyse the progress of education in free India. S. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. technical. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. expansion of vocational.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr.2. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. secondary and higher education.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. you will be able to: 1. New Educational Policy. explosion of enrolment.conditions of the teachers.2. National Council for Women’s Education 5. National Board of Teacher Education 10. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. There had been vast institutional expansion.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. 1986 1. diversification of courses of studies. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Post-graduate 26 . Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. technological engineering. 2. standard of teaching. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3.3. Kothari (1964-66) 8. curriculum. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. vocational education. examination system. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. medical and legal education. 1. girls and women education besides primary. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement.2. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. 1. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.
Finally.2.3. 1986.2.3. National System of Education. Therefore. 3. However. 1966. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. research et.S. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. 2. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. Government of India. material and spiritual. 4. 1. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. in January 1985.3. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. accumulated over the years. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1952. 1. The Essence and Role of Education. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . quantity. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. D. A. Problems of access. the New National Policy on Education.teaching. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Education is the key to our allround development. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. 1. quality.2. utility and financial outlay.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. the chairman of University Grants commission. Kothari. A meaningfully Partnership. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. Education for Equality.
Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. By working with hands. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Thus. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world.” Thus. the minorities and the handicapped. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. attitudes. the concepts of work experience. It can train practical aptitudes. The UNESCO Report. 28 .
“The aim of these colleges. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. co-ordinations. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . Besides.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. it will conduce self. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. As such. The Education Commission. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. The Radhakrishnan Commission. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. if he wishes. In 1955.” The Mudaliar Commission. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. With adequate planning. the Commission. “It may be described. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. According to." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened.
lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. In addition. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. With a view to relating education to the life. Therefore. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. the rigid streaming of courses. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations.. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. The Central Advisory Board of Education. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. etc. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. the semester and credit system. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. raising the special facilities. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. for quality of life in the rural areas. admission requirements to vocational courses. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work.ot her. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. the. Subsequently. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly.
meaningful. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. 1. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. manual work resulting in either goods or services. giving importance to productivity in the national development. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. The Father of Nation. meaningful..5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education.2. The wave of Basic Education. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. In short. which swept the country for over two decades. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions.and the world of work. According to committee. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. Commerce. aimed at this goal.defined S UP W as “purposive. preferably spinning and weaving. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. etc. technological courses including Agriculture. which are useful to the community. felt that education should be centred around a craft. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. which offer scientific. who conceived the System of Basic Education. 31 .
Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Food 3. Some Hints to Teachers 1.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. The teachers should make use of. 32 . 4. as far as possible. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. 2. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Culture and recreation 6. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. so that it is educational in essence. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Work practice. Experimentation with materials. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Shelter 4. Clothing 5. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Community work and social service. 3. Educative and 3. locally available materials and tools. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Productive 2. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Health and Hygiene 2. be that the work involved is: 1. tools and techniques and 3.
functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. It can become an instrument to build character. as far as possible. improve discipline. Check on educated unemployed 4. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. 1. etc. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. To make education more realistic.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. removal of illiteracy. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. 6. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Community Service In-1972. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. inculcate a faith. Productive Work 33 .5. Merits of the Programme 1.2. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Education through work The SUPW should. the local community should be actively associated. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. slum clearance. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor.
traffic control. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. helping the adults-in productive work. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. AICTE was set up in year 4. in turn.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. offering first aid. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. Define SUPW 34 . The community. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. if not productive.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. skills and better future for the children. should involve itself in the educational effort. etc.
b. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Write short note on SUPW.2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 1952 3. 1. 6. Radhakrishnan 2. e. 3. 2. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. a. Dr. meaningful. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5.2. 35 . which are useful to the community.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. 1. f. 1955 4.2. manual work resulting in either goods or services.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. c. d.
Amala. (2005). New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.H. Y.P. Publishing Corporation. (2007).K. : Sharma. Development of Educational System in India.C. History and Problems of Indian Education. History of Education.D. J. History of Indian Education System. Anupama. B.K. (2009). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 36 .K. A. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. and Rao. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.P. and Nath. V. P. Singh. (2007). New Delhi: A. R.2.(2005). Y. Ltd.1. Rao..
procedures. directive principles and duties of citizens.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. 37 . the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. it came into effect on January 26. there is an official Hindi translation.2 1.3. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.7 1.3. democratic republic. assuring its citizens of justice.126.96.36.199 Significance of DPSP 1.8 1.3.9 1. containing 395 articles. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3. Besides the English version.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.4 1.369 words in the English language version. Being the supreme law of the country. equality. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. and liberty.188.8.131.52.3.5 1.6 1. 1950. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. for a total of 117. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. 1949.3. establishing the structure. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.1 1.
the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. 1. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. Through them. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. 1.3.3. political. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. you will be able to: 1. The Assembly met. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 1. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 1947. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. 1947.3. Dr. On August 29. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. According to the constitution.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. 3. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. in sessions open to public. After many deliberations and some modifications. economic. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. 4. the Drafting Committee was appointed. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. understand our Indian constitution. 2. spread over a period of 2 years. legal and environmental.3. learn the role of central and state government on education.In the August 14. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. 1950. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. Two days later. 38 . administrative. social. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. for 166 days. with Dr.
39 . Article 43. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Condition for dignity of children. men and women. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. No abuse of children. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Minimising inequalities in status. Article 39A. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Article 41. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Organisation of village panchayat. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. That the health and strength of workers. Article 42. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. for workers. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. and shall. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Equal pay for both sex. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. old age. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. and in other cases of undeserved want. on the basis of equal opportunity. Protecting children from exploitation. sickness and disablement. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. in particular. The State shall. Article 40. Protecting health of the workers.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Right to work. The State shall endeavour to secure.government. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Equal justice and free legal aid. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Liking wage etc. provide free legal aid.
The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. agricultural. in particular. Uniform civil code for the citizens. [declared by or under law made by 40 . The State shall endeavour to provide. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 45. by suitable legislation or in any other way. in particular. and.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Article 48A. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Article 43A. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. (Original Article 45. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. See also Article 21A). in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. work. Article 46. Article 48. industrial or otherwise. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. a living wage. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Article 49. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. in particular. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. The State shall take steps. Participation of workers in management of industries. to all workers. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Article 47. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Note: Subs. Article 44. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. 2002 for “45. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall.
may be law determine”. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Promotion of international peace and security. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. as the case may be. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Separation of judiciary from executive. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.3. Article-21A Right to Education.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. destruction. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article.Parliament] to be of national importance. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 2002. disposal or export. removal. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. 2. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Article 50. Article 51. 1. disfigurement. Article 45 . from spoliation.
from justice and all forms of exploitations. and shall protect them. iii. caste. ii. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. 7. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. and. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language.” 42 . admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. 5. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. 3. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. if such person is a minor. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. race. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. his guardian has given his consent thereto. language or any of them”. 6. 8. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. 2002. 4. in particular.
Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. 2. The central government determines targets and promotes education. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies.9. and by drawing.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. the forms. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Educational Reforms From time to time. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. wherever necessary or desirable. & 1. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. for its vocabulary.3. 43 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education.
It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. 8. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. 6. etc.3. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. 7. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. Production of suitable for children and adults f. private agencies etc. So as to encourage education on right lines. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). the state governments. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Promoting Inter-state understanding g. to achieve the desired ends. Local bodies and private enterprise. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training.. 5. All India Council of Medical Science. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. The following pilot projects. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. 4. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. So that they may work well. By starting these projects. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education.
Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 11. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. The 45 . Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. reports etc.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. education for women. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2.3. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. research. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. are published by it. 4. books. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. training and statistics. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. 9. 3. 12. 1. is the state responsibility. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. 10. 1. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. handicapped. etc. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state.
46 . Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Explain Directive principles 2.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 5. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.3. articles in the Directive principles. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Write short notes on a. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. 1. Article 45 b. Article 21A c. Article 46 4.3.
a. Describe the educational role of State Government. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Ambedkar 2. a. Development of Hindi Language 6. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Dr. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Article 46 5. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. 1. Article-21A Right to Education. Clearing House function 9. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. may be law determine”. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. The Directive Principles of State Policy. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. 47 . b. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 4. a. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 2002.5. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 2002. Article 29 and 30 7. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. b. Article 45 . 3.3.
New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Education in Emerging Indian Society.3.1. (2009). Dash. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. 48 . K and Narang C. Bhatia. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. (2004). (2008). B. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. S. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. S. L. N. Ghosh. Education in Emerging Indian Society. K.
4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4. Students should be 49 .3. Islam.1 1.4.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 184.108.40.206 1.8 1.4.7 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4.6 1.4. Buddhism etc.220.127.116.11 Moral education 1. Christianity.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4. Jainism.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.1 Why Moral Education 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4. religious education should be broad based.2 18.104.22.168 Precautions while introducing 1.
2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). "In A multireligious society like ours. In the complicated and complex society of today. integrity. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. As result of which. religious education and the concept of secularism. duty-consciousness. Thus. you will be able to: 1. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends.4. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. beauty and goodness so that 50 . It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. know the position of religious education in our country 3. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions.4.D.” Education broadens human outlook. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. enumerate the aims of religious education 4.. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. According to E. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. state meaning and need for moral education 1. India' can produce men of character.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. 1.and dedication. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon.
Hence.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. Viewing the defects of religious education. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. at least occasionally. if not regularly. According to Article 19.4. As a matter of fact. it is clear that the State has no religion. As our country is a country of diverse religions. rancour.3.3. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education.4. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. They thought that any kind of narrow. religion and democracy are same. castes and creeds. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world.” From the above. all citizens are free to follow any creed. Children attend these organizations. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. No religious tax can be imposed on them. Thus. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. 1947 we achieved our freedom. 1. According to Article 22. through religious practices and 51 . realizes God in himself. In short. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. 1. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose.
which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. aggressive.teachings. It is religious education. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). when he becomes an adult. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. If unreleased. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. As a result of which. intellectual and physical faculties of children.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. and other impulses are often denied direct expression.. moral and spiritual values. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. He also learns about social. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. which help him for the development of his character. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. and what is evil. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. temperament etc. It helps to modify habits attitudes. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. one fully developed. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. Good education. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. which can mould. what is done and what is not done etc. for the development of the individual and the society. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.
53 . Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people.3. towards the society.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. This should not be allowed to happen. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. 1. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. 3.4. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. 2. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. which is the basic need of a democratic life. If we open the pages of history. Therefore. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided.
Life histories of great persons of the world. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Write Article 22 2. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . 9. 10.4. churches and mosques 7. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.5. examples of patriotism. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. For this. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. fellow-feeling. Gurudwara as. stories of moral greatness. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Since all religions have virtues. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. therefore. 11. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6.
Swadeshi (Patriotism). Asvada (Control of palate). Fearlessness. 8. They will play their role effectively. Without moral values. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. 1. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. The content of the curriculum. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 7.acquisitiveness). 4. students. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers.4. 5. Satyam (truth). Patriotism. 8. Ahimsa (Non-violence). let men see well of one another. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Self sacrifice.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 7. is that which develops moral values. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Non-injury. 5.4.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 1. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. therefore. 2. Moral education. in the home. It they learn what morality is in their early years. 2. Purity.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. “Let all be happy and free from disease. 6. Aparigarha (Non. 55 . Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 3. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Service to others. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 3. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. 4. Cultivation of emotions. the methods of teaching. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 6.
Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability).4. 56 . The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Integrity. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. In the school programme. Simple texts and stories concerning different. 10. 2. religions may be included in the syllabus. Sharivashram (Physical work). Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. loyalty and self-sacrifice. 1. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. 4.9. Secondary Stage 1. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. National unity and Spiritual values. Unity of mankind. The School Assembly should be held for a few. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 11. 3. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Efficiency. Asatyam (Non-thieving). The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. discipline. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. 3. minutes in the morning for group singing. Good temper. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Discipline. Good manners. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship.
the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. love of humanity. 4. In this connection. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. 5. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. 57 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. In other words. should form a normal part of school programme. University Stage 1. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. patriotism and self-discipline. 3. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. Silent meditation should be encouraged. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage.4.
In short. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. minutes in the morning for group singing. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times.4. For this. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. a. 2. b. b. 1959 5. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. 1. 2. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. a. a. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. The School Assembly should be held for a few. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion.1. Sri Prakasa 6 . Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. the.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1. 58 . Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3.4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the aims of Religious education. 4.4. Training of Character 3.
