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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Lesson 4. Lesson 5. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. and Jain system of education. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. discusses the regional educational development in India. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. The need. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. In. 9 . educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. Lesson 2. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Jainism and their educational implication.
188.8.131.52 Aims of Jain system of Education 184.108.40.206 Jain system of education 1.6.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.2 1.1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 220.127.116.11.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 18.104.22.168 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1 1.LESSON 22.214.171.124 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.4.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 126.96.36.199.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .6 Education during British Era 1.3.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.
while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.1. Muslim and British periods.1. The history of education passed through Buddhist.1. 1. 1.6. India. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.1. Indian in blood and colour.6.1. but English in taste. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. That 12 .7 1.9 1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1. 1. British system of education presented the modern western model.3. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. describe the Jain system of Education 4. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. elucidate the education during British Era. “a class of persons.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. has a long past history starting in vedic education.1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. both present and future. you will be able to: 1. in morals and in the intellect”.8 1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. in opinion. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. Education in India.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.
which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Immediate Aim Vocational. Method of Instruction. 13 . Forests as Centres of Education. No State Control on Education. Where pupils were many. individually. 8. generally. if they thought fit to do so. 10. Religious and Spiritual. from darkness. 16. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. It was not merely intellectual. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. It was also moral. with grants of land or money. The immediate aim of education. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. to light. 9. 4. Individual Teaching. however. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 13. 11. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. as it is generally considered to be at present. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. 14. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Curriculum. from eternal to immorality 2. Residential Schools. Teacher as Parents. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Method of Study. 5. Role of Travel in Education. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. Education was a private affair of the people. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. 3. religious and spiritual. managed entirely by Brahmans.knowledge was real. not en masse by the class method. followed by explanation by the teacher. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. questioning by the pupil. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. 6. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Education of Moral. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Pupils were taught. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. and to agriculture and trade. High Status of Teachers. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Free and Accessible. the monitorial plan was followed. 12. There was.
In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. lived a life of celebacy. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. 1. Wide-Spread Education in Women. 2. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . studied Vedas. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils.3. It was suited to the needs of the society. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. They were very cordial and intimate. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony.1. besides preparing for worldly pursuits.17. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values.
dressed himself in yellow clothes. the student had his head shaved of all hair.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. I take Refuge to Dharma. Consequently. 2. impure conduct. he was qualified to become a monk. It was denied only to the ill. had the right to receive education. the student remained in a state of Shramana. every class in society. Right memory 8. etc. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. Right knowledge 2.C. the handicapped. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. taking things without being offered. killing of any living being. Right activity 5. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. partaking of food at prohibited times. medium of Pali. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. except the Chandals. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’.1. use of intoxicating things. After attaining the age of 20. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education.4. I take Refuge to Sangh. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. use of cosmetics. Right thought 3. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. Right endeavour 7. disease and death of the human beings. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. 15 . Right contemplation 1. in which. Right speech 4.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. the most significant of which were the following 1. which included abstaining from theft. 1. Right means of livelihood 6. Education was imparted through the. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. watching dances or listening to music. He was then ordained to obey ten rules.
of clothes. etc. therefore. bodily gestures. nature. geology. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. education was impart in art. however. it is regarded as true”. As reality is becoming. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. 7. medicine. nothing is of any permanent consequence. arithmetic and religious discussion. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. cottage industries. women occupied a position inferior to men. handicrafts. Whatever its nature and extent. 1.. the science of taming and training animals. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. 3. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. meaning. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. has no metaphysical value for life. etc. a change is not only total but also perpetual. Life is in a flux. along with education in script writing. a continuous change creating 16 . aspirations and. Hence. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. military science. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. magic. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. so long as it successfully does so. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. objectives of human life. etc. 4. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. and. approach. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni.4. It comprehended education in writing. the presence of the monks was essential. be considered the aim of education It. 5. archery. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. agriculture. 2. elephant lore. knowledge of reviving the dead. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. changing the goals. After this ritual. Later on. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. eat food thrice a day. These are called later Buddhist schools. 8. beg for alms. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. Initially. commerce. depth and range.3. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. assumptions. control over sensuous activities. wear three items. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. animal husbandry. Even at this stage. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. archery. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. On this occasion. 6.
twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Education must. its pessimistic outlook on life. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 1. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. i. Validity is effective and consequences.5. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. Its chief feature.e. In fact. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. and to give it a shape that it has today. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. it is much older than the latter. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. Jainism insists 17 . and its refusal to believe in supreme God. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. goes to Vardhaman. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Write Eight fold path . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. such as. 5. whatever works are true and good. However. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. however. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet.new and peculiar situations. therefore.1. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6..
5. 10. 1. 7. but on both. d) To lead a celibate life. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. b) Not utter falsehood. 3. 3. it has a foot in both the words. They are: a) Not to injure.1. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. Development of personality as an individual. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. more stress on individual aims. c) Right conduct. and is to be redeemed and liberated. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 2. As such. rather than the interpretation of the universe. 18 . Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. and believe in happiness to all. b) Right knowledge. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul.5. 8. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. c) Not to steal. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. 4. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. thought and deed. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. e) To renounce the world. 1. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. 2. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. 6. Hence. 9.
5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 2. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories.5. 4. What are Triratnas ? . 1. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. success and love. 19 . 3. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. here and now. Teaching should be social and tolerant.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Jiva is essentially karmic. 8. 3.5. Hence. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 1. and should bring happiness to all. education should develop sense of discrimination. therefore. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. that would be socially desirable. Belief in transmigration of soul.4. education must be action based and ideally oriented. practised and not only aspired for. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. Teaching must develop these faculties.
To set up separate departments of. science. philosophy and literature of Europe.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. and not for life.6. 1. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. 1.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854).2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. 2. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. 1. However.1. 1953). Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. 1.6. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. Bombay. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. Madras.6. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. primary 20 .1. North West Province and Punjab. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.6. with rally and rout. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”.
K. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission).6. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. 1.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. 1. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. at the primary level. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . secondary education became a step towards university. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. self-respecting and competent. Later on. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. To ensure qualitative improvement.6. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. In 1882. namely. they named these schools as polytechnic schools.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. At that time M. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. The universities dominated the secondary education. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. 1. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. • Secondary education.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. • Universal free primary education.6. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education.education was neglected. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system.
7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. 10. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . After this stage.1. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. all children are to have a common curriculum. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.
It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Right means of livelihood. b. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil.1. handicrafts. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. a. science and English language.education of European literature. 2. Right thought. The immediate aim of education. 5. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. The system of education was well-organised. archery. It was suited to the needs of the society. geology. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. 2. followed by explanation by the teacher.1. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. the science of taming and training animals. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. along with education in script writing. Right contemplation. Right endeavour.. Right knowledge.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. Right activity. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. questioning by the pupil. etc. arithmetic and religious discussion. education was impart in art. Right memory. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. 6. Right speech. 3. During the Buddhist period. 23 . 4.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. establishment of universities. 1. 4. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. military science. 1.
Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. and Nath. 1937 1. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Development of Educational System in India. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Sharma. Hence. a.K. a. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. History of Indian Education System. J. 24 . Development of personality as an individual.7. Right knowledge. Singh. Ltd. Right faith. 1882. Ltd. (1984). (2009). b. J.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.C. Right conduct. 9. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Aggarwal. Y. (2007). c.1. R. Sargent report 12. Y. (2005). 10. b. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Improvement of Literature. 8.K. 11. more stress on individual aims. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C.
2.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.LESSON 18.104.22.168.4 1.2.6 1.2.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.8 1.2.1 University Education Commission 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2.2. The 25 .9 1.2.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.5 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.2 1.3.1 1.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 22.214.171.124 Kothari Commission 1.7 1.
standard of teaching. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. explosion of enrolment. diversification of courses of studies. New Educational Policy. secondary and higher education. technological engineering. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1. expansion of vocational.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. medical and legal education. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. examination system. vocational education. technical.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.conditions of the teachers.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. Kothari (1964-66) 8. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. Post-graduate 26 . 1986 1. 1.2. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. analyse the progress of education in free India. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. S. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. girls and women education besides primary. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. you will be able to: 1. There had been vast institutional expansion. curriculum. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. National Council for Women’s Education 5. National Board of Teacher Education 10.2.2. 2. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3.
However. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. the chairman of University Grants commission. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. quantity. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. The Essence and Role of Education.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. in January 1985. 1.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. material and spiritual. A.3. Therefore.2. 3.teaching. National System of Education. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . Government of India. 1952. accumulated over the years. Kothari. 1. D. Finally. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. 4.2. Education is the key to our allround development. 1986.3. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. utility and financial outlay.S. A meaningfully Partnership.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3. Education for Equality.2. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. 2. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. research et. Problems of access. 1966. quality. the New National Policy on Education. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. 1.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. Thus. the minorities and the handicapped. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. The UNESCO Report. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. attitudes. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. By working with hands.2. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. 28 . They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. the concepts of work experience. It can train practical aptitudes.” Thus.
" It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. “It may be described. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. “The aim of these colleges. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 .” The Mudaliar Commission. As such. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. co-ordinations. With adequate planning. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. According to.employment and promote economic independence of the youth.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. The Radhakrishnan Commission. In 1955. The Education Commission. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. Besides. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. it will conduce self. the Commission. if he wishes.
The Central Advisory Board of Education. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. In addition.. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly.ot her. Therefore. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. the rigid streaming of courses. etc. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. admission requirements to vocational courses. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. the semester and credit system. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. With a view to relating education to the life. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. Subsequently. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. for quality of life in the rural areas. the. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. raising the special facilities.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students.
The wave of Basic Education. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. meaningful. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.defined S UP W as “purposive.. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”.and the world of work. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. etc. Commerce. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. felt that education should be centred around a craft. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. which are useful to the community. manual work resulting in either goods or services. In short. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. aimed at this goal. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. The Father of Nation.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. meaningful. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. 1. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. According to committee.2. which offer scientific. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. technological courses including Agriculture. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. who conceived the System of Basic Education. which swept the country for over two decades. giving importance to productivity in the national development. 31 . NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. preferably spinning and weaving. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level.
Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. locally available materials and tools. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Food 3. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Productive 2. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. 32 . The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Educative and 3. tools and techniques and 3. Community work and social service. Culture and recreation 6. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Experimentation with materials. Health and Hygiene 2. so that it is educational in essence. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Shelter 4.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. 4. 3. 2. The teachers should make use of. Clothing 5. be that the work involved is: 1. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Work practice. Some Hints to Teachers 1. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. as far as possible.
adoption of a a locality for its improvement. the concept of Community Service has been visualised.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. inculcate a faith. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Education through work The SUPW should. slum clearance. To make education more realistic. 6. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. It can become an instrument to build character. etc. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. the local community should be actively associated. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. 1. improve discipline. Community Service In-1972. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Productive Work 33 .5. removal of illiteracy. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. Check on educated unemployed 4. as far as possible. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Merits of the Programme 1. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Such activities may include projects of village uplift.2. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor.
In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. offering first aid.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. traffic control. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . skills and better future for the children. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. should involve itself in the educational effort. in turn. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Define SUPW 34 . AICTE was set up in year 4.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. helping the adults-in productive work. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. The community. etc. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. if not productive.
Radhakrishnan 2. 1952 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. 1955 4. f. Write short note on SUPW. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b.2. a.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. 35 . Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.1. 1. manual work resulting in either goods or services. 1. e. which are useful to the community.2. 2. c. 6. Dr. d. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 3. meaningful.
Rao. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. (2007). and Rao. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Development of Educational System in India.D.K. (2009). New Delhi : Shipra Publications.P.2. Anupama. Amala.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. History and Problems of Indian Education. : Sharma. B. V. A. (2005).H. and Nath.1. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.K. (2007). Ltd. J. New Delhi: A.. Publishing Corporation. History of Education.K.P. Y.C. Y.(2005). 36 . P. History of Indian Education System. R. Singh.
1 Significance of DPSP 1. equality.3. it came into effect on January 26. Being the supreme law of the country. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.5 1.3. democratic republic.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. containing 395 articles. 37 . 1949.1 1.3. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. there is an official Hindi translation.3.3.9 1.2 1.3.369 words in the English language version.3. and liberty.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. for a total of 117.7 1. assuring its citizens of justice. procedures.8 1.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.3. Besides the English version. 1950.3. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. establishing the structure.6 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. directive principles and duties of citizens. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.4 126.96.36.199.
spread over a period of 2 years. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. learn the role of central and state government on education. Two days later. Dr. 1. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. After many deliberations and some modifications. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. political.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. legal and environmental. the Drafting Committee was appointed. On August 29. 1. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. The Assembly met. in sessions open to public. economic. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. 1. Through them. describe the important constitutional articles related to education.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. understand our Indian constitution. 1947.3. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. administrative. you will be able to: 1. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. with Dr. 2. 38 . the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. for 166 days. social. 1950. 1947. 3. According to the constitution. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24.3. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature.In the August 14. 4.3.3.
in particular.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. The State shall. Liking wage etc. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Right to work. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Article 39A. old age. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. Protecting health of the workers. and shall. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. sickness and disablement. make effective provision for securing the right to work. That the health and strength of workers. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. No abuse of children. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. men and women. Condition for dignity of children. Equal justice and free legal aid. and in other cases of undeserved want. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Organisation of village panchayat. provide free legal aid. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.government. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Article 40. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Article 43. Article 41. The State shall endeavour to secure. for workers. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. 39 . on the basis of equal opportunity. Minimising inequalities in status. Article 42. Protecting children from exploitation. Equal pay for both sex. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
Article 44. The State shall endeavour to provide. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 46.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. industrial or otherwise. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Article 47. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. to all workers. Article 45. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Participation of workers in management of industries. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. by suitable legislation or in any other way. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. and. [declared by or under law made by 40 . (Original Article 45. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Article 48A. 2002 for “45. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. agricultural. The State shall take steps. in particular. Uniform civil code for the citizens. in particular. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Article 49. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Note: Subs. a living wage. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Article 48. Article 43A. in particular. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. work. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. See also Article 21A). Provision for free and compulsory education for children. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and.
