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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
In. Jainism and their educational implication. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. and Jain system of education.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. discusses the regional educational development in India. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Lesson 4. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. The need. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. Lesson 5. Lesson 2. 9 . Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government.
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .184.108.40.206.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 220.127.116.11 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.6.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 18.104.22.168 Jain system of education 1.1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1 22.214.171.124.6.6 Education during British Era 1.2 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.3.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1.LESSON 126.96.36.199.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.5.
explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.1. 1. British system of education presented the modern western model. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.1. in morals and in the intellect”. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. Muslim and British periods. “a class of persons.1.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.9 1.1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.1. India. in opinion.7 1.6. both present and future. 1.1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.8 1. The history of education passed through Buddhist. describe the Jain system of Education 4. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. Indian in blood and colour. but English in taste.1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. Education in India.1. elucidate the education during British Era.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3. you will be able to: 1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 188.8.131.52 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. That 12 . has a long past history starting in vedic education.
Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. 5. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. 13. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. the monitorial plan was followed. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. 9. There was. from eternal to immorality 2. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. as it is generally considered to be at present. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 14. religious and spiritual. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. 3. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. managed entirely by Brahmans. The immediate aim of education. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. with grants of land or money. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Teacher as Parents. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. It was not merely intellectual. Individual Teaching. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. however. Role of Travel in Education. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Where pupils were many. followed by explanation by the teacher. Education was a private affair of the people. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. 4. Religious and Spiritual. 11. if they thought fit to do so. and to agriculture and trade. questioning by the pupil. It was also moral. Method of Instruction. 13 . The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Pupils were taught. Free and Accessible. 12. Curriculum. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. generally. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. No State Control on Education. Forests as Centres of Education.knowledge was real. 8. individually. Method of Study. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. from darkness. to light. High Status of Teachers. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Education of Moral. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. 6. 16. Residential Schools. Immediate Aim Vocational. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. 10. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. not en masse by the class method. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced.
It was freely available to all those who wanted. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. 2. lived a life of celebacy. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 .2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised.1.17. They were very cordial and intimate. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. It was suited to the needs of the society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. studied Vedas. Wide-Spread Education in Women.3. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony.
Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Right activity 5. the student had his head shaved of all hair. he was qualified to become a monk. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. medium of Pali. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Right speech 4. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. 1. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Right memory 8. partaking of food at prohibited times. disease and death of the human beings. every class in society. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. Right means of livelihood 6. I take Refuge to Dharma. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. use of intoxicating things. Consequently. in which. etc.4. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Right knowledge 2. Right thought 3.1. which included abstaining from theft. the most significant of which were the following 1. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. use of cosmetics. 15 . killing of any living being. taking things without being offered. After attaining the age of 20. watching dances or listening to music. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. Right contemplation 1. impure conduct. Education was imparted through the. It was denied only to the ill. except the Chandals. 2. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. dressed himself in yellow clothes.C. had the right to receive education. Right endeavour 7. I take Refuge to Sangh. the handicapped. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves.
These are called later Buddhist schools. Later on. etc. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. education was impart in art. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. be considered the aim of education It. Hence. a continuous change creating 16 . medicine. therefore. archery. elephant lore. along with education in script writing. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. 4. As reality is becoming. wear three items. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. After this ritual. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. beg for alms. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. objectives of human life. knowledge of reviving the dead. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. eat food thrice a day. bodily gestures. 8. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. cottage industries. control over sensuous activities.4. meaning. 7. depth and range. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. 3. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. so long as it successfully does so. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. a change is not only total but also perpetual. assumptions. 1. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. On this occasion. approach. 5. archery. geology. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. agriculture.. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. etc. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. arithmetic and religious discussion. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. of clothes. aspirations and. it is regarded as true”. however. has no metaphysical value for life. 6. 2. the presence of the monks was essential. the science of taming and training animals. Initially. nature. Life is in a flux. Whatever its nature and extent. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. nothing is of any permanent consequence.3.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. It comprehended education in writing. military science. commerce. changing the goals. Even at this stage. handicrafts. and. magic. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. women occupied a position inferior to men. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. animal husbandry. etc.
however.e. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Its chief feature. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. therefore. However. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. In fact. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6.5. whatever works are true and good.new and peculiar situations. and to give it a shape that it has today. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. i. Jainism insists 17 . Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. Validity is effective and consequences.1. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. Education must. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. it is much older than the latter. goes to Vardhaman. its pessimistic outlook on life. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. 5. Write Eight fold path . such as. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder.
Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. 5. rather than the interpretation of the universe. and believe in happiness to all. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. b) Not utter falsehood.1. 6. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Hence. 18 . Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. d) To lead a celibate life. c) Not to steal. b) Right knowledge. it has a foot in both the words. 4.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. 1. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. but on both. c) Right conduct. Development of personality as an individual. 7. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. more stress on individual aims. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul.5. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. and is to be redeemed and liberated. 1. e) To renounce the world. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. 2. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. As such. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. 2.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. thought and deed. 3. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. 9. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. They are: a) Not to injure. 3. 10. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. 8. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva.
success and love. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 19 .4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Jiva is essentially karmic. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . What are Triratnas ? . Teaching must develop these faculties. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. here and now. 8. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. 5. practised and not only aspired for.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 2. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. education should develop sense of discrimination. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. and should bring happiness to all. therefore. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. 3. 4. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world.5. 1.5. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories.4. Hence. 1. that would be socially desirable. 3. 2. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Belief in transmigration of soul.
They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. primary 20 . North West Province and Punjab. 1. 1. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. 1953). with rally and rout.6. 1. 2. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own.6. However.6. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854.1. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. science.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. philosophy and literature of Europe. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. To set up separate departments of. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report.6. Madras. Bombay. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. and not for life. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.1. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. 1. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.
education was neglected. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). • Secondary education. secondary education became a step towards university. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. 1. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. The universities dominated the secondary education. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature.K. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success.6. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. In 1882. • Universal free primary education.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. namely. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. To ensure qualitative improvement.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. 1. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. Later on. At that time M.6. at the primary level. 1. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. self-respecting and competent. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. Then the prevalent education was anti-national.6. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937).
Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. After this stage. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. The report suggested development of adult education scheme.At the primary stage (6-11 years). The objective of education was to provide 22 . 10. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions.1.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. all children are to have a common curriculum.
6. Right knowledge. 4. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Right thought. During the Buddhist period. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. Right contemplation. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses.1. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. 1. 5. establishment of universities. Right endeavour. Right means of livelihood. a. education was impart in art. 23 . 1. science and English language. Right activity. archery. The system of education was well-organised. 2. Right speech. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. Right memory. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. along with education in script writing. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools.1. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India.education of European literature.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil.. 3. 2. b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. military science. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. etc. questioning by the pupil. the science of taming and training animals. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. geology. handicrafts. It was suited to the needs of the society. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. arithmetic and religious discussion. The immediate aim of education. followed by explanation by the teacher. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 4.
Sargent report 12. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Y. Right faith. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. and Nath. 10. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. b. Ltd.1. Aggarwal. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. (1984).C. a. Singh.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Development of personality as an individual. Right knowledge.K. Sharma. b. (2009). J. c. Right conduct. Improvement of Literature. History of Indian Education System. 1882. 1937 1. (2005). Hence.7. 9. (2007). Development of Educational System in India. Y. a. 11. R. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education.K. J. 24 .C. Ltd. 8. more stress on individual aims.
The 25 .2.9 1.8 1.7 1.1 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.4 National Policy on Education 184.108.40.206.3.1 University Education Commission 220.127.116.11.2.2 1.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 18.104.22.168 1.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.5 1.2.3 Kothari Commission 22.214.171.124.2.4 1.LESSON 1.
All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. vocational education. New Educational Policy. 2. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. S. There had been vast institutional expansion. National Board of Teacher Education 10.2. you will be able to: 1. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3.conditions of the teachers. technical. medical and legal education. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. expansion of vocational. standard of teaching. National Council for Women’s Education 5. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. analyse the progress of education in free India. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. secondary and higher education. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. diversification of courses of studies. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. examination system. explosion of enrolment. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. technological engineering. 1. 1986 1.3.2. Kothari (1964-66) 8. girls and women education besides primary. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. 1. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Post-graduate 26 .welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. curriculum.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr.
Finally. A meaningfully Partnership. 1. the New National Policy on Education. Government of India.2.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. utility and financial outlay. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. 1. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. 1986. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 .4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. However. in January 1985.3. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29.3. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. The Essence and Role of Education.2. Problems of access. Education is the key to our allround development. 1952.2. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. 2. 4. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. D. A. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. Therefore. research et. the chairman of University Grants commission. quality. material and spiritual. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. 3. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. Kothari. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar.teaching. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education.S. 1966. National System of Education. accumulated over the years.3. 1. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. quantity.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. Education for Equality. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.
2. the concepts of work experience. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. attitudes.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes.” Thus. Thus. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. The UNESCO Report. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. By working with hands. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It can train practical aptitudes. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. the minorities and the handicapped. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. 28 .
1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. “It may be described. With adequate planning. Besides. if he wishes. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position.employment and promote economic independence of the youth.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. co-ordinations. The Radhakrishnan Commission.” The Mudaliar Commission. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. the Commission. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. it will conduce self. “The aim of these colleges. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . In 1955. As such." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. co-operation and implementation of the scheme.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. According to. The Education Commission. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity.
The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. the rigid streaming of courses. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. Subsequently. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n.ot her. admission requirements to vocational courses. the. The Central Advisory Board of Education. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. etc. raising the special facilities. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. With a view to relating education to the life. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts..” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. In addition. for quality of life in the rural areas. Therefore. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. the semester and credit system. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated.
manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. meaningful. According to committee. felt that education should be centred around a craft. The Father of Nation. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. Commerce. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. preferably spinning and weaving. aimed at this goal. 1.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. manual work resulting in either goods or services. In short. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. giving importance to productivity in the national development. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken.. which are useful to the community. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. meaningful.2. which offer scientific. who conceived the System of Basic Education. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed.defined S UP W as “purposive. which swept the country for over two decades. etc. The wave of Basic Education.and the world of work. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 31 . technological courses including Agriculture. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000.
Clothing 5. Educative and 3. as far as possible. Experimentation with materials. Some Hints to Teachers 1. 3. 2. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Community work and social service. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Shelter 4. so that it is educational in essence. tools and techniques and 3. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Work practice.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Culture and recreation 6. 4. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. The teachers should make use of. Food 3. 32 . Productive 2. be that the work involved is: 1. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Health and Hygiene 2. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. locally available materials and tools. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning.
5. inculcate a faith. removal of illiteracy. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Such activities may include projects of village uplift.2. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. be allied to the elective chosen by the students.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. To make education more realistic. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. It can become an instrument to build character. as far as possible. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. slum clearance. 6. Education through work The SUPW should. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Check on educated unemployed 4. improve discipline. 1. Community Service In-1972. Productive Work 33 . work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. etc. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. the local community should be actively associated. Merits of the Programme 1.
should involve itself in the educational effort. offering first aid. etc. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. if not productive. helping the adults-in productive work. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. in turn. traffic control. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. AICTE was set up in year 4. The community. skills and better future for the children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. Define SUPW 34 . Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the work areas in SUPW 6.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”.
Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Dr. d. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. 2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2. 35 . manual work resulting in either goods or services.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. 3. Radhakrishnan 2. Write short note on SUPW. 1952 126.96.36.199. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 1. 1955 4.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. e. which are useful to the community. c. f. 1. b. meaningful. 6. a.