M.H. (2007). (2004). Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. J. New Delhi: A. Theory and Principles of Education. Pahuja. (2008). Education in the Emerging Indian Society.H. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Publishing Corporation. (2008). Anmol Publications Pvt. K. New Delhi : Siddiqui.1. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. L. N. B. (2003). 59 .P.C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K and Narang C. Bhatia. P. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Dash.4. N.
Although.5.3 1.5.5 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.22.214.171.124 1.2 1.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also. 60 .5.e.12 1.10 1.1 1. disparities between provinces/States.5.5.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.7 1.6 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5.8 1.5.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.. i.5.4 1.9 1.
The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.5. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. 5. Accordingly. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region.5. understand the regional educational development in India 3. roads.5.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. you will be able to: 1. know the education suited to different environments. they take appropriate measures. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies.1. 1. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. etc. 1. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. waters. 61 .5.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 3. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 4. energy. work hard towards this end. They therefore. for example. 2. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. 1. 7.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 6. 8. This leads to separatist movements.
There are many reasons for this during the British rule. • Separate States (of course viable States). 3. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. while others remained educationally backward. some States became educationally far advanced. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. 62 . Tight security arrangements should be made. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. Secularism. 4. on the basis of regional development may be formed. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. some average. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. and. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region.5. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. Therefore. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. 2.
Tezpur.After the Planning Process has originated.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. academic buildings. remained under developed.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. Guwahati. However. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. since its inception in 1998-99. Nagaland and NEHU. 63 . Jammu and Kashmir. 1. Central Universities of Assam.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. NIT. Itanagar. etc. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Mizoram. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. the Union Government. the State Governments. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. Rs.480. NERIST. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has.5.84 crore was released in 2005-06. Silchar. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. and provision of informal education to enable those. Even in each State. etc. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. In the Central sector.g. After the attainment of independence. approved proposals worth Rs. These projects are in various stages of implementation. Regional Centres of IGNOU. Funds amounting to Rs. books. Out of this. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. while some States like Bihar. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools.. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT.392. scholarships. library buildings. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums.14.
500. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.57 crore and Rs. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. A provision of Rs. too. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.40.261. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Moreover. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.8 per cent in 05). there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.501. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. Government expenditure on education. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. During 2003-04.05 crore and Rs.5. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. Tezpur University.187. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. 64 .40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Out of this an amount of Rs. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.
too. pharma. for instance. Karnataka. telecom. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Kerala and Gujarat. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . Tamil Nadu. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Andhra Pradesh. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. health services and welfare of the citizen population. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. engineering and R&D. for which 16 sites.5. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. The Chandigarh Administration. English.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. too. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. To add to the woes. notes the study. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Medical education. too. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Listing the positives. 1. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Karnataka. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. Moreover.
year. which a non-tribal person cannot do. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. the teaching methods. the needs. Of course. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. while the former does not. Then education become realistic and idealistic. Hence it is called as need-based. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. taking the average in the middle.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. The living conditions. 66 . etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. even actually looking at the watch. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. the working days: an academic . The working hours of educational institutions. the vocations. life-oriented and environment slanted. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. In the same manner. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. the curricular subjects. and so on. in which the learners live. the socio-physical conditions. For a learner living in a rural area. the interests. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. when he will not be sure of time.
2.5. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.5.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 67 . to suit education to different environments? 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.5. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. 2.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.
13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. A. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.5. (2008). during the British rule. Dubey. Education Scenario in India. (2001). and Nair. (2001). Giridhar. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. New Delhi: Authors press. remained undeveloped 3.G. R. S. some States have become more developed than others b.N. 60% 1. Education in Developmental Arena. a.H. C.2. (2002).K. 68 . some of areas which were under the native rulers. Educational Development in India. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. S. Salim.
UNIT – II 69 .
Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. school community and mass media. semi literate and illiterates. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. community development. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. secularism and democracy through Indian education. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. National Integration. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. 71 . Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people.
1.8 126.96.36.199 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.6.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.188.8.131.52.4 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.3 2.6 Education for Secularism 184.108.40.206.1.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.LESSON 2.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.2 2.1.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.5.7 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1 2.9 2.1.5.
1. Abraham Lincoln.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. The students may be associated with the management of the school. for the people by the people”. there should be made no distinction of caste. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. socialism and secularism 2. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. 2.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. you will be able to: 1. In the matter of admitting students in schools. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it.1. 73 . Democracy thus means power of the people.1. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. creed. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. socialistic and secular state. socialism and secularism 2. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. 2. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.1. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. understand the concept of democracy.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. colour or wealth. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 3) Provision of Manual Work.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. This is the political aspect of democracy.
Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. There are different brands of socialism. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. it soon spread all over the world. Democracy means 2. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. may be planned. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 11) Student Parliament. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. 2.1. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. declamation contest etc. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching..5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. debates. 74 .
but on the path of non-violence.5. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. oppression and disparity. the prince and the peasant. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low.1. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. free from exploitation.5.1. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 75 . none high”. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 2. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. Under it. service and cooperation.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 7) Special facilities for girls. 2. the wealthy and the poor. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 2) Socialism aims at equality.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society.
The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. 5. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. 2. "which seeks the development of physical. “India is a secular-country. According to Holydake. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students.1. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. 76 . Write any two main features of socialism. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. secularism is being propagated. Everyone says. 11) State schools. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’.” In every political and educational corner. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’.
10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society.1. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. A large number of people is uneducated. people started believing in regionalism.6. 6) It has faith in rational thinking.1. 8) It believes in co-existence. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. fraternity. In this type of prevailing situations. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. 9) It stress free inquiry. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. 3) It permits freedom of worship. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines.6.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. the belief that the state morals. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. 5) It implies tolerance. education etc. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. There is need of making the people open minded. 77 . 2.opposed to religious education. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. That is why. Equality. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. should be independent of religion. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. Moral values have to be imbibed. 2) It permits freedom of religion. people have narrow mindedness. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. “Webster further says. liberty. During the recent past.
No doubt.presented by the students in the gathering. Patiala.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. While doing so. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. Religious Education. that the central string of all religions is one. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. The very sight of the building. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. tours and trips may be organized. 2. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . education. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children.1. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. There should be some internal checking of the material being. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education.6. students belonging to different religions should be associated. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. In the celebration of each such function. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. 1) Moral Education. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. In the hands of such teachers.Corruption and disbelief are rampant.
The word “Seculum” means 7.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Define Secularism 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. No doubt.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . The term secularism was first used by 8. 2. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved.
Respect of Individual Personality. Tuition free education b. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. Abraham Lincoln. d. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 2. George Jacob Holydake 80 . This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. In the matter of admitting students in schools. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. c. a. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The students may be associated with the management of the school. secularist and socialistic attitude among students.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. 4. colour or wealth. This present age 7. 5. Equal Opportunities for Admission. Since socialism stands for equality. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. there should be made no distinction of caste. b. 3. 6. for the people and the people”. Socialism aims at equality. a. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. Power of the people 2. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. 4. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Socialism aims at social justice. 3. b. a.1. creed. 5. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Provision of Manual Work.
the belief that the state morals. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. (2005). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 81 . Modern Trends in Indian Education. Bhatia. Dash. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. L. N.C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Mohanty. a. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. education etc.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.” 9. b. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Pahuja. (2008). (2004). b. P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.8. (2003). should be independent of religion. K and Narang C. It permits freedom of religion. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. J. Theory and Principles of Education.1. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Ltd. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. (2007). Ltd. 10. It treats all religions on an equal footing. N. B. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. a. J. K.
4 2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.1 220.127.116.11.7 18.104.22.168 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.10 2.9 2.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .8 2.2.LESSON 22.214.171.124 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.5.2 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 126.96.36.199 International understanding in the school 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.3 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.
as learners. moral. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. aims and objectives of the school.2. skills. 2. 2. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. a r e 1. you will be able to: 1.generation to another. social and moral aspects. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understandings.2. application. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. 2. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. social. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. and 4. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. as persons. The developmental roles of children. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. 83 . therefore. It involves physical. A teacher is first and foremost. as workers. who are placed in his custody. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. 3. mental. as it is t he aim o f modern education. as citizens. development. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. emotional. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension.an instructor of school children. Children are the potential wealth of a nation.
3. motivated. and aesthetically to become. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. emotionally. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. inquisitive. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. 2. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. a part of their day in 84 . vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. Teacher as a Citizen Next.2. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. member of his community at the outset. mental. 1. mentally. The students live. economically effective. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. The following are some of such roles described in brief. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. culturally confident. morally. He has to look after their physical. 2.All education should lead to better behavioural development. physically fit for socially efficient. experiences and acceptance. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. social and emotional health. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. morally. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. He is to become an active member. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. intellectually. socially.
List out the role of teachers towards community development . there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. creeds. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Unless. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. They will be spending with their parents. activities of the society into which he is born. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. and most of hours. 4. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. languages and religions. solve them. photographic clubs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2. India is a land of many castes. faiths. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. science club. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. fine art associations.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. Dr.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.the school being under the custody of teachers. It 85 . This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. 2.
b. stand up straight. poems. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. Let us.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. folklore and teaching of social studies. c.is. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. therefore. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. and make into one strong national unit. 1. The only process is the process of education. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. with straight backs and look up at the skies.” Regarding the role of education. national anthem and other national songs. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . Re-orientation of the Curriculum.2. Nehruji has explained this as. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. this integration of the Indian people.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. Sampurnanand remarked. social studies. At the primary stage the importance of stories. the citizens of the Republic of India.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. narrow-minded provincial. a. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. ‘We should not become parochial.” 2. should be emphasised.5. It should broaden the outlook. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. the study of language and literature. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. Radhakrishnan. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that .
t he st udent s and t he community. 4. Singing of National Anthem. 10. 2. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. 87 . Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. 6. dramatics and youth festivals. 5.different social sciences. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Co-Curricular Activities. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Reverence of National Flag. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. 9. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. militar y training like the NCC. Uniform for School Children. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. ACC. 3. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Celebrations of National Days. 8. National Days—January 26. symposia. Taking Pledge. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Textbooks. languages and literature. debates. tours. Scouts and Guides. sports. Student Camps. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. educational excursions. and picnics. 7.
School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. 2. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Recognition of Institutions. colour. Open-Air Dramas. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. iii. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another.5. 12. School Projects. 13. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. flora and fauna. Admissions. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. region or religion.11. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . iv. ii. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. ways of thinking and doing things. 15. Students Exchange and Tours. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Admissions to schools. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted.2. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. 14. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. 88 . Educational and Travel Documentaries. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. language. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 16. v. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner.
irrespective of national boundaries. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2.vi. vii. cultures and races on equal bases. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define National Integration 3. ix. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . camps. viii. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Community dinners. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained.
if it happens. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes.” 2. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. 4.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . often in connection with anniversaries. therefore.2. 3. that war. Radhakrishnan states. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. 5.2.6. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. of his body and mind. patriotism is not enough. Therefore. (c) fairly tales. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. This.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.as important as that of a national citizenship. Dr. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. Teachers 90 . we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. 2. In a very real sense. C. (b) stories of children of other lands. and the healthy development. 6.F. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. Strong has observed. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. 2. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs..e. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. the international level. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. Organising of debates and.friendships between children of different countries.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.6.
Impartial in their Treatment. a German. Indian and American. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should not be propagandists. Russian. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. an Englishman. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other.
living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. As the school is but a miniature society. 5. If this is done. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. Devaluation of Values . It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. Chronic Poverty . It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . there is wide spread frustration among all people. the education function can be carried. majority of people are.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. Soon after they leave their educational institutions.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. It does not prepare students for life.2. leading to.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. Wide Spread Frustration . Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . understand and indiscipline: 1. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. 3.Another major. Defects of the educational System . 2. which results in agitation and aggression language.2. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. 4. and help the students to over . It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom.