Parliament] to be of national importance. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. 2. Separation of judiciary from executive. Article 50. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 51. 1. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. as the case may be. disfigurement. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 45 . may be law determine”.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution.3. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. disposal or export. Promotion of international peace and security. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. removal. from spoliation. destruction. Article-21A Right to Education. 2002.
7. iii. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. language or any of them”. race. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. and.” 42 . (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. his guardian has given his consent thereto. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. and shall protect them. 2002. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. ii. from justice and all forms of exploitations. 8. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. 3. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. if such person is a minor. in particular. caste. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. 5. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. 4. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. 6.
Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule.3. 43 . for its vocabulary. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. The central government determines targets and promotes education. 2. and by drawing. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language.9. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Article 351 gives importance to 6. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Educational Reforms From time to time. wherever necessary or desirable. & 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the forms. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country.
Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . All India Council of Medical Science. private agencies etc. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. 8. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. etc. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. to achieve the desired ends.3.. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. Local bodies and private enterprise. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. 7. 6. By starting these projects. Production of suitable for children and adults f. 4. the state governments. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. 5. So as to encourage education on right lines. The following pilot projects. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. So that they may work well. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b.
11. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. The 45 . handicapped. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. 10. research. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. etc.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. 1. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. reports etc. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. 9. is the state responsibility. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. training and statistics. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 12. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. are published by it. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. Material concerning nation-wide interests. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education.3. 1. 4. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. books. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. education for women. 3.
3. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 1. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? .3. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Article 21A c. Article 46 4. 46 . Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. articles in the Directive principles. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Explain Directive principles 2. Article 45 b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write short notes on a. 5.
Ministry of Human Resource Development 8.5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. b. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 4. Development of Hindi Language 6. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Ambedkar 2. 3. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. The Directive Principles of State Policy. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 2002. a. 1. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 45 . Article 46 5. 2002. Describe the educational role of State Government. Article-21A Right to Education. Article 29 and 30 7. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.3. a. Dr. a.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. may be law determine”. 47 . for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Clearing House function 9.
Education in Emerging Indian Society. Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2008). Bhatia. Ghosh. (2007). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. N. (2009). Dash.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. L. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K. S. 48 . K and Narang C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.1. B. (2004). S. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.3. New Delhi: Shipra Publications.
4.5 1.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 188.8.131.52.3 Precautions while introducing 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India. Islam.4.1 Why Moral Education 1.4.2 1.1 1. religious education should be broad based.3.8 1. Jainism.4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism. Christianity.4.6 1.4. Buddhism etc.184.108.40.206.2 Aims of Religious Education 220.127.116.11.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.7 1. Students should be 49 .3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4.4 Moral education 1.
Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. Thus. duty-consciousness. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. you will be able to: 1. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. 1. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life.. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher.4.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. know the position of religious education in our country 3. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).and dedication. religious education and the concept of secularism.D. integrity.4. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. According to E. India' can produce men of character. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. beauty and goodness so that 50 . In the complicated and complex society of today. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals.” Education broadens human outlook. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. "In A multireligious society like ours.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. As result of which. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. state meaning and need for moral education 1. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life.
if not regularly. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. at least occasionally.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. In short. 1947 we achieved our freedom. No religious tax can be imposed on them. through religious practices and 51 . idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. As our country is a country of diverse religions.3. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. 1. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal.4. They thought that any kind of narrow. As a matter of fact. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. Viewing the defects of religious education. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. According to Article 19. it is clear that the State has no religion.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. 1. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. religion and democracy are same. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. Thus. Children attend these organizations. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society.4. castes and creeds. According to Article 22. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. Hence.3.” From the above. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. all citizens are free to follow any creed. realizes God in himself. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. rancour. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy.
and what is evil. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. for the development of the individual and the society. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. temperament etc. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. As a result of which. intellectual and physical faculties of children. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. what is done and what is not done etc. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character.. Good education. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. when he becomes an adult. It is religious education. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. If unreleased. one fully developed. He also learns about social.teachings.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. which help him for the development of his character. moral and spiritual values. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. which can mould. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. aggressive. It helps to modify habits attitudes.
Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. which is the basic need of a democratic life.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. 3. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. 1.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. towards the society. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. This should not be allowed to happen. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. 53 .4. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. If we open the pages of history.3. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. 2. Therefore.
For this. therefore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 11. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Gurudwara as. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. stories of moral greatness.5. 9. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. 10. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. examples of patriotism. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6.4. Since all religions have virtues. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write Article 22 2. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Life histories of great persons of the world. fellow-feeling. churches and mosques 7.
they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Asvada (Control of palate). 5. Satyam (truth). 1.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Service to others. Moral education. 2. let men see well of one another. 2.acquisitiveness). Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). is that which develops moral values. Self sacrifice. 8. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 5. 55 . an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. 6. in the home. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Brahmacharya (celebacy). personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Cultivation of emotions. 3. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together.4. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Aparigarha (Non. They will play their role effectively. Fearlessness. 6. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 1. Without moral values. therefore. Non-injury. the methods of teaching. The content of the curriculum. “Let all be happy and free from disease. 7. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 4. students. 7. 3.4. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 8. Ahimsa (Non-violence). This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 4. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Purity. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness).of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Patriotism. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow.
2. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. discipline.9. loyalty and self-sacrifice. 4. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Good manners. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. 10. National unity and Spiritual values. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Good temper. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Efficiency. 1. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. 11. Sharivashram (Physical work). Unity of mankind. Secondary Stage 1. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . 3. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. In the school programme. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Asatyam (Non-thieving). The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. 3. Integrity. religions may be included in the syllabus.4. Discipline. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 56 . minutes in the morning for group singing. Simple texts and stories concerning different.
Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. In other words. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. love of humanity. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. 57 . should form a normal part of school programme. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . 2. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. University Stage 1.4. 4. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. In this connection. Silent meditation should be encouraged. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. patriotism and self-discipline. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. 3.
1. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. a. Sri Prakasa 6 . Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 58 . Training of Character 3. 2. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. minutes in the morning for group singing.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. For this.4.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. the.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. In short. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. 1959 5. b.4. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. a. 4. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. 1. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.1. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. a.4. Discuss the aims of Religious education. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. b.
New Delhi : Shipra Publications.H. Pahuja. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Siddiqui. (2008). (2008). M. (2007).1.P.C.4. Dash. N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Bhatia. Publishing Corporation. 59 .11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. K. (2004). New Delhi: A. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. P. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ltd. L. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K and Narang C.H. N. J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. B. (2003).
3 18.104.22.168 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.11 1.e. Although.5. i.5.5.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.6 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.7 1.8 1. 60 .5.2 1.5.5 1.1 1.10 1.9 1.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.12 1.. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.4 1.5.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively. disparities between provinces/States.5.
5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. for example. waters. 2. 6. 3. They therefore. work hard towards this end.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 1.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. Accordingly.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. This leads to separatist movements. energy. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. 1. they take appropriate measures. know the education suited to different environments. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region.5.5. 4. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. etc. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. you will be able to: 1.1. 1. 8. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.5. 7. 5. 61 . understand the regional educational development in India 3. roads.
remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. 2. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. while others remained educationally backward. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. 3. 62 . some States became educationally far advanced. 4.5. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. and. Therefore. Tight security arrangements should be made. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. Secularism. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. on the basis of regional development may be formed. • Separate States (of course viable States). which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only .6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. some average. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly.
etc. scholarships. Funds amounting to Rs. library buildings. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. After the attainment of independence.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development.84 crore was released in 2005-06.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner.14. NERIST. These projects are in various stages of implementation.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. 63 . Silchar.480. Mizoram. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. academic buildings. NIT.392. Itanagar. However.After the Planning Process has originated. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. etc. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Tezpur. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. Rs. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. approved proposals worth Rs. Out of this. while some States like Bihar. 1. remained under developed. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. and provision of informal education to enable those. the State Governments. Even in each State.5. Regional Centres of IGNOU. Nagaland and NEHU. Jammu and Kashmir.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. books. since its inception in 1998-99. Central Universities of Assam. In the Central sector. the Union Government. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. Guwahati. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged.g.
The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. A provision of Rs.57 crore and Rs. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.5. too.500. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west).8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.261. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.501. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.05 crore and Rs. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Moreover. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. During 2003-04.8 per cent in 05). 64 .42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.187. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. Out of this an amount of Rs. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Government expenditure on education. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.40.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. Tezpur University. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.
telecom. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Kerala and Gujarat. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. Moreover. Listing the positives. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Karnataka. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. too. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. engineering and R&D. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. The Chandigarh Administration. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 .A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Tamil Nadu. for instance. too. notes the study. Karnataka. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. English. To add to the woes. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. too. for which 16 sites. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. pharma. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Medical education. Andhra Pradesh. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab.5. 1.
which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. The working hours of educational institutions. Hence it is called as need-based. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. while the former does not. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. The living conditions. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. Then education become realistic and idealistic. which a non-tribal person cannot do. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. and so on. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. the teaching methods. the working days: an academic . 66 . there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. the interests. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. life-oriented and environment slanted. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. the curricular subjects. in which the learners live. the vocations. taking the average in the middle. In the same manner. even actually looking at the watch.year. the needs. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. the socio-physical conditions. For a learner living in a rural area. Of course. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. when he will not be sure of time. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding.
5. 1.5. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. to suit education to different environments? 1.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. 2. 67 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.
Education Scenario in India. Dubey. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.H.N. and Nair. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Education in Developmental Arena.5.2. a. S. Educational Development in India. (2001). A. Salim. R. some of areas which were under the native rulers. S. New Delhi: Authors press. during the British rule. Giridhar. some States have become more developed than others b.K.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 68 . (2008). 60% 1. (2002).G. C. (2001). remained undeveloped 3.
UNIT – II 69 .
71 . Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. semi literate and illiterates. school community and mass media. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. National Integration. community development. secularism and democracy through Indian education. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system.
2 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 22.214.171.124.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.LESSON 2.6.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1 2.5.7 2.3 126.96.36.199.1.1.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.5.1.9 2.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.1.6 Education for Secularism 2.6.4 188.8.131.52 Implications of Socialism in Education 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.8 2.
you will be able to: 1. In the matter of admitting students in schools.2. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Abraham Lincoln. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow.1. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.1. 2. 2.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. socialism and secularism 2.1. Democracy thus means power of the people. socialism and secularism 2. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. 73 . there should be made no distinction of caste. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. creed. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. 5) Encouragement to Group Work.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. colour or wealth. 3) Provision of Manual Work. for the people by the people”. This is the political aspect of democracy. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. socialistic and secular state. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.1. understand the concept of democracy. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. The students may be associated with the management of the school.
With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. Democracy means 2. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. debates. declamation contest etc.1. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. 74 .6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 11) Student Parliament. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 2. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together..5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. There are different brands of socialism. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. it soon spread all over the world. may be planned. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work.
2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. the employer and the employee are all on the same level.5. 2. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. free from exploitation. 2. the prince and the peasant. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. but on the path of non-violence. 75 . Under it. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.1. oppression and disparity. the wealthy and the poor.1. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production.5. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. none high”. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 7) Special facilities for girls. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. service and cooperation.
5. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. "which seeks the development of physical. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system.” In every political and educational corner. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. According to Holydake. Everyone says. 76 . moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. secularism is being propagated. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth.1. Write any two main features of socialism. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. “India is a secular-country. 2. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. 11) State schools.
8) It believes in co-existence. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. Moral values have to be imbibed. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. should be independent of religion. fraternity. 2) It permits freedom of religion. people started believing in regionalism.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values.1. 3) It permits freedom of worship. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.6. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. In this type of prevailing situations. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. Equality. 77 . the belief that the state morals. education etc.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. people have narrow mindedness. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 9) It stress free inquiry. 5) It implies tolerance. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. “Webster further says. A large number of people is uneducated. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. During the recent past. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact.6.1. That is why. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. There is need of making the people open minded. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. 2. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values.opposed to religious education. liberty.
Corruption and disbelief are rampant.1. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. In the celebration of each such function. 2. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. that the central string of all religions is one. 1) Moral Education. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. In the hands of such teachers. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 .presented by the students in the gathering. Patiala. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. tours and trips may be organized. While doing so. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. education. The very sight of the building.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. No doubt. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. students belonging to different religions should be associated. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. There should be some internal checking of the material being.6. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. Religious Education. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students.
The word “Seculum” means 7.7 LET US SUM UP 79 .1. 2. The term secularism was first used by 8. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. No doubt. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Secularism 9. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10.
Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Respect of Individual Personality. 5. Since socialism stands for equality. c. Equal Opportunities for Admission. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. 3. there should be made no distinction of caste. 4. Explain the concept of Democracy in education.1. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. a. a. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. creed. Abraham Lincoln. This present age 7. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. In the matter of admitting students in schools.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. 6. George Jacob Holydake 80 . Tuition free education b. Provision of Manual Work. Socialism aims at social justice. colour or wealth. Power of the people 2. 4. for the people and the people”. a. b. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. The students may be associated with the management of the school. 5. b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. 2. The two can move only in the consonance with each other.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Socialism aims at equality. 3. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.1. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. d.
Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. b. Dash. B.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. education etc. 81 .1. Ltd. K.8. should be independent of religion. 10.C. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Mohanty. (2007). b. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ltd. (2008). Modern Trends in Indian Education. N. P. New Delhi : Pahuja. the belief that the state morals. Anmol Publications Pvt. N. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. J. (2003).” 9. a. K and Narang C. a. (2005). Bhatia. Theory and Principles of Education. L. It permits freedom of religion. J. (2004).
2 184.108.40.206 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.5.1 International understanding in the school 2.3 2.2.2.LESSON 2.10 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.7 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 220.127.116.11 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.8 18.104.22.168 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 22.214.171.124 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.126.96.36.199 2.1 188.8.131.52.6.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.9 184.108.40.206 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.
A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. understandings. as persons. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. 2. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. as workers. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. mental. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. A teacher is first and foremost. a r e 1. as learners. as citizens.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils.2. moral. and 4. social. as it is t he aim o f modern education. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. The developmental roles of children. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. social and moral aspects. 3. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. 83 . attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. It involves physical. application.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. you will be able to: 1. therefore. 2.generation to another.an instructor of school children. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. 2. development. emotional.2. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. who are placed in his custody. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. skills. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. aims and objectives of the school. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values.
All education should lead to better behavioural development. and aesthetically to become. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a.2. mentally. The students live. motivated. a part of their day in 84 . As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. mental. intellectually. physically fit for socially efficient. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. member of his community at the outset. economically effective. 2. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. social and emotional health. emotionally. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. culturally confident. He has to look after their physical. experiences and acceptance. morally. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. He is to become an active member. socially. 2. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. inquisitive. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. 3. morally. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. 1. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. The following are some of such roles described in brief. Teacher as a Citizen Next. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen.
It 85 . science club. solve them. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. 2. creeds. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened.2.the school being under the custody of teachers. activities of the society into which he is born. 4. languages and religions. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. Dr. faiths. Unless. fine art associations. They will be spending with their parents.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. photographic clubs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the role of teachers towards community development . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. and most of hours. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. India is a land of many castes. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school.
1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.is. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one.” Regarding the role of education. ‘We should not become parochial. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. poems. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things.2. Radhakrishnan. The only process is the process of education. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. therefore. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. this integration of the Indian people. c. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. 1. narrow-minded provincial. b. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. should be emphasised. At the primary stage the importance of stories. folklore and teaching of social studies.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. the study of language and literature. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. a. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform.5. Sampurnanand remarked. Let us. It should broaden the outlook.” 2. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. social studies. with straight backs and look up at the skies. Nehruji has explained this as. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. the citizens of the Republic of India. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . national anthem and other national songs. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . stand up straight. and make into one strong national unit.
3. t he st udent s and t he community. tours. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. and picnics. militar y training like the NCC. National Days—January 26. ACC. 9. 5. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Textbooks. 7. symposia. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. 6. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. 4. 8. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Singing of National Anthem. sports. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. 10. languages and literature. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. educational excursions. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. 2. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented.different social sciences. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. 87 . Taking Pledge. Co-Curricular Activities. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Uniform for School Children. Celebrations of National Days. Reverence of National Flag. dramatics and youth festivals. Student Camps. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Scouts and Guides. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. debates.
For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. 13. Admissions to schools. 2. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. iii. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . v. Recognition of Institutions. 12. Open-Air Dramas. Students Exchange and Tours. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics.2. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. colour. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. ways of thinking and doing things.11. Educational and Travel Documentaries. 88 . Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. ii. 16. region or religion. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. flora and fauna. iv. 15. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. 14. Admissions. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. language.5. School Projects.
It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings.2. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. cultures and races on equal bases. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained.vi. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. vii. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. viii. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Define National Integration 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. camps. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. 2. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Community dinners. ix. irrespective of national boundaries.
2. and the healthy development. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child.as important as that of a national citizenship. the international level. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live.e.. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. Dr. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged.F. if it happens.” 2. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. Organising of debates and. (c) fairly tales. 2. In a very real sense. that war. This. C. Therefore.6. 2. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. Strong has observed. Teachers 90 . Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. (b) stories of children of other lands. therefore. 3. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. 5. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Radhakrishnan states. 6. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. patriotism is not enough. of his body and mind. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. 4.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.6. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it.friendships between children of different countries. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war.2. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. often in connection with anniversaries.
While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Impartial in their Treatment. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Russian. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. a German. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should not be propagandists. an Englishman. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Indian and American. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.
3. Chronic Poverty . It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. 5. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . which results in agitation and aggression language. As the school is but a miniature society. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. Devaluation of Values . leading to. Wide Spread Frustration .come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly.2. 4. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. understand and indiscipline: 1. It does not prepare students for life. majority of people are.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.Another major. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. the education function can be carried. there is wide spread frustration among all people. and help the students to over . they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. If this is done. 2. Defects of the educational System . living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students.2. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.
National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. sympathy and good will among the nations. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. community development. 2. fellow feeling. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust.2. co-operation.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students.2. 3. love. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.democratic nature. 2. etc. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . 93 . 5. 4. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. 2. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 220.127.116.11 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 18.104.22.168 Functions and role of schools in the society 22.214.171.124 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 126.96.36.199 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 188.8.131.52 Radio as an agency of education 184.108.40.206 Television as an agency of education 220.127.116.11 Press as a medium of education 18.104.22.168 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
22.214.171.124 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 126.96.36.199 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
188.8.131.52 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
184.108.40.206 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
Hence. Moreover. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Now internet is being used. art galleries. periodicals. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Crow and Crow write. Museums. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. 2.3. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. are increasingly used in education. To make them achieve their aim. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Define community. During the course of time. “All the citizens of the community. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Emphasising this thing. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. Then came newspapers. He taught his students orally. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. In fact.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. the invention of the printing press. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. led to the printing of books. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation.V. books.
political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Various talks.classroom teachers. the place of importance. 101 . the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. rather than on picture. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students.G. In the emphasis is on sound. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. 2. 2.6. music. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. politics.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. A lot of work by way of pre. the teacher still occupies.telecast. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. Effective means of presenting music. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. It is also an important source of entertainment. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures.3. Important happening inventions. art. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Thus. “Listening participation” in current history. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. dram appreciation. languages. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. social studies. In collaboration with the experts. current affairs and other areas. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. Thus. It enlightens public opinion. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Students listen various talks. Reynolds.
While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Before presenting the programme. informal and non-formal education. mathematics. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. travel talks. at any place. 102 . audibility and presentability. At present. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. Team-teaching demonstrations. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. 5. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. fol classical music. plays. at drawing room. Making learning an open system. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. School concerts. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. speech. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Participation of local teachers and pupils. style. projects or creative activities. development of lessons. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. 3. 4. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. at play. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. at recreational centers. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 220.127.116.11 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
18.104.22.168 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 22.214.171.124 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
126.96.36.199 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.3.6 2.2 Levels of formal education system 188.8.131.52.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.LESSON 184.108.40.206 2.7 2.3.2 Aims of Non formal education 220.127.116.11.8 2.4.1 2.4.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 18.104.22.168.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.4.5 22.214.171.124.4.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.
3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. 110 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the mass media et. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 2. the community. 5. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. open university. open school. 7. 6. Education associated with a degree or certificate. it was mostly. 9. To realize this objective of education.4. In ancient time in India.. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college.4.4. his mental alertness.4. 2. starting and ending at -a particular age. you will be able to: 1. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. 8. the family. 4. say the Government or the private enterprise.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 4. 3. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. the most important agency of formal education. his moral excellence and his social adjustment.3. 2. 2. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. the learner are acquainted.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. Education organised by some agency. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 3. School is. compare formal and non formal system of education. Education. imparted at the residence of the teacher. 2. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. the temple.2. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school.
It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. also called tertiary. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. Some education systems have separate middle schools.4. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. as well as vocational education and training. 2. or academic degrees. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Concepts of proportion.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Through early formal education. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills.4. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. structured education. capacity. depending on the jurisdiction.a secondary education. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years.3. third stage.3.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. such as a high school or secondary school. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. diplomas. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal.2. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. In general. or post secondary education. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. the elements of language are first learned. Higher Education: Higher education.
2. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped.3. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . 3. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. What are levels of formal educational system? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. is an important agency of formal education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. 2.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. late beginners etc.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.4.which will help for nation's development.4. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. and remote dwellers. 4. children with disabilities. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . Agencies can be classified as 2.
” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. However. staffed. curriculum. Non-formal education includes adult education. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. to help themselves. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. admissions. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. one could say that non-formal education is an active.. it is a more effective tool for rural development. it has its own valid claim to reality. It is deliberate.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. until 1970 it had not been defined. “Non-formal education should 113 . educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. adding up to a true learning society. systematic.learning client take some learning objectives.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. place of instruction. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. It unlocks the doors of development plans. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. Thus.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education.formal education. It is much more responsive to needs and change. i.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. open learning. Therefore.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. systematic. financially supported life formal education. planned. Open university.e. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. Adiseshiah. According to Malcolm A. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. It is functional. continuing education and on the job oriented education. adults as well as children. etc.
place of education.renewal. Part-time education. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 4. socialism. admissions.” According to H.S. To help industrial workers to better their skills. Flexibility in various aspects of education. 6. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. modes of teaching. evaluation etc. co-curricular activities.be marketable and vocationalised.S. age. 2. Lawrence. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.” 2.4. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.learning pattern. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things.4. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.4. 7. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. self. Preparation for future needs. It should lay emphasis on the self. i. curriculum. 3. 5. 2.e. Process of sharing. 114 . Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. the Ideas of citizenship. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.4. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. To develop in the student. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. international understanding. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. national integration. Covering life span of an individual. exploring.
in villages and those who live in towns. To offer Secondary. 8. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 115 . To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 5. Eradication of adult literacy. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized.4. Senior Secondary. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Meeting the omissions of formal education. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 4. Technical.4. school dropouts.4. 2. working adults. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 3.4. 10. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. Universalisation of primary education. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. 6. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 5. publication and information dissemination. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. • 2. 2. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 7. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 3. 9. 4.
etc. self-employment iii. open space. Radio and television. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. Institutions for formal education. etc. 4. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. 3. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. others are formal and informal. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute.4. All-round development i. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs.4. farm. To increase knowledge and 2. To make if. library.full time to learners – can be home. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college .5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. Therefore. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. factory. centres of correspondence education. effective in modern societal context.. public libraries. training centres in factories. 2. 2. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies.4. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. To better qualifications. if organised in isolation. Again.2. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.
List out any two aims of non formal education. 7. Teaching to face teaching. . Correspondence lesson. Lecturing T.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Face Contact programmes. . institution. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. radio. 117 . 6. Give examples of non formal education? . Written tests.V. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Define non formal education. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
4.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Secondary level. the college and the university come under this category. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. 2. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. School 3.4. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. b. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Open University. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 118 . Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Open School. a. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Formal and Non Formal 2. Pre-school level. 7. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.4. 3. 4. a. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. Primary level. 2. 5.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. systematic. b.” 6. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. 2. The school. adults as well as children. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society.2. Higher Secondary level and University level.
Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. Education in Emerging India. K and Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Mohanty. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : 119 .2. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. B. L. N. (2008). (2007). J. S. Ltd. P. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.C.4.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Dash. (2004). (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2003). N. Bhatia. (2008). K. Ltd. Gupta. Pahuja. Anmol Publications Pvt. Theory and Principles of Education.
126.96.36.199 Need for Open University 188.8.131.52.5 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.6 184.108.40.206 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.5.LESSON 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.4.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 220.127.116.11.4 Open University 2.5.7 18.104.22.168.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 22.214.171.124.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .4.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.3 Objectives of Open University 126.96.36.199.2 2.1 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.
No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. know the need and objectives of open university. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. farmers. industries. It is a lifelong process. It is a continuous process. Education is for refinement and enlightenment.2. For them. continuing education is a boon.5.5. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . 2. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. 2. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. 2. Thus. characteristics of open university 4. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. Any person. economic field or such other fields.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. This knowledge may be in political field. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. Under these circumstances. However. give the meaning.5. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. labourers and half educated individuals.5.3. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same.
Thus.V. deteriorating to his character and personality.directly related to his job. After the achievement of independence. Radio. Doctors. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further.literate person.3. For them too continuing education is essential. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 .V. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Radio and T. Block Development Officers. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. are also contributing their might for the purpose. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. cultured and progressive. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Cinema. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. On the other hand. T. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. 2. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Throughout the country. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Persons engaged in health services. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons.5. On the other hand.