P.C. B..2. (2005). Development of Educational System in India. History and Problems of Indian Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.K. : Sharma.P. (2009).D. Rao. and Rao. Ltd. Amala. New Delhi: A. Y. J.K. Singh.1.(2005).H. and Nath. 36 . (2007). A.P. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Anupama. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.K. History of Indian Education System. (2007). New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. Publishing Corporation. R. History of Education. V. Y.
every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. establishing the structure.3.6 1.3. and liberty. containing 395 articles. procedures. 37 . it came into effect on January 26.9 1. 1950. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.2 1.3.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.369 words in the English language version. assuring its citizens of justice. directive principles and duties of citizens.3.4 1.1 188.8.131.52 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. equality.3.3.3. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. for a total of 117.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. democratic republic.3. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.3.7 1.1 Significance of DPSP 1.8 1. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.5 1. Being the supreme law of the country.3. there is an official Hindi translation.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. Besides the English version.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. 1949.
11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. Two days later.3.3. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. for 166 days. Dr. 1. 1947. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands.In the August 14. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. Through them. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 2. political. 1. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. 38 . the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. the Drafting Committee was appointed.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. describe the important constitutional articles related to education.3. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. understand our Indian constitution. 1. 4. 1947.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. learn the role of central and state government on education. 1950. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. According to the constitution. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. social. spread over a period of 2 years.3. you will be able to: 1. in sessions open to public. with Dr. On August 29. legal and environmental. 3. administrative. The Assembly met. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. economic. After many deliberations and some modifications. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects.
That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. make effective provision for securing the right to work. and in other cases of undeserved want. men and women. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Article 42. sickness and disablement. 39 . on the basis of equal opportunity. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Article 39A. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. Liking wage etc. The State shall. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. The State shall endeavour to secure. Protecting children from exploitation. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. in particular. That the health and strength of workers.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. old age. Article 40. Equal pay for both sex. Article 43.government. Right to work. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. and shall. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Appropriate concentration of wealth. No abuse of children. Condition for dignity of children. Minimising inequalities in status. Article 41. provide free legal aid. Protecting health of the workers. Organisation of village panchayat. for workers. Equal justice and free legal aid. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment.
It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. The State shall endeavour to provide. agricultural.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. in particular. Article 48. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. 2002 for “45. Article 48A. Article 47. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Article 45. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Article 46. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. industrial or otherwise. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Participation of workers in management of industries. See also Article 21A). by suitable legislation or in any other way. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. in particular. The State shall take steps. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. (Original Article 45. in particular. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. a living wage. to all workers. Article 43A. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Note: Subs. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. and. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. work. Article 44. [declared by or under law made by 40 . Article 49.
What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Article 45 . 2002. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. destruction. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. 2. as the case may be.3. Article 51. Promotion of international peace and security. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. 1. Article 50. from spoliation. disfigurement. Article-21A Right to Education. removal.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. disposal or export. may be law determine”. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. maintain just and honourable relations between nations.Parliament] to be of national importance. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. Separation of judiciary from executive. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
6. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. and shall protect them. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. 3. iii. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. if such person is a minor. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. language or any of them”. race. 7. 5. 2002. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. his guardian has given his consent thereto. 4. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. ii. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. 8. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. and. from justice and all forms of exploitations. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. in particular.” 42 . caste.
to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4.3. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. The central government determines targets and promotes education. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Educational Reforms From time to time. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. wherever necessary or desirable. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. 2. 43 .9. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. for its vocabulary. and by drawing. & 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the forms.
. The following pilot projects. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. etc. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. to achieve the desired ends. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. 6. So as to encourage education on right lines. So that they may work well. private agencies etc. By starting these projects. the state governments. 7. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Production of suitable for children and adults f. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. All India Council of Medical Science. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Local bodies and private enterprise. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society.3. 4. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). 5. 8. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education.
Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. 10. 3. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. handicapped. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. 12. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. The 45 . Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. education for women. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. 11. are published by it. reports etc. 9. is the state responsibility. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. books. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. 4.3. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. research. etc. 1. Material concerning nation-wide interests.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. 1. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. training and statistics. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers.
1. Explain Directive principles 2.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Article 21A c. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.3. 5. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 45 b. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Article 46 4. articles in the Directive principles. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Write short notes on a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 46 . 1.
b. Article 46 5. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Article 29 and 30 7. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 47 . embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Article 45 . Ambedkar 2. Development of Hindi Language 6. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b.3. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. b. Article-21A Right to Education. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Dr. a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.5. 2002. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 2002. The Directive Principles of State Policy. 1. may be law determine”. a. a. Describe the educational role of State Government. 3. Clearing House function 9.
48 . Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ghosh. Bhatia. S. S. N. (2007). (2004). (2009).3. K. Dash. Education in Emerging Indian Society. L.1. B. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. (2008).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. K and Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.
184.108.40.206 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India. religious education should be broad based.3.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.2 1.1 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4.4. Christianity.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.5 1. Buddhism etc.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.6 220.127.116.11 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4 Moral education 1.4.3 Precautions while introducing 18.104.22.168.4. Students should be 49 .3.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1. Islam.1 Why Moral Education 1.8 1. Jainism.22.214.171.124.7 1.
state meaning and need for moral education 1. Thus.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. "In A multireligious society like ours. 1. religious education and the concept of secularism. know the position of religious education in our country 3. According to E.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. beauty and goodness so that 50 . Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends.and dedication..” Education broadens human outlook. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). integrity. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. duty-consciousness. In the complicated and complex society of today. you will be able to: 1.4. As result of which.D. India' can produce men of character. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher.4.
Children attend these organizations.4. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. rancour. No religious tax can be imposed on them. According to Article 22. Viewing the defects of religious education.3. In short. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values.” From the above. religion and democracy are same. if not regularly. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. 1. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. According to Article 19. all citizens are free to follow any creed. Hence.3. As a matter of fact.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. through religious practices and 51 . Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. As our country is a country of diverse religions. Thus. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. They thought that any kind of narrow.4. at least occasionally. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. castes and creeds. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. 1. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. 1947 we achieved our freedom. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. realizes God in himself.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. it is clear that the State has no religion.
Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. If unreleased. and other impulses are often denied direct expression.. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way.teachings. Good education. It helps to modify habits attitudes. which help him for the development of his character.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. which can mould. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. temperament etc. for the development of the individual and the society. It is religious education. when he becomes an adult. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. intellectual and physical faculties of children. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. moral and spiritual values. aggressive. what is done and what is not done etc. and what is evil. He also learns about social. As a result of which. one fully developed.
Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds.4. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. This should not be allowed to happen.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”.3. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. 53 . This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Therefore. 1. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. If we open the pages of history. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. 3. towards the society. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. 2. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. which is the basic need of a democratic life. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum.
service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. List out any two aims of religious education? 3.4.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Since all religions have virtues. For this. fellow-feeling. 9. stories of moral greatness. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 11. Life histories of great persons of the world. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. churches and mosques 7.5. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. examples of patriotism. 10. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Write Article 22 2. Gurudwara as. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. therefore. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school.
the methods of teaching. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. in the home. is that which develops moral values. therefore. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. They will play their role effectively. 2.4. 7. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Ahimsa (Non-violence). students. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. 4. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). The content of the curriculum. Asvada (Control of palate).6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Cultivation of emotions. 8. Service to others. Patriotism. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. It they learn what morality is in their early years. 5. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 7. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. 6. 1. Fearlessness. “Let all be happy and free from disease. 3. 4. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 5. let men see well of one another. 8. Aparigarha (Non. Satyam (truth).of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Without moral values. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Self sacrifice. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 2. 1. Moral education. 55 . 3. Purity. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration).4.acquisitiveness). Non-injury. 6. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations.
Love for humanity and Self-discipline. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Unity of mankind. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability).9. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. minutes in the morning for group singing. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Efficiency. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. 3. 2. 56 . Discipline. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Secondary Stage 1. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Good manners. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Asatyam (Non-thieving). Good temper. National unity and Spiritual values.4. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. discipline. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Sharivashram (Physical work). Integrity. religions may be included in the syllabus. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 1. 4. 3. 10. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Simple texts and stories concerning different. In the school programme. 11.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In other words. should form a normal part of school programme. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. 57 . love of humanity. 5. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. 5. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. University Stage 1.4. In this connection. 4. patriotism and self-discipline. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Silent meditation should be encouraged. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 2. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour.
1. 1. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. a.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. minutes in the morning for group singing. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. 4. 58 . b. Discuss the aims of Religious education. a. b. 2. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. a.4. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. For this. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1. Sri Prakasa 6 . The School Assembly should be held for a few. the.4.4. 1959 5. Training of Character 3. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. In short. 2.
J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. B. Theory and Principles of Education.1. Dash. Ltd. (2008). Pahuja. N. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004). New Delhi : Siddiqui.H. Bhatia. N.C. (2003).P. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi: A. (2008).H. K and Narang C. P. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. M.4. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. L. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. 59 . K.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.
126.96.36.199.5.6 1.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.8 1.5.10 1.5. Although. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5.7 1.e.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. 60 .1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.2 1.9 1.12 1.5.4 1.5. i.3 1.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively..5.1 1.11 1.5 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context. disparities between provinces/States.
3. waters. 8. etc. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. 1. This leads to separatist movements. you will be able to: 1. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1.1. know the education suited to different environments.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. for example. 6. roads. work hard towards this end. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 4.5. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 1. Accordingly. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. 7. they take appropriate measures. 61 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. They therefore. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 2.5. energy. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.5.5. 1. understand the regional educational development in India 3. 5.
The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. while others remained educationally backward. • Separate States (of course viable States). Tight security arrangements should be made.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. 62 . education as a fundamental human right was recognized. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. on the basis of regional development may be formed. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. some States became educationally far advanced. 2. Therefore. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. Secularism. some average. 3. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. and. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions.5. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. 4.
Central Universities of Assam. etc. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. books. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. NIT.g. Mizoram. Silchar. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. 1. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Out of this.392. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. Nagaland and NEHU. In the Central sector. Rs. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. since its inception in 1998-99. while some States like Bihar. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. Tezpur. After the attainment of independence.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. academic buildings.5. Itanagar. Even in each State. and provision of informal education to enable those. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. scholarships. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Guwahati. remained under developed. Funds amounting to Rs.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. library buildings. the Union Government. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. However. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. the State Governments.480.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. Jammu and Kashmir.. NERIST. approved proposals worth Rs. 63 . certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. These projects are in various stages of implementation. Regional Centres of IGNOU.After the Planning Process has originated.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity.84 crore was released in 2005-06. etc. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted.14. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools.
40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.57 crore and Rs. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.500.187.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. 64 . the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.5. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. During 2003-04. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. A provision of Rs. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.40. too.8 per cent in 05).42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.05 crore and Rs. Out of this an amount of Rs.261. Government expenditure on education. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.501. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. Tezpur University. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. Moreover.
and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. English. Tamil Nadu. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. for instance. too. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). telecom. Moreover. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. 1. The Chandigarh Administration. Karnataka. notes the study. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. too. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. Medical education. pharma. too.5. for which 16 sites. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Kerala and Gujarat. engineering and R&D. Listing the positives. health services and welfare of the citizen population. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. To add to the woes. Andhra Pradesh.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. Karnataka. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level.
year. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. In the same manner. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. even actually looking at the watch. For a learner living in a rural area. taking the average in the middle. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. the needs. 66 . Of course. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. life-oriented and environment slanted. which a non-tribal person cannot do. The living conditions. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. the interests. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. when he will not be sure of time. and so on. the socio-physical conditions. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. in which the learners live. the vocations. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. the working days: an academic .people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. Then education become realistic and idealistic. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. while the former does not. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. the curricular subjects. Hence it is called as need-based. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. The working hours of educational institutions. the teaching methods.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2.5. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .5. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. 1. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. to suit education to different environments? 1. 2.5. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 67 .11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
R. S. (2008). (2001). a. 68 . Education Scenario in India.N. remained undeveloped 3. 60% 1. C. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Dubey. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. (2001). some of areas which were under the native rulers. New Delhi: Anmol Publications.2. some States have become more developed than others b.G.5.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S. Salim. A. (2002). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Educational Development in India.K. Giridhar.H. New Delhi: Authors press. and Nair. Education in Developmental Arena. during the British rule.