How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. 3. 93 . 4. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. 2. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination.2. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. 5.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. 2.democratic nature. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. sympathy and good will among the nations.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. fellow feeling. etc.2. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. community development. 2. love. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. co-operation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 220.127.116.11 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 18.104.22.168 Functions and role of schools in the society 22.214.171.124 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 126.96.36.199 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 188.8.131.52 Radio as an agency of education 184.108.40.206 Television as an agency of education 220.127.116.11 Press as a medium of education 18.104.22.168 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
22.214.171.124 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 126.96.36.199 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
188.8.131.52 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
184.108.40.206 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. are increasingly used in education. Crow and Crow write. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. He taught his students orally. led to the printing of books. Define community. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. Museums. periodicals. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Now internet is being used.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Hence. To make them achieve their aim. Moreover. Then came newspapers. the invention of the printing press. “All the citizens of the community. books. In fact. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. 2. art galleries. During the course of time.V.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Emphasising this thing. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do.
rather than on picture. In collaboration with the experts. In the emphasis is on sound. dram appreciation. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. It enlightens public opinion. Reynolds. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. social studies. Students listen various talks. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media.telecast. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. “Listening participation” in current history. the place of importance. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. art. Important happening inventions. It is also an important source of entertainment. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. the teacher still occupies. Thus. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. 2.3. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1.6. It stimulates curiosity and interests. politics.G. 101 . Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. A lot of work by way of pre. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. music. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Thus.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. 2. Effective means of presenting music. Various talks. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. current affairs and other areas.classroom teachers. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. languages.
102 . Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. at drawing room. informal and non-formal education. at recreational centers. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. 4. Making learning an open system.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. at play. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. projects or creative activities. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. development of lessons. speech. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. School concerts. 3. style. fol classical music. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. At present. audibility and presentability. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Before presenting the programme. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. travel talks. mathematics. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. Participation of local teachers and pupils. plays. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. 5. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. at any place. Team-teaching demonstrations. Educational radio excels through dramatisation.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 220.127.116.11 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
18.104.22.168 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 22.214.171.124 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
3.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.1 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.7 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 Characteristics of formal education 184.108.40.206.8 220.127.116.11 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.2 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.6 2.3.3 Advantages of formal education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.LESSON 18.104.22.168.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 22.214.171.124 Aims of Non formal education 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 Levels of formal education system 184.108.40.206 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.
it was mostly. say the Government or the private enterprise. compare formal and non formal system of education. 4. 5. the mass media et. 3. the community. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. 9. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 2. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. Education associated with a degree or certificate. the most important agency of formal education. 4. 3.4.4. To realize this objective of education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. his mental alertness. you will be able to: 1.2. Education organised by some agency. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 2.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. 2. open school.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. the learner are acquainted. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. open university. 8. 110 . Education. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 2.4. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. imparted at the residence of the teacher. 6.4. School is. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. the temple..3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. 7. starting and ending at -a particular age. In ancient time in India. the family. 2. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught.3.
such as a high school or secondary school. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. or academic degrees. usually between the ages of zero or three and five.4. 2. depending on the jurisdiction. Through early formal education. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. or post secondary education. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. also called tertiary. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality.2. Some education systems have separate middle schools. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. structured education.3. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. third stage. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . and relations are formed and developed through normal play.a secondary education. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. Higher Education: Higher education. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society.4. the elements of language are first learned. In general. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. diplomas. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. as well as vocational education and training. Concepts of proportion. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 .3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation.3. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. capacity.
that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . and remote dwellers. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. 4. What are levels of formal educational system? . Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. late beginners etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Agencies can be classified as 2. 3. is an important agency of formal education.which will help for nation's development. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Write any two characteristics of formal education? .4. children with disabilities.3.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. 2.
etc. It unlocks the doors of development plans. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. According to Malcolm A. Thus.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. continuing education and on the job oriented education. it has its own valid claim to reality. open learning.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Non-formal education includes adult education. place of instruction. Therefore. until 1970 it had not been defined.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. However. It is deliberate.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work.. It is functional. it is a more effective tool for rural development. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. admissions.formal education. systematic. one could say that non-formal education is an active. to help themselves. financially supported life formal education.e. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. It is much more responsive to needs and change. adults as well as children. Open university. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.learning client take some learning objectives. systematic. i. “Non-formal education should 113 . critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. planned. Adiseshiah. adding up to a true learning society. staffed. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. curriculum.
the Ideas of citizenship. 2. self. Lawrence.learning pattern.4. 6. curriculum. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.4.e. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. age. i. admissions. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. modes of teaching. 3.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.renewal. It should lay emphasis on the self. national integration. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. 4. To help industrial workers to better their skills.be marketable and vocationalised.” 2. To develop in the student. international understanding. 2. co-curricular activities. 7. socialism. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs.S. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.” According to H. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. Process of sharing. Flexibility in various aspects of education.4. Part-time education.S. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge.4. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. 5. 114 . • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. evaluation etc. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. Preparation for future needs. Covering life span of an individual. exploring. place of education.
school dropouts. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 4. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society.4. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 5.4. 115 . working adults. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Technical. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. 2. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. Eradication of adult literacy. in villages and those who live in towns. 6. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. • 2. 3. 8. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge.4. 9. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 7. 5.4. Senior Secondary. 10.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. Universalisation of primary education. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. 3.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 4. 2. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. To offer Secondary. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. publication and information dissemination.
4. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. effective in modern societal context. self-employment iii. To better qualifications.. library. factory. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. open space.2. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. farm. Institutions for formal education. etc.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. 4. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. training centres in factories. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . To increase knowledge and 2. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. if organised in isolation. public libraries. 2. Again.full time to learners – can be home. others are formal and informal. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. 2. 3. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. Radio and television. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . Therefore. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. centres of correspondence education. To make if.4. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. All-round development i.4. etc. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii.
period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. . institution. Correspondence lesson. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. radio. Teaching to face teaching. 6. Lecturing T. . 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define non formal education. 117 . very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Written tests. Face Contact programmes.V. Give examples of non formal education? .6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. List out any two aims of non formal education.
The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. a. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. b. 2.2. 118 . Open University. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society.” 6. Pre-school level. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal.4. adults as well as children. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. School 3. 2. 7. the college and the university come under this category. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. Open School.4. The school. 4. b.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. 3. 5. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Formal and Non Formal 2. Higher Secondary level and University level. 2.4. Primary level. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. a. 4. Secondary level. systematic.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
Theory and Principles of Education. Education in Emerging India. N. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). (2004). (2005). J. J. S. Pahuja. (2003). Bhatia. (2008). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. N. B. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.C. New Delhi : 119 . Mohanty. K and Narang C. Gupta. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. P. Ltd. (2008). Modern Trends in Indian Education.2. L.4. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. K. Dash. Ltd.
5.4.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.LESSON 220.127.116.11.4 Open University 2.4 Need for Open University 18.104.22.168.7 22.214.171.124.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .3 Objectives of Open University 126.96.36.199.4 Agencies of continuing education 188.8.131.52 2.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 184.108.40.206 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 220.127.116.11 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.3.1 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.3.5 2.2 2.4.5.
2. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. industries.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. labourers and half educated individuals.5. For them. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. This knowledge may be in political field. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. you will be able to: 1. Any person. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically.3. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. 2. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. economic field or such other fields.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education.2. It is a lifelong process.5. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. know the need and objectives of open university. However.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture.5. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. Under these circumstances. characteristics of open university 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . give the meaning. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. 2. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. Thus.5. continuing education is a boon. It is a continuous process. farmers.
Thus. T. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Doctors. On the other hand.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Throughout the country.directly related to his job. 2. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Persons engaged in health services. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. cultured and progressive. are also contributing their might for the purpose. Radio. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. deteriorating to his character and personality. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 .V.5. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. After the achievement of independence. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Block Development Officers. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures.literate person. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. if he gets opportunity to develop them. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Radio and T. For them too continuing education is essential.V.3. On the other hand. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Cinema.
especially women. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. we have not been able to achieve our targets. 7. (13) psychology of child behaviour. (15) music..4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. 3. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (8) psychology of adults. (14) information about bringing up young children. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. 2. 2. (1) ancient history.5. Of course. and Radio.3. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (7) folk songs. These books are not very useful. 4.3. Inspite of the great efforts. 2. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. 123 . (6) folk stories.5. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. 5. (16) liking. (10) first aid. habits of people of other lands. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (17) modern international and national events. 6. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. (2) basic religious matters. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements.V.
List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. 2. attendance restrict ion.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. of educational opportunities.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.5. lack of time etc. What is the objectives of NLM? 3.4. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. NLM was launched in the year 2.5.
Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. 2. Which was the first open university in India? . 5. b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. and in teaching.unobserved. 2. 4. IGNOU was established in the year 6. the higher the degree of openness.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.4. but 125 . The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. e. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. it makes use of educational techno logy. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. d. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. c. No one is too old or too late to learn.5. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. its education is not class room based but home based. Education is not a once for-all process. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs.
ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. or who realised too late that they need it. 5. 4. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 2. 2. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s.who did not get it. 6. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 3. supplementing the existing provision. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 2. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. who were deprived of t he same earlier.5. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 4.5. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. 126 . cho ice o f co ur ses. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. it a ims at wider and hig her. 3. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”.4. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies.4.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 2. Mo re o ver. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment.
They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Every day. 6. Self instructional materials. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . 2. Therefore. 7. you have learnt the concept. school drop outs. In the present day world. 8. 8. 5. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. semi – literates.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. List out any four methods of Open University? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. Laboratory works.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following.2. 127 .no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. Correspondence tuition. a state or nation. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. a society.5.4. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . 3. Tutor Comments. 1. 4. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University.5. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored.
aspirants for continuing education. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. (4) the fundamentals of economics. cho ic e o f co u r ses. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 7. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. agricultural and industrial workers. 2. a. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. a. 8. unskilled workers and other professionals. (1) ancient history. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. P r int med ia b. Explain the objectives. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. b. 3. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. Television Lessons. 6.5. 1985. youth. b. a. (2) basic religious matters. 9. d. 4. 7. 128 . To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. Broad casting lectures c. which may include house wives.5. need and characteristics of Open University. its education is not class room based but home based.ambitious learners. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 8. 1988.
(2001). Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. L. Modern Problems of Education. K. (2004). (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: Rajat Publication.. R. Udaiveer. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.2. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Reddy. (2004).S. S. Ltd. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. 129 .8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.K.5. K and Narang C.
UNIT – III 131 .
examination. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. In Lesson 2. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. its causes and remedial measures. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. 133 . pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. Training teachers for all levels of education. and teacher education.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. which may claim the attention of those concerned. Examination reform. All which is the need of the hour. wastage and stagnation. the education of women. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself.
Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.6 3.4 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3. 135 .3.2 EFA – How? 3.3 New initiatives.1.LESSON 18.104.22.168.1.1.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 22.214.171.124.8 126.96.36.199. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1 EFA – For whom? 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.1 3.7 3.5 3.1.
The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. 3. understands the country. On the other hand. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3.1. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. “The State shall 136 . you will be able to: 1. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness.1. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. Therefore. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2.3. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. may be political. social. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. 2. (EOI) 2. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). economic or cultural. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. education received added importance and significance. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. directed that. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. Continuing Education (CE) 1. therefore. Eradication of Illiteracy. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country.
endeavour to provide. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. After the attainment of independence. It enables the parents to send their children to School. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. 137 . Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Therefore. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Universalization of Enrolment. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. the national Government under. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. Continuing Education (CE). The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Universalization of Retention. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. 3. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. Three Stages for Universalization. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. rights and responsibilities. Due to the adoption of democratic system.
inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. This target had to be revised to 1970. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. It is safe to assure. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India.1.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. Write Article 45. Therefore. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. present and future. educational enterprise. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. 1995 (for upper primary stage). Give your answer as instructed in each question b. UNESCO Bulletin states. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. later to 1988.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. then to 1976. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. 138 . 3. 1990. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence.
we have to develop the programme of Adult education. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. 139 . Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. and Women’s education programme should be improved. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education.3. 8. 6. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). adolescent and adult. etc. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. 11. By undertaking survey. FELF. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. NAEP. their enrolment and retention. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. Early childhood education should be streamlined.1. Apart from primary education. 3. Education of the Impaired. sex. creed. 10. 9. their social economic status and occupations. 5. slum areas. problem of literacy. 12. Jams and Jellies.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. Disabled. nutrition education and sports and games. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. Emphasis must be given on health education. Education of Girls. rural areas. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. 3. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. the art of preparing fruit-juice. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. The Social Education. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste.
Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. 4. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.e. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.1. Expand MLL and SSA .1. Wastage and Stagnation.3 NEW INITIATIVES.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . 3.