(17) modern international and national events. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. These books are not very useful. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. Inspite of the great efforts. 2. 3. (10) first aid. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (6) folk stories. especially women. (8) psychology of adults. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases.3. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation.. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. we have not been able to achieve our targets. (13) psychology of child behaviour. 5. (15) music. (7) folk songs. (2) basic religious matters.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. 7. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T.5. (16) liking. 4.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. and Radio. 123 . habits of people of other lands.3. (14) information about bringing up young children. Of course.V. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. 2. 6. (9) fundamentals of philosophy.5. 2. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (1) ancient history.
Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. lack of time etc. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.5. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. of educational opportunities. attendance restrict ion. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 188.8.131.52 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. NLM was launched in the year 2. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.
its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. but 125 . there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. 2. 5. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. c. 2. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. its education is not class room based but home based. it makes use of educational techno logy. Education is not a once for-all process. e. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. the higher the degree of openness. No one is too old or too late to learn. b. d.5. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education.unobserved. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and in teaching. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. IGNOU was established in the year 6. Which was the first open university in India? .” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. 3. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? .4. 4.
Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. 2.4.who did not get it. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n.5.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. 2. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. it a ims at wider and hig her. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 6. 3.4. cho ice o f co ur ses. 3. 4. or who realised too late that they need it. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 5. 2. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. supplementing the existing provision. Mo re o ver. 4. 126 . who were deprived of t he same earlier. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. 2. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”.5. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced.
Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. List out any four methods of Open University? .5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. a society. 8. you have learnt the concept. In the present day world. 7. 127 . Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. semi – literates. school drop outs. Correspondence tuition.5. 4.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. 8. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Self instructional materials. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking.5. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. 1. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. Laboratory works. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Every day. 5. Tutor Comments. 3. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. a state or nation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. 6. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . 2.2. Therefore.4.
6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. 1988. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. cho ic e o f co u r ses. Explain the objectives. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. 7. (1) ancient history. its education is not class room based but home based. agricultural and industrial workers. 9. aspirants for continuing education. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes.5. Television Lessons. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. 1985. 8. 128 . need and characteristics of Open University.5. d. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 3.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. Broad casting lectures c.ambitious learners. 2. a. a. 6. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. 8. 4. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. b. b. 7. 2. youth. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. (2) basic religious matters. (4) the fundamentals of economics. unskilled workers and other professionals. which may include house wives. a. P r int med ia b.
(2001).8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Modern Problems of Education.S. S. Udaiveer.K. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. L. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Reddy. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. (2004).5. (2007). K. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.. 129 . K and Narang C. R. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. (2004).2. Ltd.
UNIT – III 131 .
which may claim the attention of those concerned. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. examination. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. 133 . Examination reform. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. the education of women. All which is the need of the hour. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. Training teachers for all levels of education. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. The problems pertaining to the aim of education.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. its causes and remedial measures. and teacher education. In Lesson 2. wastage and stagnation.
184.108.40.206.3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. 135 .LESSON 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.1.3 New initiatives.2 EFA – How? 220.127.116.11.3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1 EFA – For whom? 3.1 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.2 3.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.6 3.5 3.1.4 3.8 3.7 3.
” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. understands the country. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. education received added importance and significance.1. Continuing Education (CE) 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. 3. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. 2.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. Therefore. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). Eradication of Illiteracy.3. social. “The State shall 136 . There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy.1. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). On the other hand. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. therefore. may be political. (EOI) 2. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. directed that. economic or cultural. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country.
Therefore. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Continuing Education (CE). rights and responsibilities. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Due to the adoption of democratic system. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. 137 . After the enrolment of the students in school is over. the national Government under. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. It enables the parents to send their children to School. 3. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . After the attainment of independence. Three Stages for Universalization.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Universalization of Retention.endeavour to provide. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Universalization of Enrolment. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child.
1995 (for upper primary stage). UNESCO Bulletin states. then to 1976. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. Therefore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. present and future.3. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. later to 1988. educational enterprise.1.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. It is safe to assure. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. Write Article 45. 3. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. This target had to be revised to 1970. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. 1990. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. 138 .
their enrolment and retention. 3. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. 9. problem of literacy. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. the art of preparing fruit-juice. etc. creed. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Apart from primary education. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. adolescent and adult. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. 10. 3. their social economic status and occupations.1. rural areas. Education of the Impaired. 5. By undertaking survey. FELF. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). nutrition education and sports and games. Disabled. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas.3. 6. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. sex. Early childhood education should be streamlined.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. 8. The Social Education. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Jams and Jellies. NAEP. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. In order to make the programme of education for all community. 12. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Emphasis must be given on health education. slum areas. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. and Women’s education programme should be improved. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. 11. Education of Girls. 139 .
SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.e.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.3. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.3 NEW INITIATIVES.1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Expand MLL and SSA . Wastage and Stagnation. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.1. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.
it is considered as wastage.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Social Factors . Familial Factors .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . Personal Factors .first stage of education.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. School Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.
. 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. 142 . . Enumerate the causes of Wastage. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Define Wastage.
1. Family Factors . school or society. School Factors . relating to home.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. Personal Factors . They are described hereunder :1.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. Societal Factors . rural or urban 3. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.The following factors. in his home. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.3. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.
uniforms. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. Define Stagnation? 9. 144 . stationary. mid-day meals. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.
a. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment.1.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all.. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Universalization of Provision b. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. 6. 145 . 4. “The State shall endeavour to provide. b. directed that. 3. Minimum Levels of Learning b. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Hartog Committee. Universalization of Enrolment c. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. improvement of curriculum. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1.” 3. 3. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. therefore. 3. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.1. a. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. 2. a.3.1. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. Universalization of Retention 2.
improve examination system. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. T. Familial Factors c. (2001). Problems of Elementary Education. Crescent Publishing Corporation. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. b. (2008). School Factors d. S. New Delhi: 146 . a. a. Hemchand.7. Social Factors 8. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.1. S. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. introduce graded curriculum.K. 9. Sharma.K. 3. Personal Factor b.N. (2007).
5.2 Grade System 3.1 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.LESSON 126.96.36.199 New evaluation procedures 3.7 Open book examination 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 188.8.131.52.1 Problems of examination 184.108.40.206.5.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 220.127.116.11 Multiple sets of question paper 3.3 Modern reforms of examination 18.104.22.168 Inspection and Supervision 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 Question banks 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 188.8.131.52.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 184.108.40.206 Let us sum up 147 .220.127.116.11.
It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. 3.3.2. 4. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . you will be able to: 1. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.2.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.9 18.104.22.168. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. suggest the new evaluation procedures.2. but on the other. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. 3.2.8 3. 3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. 3.2. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Besides.
schools for them wherever necessary.2. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. waiting rooms for girl students. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. They may cause problems relating to discipline. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. etc. etc. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. 3. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. The following steps should be taken up. etc. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes.. which the educational authorities have to face.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. If the students are in sufficient number.3. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. roadside Romeoism. They develop secondary sex characteristics.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. hostel facilities. 149 . specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours.
The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. public interested in education. conduct of internal examinations. public administrators and statesmen. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. teachers. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. the examination system has an important role to play.4. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. It is considered as a major sub-system. 3. 150 .2. Instruction. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. the net-work of examination system has also become vast.2. appointment of paper-setters. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. assessment and Finance. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. With the mass growth of educational enterprise.
5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. validity and practicability. etc. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. values. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. invigilators. etc. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively.2. etc. training of examiners. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. etc.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. announcement of results. establishing reliability. introducing objective-based testing. examiners. payment of remuneration to paper-setters.printing and distribution of question papers. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . etc. scrutinizers. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 3. tabulators. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. reducing the domination of knowledge objective.4.
Rote memorisation. 3. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. halo-effect. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. do not appeal to the students and parents. it s a common experience that subjectivity.4. 3) With respect to method of teaching. may also discredit them. takes the place of comprehensive learning. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. lack of objectivity etc. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. also forbid the reliability of these examinations.2. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. 7) In connection with the question papers. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. Subjects. 2) From the angle of content of education. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. Vagaries in making. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. 152 . it can be said that they become examination-oriented.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books... stereotyped questions. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made.. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. which they are expected to study.
Question Books may be developed in all schools. . Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon.. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t.a part of internal assessment. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . 4. 153 . Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. may be introduced. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. re-numbering of answer scripts. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Spot valuation.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. revaluation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.develop true love for education. List any two merits of examination. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3.
Every paper is treated equal. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. The new scheme of assessment. When a person chooses to work extra.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.2. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures.5. It is complicated. In this system. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper.2. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth.3. 3. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times.2. In actual practice. skills are given importance. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. The students can take any course offered in any department. attitudes. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.5. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. he is given extra credit points. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. Their interests.
only the total credits to be earned is specified. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. 3. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits.2. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. Groupism is encouraged.good.discipline. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. courses can have weightages defined. An example is a seminar.5. or as a 4 credit course.poor. These weightages are called credits. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. v. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. While designing syllabus. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. poor. In the new system. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. This system reduces comparison of marks. The human error of evaluation is ± 10.
It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. 3. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. 156 .2.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. However. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.2. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.5. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. 3.5.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992.2. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.5. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. 3. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.
3. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately.2. List any four new evaluation procedures. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.3. However.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.2. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Therefore. There are no proper procedures for selection.5.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. In the hierarchy. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. . Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. 6. recruitment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
qualified personnel. etc. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner.. whether the syllabus has been covered. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. etc. Academic inspection. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. books are followed. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. finding out whether the prescribed text. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. When they are fully realised. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. in a sense. library books. taking up the follow-up programmes.2. 3. inspecting the class-room teaching. finding out the adequacy of. interpersonal relationships and so on. school buildings. 158 . Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. laboratory equipment. of late. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision.6. requirements. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. 1. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. submitting of the inspection reports. complaints and compliments. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect.. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. wherever necessary. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. playgrounds. staff. being realised as two different functions. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. They are. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. in contrast. qualifications. disciplinary problems.
attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. M. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose.Ed. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made.. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. or. at least. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties.Ed. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life.2. courses. Similarly. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. 159 . to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. In the light of these conceptualisation. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. their professional knowledge. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. modern. aptitude.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. 3. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. Insistence on specialisation in the B. once in five years.. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. course in either educational. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. In the case of departmental candidates.
Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. 22.214.171.124 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 3. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. a. 2. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Administration. a. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Instruction. 3. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. b. 3. b. 3. Grade System.2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. a. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. d. 5. assessment and Finance. c. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. 160 . Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. 4.
To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. Multiple sets of question paper.a part of internal assessment. Open book examinations. 3. Educational Reforms. 7. 5. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . c. (2004). Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. (2002). History and Problems of Education in India. Vaidya. K.4. S. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. b.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. b. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. a. Question banks. a. b. Problems of Education in India. a. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. K. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. New 161 . R and Sharma. (2005).2. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.
3. 5.8 3.LESSON 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. identify the needs of rural India and social.3.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.9 3.7 3. 162 . impact of Higher Secondary Education.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra. you will be able to: 1.5 3.3.10 3.3.4 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. 2. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.6 3. 126.96.36.199.3. 3.2 3.1 3.3.3 3.3.
It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. Commission emphasised to continue. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination... Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . e. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. and 3 years of First Degree Course. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education.specialisation programmes 3. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States.. The Calcutta Madras. Consequent on the recommendations. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. University Education.3. the Banaras Sanskrit College. 2. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. Similar is the case with some other States. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. in Andhra Pradesh. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta.3.e. 8 years of general education. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. etc. The. 10 years of general Secondary Education. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education.g. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre.. i. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course.e.
It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. and. to prepare. historical. who desire to change from one stream to another. 10. Provision for transfer of credits to students. 8. 6.confidence in students. economical and political. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. 3.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 5) to help for the social. social. 5. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. b. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9.a sense of dignity of labour. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities.3. educational channels. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . habits of hard work and develop . It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. to imbibe. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. cultural and economic development of the country. is also a plus point . 7. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. However.
Philosophically it is not the conception. and that required to enter the tertiary level. at the other. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. 3.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. democratic living. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level.3. social justice. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. international understanding. to develop national character. and. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. Psychologically. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only.national integration. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . cooperativeness. The General Educational Spectrum. Sociologically it is undesirable. etc. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. 1. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. cultural and' religious tolerance. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. on one hand. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum.. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world.
or other machinery. the rural areas have suffered very much. and vocations based on dairy-farming. physics or mathematics. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. fish culture. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. medical plants.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. Commerce and other disciplines. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. industrial agricultural production is growing. In the vocational spectrum.— tube-wells. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. In our country. 2. Biology. All these need for an. 3. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. In the matter of language. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. Science. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. India is a land of villages. Agriculture is the main occupation. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. professional. commerce.3. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. educational and cultural services. vegetable growing. 166 . It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. such as Agriculture. rural health. commerce. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. technical. horticulture. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. technological. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. chemistry.
Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . interests and aptitudes of the students.. 4. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. In time. social justice. the local resources available.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. In this way. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. can be ensured. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum.. and the needs. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . In this it may be concluded. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . There had been favourable reaction from the students. and 5.etc. etc. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all.3. 3.
(2001). Calcutta University Commission 2. 3.C.3. Vocational Sepctrum. N. New Delhi : 168 . Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. J.a sense of dignity of labour. 3. we studied the history. J. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. a. General Educational Spectrum and b. (2005). Dash. Ltd.3. Anmol Publications Pvt. 3. (2008).K.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. to imbibe. a. b. B. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 3. a. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Mohanty.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. S. (2007).3. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. habits of hard work and develop . Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 2. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.3. Modern Trends in Indian Education. objectives. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.