UNIT – II 69 .
community development. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. National Integration.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. semi literate and illiterates. school community and mass media. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. 71 . The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept.
1.1.1 2.5.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.1.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.6 Education for Secularism 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 220.127.116.11 Main features of Socialism 2.LESSON 18.104.22.168 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124 2.6.9 2.1.4 2.1.3 2.
socialism and secularism 2. Democracy thus means power of the people. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. The students may be associated with the management of the school. for the people by the people”. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. In the matter of admitting students in schools. This is the political aspect of democracy. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 2.1. socialism and secularism 2. socialistic and secular state.1. 3) Provision of Manual Work.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’.2. understand the concept of democracy. colour or wealth. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.1. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 73 . Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. there should be made no distinction of caste. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. 5) Encouragement to Group Work.1.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. Abraham Lincoln. creed. you will be able to: 1. 2. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.
Democracy means 2. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. declamation contest etc. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. it soon spread all over the world. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. debates. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. may be planned. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. 11) Student Parliament. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. 74 .6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work.. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 12) Visits to Legislatures. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. There are different brands of socialism. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3.1. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression.
5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. none high”.5. 75 .2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 2) Socialism aims at equality. the wealthy and the poor. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. the prince and the peasant. Under it.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 7) Special facilities for girls. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. but on the path of non-violence. 2. service and cooperation.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.1.1. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. oppression and disparity. 2. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. free from exploitation. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling.5. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.
Write any two main features of socialism. According to Holydake.1. “India is a secular-country.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. 2. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. secularism is being propagated. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. 5. 76 .9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. "which seeks the development of physical.” In every political and educational corner. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. Everyone says. 11) State schools.
6. Moral values have to be imbibed. 3) It permits freedom of worship. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. should be independent of religion. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. 9) It stress free inquiry.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. education etc. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 2. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. people have narrow mindedness. people started believing in regionalism. 2) It permits freedom of religion.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state.1. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. During the recent past. 77 . Equality. 8) It believes in co-existence. liberty. In this type of prevailing situations. A large number of people is uneducated. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. There is need of making the people open minded. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 5) It implies tolerance.1. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading.6. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. the belief that the state morals.opposed to religious education. “Webster further says. fraternity. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. That is why. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended.
There should be some internal checking of the material being.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers.presented by the students in the gathering. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. students belonging to different religions should be associated. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. 1) Moral Education. While doing so. The very sight of the building. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. 2. education. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. In the celebration of each such function. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. In the hands of such teachers. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Patiala. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. that the central string of all religions is one. Religious Education. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. No doubt. tours and trips may be organized. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow.6.1. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.
List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. The word “Seculum” means 7. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. 2. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The term secularism was first used by 8. Define Secularism 9. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. No doubt. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.1. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. The two can move only in the consonance with each other.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Tuition free education b. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. colour or wealth. there should be made no distinction of caste. In the matter of admitting students in schools. 2. a. Socialism aims at social justice. 3. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. b. 4. b. Respect of Individual Personality. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. d. 3. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. c. 5. creed. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. a. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. The students may be associated with the management of the school. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. Since socialism stands for equality. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 6. Power of the people 2. Equal Opportunities for Admission. This present age 7. Provision of Manual Work.1. 5. Socialism aims at equality.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. a. for the people and the people”. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. George Jacob Holydake 80 .9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 4. Abraham Lincoln.
Anmol Publications Pvt. 81 .10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2007). Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. K. b. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Ltd. a. New Delhi : Pahuja. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. should be independent of religion. Modern Trends in Indian Education.C. (2005). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. b. a. the belief that the state morals. (2003).1.8. N. B. K and Narang C. education etc. N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society.” 9. (2008). P. Bhatia. Ltd. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. J. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Mohanty. L. (2004). It permits freedom of religion. J. 10. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Dash.
11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 126.96.36.199.6.8 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .1 188.8.131.52 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.LESSON 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.184.108.40.206 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.5.4 220.127.116.11.2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.7 2.5.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.9 2.2 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.3 18.104.22.168 2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.
The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. skills. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. application. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. as learners. you will be able to: 1.2. 83 . necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. as it is t he aim o f modern education. 3. therefore. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. and 4. understandings. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. social and moral aspects. development. as citizens. mental. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. The developmental roles of children. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. 2. as persons. a r e 1. social. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. aims and objectives of the school. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. A teacher is first and foremost.2. as workers.generation to another. emotional. moral. who are placed in his custody.an instructor of school children. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. 2. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. 2. It involves physical.
Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. experiences and acceptance. motivated. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. socially. He has to look after their physical.All education should lead to better behavioural development. 1. mentally. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. The following are some of such roles described in brief. He is to become an active member. 2. and aesthetically to become. Teacher as a Citizen Next. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society.2. morally. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. 2. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. morally. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. 3. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. intellectually. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. mental.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. culturally confident. inquisitive. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. member of his community at the outset. economically effective. physically fit for socially efficient. emotionally. social and emotional health. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. The students live. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. a part of their day in 84 . He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen.
Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. science club. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. faiths. languages and religions. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. activities of the society into which he is born. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. fine art associations. Unless. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It 85 . the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. creeds. Dr. 4. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. and most of hours.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. They will be spending with their parents.the school being under the custody of teachers. photographic clubs. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. India is a land of many castes.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. solve them. 2. List out the role of teachers towards community development .2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Nehruji has explained this as. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. b. stand up straight. poems. a.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. Political integration has already taken place to some extent.5. At the primary stage the importance of stories. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice.” Regarding the role of education. this integration of the Indian people. should be emphasised. social studies. and make into one strong national unit. national anthem and other national songs. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. the citizens of the Republic of India. Sampurnanand remarked. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. ‘We should not become parochial. It should broaden the outlook. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.2. 1. c. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. therefore. Radhakrishnan. Let us.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. The only process is the process of education. folklore and teaching of social studies. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. the study of language and literature. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr.is. with straight backs and look up at the skies. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar.” 2. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . narrow-minded provincial. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country.
one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved.different social sciences. languages and literature. Celebrations of National Days. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Textbooks. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. dramatics and youth festivals. 10. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. sports. Uniform for School Children. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Student Camps. Taking Pledge. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. 8. National Days—January 26. tours. 3. 9. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. 6. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Reverence of National Flag. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. symposia. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. and picnics. 2. ACC. Co-Curricular Activities. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. 5. educational excursions. 4. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. 87 . debates. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. 7. Scouts and Guides. militar y training like the NCC. t he st udent s and t he community. Singing of National Anthem.
v. iii. 14. 16. 12. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. School Projects. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Open-Air Dramas. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. iv.5. 15. Educational and Travel Documentaries. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. ways of thinking and doing things. 2. Students Exchange and Tours.2. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. language. region or religion. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. Recognition of Institutions. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. Admissions. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. colour. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . 88 .11. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. 13. ii. flora and fauna. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Admissions to schools. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i.
vii. cultures and races on equal bases. ix.2. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained.vi. 2. Community dinners. camps. Define National Integration 3. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. irrespective of national boundaries. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. viii. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity.
either plunged in or overshadowed by war. (c) fairly tales. 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. the international level. 2.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it.. Dr. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”.2. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. Therefore. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. (b) stories of children of other lands. Teachers 90 . and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. In a very real sense.friendships between children of different countries. therefore. often in connection with anniversaries. 3. 6.2. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. 5. patriotism is not enough. that war.6.as important as that of a national citizenship. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. C.6. if it happens.e. Strong has observed. This. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. Radhakrishnan states. of his body and mind. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. and the healthy development.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. 4.” 2. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Organising of debates and.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.F.
Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. Impartial in their Treatment.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. a German. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Russian. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should not be propagandists. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 .should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. an Englishman. Indian and American. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts.
7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. there is wide spread frustration among all people.2.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. Defects of the educational System . majority of people are. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. If this is done. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. 4. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. Chronic Poverty . Wide Spread Frustration . Devaluation of Values . It does not prepare students for life.Another major. 3. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. 2. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. 5. which results in agitation and aggression language. the education function can be carried. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. and help the students to over . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. As the school is but a miniature society. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. leading to.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom.2. understand and indiscipline: 1.
How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. 4. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. 3. 2.2. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. 93 .2. co-operation. love. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. community development. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.democratic nature.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. sympathy and good will among the nations. 2. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. etc. fellow feeling. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 5. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. List out six characteristics of a good teacher.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 22.214.171.124 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 126.96.36.199 Functions and role of schools in the society 188.8.131.52 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 184.108.40.206 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 220.127.116.11 Radio as an agency of education 18.104.22.168 Television as an agency of education 22.214.171.124 Press as a medium of education 126.96.36.199 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
188.8.131.52 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 184.108.40.206 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
220.127.116.11 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
18.104.22.168 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
citizens and school leaders must co-operate. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Hence. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. are increasingly used in education.V. Define community. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders.3. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. the invention of the printing press. Crow and Crow write. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Now internet is being used. “All the citizens of the community. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. Museums. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Moreover. led to the printing of books. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. In fact. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. books. periodicals. He taught his students orally. Then came newspapers.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Emphasising this thing. To make them achieve their aim.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. During the course of time. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. 2. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. art galleries. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T.
classroom teachers. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. It enlightens public opinion. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. art. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Students listen various talks. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. current affairs and other areas. Thus. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. In collaboration with the experts.telecast. languages. Important happening inventions. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. It is also an important source of entertainment. Various talks. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Thus. 2. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. 2. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Effective means of presenting music. the place of importance. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded.G. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. 101 .6. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. music. Reynolds. for the teacher through school broadcasts. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. dram appreciation. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. social studies.3. “Listening participation” in current history. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. politics. rather than on picture. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. A lot of work by way of pre. It stimulates curiosity and interests. In the emphasis is on sound. the teacher still occupies.
School concerts. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. Making learning an open system. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. at recreational centers. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. Participation of local teachers and pupils. 102 . While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. fol classical music. 5. informal and non-formal education. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. development of lessons.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. 3. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. projects or creative activities. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. at any place. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. at drawing room. plays. style. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. at play. mathematics. audibility and presentability. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. travel talks. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. 4. Team-teaching demonstrations. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. Before presenting the programme. At present. speech.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 22.214.171.124 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
126.96.36.199 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 188.8.131.52 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.2 Levels of formal education system 184.108.40.206.8 220.127.116.11 Limitations of formal education 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.4.LESSON 18.104.22.168.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.3.7 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.2 2.4.1 22.214.171.124.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 126.96.36.199.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.5 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 Advantages of Non formal education 2.
7.. imparted at the residence of the teacher.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. the community. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. To realize this objective of education. 2. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. 3. the mass media et. 5. 9.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. it was mostly.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 4. his mental alertness. 6. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. Education. the most important agency of formal education.2. 2.3. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. 4. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period.4. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. compare formal and non formal system of education.4. 110 . the temple. open university. Education organised by some agency. In ancient time in India. School is. 3. the family. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. 8. open school. you will be able to: 1. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 2. starting and ending at -a particular age.4.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.4. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. the learner are acquainted. say the Government or the private enterprise. 2. 2.
Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. capacity. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals.4. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. Higher Education: Higher education. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. third stage. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Through early formal education. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. or post secondary education.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. such as a high school or secondary school. Concepts of proportion.3. also called tertiary. as well as vocational education and training. 2. structured education. Some education systems have separate middle schools. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them.4. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. diplomas.3. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. In general.a secondary education. the elements of language are first learned. or academic degrees.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. depending on the jurisdiction.2.
children with disabilities. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. 2. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1.4. and remote dwellers. 3. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.3. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.4. 4. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . late beginners etc. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Agencies can be classified as 2.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities.which will help for nation's development. What are levels of formal educational system? . is an important agency of formal education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. until 1970 it had not been defined. It is functional. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. admissions.formal education. planned..” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. adults as well as children.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. Open university. it is a more effective tool for rural development. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. staffed. it has its own valid claim to reality. etc. place of instruction. financially supported life formal education. It is much more responsive to needs and change. curriculum. open learning.learning client take some learning objectives. to help themselves. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. systematic. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. Therefore. Non-formal education includes adult education. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. Thus. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. continuing education and on the job oriented education. “Non-formal education should 113 . i. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. Adiseshiah. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. According to Malcolm A. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. However. adding up to a true learning society. systematic. It is deliberate. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. one could say that non-formal education is an active.e. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. It unlocks the doors of development plans.
• • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.4.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. international understanding. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. place of education. To develop in the student. curriculum. Part-time education. i. It should lay emphasis on the self.4.be marketable and vocationalised. national integration.” According to H. age. evaluation etc. 7. Flexibility in various aspects of education. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. 2. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs.S. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills.S. the Ideas of citizenship.e.4. 6. 114 . co-curricular activities.” 2. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. self. modes of teaching. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.renewal. To help industrial workers to better their skills. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. Covering life span of an individual. Preparation for future needs. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs.learning pattern. Process of sharing. admissions. socialism. 4. exploring. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. 3.4. 5. 2. Lawrence.
4. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 10. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. school dropouts. 115 .3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. Eradication of adult literacy. Technical. 5. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. • 2.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. in villages and those who live in towns.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. Senior Secondary. 7. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. working adults. publication and information dissemination. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. Universalisation of primary education. 2. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives.4. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 4. 2.4. 8.4. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. To offer Secondary. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 3. 6. 3.4. 9. 5.
2. Again. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. others are formal and informal. To better qualifications. 4. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . factory. All-round development i. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. if organised in isolation. library. self-employment iii.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. etc.4. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home.4. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. 2. open space. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. Institutions for formal education. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. To make if. Therefore.4. To increase knowledge and 2.2. 3. farm.full time to learners – can be home. centres of correspondence education. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals.. etc. public libraries. Radio and television. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. training centres in factories. effective in modern societal context.
6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Lecturing T. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. List out any two aims of non formal education. institution. Give examples of non formal education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 7. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Correspondence lesson. Essay Assignments and short answer questions.V. Face Contact programmes. radio. 6. Define non formal education. 117 . Teaching to face teaching. . period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Written tests. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
Secondary level. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. 2. Open School. a. Open University.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education.4. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. 3. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. the college and the university come under this category. b.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. a. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Pre-school level. School 3. systematic. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 7. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress.4. 4. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. The school.” 6. 118 .2. Higher Secondary level and University level. 4. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. 5.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society.4. adults as well as children. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. b. Formal and Non Formal 2. 2. Primary level. 2.
C. L. Education in Emerging India. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). B. N. Pahuja. (2007).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Mohanty. J. (2008). Gupta. Ltd. Dash. N. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. Ltd. Bhatia. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. K. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004). K and Narang C.2. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.4. New Delhi : 119 . Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. S. Theory and Principles of Education. P. (2005). (2003).
5.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.1 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.5 220.127.116.11 Characteristic features of open University 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .4.6 2.5.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Methods of teaching in Open University System 126.96.36.199 Need for Open University 2.7 188.8.131.52.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.5.2 2.3 Objectives of Open University 184.108.40.206 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.3.4 Open University 220.127.116.11.LESSON 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.
farmers. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. It is a lifelong process.3. 2.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. continuing education is a boon. For them. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. you will be able to: 1. Education is for refinement and enlightenment.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. However. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. 2. give the meaning. Any person. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3.5. industries.2. know the need and objectives of open university.5.5.5. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . Under these circumstances. Thus. 2. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. labourers and half educated individuals. economic field or such other fields. characteristics of open university 4. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. This knowledge may be in political field. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. It is a continuous process. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other.
thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education.V. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Radio. cultured and progressive. Cinema. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society.literate person. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. For them too continuing education is essential. On the other hand. are also contributing their might for the purpose. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Persons engaged in health services. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. Throughout the country. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons.directly related to his job. Doctors.V. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons.3. deteriorating to his character and personality. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Block Development Officers. On the other hand. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Radio and T. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . After the achievement of independence. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Thus. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest.5. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. T.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. 2. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. if he gets opportunity to develop them. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress.
4. (10) first aid. 2. (16) liking. 123 . 5. 2. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it.3.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. 7.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely.5. (2) basic religious matters. habits of people of other lands. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (4) the fundamentals of economics. we have not been able to achieve our targets. (15) music. especially women. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements.3. 6.5. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (8) psychology of adults.V. (1) ancient history. (7) folk songs. Of course. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (17) modern international and national events. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (6) folk stories. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (13) psychology of child behaviour. 2. These books are not very useful. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases.. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. Inspite of the great efforts. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. and Radio. (14) information about bringing up young children. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. 3.
T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. of educational opportunities.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background.4.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. attendance restrict ion.5.5. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. lack of time etc. NLM was launched in the year 2. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.
Education is not a once for-all process. e. 5.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. 2. b. it makes use of educational techno logy. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. but 125 . 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. and in teaching. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . d. its education is not class room based but home based. Which was the first open university in India? . c. No one is too old or too late to learn. 2. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 3. IGNOU was established in the year 6.5.4. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.unobserved. the higher the degree of openness.
Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. it a ims at wider and hig her. Mo re o ver. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 2.5. 4. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n.4. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 3. 2.who did not get it. who were deprived of t he same earlier. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 4. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 5. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 2.4.5. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. supplementing the existing provision.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 126 . 2. 3. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. cho ice o f co ur ses. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 6. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. or who realised too late that they need it. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l.
2. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. 8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. a society. school drop outs. you have learnt the concept.5. 127 . They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will.5. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . List out any four methods of Open University? . B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Laboratory works. Therefore. Self instructional materials. a state or nation.2. Tutor Comments. semi – literates.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 6. 2. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. In the present day world. 4. 3.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 1. 8.4. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . Every day. Correspondence tuition.
a. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. (1) ancient history. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 128 . To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 7.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. a. Television Lessons. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. Broad casting lectures c. agricultural and industrial workers. which may include house wives. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. a. 8. unskilled workers and other professionals.5. 9. Explain the objectives. b.5. 6. aspirants for continuing education.ambitious learners. 3. P r int med ia b. its education is not class room based but home based. (4) the fundamentals of economics. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 2.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. 7. (2) basic religious matters. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. 8. 1985. youth. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 4. 1988. d. cho ic e o f co u r ses. b. need and characteristics of Open University.
New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. S. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Udaiveer. (2004). (2001)..8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Reddy. (2007). K and Narang C. Ltd. Modern Problems of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. 129 .5.S.K. (2004). L. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. R. K. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia.2.
UNIT – III 131 .
wastage and stagnation. Training teachers for all levels of education. 133 . the education of women. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. In Lesson 2. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. and teacher education. All which is the need of the hour. its causes and remedial measures. examination. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. Examination reform. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. which may claim the attention of those concerned. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself.
1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.2 EFA – How? 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1.7 3.1. 135 .1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1.8 3.3.1 18.104.22.168 EFA – For whom? 3.LESSON 3.4 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.5 3.1.3 New initiatives.22.214.171.124 3.1.6 3.1.
so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3.1.1. Continuing Education (CE) 1. therefore. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. social. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. may be political. you will be able to: 1. Eradication of Illiteracy. education received added importance and significance. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). 2. directed that.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. economic or cultural. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). 3. Therefore. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. “The State shall 136 .3. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. On the other hand. understands the country. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. (EOI) 2. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country.
From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Universalization of Retention.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. Therefore. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . 137 .endeavour to provide. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Three Stages for Universalization. rights and responsibilities. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. It enables the parents to send their children to School. 3. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. the national Government under. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Continuing Education (CE). This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. After the attainment of independence. Universalization of Enrolment.
What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind.1. This target had to be revised to 1970. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. then to 1976. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. 1990. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Therefore. UNESCO Bulletin states. 138 .3. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. educational enterprise. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It is safe to assure. present and future. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. 1995 (for upper primary stage). later to 1988. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. Write Article 45. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us.
nutrition education and sports and games. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. problem of literacy. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate.3. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. and Women’s education programme should be improved. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. adolescent and adult. By undertaking survey. Education of Girls.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. 5. 6. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. their social economic status and occupations. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. 12. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. 3. Early childhood education should be streamlined. etc. Emphasis must be given on health education. 139 . 8. rural areas. creed. NAEP.1. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. Jams and Jellies. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. The Social Education. Disabled. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. sex. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. slum areas. Education of the Impaired. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. In order to make the programme of education for all community. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. 10. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). Apart from primary education. FELF. 9. their enrolment and retention. 3. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. 11.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Wastage and Stagnation. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.1.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.1. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.3. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.e. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 .3. Expand MLL and SSA . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. 3. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. 4. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. it is considered as wastage. Familial Factors .first stage of education. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . Social Factors . Personal Factors . School Factors .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 142 . Define Wastage. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. . 7.
Societal Factors . rural or urban 3. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . relating to home.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. in his home. school or society.The following factors. School Factors . a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. They are described hereunder :1. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. Personal Factors . Family Factors .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.1.3.
—provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 144 . uniforms. mid-day meals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? .discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. stationary. etc. Define Stagnation? 9.
Minimum Levels of Learning b. b. therefore. directed that. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.1. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. a. Hartog Committee. 3.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education.3. 6. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. 3. Universalization of Enrolment c. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Universalization of Provision b.1..1. 145 . a. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. 2. a. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. “The State shall endeavour to provide. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. 4.” 3. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. improvement of curriculum. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. Universalization of Retention 2. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.
K. New Delhi: 146 . b. 9. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Social Factors 8. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. S.K. (2008). (2007). Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Crescent Publishing Corporation. Personal Factor b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Hemchand. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. 3. improve examination system. School Factors d.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. a. Sharma. introduce graded curriculum. S. a.7.1. Familial Factors c. (2001). T. Problems of Elementary Education.N.
126.96.36.199.2.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.1 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.4.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 188.8.131.52.2 Grade System 184.108.40.206.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 220.127.116.11.2.LESSON 3.5 New evaluation procedures 18.104.22.168.7 Open book examination 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2 3.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 22.214.171.124 Inspection and Supervision 126.96.36.199.2.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .4.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination 188.8.131.52 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.1 Problems of examination 3.4 Question banks 3.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.5.
3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. 3. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4. Besides.3. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .9 3.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2.2. but on the other. 3. 3.8 3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2.2. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.2.2. you will be able to: 1. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. suggest the new evaluation procedures. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.3. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. 3.
separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. etc. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. If the students are in sufficient number. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. roadside Romeoism. They develop secondary sex characteristics. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions.3.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. etc. The following steps should be taken up. by providing free education and liberal scholarships.2.. They may cause problems relating to discipline. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. waiting rooms for girl students. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. 3. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. schools for them wherever necessary. hostel facilities. which the educational authorities have to face. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. etc. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. 149 . other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Instruction. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. 3.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. teachers. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. It is considered as a major sub-system.2.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.4. conduct of internal examinations. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. public administrators and statesmen. the examination system has an important role to play. public interested in education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. appointment of paper-setters. assessment and Finance. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. 150 .
pursuing objective-oriented instruction. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. etc. 3.printing and distribution of question papers. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 .2. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. invigilators. introducing objective-based testing.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. training of examiners. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness.4. scrutinizers. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. etc. etc. tabulators. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. validity and practicability. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. values. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. announcement of results. examiners. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. establishing reliability. etc. etc.
inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. 2) From the angle of content of education.4. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made.. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. which they are expected to study. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. 3. 152 .ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. halo-effect. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. Vagaries in making. Subjects. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. takes the place of comprehensive learning. 3) With respect to method of teaching. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education.2. 7) In connection with the question papers. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. Rote memorisation. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. stereotyped questions. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. lack of objectivity etc.. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. do not appeal to the students and parents.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. also forbid the reliability of these examinations.. it s a common experience that subjectivity. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. may also discredit them.