The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . School Factors .first stage of education. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. Personal Factors . Familial Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Social Factors . it is considered as wastage.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Define Wastage. 142 . . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 7.
Family Factors .3.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. in his home. Personal Factors . relating to home. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. Societal Factors . rural or urban 3. School Factors .The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . school or society.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.The following factors.1. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. They are described hereunder :1.
List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . Define Stagnation? 9. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. etc. uniforms.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. stationary. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. mid-day meals. 144 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.
1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 6. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. “The State shall endeavour to provide. 4. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. 4.1. 3. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Universalization of Enrolment c. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. directed that.1. Universalization of Provision b. a. therefore. Hartog Committee. 145 . Minimum Levels of Learning b.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. a.3.” 3. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. b.. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. improvement of curriculum. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Universalization of Retention 2. a. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. 3. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. 2. 3.
9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.K. (2007). Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. introduce graded curriculum. Personal Factor b. (2008). New Delhi: 146 .N. a. S. Problems of Elementary Education.7. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Hemchand. S. 9. improve examination system. Familial Factors c. T. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001). School Factors d. Social Factors 8. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. b.1. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.K. 3. Crescent Publishing Corporation. a. Sharma.
188.8.131.52.5.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.5.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .2.4.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 184.108.40.206 The problem of reform of Examination 3.4 Question banks 3.3 Modern reforms of examination 220.127.116.11.2.2.1 Choice Based Credit System 18.104.22.168.5.1 3.5.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 22.214.171.124.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1 Problems of examination 126.96.36.199 Grade System 3.5 New evaluation procedures 3.2 3.3.2.LESSON 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.7 Open book examination 188.8.131.52.2.2.2.
1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.2.2.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.9 3.2.3. you will be able to: 1.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2.8 3. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. 3.3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. suggest the new evaluation procedures. 3. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . 3. 3. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . but on the other. 4.2. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. Besides.2. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.
If the students are in sufficient number. which the educational authorities have to face. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. 3. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. etc. etc.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. waiting rooms for girl students. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions.2. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. hostel facilities. by providing free education and liberal scholarships.3. schools for them wherever necessary. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided.. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. They develop secondary sex characteristics. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. 149 . roadside Romeoism. etc. They may cause problems relating to discipline. The following steps should be taken up. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner.
4.2. teachers. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. 3. It is considered as a major sub-system. appointment of paper-setters. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. public administrators and statesmen. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. Instruction.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. the examination system has an important role to play. 150 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. With the mass growth of educational enterprise.2. assessment and Finance. conduct of internal examinations. public interested in education. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents.
Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. announcement of results. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. tabulators. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. examiners. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. etc. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. etc. etc. validity and practicability.4. etc.2.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. etc. introducing objective-based testing. invigilators. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. scrutinizers. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . pursuing objective-oriented instruction. establishing reliability. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. training of examiners.printing and distribution of question papers. 3. values.
152 . 6) With reference to scoring procedure. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. may also discredit them. lack of objectivity etc. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education.2. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. 2) From the angle of content of education. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education.4.. Subjects.. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. stereotyped questions. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording.. which they are expected to study. 3) With respect to method of teaching.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. takes the place of comprehensive learning. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. Vagaries in making. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. Rote memorisation. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. it s a common experience that subjectivity. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. 3. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. do not appeal to the students and parents. 7) In connection with the question papers. halo-effect.
. List any two merits of examination. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. 153 . etc. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon.a part of internal assessment. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. re-numbering of answer scripts. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. may be introduced. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. 4.develop true love for education. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations.. Spot valuation. revaluation. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately.
In actual practice. The new scheme of assessment. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. Their interests. attitudes.5. The students can take any course offered in any department.5. 3.3. In this system. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. It is complicated. he is given extra credit points. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. Every paper is treated equal.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. skills are given importance. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. When a person chooses to work extra.2. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper.2. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.2.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.
good. or as a 4 credit course. These weightages are called credits.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning.2. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course.5. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses.discipline. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. In the new system. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. v. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. poor. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. While designing syllabus. Groupism is encouraged. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. An example is a seminar. 3. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. This system reduces comparison of marks. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. only the total credits to be earned is specified. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . courses can have weightages defined.poor.
and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.5. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. 3. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. 3. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. 3.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.2.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.2. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. the need for re-evaluation should not arise.2. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. 156 . With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.5.5. However. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There are no proper procedures for selection. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. What is the reason for introducing grade system? .6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. . recruitment. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. In the hierarchy.5.3. However. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.2. 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 3. Therefore. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. List any four new evaluation procedures.2.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization.
finding out whether the prescribed text. library books. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. submitting of the inspection reports. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. 1. wherever necessary.qualified personnel. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. being realised as two different functions. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures.2. whether the syllabus has been covered. They are.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. When they are fully realised. of late. disciplinary problems. finding out the adequacy of.. qualifications. in contrast. etc. books are followed. inspecting the class-room teaching. school buildings. laboratory equipment. interpersonal relationships and so on. taking up the follow-up programmes. complaints and compliments. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. staff. in a sense. 158 .6. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance.. playgrounds. 3. etc. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. requirements. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. Academic inspection.
to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Similarly. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. 3. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. 159 . In the light of these conceptualisation. courses. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. modern. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace.Ed. at least. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. course in either educational.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life.. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. once in five years. their professional knowledge. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. or. Insistence on specialisation in the B. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. In the case of departmental candidates. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. M. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. aptitude.. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher.2.Ed. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively.
Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. b. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. 3. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. 4.2. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. a. 2. b. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Grade System. c. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 160 . Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. 3. 3.2. d. b.2. Instruction. 5. a. Administration. a.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 3. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. assessment and Finance.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
a. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Educational Reforms. (2002). b. Question banks. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. a. Open book examinations. K.a part of internal assessment. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. b. S. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. 5. (2005).4. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Multiple sets of question paper. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Vaidya. Problems of Education in India. K. 3. R and Sharma. a. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. History and Problems of Education in India. New 161 . Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.2. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . c. b. (2004). 7.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma.
7 3. 4. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. 2.3.3. 3.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education. you will be able to: 1. 162 .3.10 3.3.2 3.LESSON 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3 184.108.40.206.1 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.4 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3. identify the needs of rural India and social.3.9 3.5 3. 5.8 3.3.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.6 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3.
Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. etc.e. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. 2.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. University Education. 8 years of general education. and 3 years of First Degree Course. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. 10 years of general Secondary Education. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. in Andhra Pradesh. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. The Calcutta Madras. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. e. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . Commission emphasised to continue. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. i.g. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. Similar is the case with some other States. the Banaras Sanskrit College. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges.e. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States.... Consequent on the recommendations. The..3. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education.specialisation programmes 3. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines.3. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 .
and. Provision for transfer of credits to students. is also a plus point . to prepare. historical. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. who desire to change from one stream to another. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4.3. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. 6. 3.confidence in students. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. However. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . 7. habits of hard work and develop . 5) to help for the social. to imbibe. social. 8. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. 10.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. educational channels. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. 5. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation.a sense of dignity of labour. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. cultural and economic development of the country. b. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. economical and political. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 .
not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. etc..3. Psychologically. 3. cooperativeness. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. and. to develop national character. cultural and' religious tolerance. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. international understanding. Sociologically it is undesirable. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. social justice. 1. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. democratic living. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. Philosophically it is not the conception. and that required to enter the tertiary level. The General Educational Spectrum. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities.national integration. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. on one hand. at the other.
As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. technical. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. industrial agricultural production is growing. Agriculture is the main occupation. Science. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. rural health.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected.— tube-wells. Biology. In the matter of language. commerce.3. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. vegetable growing. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. technological. fish culture. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. the rural areas have suffered very much. or other machinery. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. 166 . India is a land of villages. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. professional. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. physics or mathematics. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. Commerce and other disciplines. commerce. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. All these need for an. and vocations based on dairy-farming. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. 2. In our country. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. educational and cultural services. horticulture. medical plants. chemistry. such as Agriculture.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. In the vocational spectrum. 3.
3. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . interests and aptitudes of the students. In this way. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. and 5.. social justice. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. In this it may be concluded. In time.. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. can be ensured. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States.etc. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . 4. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. There had been favourable reaction from the students. and the needs.3. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 .7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. the local resources available. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses.
Anmol Publications Pvt. J. Mohanty. Ltd. (2008).C. 2. S. (2001). b. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal.a sense of dignity of labour.K.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. to imbibe. 3. a. General Educational Spectrum and b.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. Vocational Sepctrum.3. (2007). B. b. Calcutta University Commission 2. Dash. (2005). habits of hard work and develop .10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3. a. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : 168 . a. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. objectives.3. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. 3. we studied the history. 3.3. J. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. 3. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. N. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.3.
11 3.7 3. Education contributes to human development.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.8 220.127.116.11. social and 169 .1 3.10 3.13 3.2 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4.3 3.6 126.96.36.199 3.4.4.LESSON 3.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.12 3.
although we have miles to go. These courses were. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. During the year 1937. Education . Home Economics. Dr.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . economic.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. you will be able to: 1. The relevance of women’s education to social. For the first time in the history of India. family.4. particularly 170 . No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. Teaching and Fine Arts. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. In the post —independence period.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. analyze the women and distance education. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education.4. 3. cultural and political development of the individual. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women.higher education in particular. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. Nursing. community and nation is universally acknowledged.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. While women constituted only 9. 3. higher education of girls developed immensely. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. There is a close connection between education and development. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country.
The idea of women’s education for equality. 3.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.1 24. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.0 43. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.65 lakhs in 1994-95.T Women University. we have more than 1200 institutions.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. Kodaikanal.9 27.4. In 1950-51.9 14. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.0 16. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. Yet. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.N. 3. Mumbai.D.0 Today. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.4. Even today. in our country. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. In the rest of the country.0 32. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. levels and professions. Coimbatore.2 29.2 22. Mother Teresa Women University.1 31.women. out of 9200 and odd colleges.4.
36 3.46 82. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.56 64. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.47 65.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.1 respectively. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .1 and 14.54 12.63 Female % 34.53 34. 3.66 66.73 10.4%) prefer Arts subjects. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . 3.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.4.27 89.4.17 52.83 47. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? . particularly in the technical and industrial streams.that of boys.44 35.34 33.4.
most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Book banks should be established. irrelevance of the content of education. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. In every third family. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. 173 .hinders the girls from getting higher education.4. Thus. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. They gave up their studies to enter home life. etc. In college. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. According to a survey. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. what is the need for higher education for her. she will only learn fashion. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. financial difficulty of the parents. distance of the college or university from home.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. curriculum not suited to their requirements. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. promoted and increased. particularly. marriage is a very common I factor. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. The major hurdles. 3. Also. and coeducation may spoil her character.
It also brings about 174 . It is a productive investment. Empowerment in a nutshell. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Full-time employment. resources and socio .8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Geographic distance of educational institutions. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges.economic disabilities faced by women. 3. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. which is the most dynamic factor of development. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. 3.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. is the only tool for realising empowerment.4. Education. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. It enables to study. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. There are constraints of time. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. space.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. and the limitations of the conventional education system.4. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Distance education is a boon to women.
for full development of our human resources. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. education of women must be given priority in national plans.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. empowerment means being assertive.4. Women are partners in development. education of women is of paramount importance. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . legal awareness and economic independence. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. on their own. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. 3. This can be achieved through reflection. Empowerment is an active.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. The major objectives of women's higher education. higher learning.
who are eager to take up courses. will encourage them to venture new grounds. Better opportunities. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . The local administration.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. which is pending for a long time. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. which had been the sole domain of men. has to be implemented at the earliest. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. 3. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. 176 . The educational institutions.4. Reservation for women. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Scholarships and concessions for women. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. But their number is small. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. especially so in the developing countries.
Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Chief Executive. capacities etc.4. Also. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. But. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . engineering and related technologies (16.8%). Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. According to Lindy Hyam. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. talents.000 women in the country. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs.1%) and architecture and building (38. especially in developing countries like African countries.3 percent. Australia. IDP Education. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations..9%).