4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.12 188.8.131.52.4.11 3. Education contributes to human development.4.4.9 3.LESSON 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3. social and 169 .1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4.13 3. but the lighting of a fire”.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.7 3.4.3 3.8 3.2 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 184.108.40.206.10 3.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.6 3.4.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.4.1 3.5 3.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.
economic. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. While women constituted only 9. There is a close connection between education and development. 3.higher education in particular. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. These courses were.4. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. family. For the first time in the history of India. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. Dr. particularly 170 . higher education of girls developed immensely. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. Nursing. cultural and political development of the individual. community and nation is universally acknowledged. Education . the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. During the year 1937. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. Home Economics.4. The relevance of women’s education to social.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. 3.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. you will be able to: 1. Teaching and Fine Arts. although we have miles to go.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. analyze the women and distance education. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. In the post —independence period.
women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. The idea of women’s education for equality. Mother Teresa Women University. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.2 22.4. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.9 14. levels and professions.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. 3.4. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.women.0 Today.0 16. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. we have more than 1200 institutions.4. in our country. In the rest of the country. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. 3. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.T Women University.0 32.D. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.2 29. Kodaikanal. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. Even today. Mumbai.9 27.0 43. out of 9200 and odd colleges. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. In 1950-51.1 31. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).65 lakhs in 1994-95. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.1 24. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.N. Coimbatore. Yet.
53 34. 3.46 82.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.36 3.1 and 14.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.56 64.1 respectively.27 89.34 220.127.116.11 47.63 Female % 34.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.4.47 65.4%) prefer Arts subjects. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.that of boys. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? . particularly in the technical and industrial streams.73 10.66 66.54 12. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .17 52. 2. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .44 35.
According to a survey. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. In every third family. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. 173 . Also. Thus. curriculum not suited to their requirements. 3. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Book banks should be established. particularly.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. In college. promoted and increased. They gave up their studies to enter home life. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. The major hurdles. what is the need for higher education for her. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters.4. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education.hinders the girls from getting higher education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. and coeducation may spoil her character. etc. irrelevance of the content of education. she will only learn fashion. distance of the college or university from home. marriage is a very common I factor. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. financial difficulty of the parents.
Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. It also brings about 174 . Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Full-time employment.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Empowerment in a nutshell.4. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Distance education is a boon to women.economic disabilities faced by women. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face.4. 3. Education. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. 3. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Geographic distance of educational institutions. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. space. It enables to study. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. It is a productive investment. There are constraints of time. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. is the only tool for realising empowerment. resources and socio . which is the most dynamic factor of development.
The major objectives of women's higher education. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. education of women is of paramount importance. on their own. Empowerment is an active. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 .4. for full development of our human resources. education of women must be given priority in national plans. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. 3. empowerment means being assertive. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. legal awareness and economic independence. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. higher learning. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. This can be achieved through reflection. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. Women are partners in development.
4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . has to be implemented at the earliest. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. Better opportunities.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. 176 . Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out.4. especially so in the developing countries. who are eager to take up courses. But their number is small. The local administration. will encourage them to venture new grounds. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. The educational institutions. which is pending for a long time. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. 3. which had been the sole domain of men. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Reservation for women. Scholarships and concessions for women.
engineering and related technologies (16.8%). especially in developing countries like African countries. But.9%).3 percent. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.1%) and architecture and building (38.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. talents. Australia. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Chief Executive. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. 3. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. capacities etc. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. According to Lindy Hyam. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs.4. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management.. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. IDP Education. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.000 women in the country. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. Also.
New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.K. (2008). (2005). 43% 6. 3. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. R. create the right attitude towards life. individuals and society b.4. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Rajasthan 5. Women Education. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education.R. Mishra. and Suryalatha. S. S. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women.to the family. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Coimbatore. 178 . A. Mumbai.C. 3. and Swain. R. Annakodi. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Women Education.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. community and the nation. Centre for Women’s Studies. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Women and Education. 4. a. Pattanaikj. Kodaikanal. Mumbai. SNDT Women’s University. 3. (2000). 2.4. Rao. R. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. Mother Teresa Women University. Coimbatore. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. SNDT Women’s University.4. A. 4. (2007).
so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5.5 3.7 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168.10 3.5.2 3.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.5. They should be trained. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.LESSON 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4 3.personality of children in and out of school.11 3.1 3.9 3.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.3 3.8 3.6 3.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5.5. whole.
5. Shorter working hours. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Lack of physical facilities. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. know the pre service and in service training facilities. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. and national character. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. 3. understand the training teachers for Primary. equality and justice. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. social and emotional integration.5. 5. 180 . All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. 4. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. understanding and strong desire for international peace.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. international. you will be able to: 1. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. national consciousness. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Dearth of new technology of teaching.
conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 .5. Depending on the levels.. (NCERT) New Delhi. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. the secondary teacher education. Inadequate training in practical skills. it is called the In-service teacher education. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. levels. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. who have not been trained earlier. the state Government.5. If the student teachers are working teachers. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. and M. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. the centre. etc.Ed. a Diploma course and a Degree course. Lop-sided curriculum. higher secondary teacher education.Ed. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. it is called the Extension teacher Education. students. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. the primary teacher education. 3. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate.Less qualified teacher educators. At the diploma level. 3. and the collegiate teacher education.. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. inservice and extension education programmes. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Evaluation unit.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. 3. non-formal.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. state Institutes of Educat ion.5. Also Guidance Bureaux.. are established. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Science Education units. extensio n service. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Expand NCERT 2. collegiate cells. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Education cells. etc. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Educational teehnology cells. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. depart ments etc.
and 183 . which should include experience in the primary schools too. to ensure teacher competence. should be improved on a top priority basis. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas.. to improve curricular programmes. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. to prescribe conditions for recognition. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. degree. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary.Ed. to offer consultative services. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards..• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . which help breaking isolation from one another .Ed. audio visual aids. primary and secondary school teachers. despite its vast expansion. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . laboratories. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . schools and sister institutions. material conditions relating to libraries. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. and so on.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities .. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed .
Modern Methods of Evaluation. Workshops. methodology and evaluation. Hence.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. Agriculture. whether they should have professional education or. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. etc. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. Modern Techniques of Teaching. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. The problem. not came up once again. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. and XII. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. Organisation of Content Courses. 184 . Induction Courses. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Meanwhile. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. etc. To meet this exigency. though no pre-service training. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses.secondary education. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. Psychology of Students.
State Institutes of Education. in Education.’s are elig ible for M.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.Ed.. For re-orienting the teachers.Ed. Post-Graduates also undergo B.. (Education) and M.’s for Ph. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. Ajmer.. Courses leading to B.Ed. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .5. M. 3. Degree and M..A. (Education) are organized by 185 . Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. courses and M.A.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Ed.S. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.Ed.. These facilities are available for regular students.Ed. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training... Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.D. training. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Pre-service training is for those. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. Degree. All B Ed.
3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.A. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . 5. they should be conscientious . and B. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. of conduct—written or unwritten. Hence the employability of M. . What is the role of ERIC? . However. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 186 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. (Ed..5. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession..List any two code of conduct for teachers? . 4. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.A.). 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. established by tradition and teachers of the past.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. (Ed). 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 6. 3.
that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. 3.5. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. 2. 3. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. a. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. b. b. 3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a.3. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain code of conduct for teachers. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 187 . Shorter working hours.5. 6. 2. The necessity is however this. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. a. Ajmer. However. Bhopal. 3. 5.5. they should be conscientious. 4. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Discuss the problems of teacher education. 4. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. National Council of Educational Research and Training.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful.
Teacher Education. J.3.N. Tewari. (2010).D. Teacher Education. (2003). (2009). A. P. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . Ltd Aggarwal. Corporation.5. Publication Pvt. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Mohanty. and Teacher Education. B.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda.
UNIT – IV 189 .
objectives.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. preservation of nutrients. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. objectives. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. economic and educational developments. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. If the diet is poor. Since food is the source of nutrients. objectives and role of the physical education. 191 . In lesson 4. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. The person’s environment is equally important. common ailments of children. communicable diseases and their prevention. nutritional deficiency diseases. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. In lesson 1. the focus is on the school health programmes. consuming the right amounts becomes important.
LESSON 4.5 4.2 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.10 4.8 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community. It is a miniature society.1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1.1.1. 193 . emotional and social. for giving health education to the children under its custody.3 22.214.171.124.1.9 4.1.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. mental.1. physical.1 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.6 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.11 4.e. The programmes of school health education are quite important.7 4.1.4 4.
you will be able to: 1. To develop healthy health habits among children. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 10. 8. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 4. to his family and to the community at large. 7. 9.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. understand school health programmes 2. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. list the common ailments of children 3. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.g. 3.. explain the importance of First aid 5. Instruction. training in first aid and etc. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. To develop certain skills concerning health. 2. training of teachers and evaluation.1. cleanliness and healthful living. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. 11. 4. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. know the need for sex education. 194 . 4. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner.1. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To give information regarding health rules. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. content of health education.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. e. 6.
(v) safety education. is imperative. organisation of school health days. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. minimizing the travelling distance. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. typhoid. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1.G.4. B.. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games.C. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. inoculation against cholera. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. play festivals. (xl) mental health.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A.1. There should be regular water supply. (vi) nutrition education. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. direct lighting. excusing late. suitable furniture. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. The flooring should not be damp. 3. (xii) smoking education etc. Toilet rooms should be amply provided.. ( iii) sanit at io n. (ii) communit y healt h. 2. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. as described below 1. B. “Play-for-all” programmes. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. (viii) first aid. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . 5. Vaccination for small pox. There should be good drainage facilities. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. etc. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. 4. Triple Antigen Vaccination. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises.coming or absence. cleanliness weeks. First aid facilities should be made readily available. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. Arranging better transportation facilities. 2. The school buildings should be spacious. vaccination. proper doors and windows. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. The surroundings of schools should be clean.
cuts. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. poisons. wounds. • Have adequate rest and sleep. if epidemic is wide-spread. dislocations. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. and other accidents. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. sports and games in the interest of their health. drowning. • Find out the cases. scalds. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • When sleeping in groups.. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. C. bleeding. burns. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. D. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. etc. fainting (epileptic fit).• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • Keep all rooms clean. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. isolate and notify. 196 . fractures. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. • Close the schools. • Take nutritious food. insect stings.
There are three stages in any communicable disease.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years.1. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. List out the Health curriculum 3. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • .. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. Mention the school health programmes. fever. So they easily get illnesses. 4. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. water or bodily contact.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. These diseases are called communicable diseases.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. Once these germs get into the body. 2. backache. 4. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. which are – cold. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. measles etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. cough. asthma. They are: i) The incubation stage.1. polio. headache. pain in the joints. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. tuberculosis. chicken pox.
nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. head-ache and cough. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Ear Infections . The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Mumps . This is caused by cold virus. The symptoms include cold. 198 . Others make the children very weak.When a child suffers from scabies.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. The child may have fever. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. sugar and water.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. cough and fever. After three or four days of fever. Hence liquid diet is recommended. etc. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Throat is affected. Scabies . Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. unhygienic living conditions.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. The following are the common communicable diseases. Tonsilitis .One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Measles . Diarrhoea . The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Important salts and water are lost in this process. unhygienic bottle feeding. eating food which is not clean. Common Cold . Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief.It is caused by measles virus. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Hence it is called a killer disease.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body.This disease is caused by bacteria.
The child may also have diarrhoea. Diphtheria . 5. separate. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. It begins with fever.• • • • Chicken Pox . Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. As the disease progresses. Expand DPT .This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. By scratching he causes secondary infections. the child may die. the child is not able to breathe.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Typhoid . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 199 . The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. What are communicable diseases? 6. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. face and waist. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. If proper treatment is not given. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. Shortly. Enlist the common ailments of children. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. raised pink spots appear on head. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism.
it is a subject of art. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. head injury.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. exciting and body-oriented. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. scorpion stings. Drowning . bruises.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. fainting. It has its rightful place in education too. so-called sex books and periodicals.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. 4. swelling. films and jokes.1. In such cases.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. Cuts and Bruises . eye injury. fiction. 5.4. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. 200 . etc. Sprains . dislocation. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. 4. snakebites. man-woman behaviours. and films.1. sprains. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. drowning.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. Sex is popular. Wounds . 2. wounds.g. cuts. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. bleeding.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. It is both biological and psychological. simple fractures. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. sprains. 3. and Community Work and Social Service. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.
and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. sex education is being recommended in schools. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. The home. The values of life. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. in their ignorance. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. In today's liberal and interactive society. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. they would be treading the path of sure doom. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. the religious organisations. Hence. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. health. 2. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . try experimenting with their bodies.. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. We can arm people with knowledge about sex.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. 3.old values. but preserve them from disaster and disease. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. celibacy are age. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. In secondary schools. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. Should the boys and girls. the school. B.
but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. What are the major components of Sex Education. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. 202 . when the courses are already overloaded. communicable diseases and their prevention. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. 4. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. first aid and sex education. there will no crisis in its implementation. hence.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. Teacher education institutions are. the school health programmes. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. C. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. common ailments of children. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 126.96.36.199 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 209 . Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Mention the food nutrients 2.