Spot valuation. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. re-numbering of answer scripts. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.a part of internal assessment. List any two merits of examination. . Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers.develop true love for education. revaluation. may be introduced. etc. 153 .
This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. The students can take any course offered in any department. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. It is complicated.5.3.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. Every paper is treated equal. he is given extra credit points. attitudes. 3. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. When a person chooses to work extra. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .2.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Their interests. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.2. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth.2. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. In this system.5. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. skills are given importance. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. In actual practice. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. The new scheme of assessment.
One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . An example is a seminar. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects.2. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. only the total credits to be earned is specified. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison.good. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. courses can have weightages defined. While designing syllabus. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course.discipline. poor. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper.5.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development.poor. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. This system reduces comparison of marks. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. or as a 4 credit course. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. Groupism is encouraged. v. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. These weightages are called credits. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. In the new system. 3.
If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.5. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 3.2.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992.2. 3.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. However. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.2. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. 156 . and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 3.5.5. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.
setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.2. 6. However. There are no proper procedures for selection. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. Therefore. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately.5. In the hierarchy. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships.3. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. . 3. List any four new evaluation procedures. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. recruitment. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.
submitting of the inspection reports.. laboratory equipment. wherever necessary. 3. complaints and compliments. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. playgrounds. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. inspecting the class-room teaching. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. library books. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools.. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. They are. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. etc.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. qualifications. taking up the follow-up programmes. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. whether the syllabus has been covered. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. interpersonal relationships and so on. Academic inspection. in contrast. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. finding out whether the prescribed text. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision.2.6. school buildings.qualified personnel. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. in a sense. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. staff. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. disciplinary problems. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. When they are fully realised. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. books are followed. 1. requirements. 158 . finding out the adequacy of. etc. being realised as two different functions. of late.
Insistence on specialisation in the B.. 159 . 3. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. at least. M. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. In the case of departmental candidates. course in either educational. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. courses. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made.Ed. In the light of these conceptualisation. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions.2.. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. aptitude. their professional knowledge. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. or. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors.Ed.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Similarly. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. modern. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. once in five years.
It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance.2. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. 3. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. d. 160 . 2. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. a. Instruction. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. a.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. 4. 3.2. b. assessment and Finance. 3. Administration.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Grade System. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. a.2. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. c. b. 5. b. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. 3.
(2002). New 161 . K. Question banks. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. b. (2004). Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Open book examinations. R and Sharma. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.4. 7. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. a. b. History and Problems of Education in India. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . S. b.a part of internal assessment. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. (2005). 3.2. Problems of Education in India. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. a. Educational Reforms. a. 5. Multiple sets of question paper. Vaidya. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. c. K.
3. 3.2 3. identify the needs of rural India and social. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.LESSON 3.3.9 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5. 4. analyze the general and vocational spectra.5 3. you will be able to: 1.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3.7 3. 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. 162 .1 3.8 3.10 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3. 2.3.6 3.
Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. 2.. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education.. etc.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. 10 years of general Secondary Education. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. The Calcutta Madras. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission.g. the Banaras Sanskrit College.e. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course.3. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education.. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. in Andhra Pradesh. and 3 years of First Degree Course.e. Commission emphasised to continue..3. Consequent on the recommendations. The.specialisation programmes 3. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. e. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. Similar is the case with some other States. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. i. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. 8 years of general education. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. University Education. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta.
However. who desire to change from one stream to another. 5) to help for the social. b. is also a plus point . economical and political.3. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. Provision for transfer of credits to students. educational channels. to imbibe. historical. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . 5. social.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. 7. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.confidence in students.a sense of dignity of labour. to prepare. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. and.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 6. 3. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. 8. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. habits of hard work and develop . to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 10. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. cultural and economic development of the country.
3. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Sociologically it is undesirable. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. The General Educational Spectrum. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. 3.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum..national integration. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Psychologically. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. and. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. cooperativeness. etc. 1. and that required to enter the tertiary level. on one hand. Philosophically it is not the conception. cultural and' religious tolerance. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. social justice. to develop national character. international understanding. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. at the other. democratic living.
Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. industrial agricultural production is growing.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. and vocations based on dairy-farming. medical plants. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. commerce. commerce. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. fish culture.3. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. professional.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. Science. Agriculture is the main occupation. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. 166 . vegetable growing. Commerce and other disciplines. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. technical. or other machinery. In our country. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. Biology. All these need for an. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. technological. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-.— tube-wells. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. India is a land of villages. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. rural health. chemistry. the rural areas have suffered very much. educational and cultural services. 3. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. physics or mathematics. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. In the vocational spectrum. 2. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. such as Agriculture. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. In the matter of language. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. horticulture.
3. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. In this it may be concluded. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . 4. and 5. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. In this way. and the needs. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? .etc. the local resources available. social justice. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. In time. interests and aptitudes of the students. can be ensured. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. There had been favourable reaction from the students. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses..
K. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. objectives. (2001).8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. J. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. B. Mohanty. 3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4.3.3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.a sense of dignity of labour. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.3. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. b. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Modern Trends in Indian Education. a.3. Anmol Publications Pvt. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. (2007). N.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (2008).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. a. Ltd. 3.3. habits of hard work and develop . 2. Dash. Calcutta University Commission 2. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. to imbibe. New Delhi : 168 .C. a. 3. (2005). b. we studied the history. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 3. General Educational Spectrum and b. Vocational Sepctrum. J.
Education provides the individuals with knowledge.8 3. social and 169 .11 3.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.2 3.12 3.4.7 3.9 3.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168 3.4.6 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 22.214.171.124.4.4.10 3.3 3.LESSON 3. Education contributes to human development.4.4.4. but the lighting of a fire”.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.1 126.96.36.199 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4.5 3.
These courses were. 3. Dr. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. economic. Education . family.higher education in particular. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. cultural and political development of the individual. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. analyze the women and distance education. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. During the year 1937. higher education of girls developed immensely. Home Economics. In the post —independence period. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. 3. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. While women constituted only 9. you will be able to: 1. Teaching and Fine Arts.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. particularly 170 . The relevance of women’s education to social. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. For the first time in the history of India. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. Nursing. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. community and nation is universally acknowledged.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development.4. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. There is a close connection between education and development. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way.4. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . although we have miles to go.
4. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. out of 9200 and odd colleges. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.T Women University. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. 3.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.0 32.2 29. Mumbai. levels and professions. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.9 27. Mother Teresa Women University.65 lakhs in 1994-95. we have more than 1200 institutions. In the rest of the country.women. The idea of women’s education for equality.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. 3.2 22. Coimbatore. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.4. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Even today. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.0 43. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.1 31. Yet.N.1 24.D. in our country. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. Kodaikanal. In 1950-51.0 16. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.9 14. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.0 Today. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).4.
53 34.that of boys.66 66.27 89.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.44 35.54 12.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.83 47. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.47 65.4.17 52.4%) prefer Arts subjects.56 64. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.73 10.36 3. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? . 3. 2. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .4.63 Female % 34.34 33.46 82. 3.1 respectively. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1 and 14.
Book banks should be established. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. According to a survey. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. In college. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. she will only learn fashion. promoted and increased. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. curriculum not suited to their requirements. 173 . most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided.hinders the girls from getting higher education. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. The major hurdles.4. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. etc. irrelevance of the content of education. what is the need for higher education for her. Also. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. marriage is a very common I factor. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. distance of the college or university from home. particularly. 3. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. They gave up their studies to enter home life. and coeducation may spoil her character. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Thus. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. financial difficulty of the parents. In every third family.
3. is the only tool for realising empowerment.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. space. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life.4.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. which is the most dynamic factor of development.economic disabilities faced by women.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Distance education is a boon to women. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Empowerment in a nutshell. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. 3. Geographic distance of educational institutions. Education. resources and socio . It enables to study. It is a productive investment. There are constraints of time. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Full-time employment.4. It also brings about 174 . because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. and the limitations of the conventional education system.
This can be achieved through reflection. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. Empowerment is an active. The major objectives of women's higher education. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. 3.4. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . Women are partners in development. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. for full development of our human resources. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. education of women must be given priority in national plans.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. on their own. empowerment means being assertive. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. legal awareness and economic independence. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. higher learning. education of women is of paramount importance.
more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. 3. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. has to be implemented at the earliest. which had been the sole domain of men. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. especially so in the developing countries. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. Better opportunities. 176 .4. The educational institutions.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. Reservation for women. But their number is small. which is pending for a long time. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. who are eager to take up courses. The local administration. Scholarships and concessions for women. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. will encourage them to venture new grounds.
especially in developing countries like African countries. IDP Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. engineering and related technologies (16.4.3 percent.000 women in the country. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Australia.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Also. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. According to Lindy Hyam. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). capacities etc. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. talents.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem.1%) and architecture and building (38.9%). Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Chief Executive. But. 3. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.8%).
Rajasthan 5.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. and Suryalatha. a. 178 . 3. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3.C. Kodaikanal. SNDT Women’s University.to the family. R. A. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Annakodi. Coimbatore. 2. Rao.R. (2005). R. Centre for Women’s Studies. Pattanaikj. R. create the right attitude towards life. 3. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. 4. individuals and society b. Mother Teresa Women University. (2000). (2008). 43% 6.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. (2007). SNDT Women’s University. Mumbai.K. Mishra. S.4. S.4. Women and Education. A. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. community and the nation. and Swain.4. Coimbatore. 4. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Women Education. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Women Education. Mumbai.
5.6 3.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5.5.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.11 3. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .4 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.LESSON 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. They should be trained.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.188.8.131.52.10 3.5.5 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.personality of children in and out of school.8 3.1 3.3 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.2 3.5.9 3.7 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. whole.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.
5. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. understand the training teachers for Primary. Shorter working hours. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. national consciousness.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. social and emotional integration. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students.5. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. and national character. Lack of physical facilities. 4.5. 3. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. 180 . know the pre service and in service training facilities. 3. equality and justice. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. understanding and strong desire for international peace. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. international. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. you will be able to: 1.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.
the centre. students. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. and M. If the student teachers are working teachers. it is called the Extension teacher Education. the secondary teacher education. a Diploma course and a Degree course. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. (NCERT) New Delhi. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. At the diploma level. it is called the In-service teacher education. levels. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. the state Government. 3. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. 3. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course.5.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. who have not been trained earlier. etc. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Depending on the levels. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B..Less qualified teacher educators. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. higher secondary teacher education. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. inservice and extension education programmes. Inadequate training in practical skills. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . Lop-sided curriculum..5. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. and the collegiate teacher education.Ed.Ed. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. the primary teacher education.
For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . non-formal. Educational teehnology cells. Evaluation unit. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . 3.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. extensio n service. Science Education units. Expand NCERT 2. depart ments etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. are established. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Education cells.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. etc. state Institutes of Educat ion. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Also Guidance Bureaux.5. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose .. collegiate cells.