Centre for Women’s Studies. Women Education.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. A.4. 3. Rajasthan 5. Rao. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. S. Mother Teresa Women University. 178 . Mishra.to the family. 2. R. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. a.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. create the right attitude towards life.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 43% 6. SNDT Women’s University. R. Coimbatore. (2005). Coimbatore. A. individuals and society b. 4.4. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Kodaikanal.K. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.4. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. R. S. and Swain. 3. Women Education. Annakodi. (2007).C. and Suryalatha. Women and Education. Mumbai. (2008). Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Mumbai. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Pattanaikj.R. 3. SNDT Women’s University. community and the nation. (2000). 4.
whole.5.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.5.LESSON 3.5. They should be trained.11 3.5.6 3.personality of children in and out of school.7 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5 3.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.4 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5.10 188.8.131.52 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5.2 3.5.3 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.8 3.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.
national consciousness. 3. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. 4. understand the training teachers for Primary. equality and justice. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. social and emotional integration. you will be able to: 1. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Shorter working hours. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. 3. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. and national character. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. 5. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction.5. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Lack of physical facilities. understanding and strong desire for international peace. list out the agencies of teachers education 3.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. 180 . international.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. know the pre service and in service training facilities. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels.
5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. levels. inservice and extension education programmes. the secondary teacher education. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. At the diploma level. Lop-sided curriculum. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Inadequate training in practical skills. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. etc. the state Government.5. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. students. the centre. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. higher secondary teacher education. a Diploma course and a Degree course. and M. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. If the student teachers are working teachers.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. and the collegiate teacher education. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier.Ed. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels.. 3. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate.5. 3. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . the primary teacher education.. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years.Ed. it is called the In-service teacher education. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training.Less qualified teacher educators. who have not been trained earlier. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . it is called the Extension teacher Education. Depending on the levels. (NCERT) New Delhi. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service.
• the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . extensio n service.. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . Science Education units. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . non-formal. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. depart ments etc. etc. Evaluation unit.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Expand NCERT 2. state Institutes of Educat ion. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Also Guidance Bureaux. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. are established.5. collegiate cells. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Educational teehnology cells. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Education cells.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. 3. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training.
the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. to improve curricular programmes. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. should be improved on a top priority basis.. to offer consultative services. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . material conditions relating to libraries. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. despite its vast expansion. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department.Ed.. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. primary and secondary school teachers. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. schools and sister institutions..• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified .post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. audio visual aids. and so on. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. degree. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. which help breaking isolation from one another . and 183 .Ed. which should include experience in the primary schools too. to ensure teacher competence. to prescribe conditions for recognition. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . laboratories. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B.
Modern Methods of Evaluation. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. Organisation of Content Courses. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. not came up once again. methodology and evaluation. To meet this exigency. Psychology of Students. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. 184 . which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Hence. Induction Courses.secondary education. etc. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher .Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. and XII. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Modern Techniques of Teaching. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. though no pre-service training. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Meanwhile. The problem. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. Workshops. Agriculture. etc. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. whether they should have professional education or.
Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.’s for Ph. in Education. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.. Ajmer... There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. For re-orienting the teachers.’s are elig ible for M. 3.S. Post-Graduates also undergo B. M. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.Ed. These facilities are available for regular students. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. (Education) and M. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.Ed.. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. Degree and M.Ed.Ed. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.5. Pre-service training is for those. training... Courses leading to B.A. (Education) are organized by 185 ..CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.A. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. Degree. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .Ed.Ed. State Institutes of Education. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. All B Ed.D. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. courses and M.
List any two code of conduct for teachers? . code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession.A. 186 .. However. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. . 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.). 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 6. of conduct—written or unwritten. established by tradition and teachers of the past.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. What is the role of ERIC? .5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. they should be conscientious .A. 5. and B. 3. Hence the employability of M. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . (Ed). 4. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. (Ed. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and .
and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. a. 3. Shorter working hours. b. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. 3. a. 2. The necessity is however this. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. Bhopal. 5. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Explain code of conduct for teachers.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2.3. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. 4. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. Discuss the problems of teacher education.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 187 . 3. they should be conscientious. 4. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. a. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. b.5. these problems are not as such cannot be solved.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful.5. Ajmer. However. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 3.5. 6.
(2010). Teacher Education. B. Ltd Aggarwal.5. Mohanty. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .3.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda.D. and Teacher Education. Corporation. Teacher Education. Tewari.N. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. (2009). P. A. J. Publication Pvt. (2003).
UNIT – IV 189 .
consuming the right amounts becomes important. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. Since food is the source of nutrients. the focus is on the school health programmes. The person’s environment is equally important. objectives and role of the physical education. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. In lesson 1.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. If the diet is poor. objectives. 191 . Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. objectives. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. communicable diseases and their prevention. economic and educational developments. common ailments of children. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. In lesson 4. preservation of nutrients. nutritional deficiency diseases.
11 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1.1 184.108.40.206.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1. emotional and social. It is a miniature society.10 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody.e.6 4.1.3 4.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i. physical.5 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.4 4. 193 .8 4.2 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.LESSON 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1.1. mental.1.9 4.7 4.
e.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. To develop healthy health habits among children. you will be able to: 1. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students.. know the need for sex education. 4. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. list the common ailments of children 3. 6. 9. 2. 194 . training of teachers and evaluation. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. cleanliness and healthful living. 11.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. 4. 5. 4. 8. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 3. Instruction. to his family and to the community at large. To develop certain skills concerning health. 7. explain the importance of First aid 5.1.g. understand school health programmes 2. training in first aid and etc. 10. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. content of health education. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To give information regarding health rules. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner.1. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12.
Toilet rooms should be amply provided. Triple Antigen Vaccination. The surroundings of schools should be clean. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. 3. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. There should be regular water supply. play festivals. is imperative. (xl) mental health. 4. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. (xii) smoking education etc. (ii) communit y healt h.C.coming or absence. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . Vaccination for small pox. “Play-for-all” programmes. suitable furniture. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. organisation of school health days.1. proper doors and windows. vaccination. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. 5. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled.. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. minimizing the travelling distance. (v) safety education. B. B. etc. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. (vi) nutrition education. as described below 1. The school buildings should be spacious. Arranging better transportation facilities. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. First aid facilities should be made readily available. 2. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body.. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases.G. cleanliness weeks.4. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. (viii) first aid. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. The flooring should not be damp. inoculation against cholera. 2. (iv) co mmunicable diseases.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. excusing late. ( iii) sanit at io n. direct lighting. typhoid. There should be good drainage facilities.
dislocations. • Close the schools. cuts. poisons. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. scalds. • Keep all rooms clean. wounds. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. C. burns. fainting (epileptic fit). D. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. drowning. and other accidents. isolate and notify. insect stings. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. 196 . fractures. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. sports and games in the interest of their health. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics.. • Find out the cases. • Have adequate rest and sleep. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. • When sleeping in groups. • Take nutritious food. if epidemic is wide-spread. etc. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. bleeding.
measles etc. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air.. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. polio.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs.1.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. Once these germs get into the body. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . There are three stages in any communicable disease. chicken pox. headache. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. which are – cold. Mention the school health programmes. asthma. pain in the joints. 4. These diseases are called communicable diseases. tuberculosis. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. List out the Health curriculum 3. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. 2. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. backache. cough. They have less resistence to diseases than adults.1. They are: i) The incubation stage. fever. water or bodily contact. So they easily get illnesses. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease.
Diarrhoea . Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. eating food which is not clean. This is caused by cold virus. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Scabies .is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Important salts and water are lost in this process. 198 . The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. unhygienic bottle feeding. Mumps . Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Children catch cold from persons having cold. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. After three or four days of fever. head-ache and cough. Tonsilitis . The virus is present in the secretions of throat. The child may have fever.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Ear Infections . sugar and water. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. The symptoms include cold. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops.It is caused by measles virus.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Throat is affected. Hence it is called a killer disease. unhygienic living conditions. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Measles . cough and fever.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus.This disease is caused by bacteria. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. The following are the common communicable diseases. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Others make the children very weak. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage.When a child suffers from scabies. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Common Cold . etc. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children.
A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. raised pink spots appear on head. 5. It begins with fever. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. the child is not able to breathe. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. Enlist the common ailments of children. The child may also have diarrhoea. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. Typhoid . The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. As the disease progresses.• • • • Chicken Pox . Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. By scratching he causes secondary infections. the child may die. Shortly. Diphtheria . Expand DPT . So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. What are communicable diseases? 6. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. 199 . face and waist. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. If proper treatment is not given. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. separate.
bruises. snakebites. films and jokes. and Community Work and Social Service. It has its rightful place in education too.1. eye injury. 200 . sprains.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. cuts. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. head injury. In such cases. scorpion stings. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.1. 2. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. and films. dislocation. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. wounds. sprains. 3. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. exciting and body-oriented. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. simple fractures. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. Drowning . 5.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. etc. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. 4. 4. it is a subject of art. fainting. Wounds . Sex is popular.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. man-woman behaviours.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. bleeding.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. fiction. It is both biological and psychological. Cuts and Bruises . swelling. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. so-called sex books and periodicals. Sprains .4. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. drowning.g.
2. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. celibacy are age. try experimenting with their bodies. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. but preserve them from disaster and disease. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. B. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. The home. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . In secondary schools. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. Should the boys and girls..Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. the school. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. 3. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. The values of life. Hence. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. sex education is being recommended in schools. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. the religious organisations. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. health.old values. In today's liberal and interactive society. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. in their ignorance. they would be treading the path of sure doom.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS.
For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised.1.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. when the courses are already overloaded. there will no crisis in its implementation. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. communicable diseases and their prevention. first aid and sex education. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. Teacher education institutions are. common ailments of children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. 202 . it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. What are the major components of Sex Education. the school health programmes. 4. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. C. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. hence.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 220.127.116.11 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 209 . Mention the food nutrients 2. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3.
minerals.2. If you look at the definition carefully. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .4. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. 210 . Let us talk about each of these aspects. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.2. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day.
Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet.sedentary. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. the social and religious practices of that region. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. In the case of adults. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). People in the east of our country prefer rice. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body.6. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. There is no point. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. paratha and poori. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires.one in the morning and the other at night.2. construction labourer). A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). sex. activity level and physiological stress. These are: region where the person resides and income. for example.g. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately.g. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. 4. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. A balanced diet is specific firstly. moderate or heavy work. In other words. dosa are typical of the south. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . Even within given States there is considerable variation. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. Rice or rice preparations such as idli.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. it is also specific to a given activity level . So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. Preferences/customs are also important.
These determine the acceptability of foods.planning the diet. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. nuts and dry fruits. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. If you think of your own religious group. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. As you read this discussion. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. Among the social factors. Judicious selection of food is. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. Even among flesh foods. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. As income increases. while another may hate them. Including these 212 . you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. fat and sugar tend to increase. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. One person may be fond of milk products. however. vegetables and fruits. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. However. Having more money. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. customs. income plays a vital role. however. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. In addition to these. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. as important for the rich as for the poor. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. for example. taboos related to food may play an important role. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. however. One must.
Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. fruits. if the teachers have good food habits. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. meat. 8. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 8) Walk a while after eating. Define balanced diet. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 213 . 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. over-eating or under. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. green leaves. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. eggs . List out any two healthy food habits.eating is hazardous.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 17. For this. mouth. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. etc. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. but they should be thrown away. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished.
Keratomalacia 3. 4.2. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Discuss good food habits. e. Vitamin D 5. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A.4. Conjuctival xerosis.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. c.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. Beri Beri 4. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. b. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Night blindness. a. Bitot’s spots. 4. Corneal xerosis. Explain food nutrients 4. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. In fact.2.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. good nutrition is essential for good health. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. d. preservation of nutrients. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. When the diet is inadequate. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer.
C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . 7.M.6. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. (2005).C. Chopra.N. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.2. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. (2008). Nutrition Science. S. Nutrition and Dietetics. a . (2004). Hands. minerals. b. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. A Text Book of Foods. Food and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . R. Sri Lakshmi B. P. b. a. (2008). Food and Nutrition Education. (2009). Health and Nutrition Education. mouth. 4. 8. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. R. Food should be consumed after eating well.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.
3.5 4.8 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3.9 4.7 4.3.4 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4. 216 .18.104.22.168.3.6.12 4.3.2 4.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3 Impact on Education 22.214.171.124.3 4.11 4.13 4.3.1 4.3.LESSON 126.96.36.199 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.3.
” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. There is some difference.3.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning.3. 4. state the meaning. the stress is. 4. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. Population Education. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. population characteristics. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. objectives and need for population education 2. 217 . family planning and sex education etc.3. understand the importance of small family norm 5. aims at providing the younger generation. It is a much wider co ncept. you will be able to: 1.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. the causes of population change. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. It is not sex education. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. economic and educational development 3. his societ y and the world. his family. and the consequences of these processes.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. community.4. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. describe the impact of population growth on social. characteristics and changes for himself. therefore. Whenever we talk of sex education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.
4. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. the nation and the world. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the society. Define Population Education 2.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the family. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.3. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.3. 4. List out any two objectives of Population Education.
About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. 219 . social welfare schemes can be implemented well. which will not be possible without population control. 4. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it.3. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. Every second two thousand children are being born. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. economic and educational development of the country. 4. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. health and happiness of its citizens. Family is considered as a social unit. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future.6. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. When the family is small.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.3. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. the family programmes are also handicapped. With the larger families. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems.
unemployment.6.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. Swollen cities. in parks and other places of public gatherings. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. facility for drinking water. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. organization index and material index. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching.. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. lack of proper health care. teacher index. 4. in cinema halls and theatres. 4. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. i. The gulf between them is widening further.e.6.3.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. In developing countries. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. toilets. pollution of the environment. Many students herded in a small room. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. and so on. 220 . in buses and trains. heavy intern I migration etc.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth.3.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. less budget for education. reproduction. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 221 . Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Hindi and English. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. There would be poor library facilities. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. can be taken up. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. can be studied in science and health education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. even text books would be in short supply. blank verses etc. There would be very few audiovisual aids. and laboratory equipments. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. less space facilities. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Social Studies Statistics on population education. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. essays. Regional Language. thus. bar graphs etc. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. family planning etc.. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages.3.
They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences.3. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. West Bengal. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Brazil. 3. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. United States of America. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. area and average density of population. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 7. 13. 4. Bihar. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Children with the help of parents. China. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Canada. deaths. 15.4. 2. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. 9. Children may compare two families. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. They may arrange them as per average density of population. 10. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. 8. Uttar Pradesh. 5. causes of deaths etc.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 12. 14. 11. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents.
The question.be opened in their schools. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. 16. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. age at marriage. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. preferences for sex. we have no right to stop 223 . Comparing life in various respects in two families.3.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. 18. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. 17. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. values and role children etc.
fertility levels have declined throughout the country. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. The Family Welfare Program. 4. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . at varying places in different regions. Since the program's inception.. should be overcome at the intellectual levels.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.were implemented 224 .3. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children.4-6.to emphasize family planning services. “He who is responsible for population growth.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. especially the expansion of child immunization services . however. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. which education can only do. continued . on an overall basis. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. and the child survival components of the news: program.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. More than 45 years ago.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. the total fertility rate decreased from 6.their entry into the world”.
The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. a focus on health promotion. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. In October 1997. Therefore. Moreover. At these meetings. Local programs vary in their approaches. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. the community appears willing to pay for services. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. In April 1996. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. reliance on local women as community health workers. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. and the World Conference on Women. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding.earlier than the safe motherhood components. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. men. and nominal fees for services. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. expansion of services to unmarried women.
What are the goals of RCH? 4.3. 226 . so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. economic and educational development 4. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2.emphasizing the needs of the client. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. Its main purposes are to create awareness. involving the community. 3. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. Describe the impact of population growth on social. family. 4. 1997). What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. community. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.3.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. nation and the world.
area and average density of population. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. United States of America. less space facilities. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. and the consequences of these processes. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Brazil. 4. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. China.” 2.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. his family. b. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. 5.4. a. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. bar graphs. population characteristics. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 227 . characteristics and changes for himself. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. 3. his society and the world. Canada. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. 6. the causes of population change. a. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. less budget for education. 7. b. a.3.
K. (1992). Ltd. Modern Problems of Education. (2005). (2005). Principles of Population Studies. T. N. A. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Udaiveer. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Centre for Women’s Studies. Jayapoorni. (2002). V.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. 228 . Bhende. J.3. Reddy. Coimbatore. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.4. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Kantikar. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Changing attitudes to Education in India. (2004). Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.
5 4.4.9 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .10 4.4.1 Minor games 4.8.2 Major games 4.4 4.LESSON 188.8.131.52.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.8.2 184.108.40.206 Indigenous games 4.3 4.4 Lead up games 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 22.214.171.124.11 19.8.6 4.8.1 4.4.
4. as it should 230 . team spirit. leadership and balance in defect. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. the youth of the country. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. which forms its most valuable assets. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. you will be able to: 1. classify the different types of games. mental alertness.4.4. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. The concept of physical education has been made broader. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. moral fitness and emotional fitness. 4. perseverance. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. social fitness. full records of physical activities should be maintained.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected.4.
They go hand in hand. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. leadership. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. team spirit. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. They are inseparably united together. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Every individual is a part of society. To be more precise. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Therefore. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. obedience to rules. The educational efforts at home. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education.
pleasing manners. mo ral.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. H. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. Physical exercises. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. a sound health. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.” Montaigue writes. Regarding the significance of physical education. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. Rousseau states. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. game and sports. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. nor body but the whole man.” The Secondary Education Commission. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. ment al.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency.4. Just like Education. 4. Buck has observed that 232 . C.
Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. flexibility and power.a properly directed physical education should result in health. elegance. coordinative abilities. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.” In brief. speed. happiness. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. endurance.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. 233 .4. we must exercise the whole human being. Froebel says.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. strength. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. efficiency and character. resourcefulness and smartness. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. “If we wish to develop the whole being. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. initiative. etc. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.” 4.
Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. they may form gangs. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. While wars. in greater or lesser degree. these fundamental things have always been present. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. poetry and painting. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Every age has its artists. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Tournaments foster this sentiment. 234 (i) (ii) . systems of government.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. plagues and famines. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. its adherents and its enemies.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. including all racial groups and historical ages. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. B. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit.\ to develop perseverance. respect for rules. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two importance of Physical Education. 2. 3. obedience. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. etc. bravery and interest in games and sports. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . self. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. 235 . to develop tolerance. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline.sacrifice.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements.
Keep the field ready for the activities. Usually parents. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 11. 4.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. injuries among pupils should be made. 14. 6.4. 5. Be in the uniform. Be self-confident.4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Inform health principles. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. students. 8. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 10. Posture screening should be done. 7.H. 12. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Be well-prepared. Always keep the whistle ready. 4. and readmission after they have recovered. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. . 2. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Be sportive. 13. Act as a leader. 16.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Be punctual. 15. Haag. is essential. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases.4. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. 9. and. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 3. 236 1. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. defects. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students.
Indigenous games. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. less equipment and less expense. the play. 2.4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Lead up games.4. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. their development is handicapped. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. 237 . They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. 4. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. 1. chasing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. frolic and jo y.8. 4. Moreover. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. Such inst incts as imitation. 3. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. As such they are well enjoyed by children.
couple tag. Dodging. Tennis. finding the partner.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. 238 . Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Cricket. Hockey. pitching. women take part most of the games. They are played for a shorter duration. zig zag relay. While many of them are played in the open playfields. The dimension of the posts and nets. driving. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. the number of players and substitutes. under ball pass Relay. Except a few games. the play equipment. on sea-shore. with implements or without implements. Throwing. 4. some of them are played indoors.. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. wherever the kids assemble. trapping. spiking. Volley Ball. stopping.4. skipping. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Kabaddy etc. These games require varied skills such as running. Hopping. Basket Ball. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. They are rules approved by the International Associations. On lawns. For each game the rules are many. boosting. the games can be modified according to convenience.With a very few rules. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. catching. on mountain tops and on river beds. snatching the kerchief. over ball pass Relay. muffling. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Shuttle Badminton.8. Tennikoit. Jumping. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. bowling etc. Soft Ball. benefit in playing minor games. hitting. on hard courts. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Jump the stick clay and so on. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Khokho. dribbling. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. heading. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. Ball Badminton.
7.8. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. festivals connected with religion and public functions. birth. death.4.4. List out some major games. An example for indigenous game is 8. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.4.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. these games being popular. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. 4. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. All the fundamental tactics. Kho-kho.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Games may be classified as 6. On occasions like marriage. For example. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. They have an abundant social value.8. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. and . Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. While observing the players in action. they are in existence. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
b. to secure physical health b. 3. Minor and Major 240 . aims and objectives and need of physical education. a. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. c.4. to develop physical stamina.4. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 3. 4. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. d.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. physically and emotionally fit and alert.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. 5. a. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. 2. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Briefly discuss the different types of games. b. 2.4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 4. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. a. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. 4. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Posture screening should be done. b. 4.
4. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. (2005).C. Ltd. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Basket Ball. Soft Ball. Krishna murthy. Aggarwal.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Volley Ball. Tennis. Hockey. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Khokho 8.4. Foot-ball. Kabaddy 7. J.K. Khokho. J. J. Health. Shuttle Badminton. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. (2008). (2009). 241 . New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Mohanty. (2008). Cricket.6. G. Tennikoit. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Ball Badminton. Handbook of Physical Education. Physical Education and Sports.
5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .4 4.5.1 Natural Environment 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.2 4.5.1 4.3 4.6 4.8 4.5.7 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .9 126.96.36.199.5.LESSON 188.8.131.52.10 184.108.40.206.5.11 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.
6. it covers the following elements: 1.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. Participation. 243 . 4. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 2. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. list out the types of environment 3. social. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 3. Knowledge.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Broadly. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. 3. 2. Details are given below: I. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4.5. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Evaluation Ability. economic. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. Awareness. you will able to: 1. political. 4.5. Skills. 4. Attitude. Essential knowledge about the Environment. education about the environment and education through the environment.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. population explosion and resource depletion could be. 5. aesthetic and educational factors.5. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. The best place to start such learning is school.educat ion for the environment.
Oxidants Other pollutants. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. • Biological magnification E. heat sink and wind flow in cities. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. a. 244 . Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. F. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality.B. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. 2. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. D. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law.
Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. The pill ii. c. 2. Socio-economic measures. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Persuasion: i. Birth control through education b. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Abortion iv. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. 3. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Control of population growth a. III. Use of medical science i. economic. Sterilisation.3. B. Family planning ii. 2. Intrauterine device iii. The human ecosystem II. 4. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems.
Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Define Environmental Education. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. e) Recycling. Water pollution abatement. Air pollution abatement ii. 3. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. (UNESCO. 246 . List out the major causes of Environmental problems. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1983). 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
telex. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. A change in one brings about a change in the other.5. He modifies according”. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.5. 4. Biological environment The biological environment. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.5. a. They interact with each. b. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.other components of the environment.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.5.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 .4.5. animals and other organisms (biotic). -other. Any constituent or condition of the environment. includes the plants. fax agricultural apparatus. These are biotic components.5. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. way is called environmental or ecological factor. to his needs. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.
supplying timber for various uses. biogas plants. effects. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. preventing siltation of dams. balance of nature. t heir role in preventing pollution. food chain and food-web. mineral survey. noise pollution. explosion deforestation. sources of pollut ion. alternate sources of energy. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. greenhouse effect. need for conservation. reasons. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. change in climate may be added. wars and hazards of war. etc. noise control. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. industrial survey. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . etc. (ii) Air pollution. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. ozone layer deplet ion. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. excellent recreation sites.. evolution. industrial pollut io n. role of trees in building economy. nuclear warfare. river systems. natural way of controlling pests. relation between population and pollution.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. extinction of species. trees reducing noise pollution. of civilizations. acid rain. maintaining the ecological diversity. need for bio-diversity. are the topics which may be taught in History. sources. windmills. importance of nitrogen cycle. desertification 248 . use of pesticides. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. effects o f CFC. ozone depletion. population. nuclear energy. solar cookers. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. water scarcity. over exploitation of ground water. air pollutants from industries. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. History The rise and fall. social studies. preserving the watersheds. use of medicinal plants.
group discussions and seminars. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. 14.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Providing. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 10. 7. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 6. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. aims and scope. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 249 . Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Peepal and Tulsi. 2. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 13. 3. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. animal and plants. 5.5. 8. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. 11. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education.may be inc ded in Geography. 4. 12. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 4. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 9. Organising conferences.
it will cause pollution. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. especially plastics. Never put any left over chemicals. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Don’t burn any waste. all these can cause serious pollution. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. World Environmental falls on 250 . toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6. Reuse carrier bags. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. If it is done. used oils down the drain. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.Send their waste oil. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Use public transport wherever it is possible.
Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. Social responsibilit y (common good. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. deforestation. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . To provide materials needed for practical work.5. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Harmony with the nature . (cleanliness. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. diversity and stability. developing desirable attitudes. rather than conquest and mastery. Att itudes of balance towards nature. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. CFCs. potable water.). viz. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. concern for others).4. orderliness and beauty). and 251 . To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry.mat erials. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature.. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. To arrange for visiting speakers. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. etc. depletion of ozone. Conservation of natural resources. values and habits. nuclear wars. The groups may exchange. To arrange visits or expeditions. etc. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. dest roying nat ural habitats. loss of bio-diversity. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Concern for species. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry.
4. 252 . It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 8. 4. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. preserving natural cycles. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3.
Organising conferences. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. water scarcity. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. effects. Awareness. T. greenhouse effect.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. population. group discussions and seminars. Y. New Delhi : Anmol 253 .K. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Kuldeep.K. To provide materials needed for practical work.2. 5. Environmental Education. new problems from science and technology. Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Authors Press. Social responsibilit y (common good. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. reasons. To provide reference materials for children’s use.K. b. (2007). Modern Problems of Education. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. air pollutants from industries. importance of nitrogen cycle. New Delhi : Sharma. June 5 7. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. 4.K. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Environmental Education. b. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Education for values. (ii) Air pollution. explosion deforestation. a. Rapid population growth. S.5. sources. Providing. ozone layer deplet ion. b. Udaiveer. a. (1997). concern for others). (2004). Environment and Human Rights. a. b.\ 4. 8. a. Ltd. S.. sources of pollution. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. 6. Knowledge. Nanda. acid rain. (2007). relat ion between population and pollution. over exploitation of ground water. 3.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 220.127.116.11 Idealism and aims of Education 18.104.22.168 Idealism and Curriculum 22.214.171.124 Idealism and methods of teaching 126.96.36.199 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 188.8.131.52 Naturalism and aims of Education 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and Curriculum 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and methods of teaching 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 22.214.171.124 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
126.96.36.199 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 188.8.131.52 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
Education according to idealism. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. enrichment and transmission of culture. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . should be universal in nature. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Education must contribute to development of culture.our life.” 5. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. the emancipation of spirit. man is essentially a moral being. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. moral." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage.1. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. The universe is regarded as a thought process. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation.3. in fact. Universal Education. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. According to Rusk'. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Spiritual Development.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. It is self-realisation. Therefore.
” 5. and collation (striving) should find due place.the spiritual qualities of mankind. Science.1. History. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Ethics. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. affecting (feeling). Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . According to idealism. The plant can grow. He carries the child from darkness to light. For intellectual development. an indispensable necessity. no doubt. Learning through lecturing.3. Philosophy. should be there. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.” He is thus. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. Learning through discussion. 3. For this no particular method has been suggested.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Learning through questioning. So he should embody. According to Frobel. Mathematics etc. Herbert advocated instruction method. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. subjects like Languages. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. However. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. hygiene. So cognition (knowing). Learning through reading. friend and guide. 5. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. 2. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. 5. a spiritual guide for the child. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. He sets the environment in which education takes place.1. 4. Learning through imitation. So health.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. the school is a garden.3. It considers teacher as.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. so subjects like Religion.
4. curricula. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. time tables.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.preservation.1.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. 2. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. 5. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In the words of Ross. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.1. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. text books. Perfection of Human Machine. 5. "Education should make 263 • . formal lessons or examinations. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.perfection and beauty. Ross explains. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.
2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Biology. Zoology. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. It stresses basic sciences. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. It emphasises physical and health education 5. subjects like history. • 5. Literature.1. Education also aims at helping the individual t. is based on the nature of the child. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. 264 . Arithmetic. therefore. “Education finds its purpose. useful and mature child. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. There is no place for religious and moral education. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. his interests and inborn tendencies 2.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. 4. Chemistry. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. It is based on the psychology of the child. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. In all. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Therefore. Botany etc Language. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. education should develop the child into Joyous.4.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Education should. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. rational harmoniously balanced. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Naturalistic curriculum.
the stage. 2.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.4.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. 4. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation.1. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. 5. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Rousseau says. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Learning through experience. a supplier of materials and opportunities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Dalton Plan. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. Learning through observation.1. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Learning by doing. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. 3. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method.1.5. Heuristic method. In the . It discards all rigid. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. he should be taught by experience alone. 5. a provider of an ideal environment. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 .
2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Subjects. diversified and flexible. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. All Round Development of an Individual. Agriculture.1. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Vocational and 266 .absolutism of idealism. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Personal Social Adjustment. Social Science. The aim of educational development. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Social Efficiency. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Continuous reconstruction of Experience.5. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. 5.5.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. intellectual. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Sciences. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Geography. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. History. is true. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Continuous Growth. 5. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. social and moral aspects. Physical training.1.
Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. 5.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Learning by Doing. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. The subjects. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.1. He must be trained. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” 5. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. should find proper place.5. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy.Technical Education.1. a teacher occupies an important position. alert and resourceful. He has to be active.5. activities and experience should be integrated properly. a senior partner and a sincere guide.
specific.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Education is preparation for a complete living. 5.6. Literature. Population Education. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Astrology. 2.1. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects.1. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. rich and happy. 5. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Crafts. 5. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Study of Subjects like Language. intellectual. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Art. liberal. Sex Education. 4. Biology. 4. Psychology. Mathematics. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Music and Dance. practical. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education.5. Biography Philosophy. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. History.1. literary or humanistic education. scientific and psychological education. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. 2. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. The basic tenets of realism are 1. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Chemistry. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. It favours child-centered. 3.6. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. 3.
6. easily and pleasantly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. certainly and clearly. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 184.108.40.206.
1. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2.1. Universal Education 2. a. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Sciences. 5. Learning through lecturing. has no end other than growth. Learning through experience b. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Learning through discussion. Languages. d. Geography. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. a. & curriculum. Learning through questioning. 3. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. pragmatism and realism.5. Self Realisation b. Agriculture. in this lesson. c. 5. 5. Tours / Excursion e. History. Experimentation d.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Vocational and Technical Education. 6. Child centered c.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Physical training. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Education according to pragmatism.1.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Social Science. naturalism. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Self preservation & Self expression 4. a. b. e. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Rousseau 5. Learning through imitation. Learning through reading.
Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : A. Narang C.P. Ltd. Publishing corporation. Foundations of Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. of Pathak.P. L. R. N. P. (2007). O. New Delhi : Bhatia. Theory and Principles of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Pahuja. (2004). 271 . K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. P. (2003).H.5.1. K. (2007). Anmol Publications Pvt.
6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 220.127.116.11.3. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2.1 5.3.3 Methods of Teaching 5.2.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2.4 Views about teacher 18.104.22.168.5.4 Views about teacher 5.1 Aims of Education 22.214.171.124.2 Curriculum 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.3 Methods of teaching 126.96.36.199 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.3.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 188.8.131.52.2.2 Curriculum 184.108.40.206.4.2.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 220.127.116.11 5.2.LESSON 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.3.2.3 Methods of teaching 272 .5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.
you will able to: 1. 273 . Gandhiji was primarily a social. 3. content and methods.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.2. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2.2.4 Role of the teacher 5. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.2. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. 2.6 5. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. an artist. Tagore was a poet.2. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.5.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.5. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.2. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.2. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.2. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. economic and political reconstruction in our country. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. 5. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.8 5.7 5. 5.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. mind and spirit.
Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. 'Man is neither mere intellect. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. nor the gross animals body. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. It really provides opportunity for character building. strength of mind. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. through life and for life. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. 274 . He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education.3. This can be matched with any modern concept of education.2. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. mind and soul of children He further observed. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. self-restraint and service of humanity.supporting. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. "I attach more.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. 5." Dignity of Labour. it is education of life. In the words of Gandhiji. His scheme of education is life centred. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. righteousness. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations.
Drawing and Hindustani. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. "Development of the moral character. metal work. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. Art.Training for Leadership.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. development of the whole all were directed: towards.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . General Sciences. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched.3. gardening. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Individual and Social Aims. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . According to Gandhi. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Music. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. leather work have been suggested.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. wood work. 5. the realization of the ultimate reality. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders.2. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Only good individual forms a better society. Mother-tongue.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.trained.2.2. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.3. Basic education is other wise known as 4. men of 276 . proficient.3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.
Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. 5. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.2. Education must be child centered. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education.3. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. 3. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. That is why.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.knowledge. He also advocates freedom for the child.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. he was a true Vedantist 18.104.22.168 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.3. Gandhi in 1937. • Ideal of citizenship.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. 5. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. He believed in the oneness of humanity.2. • Cult of non-violence. He was deadly against untouchability. 5. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. • Education should involve manual work. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He was a true patriot.” Like all other ideals.K.
General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Chemistry. Botany. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Civics. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Music. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. complete manhood could be attained. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. could help in forging unity among all. It should help the learner have good physique. "Mankind must realise a unity. stronger in power than ever before. them solve problems of day to day life. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. sentiment." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. It should help. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Zoology. (vi) Philosophy. Therefore. wider in range.4. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. That way only. the more dedicated and devoted. etc. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. International Understanding.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Religion and Psychology. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts.2. Dance. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Tagore said. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. 279 . he said. Geography.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. deeper in. International understanding. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Purposeful and Meaningful Education.Language and Literature . a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners.
His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. 5.2.4. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. Activity Method Heuristic Method. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.2. 280 . The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.2. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. In 1921. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. 5. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.” He further says. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.4.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. Tagore rightly says.4. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method." 5. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.
Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 9. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. 281 . Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. 10. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. race. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. It is open to all irrespective of country.g. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9.
1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Purity of thought. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself.” 5. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual." He was against the theoretical type of education. Education for Self-realization.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. character forming and assimilation of ideas. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Book learning. Education should make a person self-reliant. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education for strong Moral Character. Concept of Education. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life.2. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. He believed in to learning or selflearning. man making. 2. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Education for Self-reliance. Freedom. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. work and deeds come out of it.2. 4. According to him. 3. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all.5.5.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 .
2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta.2.5. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. 5.5. philosopher and guide to the students He. Philosophy and Theology.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. 283 . The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Thirdly he wished that games.the learners on different students in the discussion. That will serve the purpose of education fully. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.2. engineering and technical subjects. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . A physically strong person is the need of the society. Religion.5. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. 5.2. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Education for Physical Development. Secondly he wanted Science. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things.5. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Of course. Swami. 6. And above all. The teacher should be the facilitator. 5. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Discussion Method.
6 LET US SUM UP We have. 5. of course.2. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature.2. 284 . begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. ears and eyes. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. in this lesson. legs. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. We have seen that Tagore.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people.Substantiate your answer. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. and pragmatist .” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. Gandhiji as a Idealist. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. 3. 12. Their educational ideas. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write short notes on Basic education. 5. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. 2. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. naturalist. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11.
Cult of non-violence. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment.2. Debate and Discussion Method. e. a. Activity Method d. f. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. a. 3. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Heuristic Method. Meditation and concentration c. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Education should involve manual work. 5. c. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. leather work have been suggested. Technique of Correlation 6. Basic education. Learning by Doing c. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. wood work. 11. 2. d. 10. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Ideal of citizenship.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. a. Self-Study b. 8. 5. 5. 9. b. Teaching while Walking b. Discussion Method 285 . gardening. Activity Method b. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Nai Talim 4. 1937 7. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Self realization.4. metal work. c. Explain Vishwabharathi.
New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education.2.5. (2007). O.H. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. K. (2003). 286 . New Delhi : Aggarwal. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. on Bhatia. L. B. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Publishing Corporation.P. P. Ltd. N. C. (2007). Anmol Publications Pvt. Theory and Principles of Education. K and Narang C. Pahuja. (2002). Foundations of Education. Dhiman. New Delhi : A. N. J. P. (2004).
6 5.3.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.5 5.3.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.2 5.7 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.4 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.22.214.171.124 5.1 5.3. In this lesson.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.LESSON 5.9 5.8 5.11 126.96.36.199. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3 5.