210 . Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied.4. If you look at the definition carefully.2. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . minerals. Let us talk about each of these aspects. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.2. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s .6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day.
the social and religious practices of that region. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .6. People in the east of our country prefer rice.g. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. Even within given States there is considerable variation.2. activity level and physiological stress. 4.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet.sedentary. In the case of adults. There is no point. A balanced diet is specific firstly. sex.one in the morning and the other at night. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. In other words. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. paratha and poori. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. dosa are typical of the south. These are: region where the person resides and income. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. it is also specific to a given activity level . A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. Preferences/customs are also important. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. construction labourer). Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. for example. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. moderate or heavy work. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first.g. Rice or rice preparations such as idli.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety.
Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. for example. however. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. vegetables and fruits. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. however. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. while another may hate them. One person may be fond of milk products. nuts and dry fruits. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. In addition to these. income plays a vital role. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. as important for the rich as for the poor. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Among the social factors.planning the diet. However. One must. Judicious selection of food is. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. fat and sugar tend to increase. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. taboos related to food may play an important role. As you read this discussion. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. customs. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. Having more money. These determine the acceptability of foods. As income increases. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. Even among flesh foods. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. If you think of your own religious group. Including these 212 . however. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like.
6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 213 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. if the teachers have good food habits. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. but they should be thrown away. For this. fruits. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 8. mouth. List out any two healthy food habits. 8) Walk a while after eating. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . Define balanced diet. green leaves. over-eating or under. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. meat. 17. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. eggs . 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect.eating is hazardous. etc. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands.
Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Keratomalacia 3. e.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. preservation of nutrients.2.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. 4. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Conjuctival xerosis. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. good nutrition is essential for good health. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Bitot’s spots.4.2. a. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . 4. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Explain food nutrients 4.2. Night blindness. b. Discuss good food habits.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Vitamin D 5. Corneal xerosis. When the diet is inadequate. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. d. In fact. c. Beri Beri 4.
Chopra. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Food should be consumed after eating well. b. (2008). R.2. Sri Lakshmi B. minerals. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. 8. Food and Nutrition Education. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.6. P. (2008). U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s .M. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Nutrition and Dietetics. A Text Book of Foods. a . Health and Nutrition Education. R. Hands. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. 4. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra.C.N. Food and Nutrition Education. (2004). S. Nutrition Science. b. mouth. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. (2009). (2005). 7. a.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum.
3 4.8 4.3.12 188.8.131.52.3 Impact on Education 4.13 4.6.1 Impact on social development 4. 216 .11 4.3.4 4.1 4.2 4.5 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.7 4.3.LESSON 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 18.104.22.168.3.6.10 4.3.9 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.
“It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. therefore. the stress is. It is a much wider co ncept.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. economic and educational development 3.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. the causes of population change. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India.4. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. understand the importance of small family norm 5. 217 .1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning.3. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. describe the impact of population growth on social. population characteristics.3. There is some difference. community. state the meaning. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. 4. Whenever we talk of sex education. you will be able to: 1. Population Education. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. aims at providing the younger generation. objectives and need for population education 2.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. family planning and sex education etc. his societ y and the world. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. his family. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population.3. It is not sex education. characteristics and changes for himself. 4. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. and the consequences of these processes.
2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual.3. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Define Population Education 2. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. the society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the nation and the world. 4. the family.3. List out any two objectives of Population Education.
The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner.3.6. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. 4. economic and educational development of the country. 219 . Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. Every second two thousand children are being born. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. which will not be possible without population control. When the family is small.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. health and happiness of its citizens. 4. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Family is considered as a social unit. With the larger families. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. the family programmes are also handicapped. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood.3. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age.
2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. toilets. lack of proper health care. 4. 220 . improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. in cinema halls and theatres. In developing countries. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. pollution of the environment. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. organization index and material index. Swollen cities. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too.6. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’.6. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. teacher index. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching..3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy.3.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. Many students herded in a small room. i.e. in parks and other places of public gatherings. 4.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets.3. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. in buses and trains. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. and so on. heavy intern I migration etc. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. The gulf between them is widening further. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. unemployment. facility for drinking water. there is an inverse relationship between population and development.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. even text books would be in short supply. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. There would be poor library facilities. blank verses etc. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. family planning etc. Regional Language. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. can be studied in science and health education. can be taken up. thus. 221 .3.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. less space facilities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages.. and laboratory equipments. bar graphs etc. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. less budget for education. Social Studies Statistics on population education. reproduction. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. Hindi and English. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. essays. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There would be very few audiovisual aids.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility.
4. 2. 5. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Bihar. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. deaths. 13. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 10. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population.3. 14. area and average density of population. Children may compare two families. 8. 4. 3. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. West Bengal. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Brazil. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. 11. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. United States of America. 12. China. Children with the help of parents. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 7. 9. causes of deaths etc. 15. Canada. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Uttar Pradesh. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved.
The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. 16. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. 18. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. preferences for sex. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. age at marriage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 17.3. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Comparing life in various respects in two families. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. values and role children etc.be opened in their schools. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. we have no right to stop 223 . It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. The question. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important.
The Family Welfare Program. and the child survival components of the news: program. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. Since the program's inception. More than 45 years ago. especially the expansion of child immunization services . at varying places in different regions.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. continued . on an overall basis.. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.their entry into the world”.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. 4. however.3.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. should be overcome at the intellectual levels.to emphasize family planning services. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). which education can only do.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .were implemented 224 . fertility levels have declined throughout the country. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.4-6. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. “He who is responsible for population growth.
At these meetings. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men.earlier than the safe motherhood components. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. Moreover. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Local programs vary in their approaches. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. expansion of services to unmarried women. and the World Conference on Women. a focus on health promotion. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. reliance on local women as community health workers. the community appears willing to pay for services. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. men. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. In April 1996. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. and nominal fees for services. Therefore. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. In October 1997. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. economic and educational development 4.3. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. 1997). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion.emphasizing the needs of the client. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. family. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. nation and the world. community. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Its main purposes are to create awareness. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. Describe the impact of population growth on social.3. What are the goals of RCH? 4. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. 226 . involving the community. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank.
less budget for education. b. and the consequences of these processes. Canada. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. population characteristics.3. United States of America. b. the causes of population change.” 2. a. less space facilities. 5. characteristics and changes for himself. 7. China. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. his society and the world. area and average density of population.4. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. a. a. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. 3. 227 . 4. bar graphs. his family. Brazil. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. 6. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.
K. V. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Coimbatore. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Modern Trends in Indian Education. N. Udaiveer.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Kantikar. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Reddy. J. (2002). (2004). “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development.3. Principles of Population Studies. T. Bhende. (2005). 228 . Jayapoorni. Ltd. (1992). New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Ltd.4. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Centre for Women’s Studies. (2005). Modern Problems of Education. A. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.
4.7 4.9 22.214.171.124.2 4.10 126.96.36.199.1 4.4 188.8.131.52 4.8.2 Major games 4.4.LESSON 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .8.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3 Indigenous games 4.5 4.1 Minor games 4.4.3 4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.11 184.108.40.206.4 Lead up games 4.4.8.
as it should 230 . 4.4.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. mental alertness. perseverance. full records of physical activities should be maintained. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications.4. the youth of the country. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. team spirit. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. moral fitness and emotional fitness. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. you will be able to: 1. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value.4. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”.4. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. which forms its most valuable assets. The concept of physical education has been made broader. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. classify the different types of games. leadership and balance in defect. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. social fitness.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country.
Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Every individual is a part of society. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Therefore. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . They go hand in hand.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. leadership. To be more precise. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. obedience to rules. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. They are inseparably united together. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. team spirit. The educational efforts at home. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end.
pleasing manners. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. a sound health.” Montaigue writes.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.4. mo ral. Buck has observed that 232 . physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. H. C. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. game and sports. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India.” The Secondary Education Commission. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. Just like Education. 4. Regarding the significance of physical education. nor body but the whole man. Rousseau states. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. Physical exercises. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. ment al.
Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. coordinative abilities. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. endurance. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.a properly directed physical education should result in health. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. etc. strength.4. happiness. 233 .These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. efficiency and character. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. initiative. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. speed. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. flexibility and power. resourcefulness and smartness. “If we wish to develop the whole being. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively.” 4. Froebel says. we must exercise the whole human being. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life.” In brief. elegance.
have come and gone in the long record of mankind. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. 234 (i) (ii) . Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. its adherents and its enemies. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. While wars. plagues and famines. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. including all racial groups and historical ages. in greater or lesser degree. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Every age has its artists. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. these fundamental things have always been present. poetry and painting. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. systems of government. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. they may form gangs.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant.
\ to develop perseverance. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2.sacrifice. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. B. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. respect for rules. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. to develop tolerance. obedience. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. bravery and interest in games and sports.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. 235 . Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. 3. self. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Write any two importance of Physical Education.
8. Keep the field ready for the activities. 15. . 4. 12. 6. Be in the uniform. Usually parents. 236 1. and readmission after they have recovered. 4. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there.H. 11. and. defects. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. students. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Emergency care procedures should be followed. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Be sportive. Inform health principles. is essential. Always keep the whistle ready. 14. 9. 3. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health.4. Haag. Be self-confident. 7. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 2. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Be punctual. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Be well-prepared. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. injuries among pupils should be made. 13.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Posture screening should be done.4. 5. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 16. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Act as a leader. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students.4. 10. At least now its importance should be duly recognized.
Moreover. the play.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy.4. Lead up games. 4. chasing. 1. frolic and jo y. 237 .8. Indigenous games. their development is handicapped.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. 4. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Such inst incts as imitation. 3. 2. 4. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. less equipment and less expense.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
Cricket. These games require varied skills such as running. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. heading. Tennis. Basket Ball. dribbling. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. spiking. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Hockey. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Jump the stick clay and so on. catching.4. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. on sea-shore. Jumping. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. the number of players and substitutes. Tennikoit. 238 . finding the partner. For each game the rules are many. pitching. Ball Badminton. the play equipment. 4. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people.8. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. zig zag relay. snatching the kerchief. Volley Ball. some of them are played indoors. Hopping. While many of them are played in the open playfields.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. on mountain tops and on river beds. Dodging. Throwing. couple tag. Shuttle Badminton. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. with implements or without implements. the games can be modified according to convenience. over ball pass Relay. boosting. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Khokho. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. Except a few games. hitting. on hard courts. women take part most of the games. driving. skipping. muffling. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. under ball pass Relay. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Kabaddy etc. trapping. Soft Ball.With a very few rules. They are played for a shorter duration. stopping. bowling etc. On lawns. wherever the kids assemble. The dimension of the posts and nets. benefit in playing minor games..
They have an abundant social value.8.8. festivals connected with religion and public functions. An example for indigenous game is 8. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game.4. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. and . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. these games being popular. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. On occasions like marriage. List out some major games. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm.4.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. they are in existence. birth. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . For example. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. Games may be classified as 6. 4. death. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 7. All the fundamental tactics. While observing the players in action. Kho-kho. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
4. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. d. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. Posture screening should be done. 4. physically and emotionally fit and alert. c. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. 3.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. 4. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. 5. b.4. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. a. Minor and Major 240 .10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. to secure physical health b. b.4. b. 2. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. 4. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. 3. a.4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 2. to develop physical stamina. a. aims and objectives and need of physical education. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. 4. Schools should help students to keep them mentally.
Ltd. Health. Soft Ball. Mohanty. Basket Ball.4. Tennis. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Physical Education and Sports. (2008). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Kabaddy 7. Ball Badminton. Foot-ball. Khokho. Cricket. Handbook of Physical Education. Shuttle Badminton. Modern Trends in Indian Education.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews.K. Khokho 8. (2005). New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers.C. J. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. 241 . 4. Krishna murthy. Aggarwal. (2009). J.6. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Hockey. Volley Ball. Tennikoit. (2008). G.
9 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.7 4.5.LESSON 4.11 4.5.1 Natural Environment 220.127.116.11 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.2 4.1 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.3 18.104.22.168 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 22.214.171.124 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 4.
Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. Broadly.educat ion for the environment. economic. 4. 4. education about the environment and education through the environment.5. social. political. 4.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4.5. 2. 2. Awareness. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. 3. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The best place to start such learning is school. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. 6. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. aesthetic and educational factors. it covers the following elements: 1. Participation. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. role of teacher in environmental conservation. Details are given below: I. you will able to: 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1.5. 243 . strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Attitude. population explosion and resource depletion could be. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Knowledge. list out the types of environment 3. Skills. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 3. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Essential knowledge about the Environment. Evaluation Ability. 5.
F. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. • Biological magnification E. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Oxidants Other pollutants. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. 244 . mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. a. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system.B. 2. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. D.
Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Intrauterine device iii. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Use of medical science i. Sterilisation. 4. c. The pill ii. The human ecosystem II. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Abortion iv. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. 3. Birth control through education b. Socio-economic measures. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. III. Persuasion: i. economic. Control of population growth a. 2. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. 2. B.3. Family planning ii. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical.