The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. degree. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. to improve curricular programmes. and 183 . every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. primary and secondary school teachers. despite its vast expansion. and so on.. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . to ensure teacher competence. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. which should include experience in the primary schools too. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B.Ed. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. material conditions relating to libraries. should be improved on a top priority basis. to offer consultative services... All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. laboratories. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. which help breaking isolation from one another .Ed. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . audio visual aids. to prescribe conditions for recognition. schools and sister institutions.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed .
To meet this exigency. Organisation of Content Courses. and XII. etc. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Hence. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. Agriculture. Workshops. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. methodology and evaluation. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. Meanwhile. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Modern Techniques of Teaching. Modern Methods of Evaluation. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. not came up once again. though no pre-service training. whether they should have professional education or. Induction Courses. Psychology of Students.secondary education. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. 184 .Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. etc. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. The problem. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education.
Ajmer. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. 3. Degree. (Education) and M. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. Pre-service training is for those. courses and M.Ed. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. (Education) are organized by 185 . Degree and M.. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. State Institutes of Education..A. For re-orienting the teachers.D. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.Ed. in Education. Post-Graduates also undergo B. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.5..A. M. These facilities are available for regular students.Ed. Courses leading to B.Ed. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. training. All B Ed. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.Ed.Ed.S. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore..CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.’s for Ph. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education..’s are elig ible for M..
as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. Hence the employability of M. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.. they should be conscientious . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . . 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 186 .List any two code of conduct for teachers? . 3. However. of conduct—written or unwritten.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.. (Ed. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. (Ed).).A. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. 5.5. 4.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. and B.A. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. 6. established by tradition and teachers of the past. What is the role of ERIC? . 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively.
National Council of Educational Research and Training.5.5. 3. 4. 6.3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Shorter working hours. these problems are not as such cannot be solved.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. b. 3. 4. The necessity is however this. Ajmer. they should be conscientious. 187 . 5. Explain code of conduct for teachers. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. a. a. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. Discuss the problems of teacher education. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. Bhopal. 2. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 3. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. a. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 2. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore.5. However. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. 3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b.
3. Teacher Education. (2003).D. J. Mohanty. B. Teacher Education. A. (2009). P. (2010).5. Corporation.N.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. Publication Pvt. Ltd Aggarwal. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Tewari. and Teacher Education. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .
UNIT – IV 189 .
Since food is the source of nutrients. If the diet is poor. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. The person’s environment is equally important. consuming the right amounts becomes important. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. 191 . preservation of nutrients. objectives. nutritional deficiency diseases. common ailments of children. objectives and role of the physical education. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. In lesson 4. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. the focus is on the school health programmes. objectives. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. In lesson 1.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. communicable diseases and their prevention. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. economic and educational developments.
1. The programmes of school health education are quite important.6 4.1.10 4.e.1 184.108.40.206.7 4.1.3 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. physical.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5 4.1. 193 . A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. emotional and social.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. for giving health education to the children under its custody.11 4.LESSON 4.1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.2 4.8 4.1. It is a miniature society.1.4 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.9 4. mental.
describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. training of teachers and evaluation. to his family and to the community at large. 5. To develop certain skills concerning health. To develop healthy health habits among children. know the need for sex education. content of health education.. Instruction. 4. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 6. cleanliness and healthful living. 9.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 3. 11. 194 . explain the importance of First aid 5.1. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. 2.1. 8. 4. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. 7.g. you will be able to: 1. 10. To give information regarding health rules. understand school health programmes 2. 4. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. training in first aid and etc.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. list the common ailments of children 3. e. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.
organisation of school health days. suitable furniture. 5. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. typhoid. as described below 1. excusing late. The school buildings should be spacious.4. ( iii) sanit at io n.. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. Triple Antigen Vaccination. There should be regular water supply. There should be good drainage facilities. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. direct lighting. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. 2. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. B. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. First aid facilities should be made readily available. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. Vaccination for small pox. 4. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . minimizing the travelling distance. vaccination. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises.. (xii) smoking education etc. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. The flooring should not be damp. (v) safety education. “Play-for-all” programmes. (vi) nutrition education. play festivals.C. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. 2.coming or absence. The surroundings of schools should be clean. cleanliness weeks. 3. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases.1. (ii) communit y healt h. is imperative. etc. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. B. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. (viii) first aid. proper doors and windows. (xl) mental health. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. Arranging better transportation facilities.G. inoculation against cholera.
cuts. • When sleeping in groups. scalds. insect stings. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. fainting (epileptic fit). • Keep all rooms clean. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. etc. • Take nutritious food. isolate and notify. if epidemic is wide-spread. burns. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease.. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. 196 . bleeding. sports and games in the interest of their health. poisons. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. C. D. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. fractures. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • Find out the cases. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. wounds. • Close the schools. and other accidents. • Have adequate rest and sleep. drowning. dislocations.
measles etc. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye.. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . cough. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. pain in the joints. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. which are – cold. There are three stages in any communicable disease. tuberculosis. polio. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. fever. 4.1. They are: i) The incubation stage. So they easily get illnesses.1. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. Once these germs get into the body. backache. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. headache. chicken pox. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. water or bodily contact. 4. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. 2. These diseases are called communicable diseases. Mention the school health programmes. asthma. List out the Health curriculum 3. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs.
Hence liquid diet is recommended.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Measles . Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Important salts and water are lost in this process. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Scabies . Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. unhygienic bottle feeding. Hence it is called a killer disease.This disease is caused by bacteria. After three or four days of fever. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. 198 . Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. etc. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough.It is caused by measles virus. unhygienic living conditions. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Common Cold . Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Tonsilitis . head-ache and cough. sugar and water. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. The following are the common communicable diseases. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Diarrhoea . cough and fever. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. This is caused by cold virus. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light.When a child suffers from scabies. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Mumps . Throat is affected. The child may have fever. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Ear Infections . Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Children catch cold from persons having cold. eating food which is not clean. The symptoms include cold. Others make the children very weak. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. By scratching he causes secondary infections. separate. If proper treatment is not given. the child is not able to breathe.• • • • Chicken Pox . The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Shortly. The child may also have diarrhoea. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. Expand DPT . the child may die. Diphtheria . Typhoid . Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are communicable diseases? 6. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. raised pink spots appear on head.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. 199 .This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. face and waist. Enlist the common ailments of children. It begins with fever. As the disease progresses. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. so-called sex books and periodicals. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. Wounds .Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. bleeding.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. head injury. and films. dislocation.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. films and jokes. snakebites. simple fractures. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. drowning.g. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. fiction.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. Cuts and Bruises . sprains. sprains. it is a subject of art. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. bruises. It is both biological and psychological. 4.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. exciting and body-oriented. fainting. Sex is popular. etc. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. 2. 4. 3.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. Sprains . eye injury. scorpion stings. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. cuts. 200 . In such cases. It has its rightful place in education too. wounds. swelling.4.1.1. man-woman behaviours. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. and Community Work and Social Service. Drowning . 5. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency.
Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. the religious organisations. 3. try experimenting with their bodies. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. they would be treading the path of sure doom. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. In secondary schools. 2. sex education is being recommended in schools. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. health. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. B. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. but preserve them from disaster and disease.. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. in their ignorance.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. the school. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. The values of life. We can arm people with knowledge about sex.old values. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. In today's liberal and interactive society. The home. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. celibacy are age. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. Should the boys and girls. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Hence. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. hence. communicable diseases and their prevention. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. 4. C.1. common ailments of children. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Teacher education institutions are. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. 202 . 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. there will no crisis in its implementation. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. first aid and sex education. What are the major components of Sex Education. the school health programmes. offering sex education as a part of their curricula.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. when the courses are already overloaded.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 220.127.116.11 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. 209 . List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Mention the food nutrients 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. minerals. If you look at the definition carefully. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.4. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.2.2. Let us talk about each of these aspects. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. 210 . U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day.
for example. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. moderate or heavy work. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first.6. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. dosa are typical of the south. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). Using others would be impractical and unsuitable.one in the morning and the other at night. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. In other words. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. paratha and poori. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e.g. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. People in the east of our country prefer rice. 4. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. A balanced diet is specific firstly. the social and religious practices of that region. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. In the case of adults. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. Even within given States there is considerable variation. construction labourer). Preferences/customs are also important. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals.sedentary.2. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. activity level and physiological stress. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). it is also specific to a given activity level .g. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. These are: region where the person resides and income. sex. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. There is no point. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .
As you read this discussion. Having more money. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. for example.planning the diet. while another may hate them. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. however. however. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. If you think of your own religious group. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. One person may be fond of milk products. vegetables and fruits. income plays a vital role. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. One must. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Among the social factors. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. Judicious selection of food is. Including these 212 . Even among flesh foods. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. nuts and dry fruits. These determine the acceptability of foods. as important for the rich as for the poor. taboos related to food may play an important role. customs. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. However. fat and sugar tend to increase. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. As income increases. In addition to these. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. however.
4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. meat. green leaves. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. over-eating or under. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables.eating is hazardous.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. mouth. Define balanced diet. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. fruits. 213 . etc. but they should be thrown away. if the teachers have good food habits. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 17. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. For this. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. List out any two healthy food habits. 8) Walk a while after eating. 8. eggs . they can stand as symbols of identification to their students.
4. 4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Explain food nutrients 4. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . e. preservation of nutrients. a. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. c. Night blindness. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Keratomalacia 3. b.2. Conjuctival xerosis. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Beri Beri 4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. Corneal xerosis. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Bitot’s spots. d. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. When the diet is inadequate.2. In fact. Discuss good food habits. Vitamin D 5. 4. good nutrition is essential for good health.
New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.M. a . (2004). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. S. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. Food and Nutrition Education. (2009). b. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Food and Nutrition Education. (2008). Health and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.6.C. P. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Nutrition and Dietetics. Sri Lakshmi B. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 8. 4. 7. minerals. b. mouth. a.N. R. A Text Book of Foods. (2005). U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . Hands. (2008). R. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. Food should be consumed after eating well.2. Nutrition Science. Chopra.
9 18.104.22.168.1 Impact on social development 4.3. 216 .22.214.171.124.2 126.96.36.199.3.8 4.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.1 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.13 4.LESSON 4.3.4 4.10 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 188.8.131.52.7 4.6.11 4.3.12 4.5 4.3 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3 Impact on Education 4.
characteristics and changes for himself. 4. It is not sex education. the causes of population change.4. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. aims at providing the younger generation. community.3. Population Education.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. family planning and sex education etc. his family. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. economic and educational development 3. objectives and need for population education 2. population characteristics. describe the impact of population growth on social. the stress is. It is a much wider co ncept.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. 217 .1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning.3. his societ y and the world. you will be able to: 1. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. therefore. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. Whenever we talk of sex education. and the consequences of these processes.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. There is some difference. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. state the meaning.3. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. 4. understand the importance of small family norm 5.
4. the nation and the world. 4.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.3.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Population Education 2. the family. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the society. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual.
6. health and happiness of its citizens. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. 219 . With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. With the larger families. the family programmes are also handicapped. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. When the family is small. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. economic and educational development of the country. 4. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. 4.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race.3. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. Every second two thousand children are being born. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. which will not be possible without population control. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress.3. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. Family is considered as a social unit. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner.
3. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective.3. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. teacher index. 4. 220 . lack of proper health care. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. Many students herded in a small room.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. organization index and material index. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. in parks and other places of public gatherings. In developing countries. unemployment.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio.e. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. in cinema halls and theatres. facility for drinking water. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. in buses and trains. pollution of the environment. 4. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. toilets. heavy intern I migration etc. The gulf between them is widening further.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. i. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. and so on.6.. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. Swollen cities.6.