5.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion.3..4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. From the latter point of view. in Russia or in Japan. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. In it. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. While education is a process. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. the plateau area and 288 . you will be able to: 1. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. state the meaning of curriculum 2. is a means to the process.3. maintained or eliminated. Since the demands. curriculum signifies situations for learning. A g o o d curricu lu m. Curriculum is intimately related to education. in the U. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. there is a large number of communities. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. present behaviour may be modified. the desert area. While education is learning. in the form of new experience. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. 5. One is the individual process and the other is the social process.3. In the words of Kerney and Cook. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child.S. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. in fact . it is identical wit h socializat ion. the plain area.A. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . Then in a big country like India. curriculum. new behaviour may be acquired. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. In the former sense. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. Both the processes are integrated.under the direction of the school. living in the hilly area.
physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. and 289 . The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. It must differ from locality and from society to society. Again. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. From a slave-country we became secular. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. environment. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. differs from individual to individual. irrespective of their needs and environment. 5. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school.3. too. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. democratic and socialistic country. Besides craft. the learning capacity of children. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. studying therein. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. according to modern trends in the educational process. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. it is. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. customs and needs. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. However. In fact . therefore.
uninspiring and unscientific. So it is inadequate. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals.. unambiguous and functional. Application Objective. unsatisfactory. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. Vocational Efficiency. They speak of immediate purposes of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 290 . They speak of perfect goals.. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. moral. emotional. They may be ultimate or proximate. 2. specific. Self Realisation.. National Integration.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture..g. Knowledge Objective. 3.. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. in instructional objectives. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. social. Goals of Secondary Education. individual or Social and so on. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education.g. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. etc. they depend on the political. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. remote or immediate. which may or may not be attained. Understanding Objective. e. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. 5. tangible. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Goals of Primary Education. The word “Curere” means 2. They are visionary goals e. 1.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. social. eg. aesthetic and spiritual development. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. aims. general or specific.3. etc. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . e. 4. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. of classroom. They are achievable. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes.g. etc. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation.
needs. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. on the playing fields. capacities. but it includes the totality of experiences. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other.” 291 . Crow and Crow remarks.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. in the class rooms.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. The old and prevalent curriculum is under.5. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.3. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. heavy fire. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. finding them very interesting and captivating. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. educationists. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. Raymont rightly says. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. The interests. According to Crow and Crow. abilities. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit.
moral.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. They often waste it or rather kill it. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. urges. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. tendencies. mental. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. capacities and abilities.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. Due to these variations and differences. aptitudes. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. time in a useful manner. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children.
: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. To ensure success of the process. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. administrative programme need be planned. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. development of professional capability at all levels. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. phased preparation. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. organized. Similarly. 3.curricular. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. 2. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. 293 . make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations.
a. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. 5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. laboratory. 5. library. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Child Centred Education b. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. 18.3. 17. 10. 12. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. workshop. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d.3. Relation with Life c. principles of curriculum construction. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. in the class room. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 .11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. 1937 19. 11. Run. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school.3.
Bhalla. Curriculum and Instruction. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. S. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. and Sarita Kumari. Lakshmi. P. (2007). New Delhi : Isha Books. (2007). Curriculum Development. (2007).S.3.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Innovations in Education.K. New Delhi : Authorspress. D. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001). S. N.5. 295 .
6.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.1 Developing scientific outlook 188.8.131.52 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .8 5.4.4 184.108.40.206.4.5 220.127.116.11.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.1 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.7.2 5.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 18.104.22.168.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.10 22.214.171.124 Importance of developing scientific attitude 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52.7 Scientific Attitude 5.9 5.LESSON 5.4.
tolerance for the opinions of others. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not.during the second half of this century. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. We mean curiosity. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.4. 3.4. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . newer and newer industries started growing. 5.5.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. 4. yet real advancement in this area was achieved .4. know the importance of science education. explain the concept of scientific attitude. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. you will be able to: 1. 5. superstition or emotion. Gradually. 297 . They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. honesty. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. open-mindedness. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. in the economic reconstruction of society.
Through examinations. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 3. 7. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 4. 5.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. 6. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Central science workshop. 2. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Schemes of teaching science. Through newspapers. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 4. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Principles are formulated. as well as of the society. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO.So that. 3. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. 6. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. seminars and symposiums. Promotion of science clubs. After such experience and training. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Devotion towards nature increases. 5. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Selection for science education. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. 5. 2. Organisation of science fairs. Thinking and memory develops. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 5.4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Love for truth enhances.4.
Enquiry teaching is. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. 7. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. They experience natural phenomenon. They encounter many social events as they grow. therefore.needs and conditions. should provide opportunities to. For laboratory and workshop techniques.6. It is. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. 5. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. each child to “enquiry skill building”. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. essential that teachers. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In the inquiry approach. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. sex or religion. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. 5.4.4. They ask many questions about the objects they see. After presenting the problem. objectivity. Training of science teachers. Write any two advantages of Science Education.
stern pursuit of accurate data.6. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. 5. 3. Appreciating pupils ideas.books. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. 3.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. commands or orders. Adopting creative models of teaching. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. test. 4.Herma Wouk. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. 2.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. It requires consistent thinking. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. if they like. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. to ask questions and experience things. Social sciences. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Evidence. 5.4. 300 . Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. . Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 5. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Giving less directions. 6.
of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. it must be encouraged.4. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. (Vaidya 2007). There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions.7. of vast resources running waste. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. For instance. To achieve this we should understand what it means. neighbourhood. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. The students observation. therefore should be unbiased and objective. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. and emphasized during the learning process . school and society at large. friends. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. 5. practiced. to develop among the learners. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. These include open mindedness. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science.(Smith 2008). The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. critical thinking and suspended judgments. keen observation. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen.
intuition or wishful thinking”. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. he studies all aspects of it. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. (Das. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. or superstitions. 5. 2007). Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. think and work it”. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. The intention to respect another’s point of view. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. 302 .4. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. understanding and logic. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. In considering a situation or a problem.7.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. rumor. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales.
They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.4. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. 5.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. • 5. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.7. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.4. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. but to begin only after careful planning.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil.7. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.
see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. it must be encourages. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. 304 . manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. 5.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude.4. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. 5. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Love for truth enhances.4.B (2008). S. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. b. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. 4. Discuss the importance of science education 14. M. Proper example of the teacher c.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 5. Rao.S. 2. N. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Study of superstitions d. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Vaidya. b. a. b. 5.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 16. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Wide reading b.4. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. objectivity. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. a.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. 305 . Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. (2000). A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. 3. Adopting creative models of teaching. D. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. a. The intention to respect another’s point of view.5. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. (2006). (2008). New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. a. Yadav. Reflections on Scientific attitude.4. Planning of activities 5.
5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5 5. objectives and characteristics.9 5.8 5.10 5.5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.7 5.1 5.11 184.108.40.206.2 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5. 5.5. state the concept.6 5.LESSON 5. 306 . areas of institutional planning.220.127.116.11 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. actively. 18.104.22.168.4 5.3 5.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.
to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. every parent. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . which become the bases for further planning at the district. and supplement planning from above. • to involve teachers and school administrators. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. in the task of educational planning. • to make planning development-oriented. and.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. 5. executive as well as public. every teacher.5.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. teachers and students is not lost sight of. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. • To make institutional planning more successful. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. 5. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. Institution should be regarded as the unit. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. State and national levels from below. each teacher. and every student in the process of educational planning. and each student are regarded as separate entities.3.5. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner.
The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers.curricular Activities. it becomes the basis for school inspection. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. Syllabus. approved after making necessary modifications. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. Classwork. which will be discussed in the general.• implemented. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. (2) Co. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. and Personnel services. Co-curricular activities. council and. etc. Examinations. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. 5.5. 308 . The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.5.
Fair distribution of syllabi. Organising play-for-all programmes. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. etc. Preparation of instructional material. etc. scientific and historical excursions. Improving the internal assessment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Organisation of Students’ Association. Organisation of Pupils. Organisation of class-room libraries. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning.No. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . etc. Celebrating of national and international festivals. 3. Preparation of models. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Equipping of laboratory and library. Running science clubs. charts and apparatus. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Undertaking remedial instruction services. etc. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Editing the school magazine. 1. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Improving the subject competence of teachers. etc. hobby-centres. Conducting of educational. Courts.
the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. teacher-managing body. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. administrator-supervisor. teacher-teacher. parent-teacher associations. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. pupil310 . and solidarity. headmasters associations. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning.5. etc.” The human relationships in. parents. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. teachers. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. teacherinspector. ii. teacher-State. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. which are divided as the in. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. and —pupil-pupil. science teachers’ associations. understanding. pupils. students’ associations. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. involving mainly human materials.5. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. Administrator-State. teacher-pupil. co-operation. administrator-administrator. administrator-pupil.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. teacher-nonofficial functionaries.
administrator. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies.5." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. Good. 311 . According to C. etc. supervision and superintendence. It is also being modernized to become a technique. pupil-community leader. organisation and management. pupil-non-official functionaries. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. pupil-inspector. to accomplish. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. V. To administer means to manage. teacher-parent. control. and to serve. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. to carry out. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. to attend.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. social sciences and other disciplines. organisation.State. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. superintendence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. now-a-days. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It covers personnel and material management. teacher-community leader. supervision. pupil-parent.
He should be an artist in human relationships.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Communication .There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. Better Human Relationships . Decision Making . 13. 5. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. Those. If it is more. 3. 11. If the cost benefit ratio is less. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. Leadership .lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . 4. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. Motiviation . He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. 9. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. 2.Any good management will always have good public relations. Liasion with the Public . Democratic Management . Economic Management .sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. 12. who occupy the managerial positions.Of all the approaches. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. 8. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. This is the latest democratic trend in management. it is not worth-while. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .The manager should have leadership traits. Cost-Benefit Analysis . 6.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. 7. without this the efficacy will be handicapped.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. 10. Worker Participation .Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. Socio-Scientific Approach .Management should be efficient and economical 312 . The relationship should change from master. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. low. Rapport between the Management and Employees .He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner.
It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. objective.g. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. 14.too. 5. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . Wastage and duplication should be avoided.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. and cooperative performance should be ensured. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions.5. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. 19. to improve the quality of education it provides. 18. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. 5.These two are. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. improvement of teaching methods.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 313 . indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. enrichment of curricula.
Teacher and Education in Indian Society. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Instruction. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration.5. a.K. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Motiviation d. Singh.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. e. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. a. Leadership c. Communication 5. NUEPA. (2001). (1995). f.5. 4. d. Co-curricular activities. R. a. a. Decision Making b. b. it becomes the basis for school inspection. b. 2.5. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Tarachand and Prakash. S. APH Publishing Corporation. 314 . New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. In group and Out group 5. Syllabus. and Personnel services. b. Classwork.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.M. Examinations. H. Fundamental of Educational Management. Educational Administration. c. (2003).
Sex-education 4. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.3 Educational Influences of Home.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. women education and teacher education in India.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. School. Examination reforms. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. New evaluation procedures.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.1 Primary Education : Education for all.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .Pre-service and In-services facilities.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . higher education. Inspection and Supervision 3. Preservation of nutrients. population education. Healthy Food Habit 4. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Balanced diet.1 School Health Programme.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. First Aid. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.teachers should have : 1. Economic 315 .3 Directive Principles .CORE PAPER . Code of conduct for teachers. Community and Mass Media 2. Communicable diseases . Education by Christian Missionaries 1. nutritional requirement. 1.1 Gurukula system of education.I. Common ailments of Children.Preventive measures.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. 2. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.Religious and Modern Education 1.Article 45 . wastage and Stagnation 3.1 Inculcation of Socialism.5 Regional Educational Development in India . 4.2 Nutritional deficiencies. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.4 India's Secular Policy .2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Realized the problems of school education.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. physical education and environmental education 5. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. social Impact 3.
and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. (1999) Culture. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Realism. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. T. Naturalism and Pragmatism . R. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.K. 5. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. Socialization.N. and Mohanty R.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Curriculum and national goals . Mahatma Gandhi.N.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . B. Delhi : University Publications 2.1 Idealism.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.Aim. Sharma. Kalan Paper Packs 10. (2004) Problems of Education in India.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.K.K. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. and Human Development. Ghanta R.K. Taneja V.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms.R.C. and Sharma R. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. 316 . New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. and Dash B. Prof. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. REFERENCE 1. curriculum and teacher's role 5. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Mishra.4. 7.S.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. Tagore 5.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Saraswathi T. Hemchand.4 4. Pandy V. (2005) Foundations of Education. Ram S. New Delhi: NCERT 3.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.