(UNESCO. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Define Environmental Education. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. e) Recycling. 246 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Air pollution abatement ii. Water pollution abatement. 3. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. 1983). Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i.
to his needs. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .5. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.5.5. 4. Biological environment The biological environment. -other. way is called environmental or ecological factor.4. A change in one brings about a change in the other.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. animals and other organisms (biotic). (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. Any constituent or condition of the environment. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. includes the plants. fax agricultural apparatus. They interact with each. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.5. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. a.other components of the environment. He modifies according”. These are biotic components. telex. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.5. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4.5. b.
industrial survey. (ii) Air pollution. maintaining the ecological diversity. solar cookers. supplying timber for various uses. etc. desertification 248 . change in climate may be added. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. excellent recreation sites. nuclear warfare. ozone depletion. of civilizations. noise control. windmills. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. balance of nature. biogas plants. reasons. evolution. greenhouse effect. preserving the watersheds. preventing siltation of dams. importance of nitrogen cycle. water scarcity. relation between population and pollution. wars and hazards of war. air pollutants from industries. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. extinction of species. use of medicinal plants. are the topics which may be taught in History. natural way of controlling pests. river systems. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. role of trees in building economy. sources. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. over exploitation of ground water. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. nuclear energy. etc. effects. sources of pollut ion. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. explosion deforestation.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. noise pollution. acid rain. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. mineral survey. food chain and food-web. social studies. t heir role in preventing pollution. alternate sources of energy. effects o f CFC. industrial pollut io n. need for bio-diversity. trees reducing noise pollution.. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . population. use of pesticides. History The rise and fall. ozone layer deplet ion. need for conservation.
10. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 2. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Providing.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1.may be inc ded in Geography. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 8.5. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Peepal and Tulsi. 14. 4. 11. 4. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 6. 5. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Organising conferences. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. group discussions and seminars. 12. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 13. aims and scope. 7. 249 . Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. animal and plants. 9. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 3. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment.
Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. used oils down the drain. Don’t burn any waste. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. World Environmental falls on 250 . List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. all these can cause serious pollution. 5. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. or form a car pool for everyday travel. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Reuse carrier bags. If it is done.Send their waste oil. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. 6. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. it will cause pollution. Never put any left over chemicals. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. especially plastics. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
The groups may exchange. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Att itudes of balance towards nature. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. depletion of ozone. etc. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. To arrange visits or expeditions.mat erials. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. Social responsibilit y (common good. values and habits. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. potable water. CFCs. To arrange for visiting speakers. concern for others). To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. To provide materials needed for practical work.). deforestation. Concern for species. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems.. Conservation of natural resources. Harmony with the nature . Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. developing desirable attitudes. dest roying nat ural habitats. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. etc. viz. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio .5. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. (cleanliness.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. nuclear wars. diversity and stability. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. and 251 .4. rather than conquest and mastery. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. loss of bio-diversity. orderliness and beauty). To discuss the approach to problems or topics. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil.
5. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. 8. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. 4. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. preserving natural cycles.5. 252 .Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.5.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. 4.
Modern Problems of Education. a. over exploitation of ground water. ozone layer deplet ion. S. 8. importance of nitrogen cycle. Kuldeep. a. June 5 7.K. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. (2007). importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Publications Pvt. population. 4.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Nanda. To provide reference materials for children’s use. New Delhi : Sharma.5.2. To provide materials needed for practical work.\ 4. relat ion between population and pollution. a. Organising conferences. air pollutants from industries. T. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. b. (1997). New Delhi : Authors Press. acid rain.K. reasons. Knowledge. sources. sources of pollution. (ii) Air pollution. Environmental Education. group discussions and seminars. 6. water scarcity. S.K. Ltd. b. Providing.K. a. Social responsibilit y (common good. effects. Ltd. Udaiveer. b. Rapid population growth. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population.. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. (2007). b. Education for values. greenhouse effect. 5. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . Environmental Education. (2004). new problems from science and technology. Awareness. Y. Anmol Publications Pvt. Environment and Human Rights. concern for others). explosion deforestation. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 3.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 184.108.40.206 Idealism and aims of Education 220.127.116.11 Idealism and Curriculum 18.104.22.168 Idealism and methods of teaching 22.214.171.124 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 126.96.36.199 Naturalism and aims of Education 188.8.131.52 Naturalism and Curriculum 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and methods of teaching 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 18.104.22.168 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
22.214.171.124 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 126.96.36.199 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
Therefore.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism.” 5. enrichment and transmission of culture. moral. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Spiritual Development. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. It is self-realisation. the emancipation of spirit. should be universal in nature. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted.1.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum.our life. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. According to Rusk'. man is essentially a moral being. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. Education must contribute to development of culture. Education according to idealism. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments.3. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. promote and transmit it to rising generation. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. in fact. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. The universe is regarded as a thought process. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . Universal Education.
For this no particular method has been suggested. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. 5. According to idealism. Philosophy. Learning through discussion. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. 5. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . no doubt. subjects like Languages. Learning through lecturing. For intellectual development. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all.3. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. friend and guide. The plant can grow. 2. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. According to Frobel. an indispensable necessity. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. Ethics. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. affecting (feeling). So he should embody. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. So cognition (knowing). the school is a garden. so subjects like Religion. Science. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. Mathematics etc. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality.1. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Learning through imitation. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming.3. He sets the environment in which education takes place. An idealist teacher is a philosopher.the spiritual qualities of mankind. History. Learning through questioning. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. 3.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. 4.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. He carries the child from darkness to light. should be there. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. However. It considers teacher as. and collation (striving) should find due place. hygiene. So health. Learning through reading.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types.” He is thus. Herbert advocated instruction method.” 5.1. a spiritual guide for the child.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Ross explains.perfection and beauty. Perfection of Human Machine. In the words of Ross. "Education should make 263 • . Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. 5.1. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. time tables. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.1. formal lessons or examinations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. text books.4. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. curricula. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.preservation. 5.
education should develop the child into Joyous. In all. “Education finds its purpose. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. 264 . rational harmoniously balanced. Arithmetic. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. geography should also be included in the curriculum. therefore. subjects like history. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. useful and mature child. • 5.4.1. Chemistry. Naturalistic curriculum. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Biology. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. 4.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. is based on the nature of the child. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Literature. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Therefore. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Zoology. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Education should.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. It stresses basic sciences. Education also aims at helping the individual t. It emphasises physical and health education 5. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Botany etc Language. There is no place for religious and moral education.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. It is based on the psychology of the child.
Naturalism has made very significant contribution. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. 5.4. the stage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Rousseau says. Learning through experience.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. 2. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. 4. Learning by doing. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. a provider of an ideal environment. In the . 3. Dalton Plan. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .5. It discards all rigid.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1.1.1. Heuristic method. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 .1. 5. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Learning through observation. he should be taught by experience alone. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher.
Social Efficiency. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. diversified and flexible.1. Social Science. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. intellectual. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements.1. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Personal Social Adjustment. Physical training. Subjects. The aim of educational development. is true. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. 5. History. Agriculture.absolutism of idealism. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Continuous Growth. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Geography. Vocational and 266 . The individual has not only to adjust himself. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. of human personality is in terms of his physical. All Round Development of an Individual. Sciences. social and moral aspects.5. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. 5. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education.5.
activities and experience should be integrated properly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He has to be active. should find proper place. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. The subjects. 5. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Learning by Doing.Technical Education.5.5. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. He must be trained. a senior partner and a sincere guide.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching.1. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. a teacher occupies an important position. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. alert and resourceful. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.” 5. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.
The child should be provided complete knowledge of society.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Population Education. Geography are unnecessary 268 . This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Music and Dance. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life.6. Study of Subjects like Language.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Sex Education.1. Literature. Biography Philosophy. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Satisfaction of individual and social needs.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. 3. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist.1. 5. 3.5. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Art. Education is preparation for a complete living. 5. The basic tenets of realism are 1. 4. Psychology. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Astrology. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Chemistry. scientific and psychological education. 2. intellectual. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real.6. Crafts. literary or humanistic education. Biology. 2. History.1. It favours child-centered. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. 5. specific. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 4. rich and happy. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. practical. liberal. Mathematics.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. easily and pleasantly.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 188.8.131.52 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.1.6. certainly and clearly.
1. Languages. b. a. naturalism. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Geography.1.5. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Learning through experience b. a. & curriculum. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Education according to pragmatism. 5. 5. c. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Learning through discussion. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Physical training. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Self Realisation b. Learning through questioning. Sciences. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim.7 LET US SUM UP We have. 3. History.1. Agriculture. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Tours / Excursion e. has no end other than growth. d. Experimentation d. pragmatism and realism. Learning through reading. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. in this lesson.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Learning through lecturing. 6. 5. Learning through imitation. a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Rousseau 5. Social Science. Vocational and Technical Education. Universal Education 2. e. Child centered c. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life.
P. Theory and Principles of Education. Ltd. 271 . Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Bhatia. L. K. (2007). (2004). of Pathak. (2007).H. Pahuja.P.5.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A. Narang C. Publishing corporation. Foundations of Education.1. O. Anmol Publications Pvt. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. N. (2003). P. P. R. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.
184.108.40.206.1 Aims of Education 220.127.116.11.1 Aims of Education 18.104.22.168 Methods of Teaching 22.214.171.124 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2 Curriculum 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .3 Methods of teaching 126.96.36.199 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 188.8.131.52.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.4 Views about teacher 5.3.1 Aims of Education 184.108.40.206.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 220.127.116.11.LESSON 5.2 18.104.22.168.2.2.2 Curriculum 5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.3.1 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 22.214.171.124 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2.4 Views about teacher 5.
His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. 2. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. mind and spirit. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.4 Role of the teacher 5. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. 273 . an artist.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. 5. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. Gandhiji was primarily a social. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. economic and political reconstruction in our country. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. you will able to: 1.2.7 5. Tagore was a poet.8 5.5.6 5. 5.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. 3.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.2. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.2.2. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.2. content and methods.2.2.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.
it is education of life. 274 . 5. nor the gross animals body. strength of mind. self-restraint and service of humanity. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim.3. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. righteousness. "I attach more. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage." Dignity of Labour. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.intellectual and physical faculties of the children.2. In the words of Gandhiji. mind and soul of children He further observed. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. His scheme of education is life centred. 'Man is neither mere intellect. through life and for life. It really provides opportunity for character building.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect.supporting. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side.
Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Individual and Social Aims. Only good individual forms a better society. General Sciences. metal work. gardening. Art.Training for Leadership.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.3.2. the realization of the ultimate reality. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . According to Gandhi. Drawing and Hindustani. Music. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. wood work. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Mother-tongue. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. 5. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. development of the whole all were directed: towards. "Development of the moral character. leather work have been suggested.
2.trained.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. proficient. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Basic education is other wise known as 4. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.3. men of 276 .2.
PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. 5. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. He has an experimental approach towards life 2.2. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. He also advocates freedom for the child. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. That is why.knowledge. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST.3. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Education must be child centered.
Gandhi in 19126.96.36.199.2. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 5. • Cult of non-violence. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. • Education should involve manual work. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.” Like all other ideals. • Ideal of citizenship. He believed in the oneness of humanity. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. He was a true patriot. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.3.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. He was deadly against untouchability. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.K. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. he was a true Vedantist 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .
" The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. "Mankind must realise a unity. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. stronger in power than ever before. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Music. It should help the learner have good physique. complete manhood could be attained. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. etc. Chemistry.4. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. the more dedicated and devoted. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Civics. Zoology. That way only. International Understanding. them solve problems of day to day life. wider in range. Dance.2. Religion and Psychology. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. sentiment. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. 279 . Tagore said. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. deeper in. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Therefore. International understanding. he said. Geography. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students.Language and Literature . He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. It should help. Botany. could help in forging unity among all. (vi) Philosophy.
280 . The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.2. In 1921. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. 5. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”." 5. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. Activity Method Heuristic Method. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.4. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. Tagore rightly says. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.2. 5.4.” He further says. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.2.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.4.
Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. 10. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. 9. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. It is open to all irrespective of country.g. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. race.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 281 . What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4.
Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man." He was against the theoretical type of education. Concept of Education. Education for Self-reliance.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. man making.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.5. character forming and assimilation of ideas. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. 3. 2. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.2. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Education for Self-realization. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life.2. Education should make a person self-reliant. The whole beauty of life is linked with it.” 5. work and deeds come out of it. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. 4. Freedom. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Book learning. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. Education for strong Moral Character. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues.5. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Purity of thought. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. According to him. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life.
Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. 6. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. 5. Swami. Education should help in the physical development of an individual.5. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and .the learners on different students in the discussion. 283 . 5. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. engineering and technical subjects.5. And above all.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Discussion Method.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. Only a selfless person can be good teacher.5. Secondly he wanted Science.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study.2. A physically strong person is the need of the society. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. Thirdly he wished that games. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.5. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.2. The teacher should be the facilitator. Education for Physical Development. 5. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Religion. That will serve the purpose of education fully. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Of course. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Philosophy and Theology.2. philosopher and guide to the students He. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.
Substantiate your answer. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11.2. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. We have seen that Tagore. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. 284 . 2. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. 5.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. ears and eyes. and pragmatist . naturalist. Gandhiji as a Idealist. of course. legs. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. 12. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. in this lesson. Write short notes on Basic education. Their educational ideas.2.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3.6 LET US SUM UP We have. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life.
Self-Study b. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 2. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. 5. c. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. 8. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Self realization. leather work have been suggested. Cult of non-violence. d. Teaching while Walking b. 9. f. a. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Activity Method d. a. c. a. metal work. Education should involve manual work. b. Activity Method b. Nai Talim 4. Technique of Correlation 6. 5. Learning by Doing c. Debate and Discussion Method. e. Explain Vishwabharathi. 11. 1937 7.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Ideal of citizenship. wood work. 3.4. a. 10. Heuristic Method. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.2. Meditation and concentration c. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Basic education. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Discussion Method 285 . 5. gardening.
P. P. (2002). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2004). J. New Delhi : A. on Bhatia. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Anmol Publications Pvt. N.H.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. O. Publishing Corporation. L. B. (2003). Theory and Principles of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Foundations of Education.5. K. Pahuja.2. New Delhi : Aggarwal. Ltd.P. (2007). (2007). K and Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 286 . C. N. Dhiman.
Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.3.3. In this lesson.3.8 5.9 5.3.10 188.8.131.52 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.2 5.3.LESSON 5.3.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3.5 5.7 5.4 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.1 5.3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.11 5.6 5. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.
curriculum. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. While education is learning. the plateau area and 288 . A g o o d curricu lu m. you will be able to: 1. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. Since the demands. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society.A. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. in the form of new experience. present behaviour may be modified.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the desert area. maintained or eliminated.3. in the U. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. the plain area.S. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”.3. is a means to the process. From the latter point of view. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . In it.under the direction of the school.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. Curriculum is intimately related to education. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. Then in a big country like India. In the former sense. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. new behaviour may be acquired. in Russia or in Japan. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. state the meaning of curriculum 2. in fact . While education is a process. curriculum signifies situations for learning.. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. it is identical wit h socializat ion.3. In the words of Kerney and Cook. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. living in the hilly area. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. 5. Both the processes are integrated. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. there is a large number of communities. 5.
the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way.3. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. customs and needs. and 289 . allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. according to modern trends in the educational process. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. irrespective of their needs and environment. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. However. therefore. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. Besides craft.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. environment. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. 5. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. It must differ from locality and from society to society. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. Again. the learning capacity of children. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. From a slave-country we became secular. In fact . democratic and socialistic country. differs from individual to individual. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. too. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. it is. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. studying therein. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded.
g. They speak of immediate purposes of education. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived.. emotional.g.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture.g. individual or Social and so on. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. unsatisfactory. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. Knowledge Objective. uninspiring and unscientific. which may or may not be attained. of classroom. Application Objective. The word “Curere” means 2. 4. in instructional objectives. e.. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. 290 . 5. tangible. Goals of Secondary Education. they depend on the political. remote or immediate. moral. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . unambiguous and functional. They are visionary goals e. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. specific. aesthetic and spiritual development. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. e. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. social. Vocational Efficiency. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. National Integration. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. etc.. general or specific. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals.. They speak of perfect goals. They may be ultimate or proximate. Goals of Primary Education.. So it is inadequate. 2. etc. eg.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. 1. aims. They are achievable. Understanding Objective. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. social.3. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. Self Realisation.
3.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. Raymont rightly says. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. on the playing fields. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. abilities. needs. The interests. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. educationists. According to Crow and Crow. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. but it includes the totality of experiences.” 291 . in the class rooms.5. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. heavy fire. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. The old and prevalent curriculum is under.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. finding them very interesting and captivating. capacities. Crow and Crow remarks. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children.
Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. urges.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. mental. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. Due to these variations and differences. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. aptitudes. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. capacities and abilities. time in a useful manner. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . moral. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. tendencies. They often waste it or rather kill it. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children.
In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility.curricular. organized. Similarly. 2. 293 . make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. 3. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. development of professional capability at all levels. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. phased preparation. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. To ensure success of the process. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. administrative programme need be planned. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1.
5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 11. Run.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. workshop. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. 5.3. 18.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. laboratory. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . 10. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. Relation with Life c. 17.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. 12. library. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. in the class room.3.3. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 1937 19. principles of curriculum construction. a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Child Centred Education b.
295 .S.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.5. N. and Sarita Kumari. New Delhi : Authorspress. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. (2007). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited.3. Curriculum and Instruction. New Delhi : Isha Books. S. (2001). Curriculum Development. P. Bhalla.K. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Lakshmi. (2007). (2007). D. S. Innovations in Education.
2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.8 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4.10 5.4 184.108.40.206.3 220.127.116.11.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.1 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .LESSON 126.96.36.199 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206.5 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.
3. know the importance of science education.5. Gradually. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.4. 297 . you will be able to: 1. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.during the second half of this century. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. in the economic reconstruction of society. honesty. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. yet real advancement in this area was achieved .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. open-mindedness. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . We mean curiosity. tolerance for the opinions of others. explain the concept of scientific attitude.4. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. 5. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. 4. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.4. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. 2.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. superstition or emotion. 5. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. newer and newer industries started growing.
they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. 5. After such experience and training. 4. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. seminars and symposiums. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 3. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 6. 5. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 2.So that. Organisation of science fairs. Thinking and memory develops. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 6. Through newspapers.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. as well as of the society. 5. 7. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Principles are formulated. Central science workshop. Selection for science education. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Love for truth enhances. Through examinations. Schemes of teaching science. 3. Devotion towards nature increases. 5. 4. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Promotion of science clubs.4. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. 2.4. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships.
each child to “enquiry skill building”. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. Enquiry teaching is.4. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. sex or religion. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . After presenting the problem. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. They experience natural phenomenon. It is. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Training of science teachers. objectivity. therefore. For laboratory and workshop techniques. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.4. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. essential that teachers. 5. 5.6. They ask many questions about the objects they see. should provide opportunities to. In the inquiry approach.needs and conditions. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. They encounter many social events as they grow. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Write any two advantages of Science Education. 7.
It requires consistent thinking. Adopting creative models of teaching.books. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Appreciating pupils ideas.4. . 5. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. 6. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . stern pursuit of accurate data. 5.6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Herma Wouk. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. 3. to ask questions and experience things. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. commands or orders. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. 2. Giving less directions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. test. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Social sciences.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. 300 . 4. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. . Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook.4. Evidence.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. if they like.
Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. 5. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. keen observation. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. practiced. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. To achieve this we should understand what it means. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. therefore should be unbiased and objective. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. to develop among the learners. friends. These include open mindedness. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. school and society at large. and emphasized during the learning process .4. critical thinking and suspended judgments. (Vaidya 2007).Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. For instance. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. neighbourhood. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents.(Smith 2008). The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. The students observation. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. of vast resources running waste.7. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. it must be encouraged.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science.
The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. rumor. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. understanding and logic. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science.7. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. The intention to respect another’s point of view. (Das.4. think and work it”. 302 . intuition or wishful thinking”. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. or superstitions. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. 2007). The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. he studies all aspects of it.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. In considering a situation or a problem. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. 5.
Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. but to begin only after careful planning. • 5.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.4. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.7. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. 5. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil.4. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.7. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.
• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. it must be encourages.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. 5.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 304 . manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook.
3. 16. objectivity. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. S. 5.B (2008).4. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude.4. (2008). The intention to respect another’s point of view. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Reflections on Scientific attitude. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. D.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Love for truth enhances. Vaidya. 305 . 4. (2006). a.S. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Rao.4. Proper example of the teacher c. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. a. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Adopting creative models of teaching.5. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. b. M. N. Discuss the importance of science education 14. a. 2. b. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Yadav. (2000). a. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Planning of activities 5. Wide reading b. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 5. Study of superstitions d. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. b.
you will be able to: 1.6 220.127.116.11 5.5.5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions. 5. actively.5.11 5.8 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.7 5. objectives and characteristics.3 5.5. 2.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.4 5.5. state the concept.5.5.9 5. 306 .2 5. areas of institutional planning. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5 18.104.22.168 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.LESSON 5.5.10 5.
5. every parent. every teacher. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. in the task of educational planning. each teacher. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions.5. which become the bases for further planning at the district. and. and supplement planning from above. and each student are regarded as separate entities. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. • to make planning development-oriented. and every student in the process of educational planning. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Institution should be regarded as the unit. teachers and students is not lost sight of. • To make institutional planning more successful. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. 5. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.3. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. State and national levels from below.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. • to involve teachers and school administrators. executive as well as public. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . 5. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators.
Co-curricular activities. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. which will be discussed in the general. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. and Personnel services.curricular Activities. etc. 5.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as.5. (2) Co. it becomes the basis for school inspection. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.5. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. Syllabus. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. Classwork. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning.• implemented. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. approved after making necessary modifications. council and. 308 . having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. Examinations.
Organisation of Students’ Association. Organisation of Pupils. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Organisation of Self-Government Days.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. etc. Improving the subject competence of teachers. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching.No. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Organisation of class-room libraries. Organising play-for-all programmes. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. etc. Preparation of models. scientific and historical excursions. Preparation of instructional material. 3. hobby-centres. charts and apparatus. Undertaking remedial instruction services. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Equipping of laboratory and library. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Conducting of educational. 2. Running science clubs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Editing the school magazine. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Courts. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. Celebrating of national and international festivals. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Improving the internal assessment. etc. Fair distribution of syllabi.
administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. administrator-supervisor. understanding. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. and —pupil-pupil. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. teacher-State. teachers. parents. teacherinspector. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. administrator-administrator.” The human relationships in. co-operation. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. teacher-pupil. and solidarity. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. science teachers’ associations. teacher-managing body. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. involving mainly human materials. parent-teacher associations. etc.5.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. ii. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. pupils.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system.5. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. teacher-teacher. pupil310 . The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. which are divided as the in. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. administrator-pupil. Administrator-State. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. students’ associations. headmasters associations.
teacher-community leader. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. etc. pupil-parent. control. Good. 311 . School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. It covers personnel and material management. to carry out. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. pupil-inspector." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. to accomplish. administrator.5. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. to attend. organisation and management. social sciences and other disciplines. pupil-non-official functionaries. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. now-a-days.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. and to serve. supervision. pupil-community leader. According to C. V. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. supervision and superintendence. organisation.State. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. teacher-parent. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. To administer means to manage. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. It is also being modernized to become a technique. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. superintendence. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.
Better Human Relationships . Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . without this the efficacy will be handicapped. 11. Socio-Scientific Approach . If it is more. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. Cost-Benefit Analysis .Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Economic Management . 7. 8. who occupy the managerial positions.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. 5.Of all the approaches. 13. low. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques.The manager should have leadership traits. 9. 12. Worker Participation . Democratic Management .The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. Those. Communication .lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. If the cost benefit ratio is less.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. The relationship should change from master. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. Decision Making . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 4. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. Liasion with the Public . the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established.Management should be efficient and economical 312 .sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. 3. 10. This is the latest democratic trend in management. Rapport between the Management and Employees .Any good management will always have good public relations. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. 2. He should be an artist in human relationships.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. 6. it is not worth-while. Motiviation . Leadership . should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.
Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. improvement of teaching methods.too. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 18. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. to improve the quality of education it provides. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. and cooperative performance should be ensured.These two are.g. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.5. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. 19. enrichment of curricula. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. 14. 313 . 5. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. objective. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.
a. Tarachand and Prakash. S. Motiviation d. Decision Making b. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Communication 5.K. In group and Out group 5. f. Instruction. (1995). d. Classwork. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. 2. a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Co-curricular activities. a. it becomes the basis for school inspection. b. H. 314 . b. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House.5. Fundamental of Educational Management. Leadership c. e. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.5. 4. Singh. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. NUEPA. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2003). Syllabus.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.M. b. APH Publishing Corporation. R. c. Educational Administration. and Personnel services. Examinations.5. a.
Pre-service and In-services facilities. Buddhist and Jain system of education. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .2 Nutritional deficiencies. Healthy Food Habit 4.5 Regional Educational Development in India .I.3 Educational Influences of Home.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Communicable diseases . Sex-education 4. Balanced diet. Inspection and Supervision 3. Code of conduct for teachers. Economic 315 .Religious and Modern Education 1. social Impact 3. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. Common ailments of Children. 4.Article 45 .Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.1 Primary Education : Education for all. School. Realized the problems of school education. population education. 2.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.teachers should have : 1.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.3 Directive Principles . nutritional requirement. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. wastage and Stagnation 3. New evaluation procedures.CORE PAPER . Community and Mass Media 2.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.1 School Health Programme. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. Examination reforms. First Aid. 1.1 Gurukula system of education. physical education and environmental education 5. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. Preservation of nutrients. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.Preventive measures.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.1 Inculcation of Socialism.4 India's Secular Policy . women education and teacher education in India.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. higher education. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .
(1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Mishra. Tagore 5.N. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Curriculum and national goals .K. 7. 5. and Human Development. Saraswathi T.K. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Ghanta R.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Delhi : University Publications 2. T.C. REFERENCE 1. Mahatma Gandhi. and Dash B. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Taneja V.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms.N.1 Idealism. and Sharma R. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. Socialization. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. R. Ram S. Naturalism and Pragmatism . (2005) Foundations of Education. B. Sharma.4. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. (1999) Culture.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Pandy V.S. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.R. and Mohanty R.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Realism. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.Aim. New Delhi: NCERT 3.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.K. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. (2004) Problems of Education in India. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.K.4 4. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Prof. Hemchand. 316 . Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5.
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