. reproduction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. essays. bar graphs etc. Social Studies Statistics on population education. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Hindi and English. family planning etc. and laboratory equipments. thus. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. There would be poor library facilities. Regional Language. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. 221 . Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. less budget for education. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. less space facilities. blank verses etc. can be studied in science and health education. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. There would be very few audiovisual aids.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. even text books would be in short supply. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. can be taken up.
15. 8. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 14. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. United States of America. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Uttar Pradesh. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 5. 11. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 10. Children with the help of parents. West Bengal. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. 2. area and average density of population. Bihar. 4. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 9.4. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Canada. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages.3. Children may compare two families. 13. 3. China. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. deaths. Brazil.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. causes of deaths etc. 7. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 12. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children.
we have no right to stop 223 .9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. preferences for sex. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people.3.be opened in their schools. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. 18. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. The question. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. Comparing life in various respects in two families. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 16. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. age at marriage. 17. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. values and role children etc.
need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. on an overall basis. however. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. “He who is responsible for population growth. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. and the child survival components of the news: program.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).their entry into the world”. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . the total fertility rate decreased from 6.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. at varying places in different regions.3.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. The Family Welfare Program.to emphasize family planning services. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. 4.were implemented 224 .4-6. which education can only do. especially the expansion of child immunization services . More than 45 years ago. fertility levels have declined throughout the country.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.. continued . Since the program's inception.
Moreover. reliance on local women as community health workers. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. the community appears willing to pay for services. expansion of services to unmarried women. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. and nominal fees for services. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. In October 1997. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. In April 1996. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. At these meetings. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. Local programs vary in their approaches.earlier than the safe motherhood components. men. a focus on health promotion. and the World Conference on Women. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Therefore.
community.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. nation and the world. Its main purposes are to create awareness.3.3. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. Describe the impact of population growth on social. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. economic and educational development 4. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. family.emphasizing the needs of the client. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. 226 . to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. 1997). involving the community. What are the goals of RCH? 4.
Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. b. a. 7. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. less space facilities. the causes of population change. a.” 2. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Brazil. 3. 5. 4. area and average density of population. 227 . Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. United States of America.3. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. characteristics and changes for himself. bar graphs. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. 6. Canada. a. population characteristics. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. and the consequences of these processes. his family. less budget for education.4. China. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. b. his society and the world.
J. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Reddy. Modern Problems of Education. Jayapoorni. (2004). Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. (1992). Changing attitudes to Education in India. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. A. (2005). Bhende. Ltd. (2002). Coimbatore. (2005).4.3. Udaiveer. Kantikar. V. Centre for Women’s Studies. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. N.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty.K. Principles of Population Studies. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. T. Modern Trends in Indian Education. 228 . Ltd.
4.4.2 184.108.40.206 4.8.3 220.127.116.11 Major games 4.5 4.4.7 4.4 4.4 Lead up games 4.4.9 4.LESSON 4.11 19.3 Indigenous games 4.1 4.4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.6 4.8.1 Minor games 18.104.22.168 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .
which forms its most valuable assets. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. The concept of physical education has been made broader. social fitness. leadership and balance in defect.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. classify the different types of games.4. as it should 230 . teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. you will be able to: 1.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. full records of physical activities should be maintained. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. the youth of the country. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. moral fitness and emotional fitness. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. mental alertness. perseverance. 188.8.131.52 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. team spirit. 4. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. understand the importance of Physical Education 4.4. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities.
team spirit. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. They are inseparably united together. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. obedience to rules. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Every individual is a part of society. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. They go hand in hand. Therefore. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. To be more precise. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. leadership. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. The educational efforts at home. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality.
mo ral. Buck has observed that 232 .P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side.” Montaigue writes. Regarding the significance of physical education. C. game and sports. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.” The Secondary Education Commission. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. Physical exercises. nor body but the whole man. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. Just like Education.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. H. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. Rousseau states.4. a sound health. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. ment al. 4. pleasing manners.
efficiency and character. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively.4. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. 233 . endurance. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. coordinative abilities. speed. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. initiative. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief.a properly directed physical education should result in health. strength. elegance.” 4. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. happiness. “If we wish to develop the whole being. etc.” In brief. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. we must exercise the whole human being. flexibility and power. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. Froebel says. resourcefulness and smartness. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully.
Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. these fundamental things have always been present. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. systems of government. its adherents and its enemies. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. including all racial groups and historical ages. poetry and painting. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. If no opportunity is provided to the students. in greater or lesser degree. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Every age has its artists. they may form gangs. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. 234 (i) (ii) . Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. plagues and famines.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. While wars. should help in the spiritual development of the student.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity.
to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination .(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. 2.sacrifice. to develop tolerance. B. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. bravery and interest in games and sports. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. obedience. 3. respect for rules. etc. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. 235 . Write any two importance of Physical Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline.\ to develop perseverance. self. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Be sportive. 10. 236 1. defects. and readmission after they have recovered. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. is essential. 9. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 15. 4. students. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases.H.4. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed.4. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Usually parents. Be well-prepared. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Haag. 12. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Act as a leader.4. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Posture screening should be done. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 3. 11. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Keep the field ready for the activities. 6. 16. 14. 2. injuries among pupils should be made. 5. 7. 8. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Be self-confident. and. 13. . Be in the uniform. Inform health principles. Be punctual. Always keep the whistle ready.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 4.
Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. Indigenous games. 237 . chasing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Such inst incts as imitation. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. 2. 1. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Moreover. their development is handicapped. 3.4. Lead up games. 4. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. less equipment and less expense. the play.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. 4.8. frolic and jo y.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. 4.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.
They are rules approved by the International Associations. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. bowling etc. For each game the rules are many. some of them are played indoors. pitching. catching. 238 . with implements or without implements.With a very few rules. Hopping. over ball pass Relay. Dodging. Ball Badminton. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. They are played for a shorter duration. stopping. These games require varied skills such as running. trapping. Basket Ball. Tennis. The dimension of the posts and nets. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. wherever the kids assemble. While many of them are played in the open playfields. women take part most of the games. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. the number of players and substitutes. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. dribbling. Shuttle Badminton. 4. couple tag. Cricket. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Except a few games. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. finding the partner. driving. under ball pass Relay. snatching the kerchief. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. hitting. muffling. spiking.. Hockey. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. boosting. Volley Ball.4. on sea-shore. the games can be modified according to convenience. on mountain tops and on river beds. skipping. Kabaddy etc. on hard courts. Throwing. the play equipment. Jumping. benefit in playing minor games. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Tennikoit. Khokho. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. On lawns. Soft Ball.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. zig zag relay. Jump the stick clay and so on.8. heading.
these games being popular. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. 7. On occasions like marriage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. Games may be classified as 6. and . birth.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.4. Kho-kho. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. While observing the players in action. festivals connected with religion and public functions. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.4. They have an abundant social value. death. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. List out some major games. For example. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. All the fundamental tactics. An example for indigenous game is 8. 4.8. they are in existence. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball.8. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game.
2. b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.4. aims and objectives and need of physical education. to secure physical health b. 4. Minor and Major 240 . Posture screening should be done.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. a. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. 4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. b.4. 4. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. to develop physical stamina. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. a. 4.4. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. a. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. 5. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. b. physically and emotionally fit and alert. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. 3. 3. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. d. a. c. 2. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers.
(2008). Tennikoit. 241 . Basket Ball. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Aggarwal. Mohanty. (2009). Education in the Emerging Indian Society.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. J. (2005).4. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Kabaddy 7. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Soft Ball. Ball Badminton. Shuttle Badminton. 4. Cricket. Hockey. G. J. Khokho.C. Volley Ball. J. Health. Ltd. Tennis. Krishna murthy. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.K. Khokho 8. Physical Education and Sports. Foot-ball. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. (2008).6. Handbook of Physical Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
5.10 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 4.3 18.104.22.168 4.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.22.214.171.124 4.1 Natural Environment 126.96.36.199.LESSON 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.9 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.4 4.5.7 4.2 Manmade Environment 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .1 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.
Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. 5. Details are given below: I. Knowledge. 4.5. 3. economic.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Broadly. list out the types of environment 3. population explosion and resource depletion could be. education about the environment and education through the environment. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems.5. aesthetic and educational factors. 2. Attitude. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. Essential knowledge about the Environment. Awareness. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. you will able to: 1. it covers the following elements: 1. role of teacher in environmental conservation. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. The best place to start such learning is school. 2. Skills. 243 . Evaluation Ability. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 4. 4. 6. 3. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. social. Participation. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. political.5.educat ion for the environment.
Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Oxidants Other pollutants. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. 244 . F. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. a. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle.B. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. D. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. • Biological magnification E. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. 2. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle.
Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. 2. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. III. The pill ii. c. Use of medical science i. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Sterilisation. 4. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. economic. Birth control through education b. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Intrauterine device iii. 2. The human ecosystem II. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. B. Family planning ii. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Control of population growth a.3. Socio-economic measures. Persuasion: i. 3. Abortion iv.
1983). Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. e) Recycling. (UNESCO. 3. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Environmental Education. 3. Air pollution abatement ii. Water pollution abatement. 246 . List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.4. -other. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . includes the plants. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. telex. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism.5. These are biotic components. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . A change in one brings about a change in the other.5.other components of the environment.5. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. b. Biological environment The biological environment. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. fax agricultural apparatus. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. a.5. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. He modifies according”.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. 4.5. They interact with each.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. animals and other organisms (biotic). to his needs. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. Any constituent or condition of the environment.5. way is called environmental or ecological factor. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.
importance of nitrogen cycle. trees reducing noise pollution. nuclear warfare. desertification 248 . At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. change in climate may be added.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. excellent recreation sites. ozone layer deplet ion. water scarcity. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. of civilizations. t heir role in preventing pollution. air pollutants from industries. biogas plants. use of pesticides. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. social studies. alternate sources of energy. noise pollution. balance of nature. (ii) Air pollution. preventing siltation of dams. explosion deforestation. relation between population and pollution. industrial pollut io n. evolution. ozone depletion. noise control. over exploitation of ground water. etc. use of medicinal plants. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife.. food chain and food-web. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. mineral survey. sources. extinction of species. nuclear energy. sources of pollut ion. windmills. etc. are the topics which may be taught in History. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . reasons. natural way of controlling pests. need for bio-diversity. effects. river systems. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. preserving the watersheds. maintaining the ecological diversity. role of trees in building economy. need for conservation. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. solar cookers. industrial survey. greenhouse effect. wars and hazards of war. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. population. effects o f CFC. acid rain. History The rise and fall. supplying timber for various uses.
Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 5. 249 .may be inc ded in Geography. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 2. group discussions and seminars.5. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. aims and scope. Providing. 7. animal and plants. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. 8. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. 9. Peepal and Tulsi. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 14. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 4. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising conferences. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 4. 13. 3. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 11. 6. 12. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 10. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. 6. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. 5. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. all these can cause serious pollution. Never put any left over chemicals. it will cause pollution. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. If it is done. Don’t burn any waste. World Environmental falls on 250 .Send their waste oil. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Reuse carrier bags. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. used oils down the drain. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Use public transport wherever it is possible. especially plastics.
Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. Att itudes of balance towards nature. dest roying nat ural habitats.4. viz. orderliness and beauty).mat erials. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. depletion of ozone. The groups may exchange. diversity and stability. Harmony with the nature . To discuss the approach to problems or topics. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil.. CFCs. rather than conquest and mastery. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . potable water.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. To provide reference materials for children’s use. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Social responsibilit y (common good. To provide materials needed for practical work. loss of bio-diversity. Concern for species. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. (cleanliness. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. etc. Conservation of natural resources. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. To arrange visits or expeditions. deforestation. and 251 . and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. To arrange for visiting speakers. values and habits. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes.). concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion.5. concern for others). According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. etc. developing desirable attitudes. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. nuclear wars. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. prevention of irretrievable loss of species.
preserving natural cycles. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. 8. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. 4.5. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. 252 .5. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
4. 5. S.\ 4. Organising conferences. To provide reference materials for children’s use. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise.. over exploitation of ground water. Udaiveer. group discussions and seminars. ozone layer deplet ion.K. (2007). 3. relat ion between population and pollution. explosion deforestation.K. b. Environmental Education. S. Environment and Human Rights. June 5 7. Social responsibilit y (common good. Anmol Publications Pvt. 8. Ltd. T. Y.K. new problems from science and technology. (ii) Air pollution. acid rain.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Providing. sources. population. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. (2007). b. air pollutants from industries.2. (2004). a. b. To provide materials needed for practical work. a. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications.5. sources of pollution. New Delhi : Authors Press. Education for values. Kuldeep. Publications Pvt. 6. greenhouse effect. Nanda. b. a. importance of nitrogen cycle. (1997). Awareness. Knowledge. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.K. Rapid population growth. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. concern for others). Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. effects. Modern Problems of Education. water scarcity. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. a. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. New Delhi : Sharma. Environmental Education. reasons. Ltd.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 188.8.131.52 Idealism and aims of Education 184.108.40.206 Idealism and Curriculum 220.127.116.11 Idealism and methods of teaching 18.104.22.168 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and aims of Education 126.96.36.199 Naturalism and Curriculum 188.8.131.52 Naturalism and methods of teaching 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 220.127.116.11 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
18.104.22.168 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 22.214.171.124 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. moral. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. According to Rusk'." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure.our life. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. should be universal in nature. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 .” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. Education must contribute to development of culture. the emancipation of spirit. It is self-realisation. Education according to idealism. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. man is essentially a moral being. enrichment and transmission of culture. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. Universal Education. Therefore. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. The universe is regarded as a thought process.” 5. Spiritual Development. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind.1. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve.3. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. in fact.
So he should embody. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. 5. Learning through reading. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. However. affecting (feeling). class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. For intellectual development.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. Herbert advocated instruction method. According to idealism. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. Learning through discussion.3.the spiritual qualities of mankind. Learning through imitation. hygiene. 4.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. so subjects like Religion. and collation (striving) should find due place. Philosophy. Science. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. should be there.3. History. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. So cognition (knowing). For this no particular method has been suggested.” He is thus. He sets the environment in which education takes place. a spiritual guide for the child. Mathematics etc. According to Frobel. 3. He carries the child from darkness to light. friend and guide. an indispensable necessity. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. It considers teacher as. So health. subjects like Languages. The plant can grow. Learning through lecturing. 2. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. Ethics. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. Learning through questioning.1.1.” 5. the school is a garden. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . 5. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. no doubt. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man.
formal lessons or examinations. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. curricula.1. 5.4. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Ross explains.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. In the words of Ross. 5.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.preservation. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.1. 2. Perfection of Human Machine.perfection and beauty. time tables. "Education should make 263 • . text books.
therefore. useful and mature child. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. It emphasises physical and health education 5. subjects like history.4. Biology. geography should also be included in the curriculum.1. education should develop the child into Joyous. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Chemistry. Zoology. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Botany etc Language.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Literature. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. “Education finds its purpose.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. rational harmoniously balanced. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. In all.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Naturalistic curriculum. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Arithmetic. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Therefore. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Education should. It is based on the psychology of the child. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. It stresses basic sciences. • 5. There is no place for religious and moral education. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. 4. 264 .the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. is based on the nature of the child. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race.
1. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. 5. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. 4. Learning by doing. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.4. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. 5. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. the stage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. In the .5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Heuristic method. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. 2. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. It discards all rigid. Learning through experience. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Rousseau says. he should be taught by experience alone.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning.1. a supplier of materials and opportunities. a provider of an ideal environment.4. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Dalton Plan. 3. Learning through observation.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher.1. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists.
but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. The individual has not only to adjust himself. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. 5. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. 5.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. diversified and flexible. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. The aim of educational development. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences.absolutism of idealism. intellectual. History. All Round Development of an Individual. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education.5.5. Social Science. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Social Efficiency. Vocational and 266 . According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. is true.1. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Subjects. Physical training. Personal Social Adjustment. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses.1. Geography. of human personality is in terms of his physical.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Continuous Growth. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Sciences. social and moral aspects. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Agriculture.
5. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. The subjects. He must be trained. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. He has to be active. should find proper place. a senior partner and a sincere guide. alert and resourceful.Technical Education.1. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. 5. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.1. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely.5. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . The teacher is a man of superior wisdom.” 5. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. a teacher occupies an important position. Learning by Doing.
intellectual. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Crafts. It favours child-centered. Biography Philosophy. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. 4. Astrology. Education is preparation for a complete living. Music and Dance.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism.1. 2. rich and happy. 4. 3. Art. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Geography are unnecessary 268 . History. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics.1. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. The basic tenets of realism are 1. 5.6. liberal.1. Psychology. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Biology. Study of Subjects like Language. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 2.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. literary or humanistic education. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. 5. Chemistry. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Population Education. 3. specific. Literature. Mathematics. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. practical. Sex Education. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1.6. 5. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist.5. scientific and psychological education.
6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. certainly and clearly.1. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.1. easily and pleasantly.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5.6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .
1. Rousseau 5. naturalism. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. e. Education according to pragmatism. Self Realisation b. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism.7 LET US SUM UP We have. pragmatism and realism. 5. Self preservation & Self expression 4. a. Demonstration and Observation 270 .1. Physical training. 6. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Social Science. Experimentation d. d.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Learning through reading. a. Child centered c. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Agriculture. Languages. a.1. Learning through imitation. 3. Tours / Excursion e. has no end other than growth. Vocational and Technical Education. Learning through experience b. 5. b. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Universal Education 2. 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Learning through lecturing. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Learning through questioning. History. Geography. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. c. & curriculum. in this lesson.5. Sciences. Learning through discussion.
O. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Publishing corporation. 271 . New Delhi : A. P.P. P. N.H.P. Theory and Principles of Education. (2003). L. (2007). Ltd. Pahuja. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. K. (2004). Narang C.5. R. (2007).1. New Delhi : Bhatia. of Pathak. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman.
2.3 Methods of Teaching 126.96.36.199 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2.4 Views about teacher 188.8.131.52.4.2 Curriculum 184.108.40.206.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 220.127.116.11 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.1 126.96.36.199.5.LESSON 5.4.3 Methods of teaching 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.4 Views about teacher 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2.3. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2 Curriculum 5.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.5.1 Aims of Education 188.8.131.52 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 184.108.40.206 Aims of Education 5.
5. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.2. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.2.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.2.4 Role of the teacher 5. content and methods. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.8 5.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2.6 5. mind and spirit.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. 5. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. 3. you will able to: 1. an artist.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.7 5. 2. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.2.2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. economic and political reconstruction in our country. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. 5.2.2. Tagore was a poet. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. 273 . Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. Gandhiji was primarily a social.5. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.
Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. strength of mind. 'Man is neither mere intellect.2. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. through life and for life. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education." Dignity of Labour.3. self-restraint and service of humanity. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. righteousness.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. it is education of life. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. 274 . "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. In the words of Gandhiji. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. It really provides opportunity for character building. 5.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. His scheme of education is life centred. "I attach more. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. mind and soul of children He further observed.supporting. nor the gross animals body.
Art. According to Gandhi. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. metal work.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. wood work. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Mother-tongue.3. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. General Sciences. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . the realization of the ultimate reality. "Development of the moral character. leather work have been suggested.Training for Leadership. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. gardening. Individual and Social Aims. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner.2. Music. Only good individual forms a better society. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. 5. Drawing and Hindustani. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. men of 276 . Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. proficient. Basic education is other wise known as 4.2. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.3.2. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.trained. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.
Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. That is why. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. 5.3.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. 3. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Education must be child centered.knowledge.2. He also advocates freedom for the child.
• Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.2.2. • Education should involve manual work. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. he was a true Vedantist 5.K. Gandhi in 1937.3. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. He was a true patriot.2. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. 5.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.4.” Like all other ideals. He believed in the oneness of humanity. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. He was deadly against untouchability. 5. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. • Ideal of citizenship. • Cult of non-violence. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .
Botany.2. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. stronger in power than ever before. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Civics. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. etc. "Mankind must realise a unity. It should help.4. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. International understanding.Language and Literature .Mother tongue and other Indian languages.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. wider in range. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Tagore said. could help in forging unity among all. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. International Understanding. Zoology. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. deeper in.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Music. 279 . Religion and Psychology. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Therefore. complete manhood could be attained. he said. It should help the learner have good physique. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. (vi) Philosophy. Dance. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. them solve problems of day to day life. Chemistry. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. That way only. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Geography. the more dedicated and devoted. sentiment. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth.
4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”." 5. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.” He further says. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. 5. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. 280 . Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. Tagore rightly says. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.2. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.4.2. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. In 1921.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.4. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. 5.4. Activity Method Heuristic Method. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.2. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.
Shanthiniketan has open spaces. 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. It is open to all irrespective of country. 10. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. 281 . Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5.g. race. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3.
Education for Self-realization. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Freedom. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Purity of thought. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. work and deeds come out of it.2. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. 3.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Education for strong Moral Character." He was against the theoretical type of education. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Education should make a person self-reliant. Concept of Education. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. According to him. man making. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge.5. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. character forming and assimilation of ideas.5.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education for Self-reliance. 2. Book learning.2. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. The whole beauty of life is linked with it.” 5. 4.
The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Philosophy and Theology. A physically strong person is the need of the society.5. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. 5. 283 . 5. engineering and technical subjects. 5. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Secondly he wanted Science. Discussion Method. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Religion. That will serve the purpose of education fully. 6. philosopher and guide to the students He.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend.2.5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. Every individual should be trained for concentration. And above all.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and .2. Thirdly he wished that games.5.5. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. The teacher should be the facilitator.the learners on different students in the discussion. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Of course. Swami. Education for Physical Development.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. Write short notes on Basic education. in this lesson. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. 5. We have seen that Tagore. 5.2. of course. Gandhiji as a Idealist.6 LET US SUM UP We have.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. 284 . legs.Substantiate your answer. 3. ears and eyes. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. naturalist.2. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. 2. 12. Their educational ideas. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. and pragmatist . Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 5. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Self-Study b. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Discussion Method 285 . Cult of non-violence. 9. a. 5. f. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. metal work. 1937 7. a. 5. Ideal of citizenship.2. Technique of Correlation 6. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Nai Talim 4. d. Activity Method b. Self realization. Heuristic Method. Teaching while Walking b. a. Basic education. 10. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Debate and Discussion Method. Learning by Doing c. c. Explain Vishwabharathi. 11. 3. a.4. Meditation and concentration c. wood work. 8. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. e. c. gardening.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. leather work have been suggested. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Activity Method d. b. Education should involve manual work.
J. New Delhi : A. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education.H. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Anmol Publications Pvt. B. New Delhi : Aggarwal. K. P.5. N. (2003). Publishing Corporation. 286 . N.P. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2004). Dhiman. C.2. (2007). O. (2007).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. L. P. Pahuja. on Bhatia. (2002). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. K and Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education.
3.1 5. In this lesson.9 5.LESSON 220.127.116.11.3 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.4 5.6 5.3.7 5.5 5.8 18.104.22.168 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .11 22.214.171.124 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.10 5.3.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.
Then in a big country like India. In the words of Kerney and Cook. in the U.. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. is a means to the process. curriculum signifies situations for learning. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes.3. One is the individual process and the other is the social process.A. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . maintained or eliminated.S. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. in the form of new experience. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. While education is a process. present behaviour may be modified. Curriculum is intimately related to education. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. From the latter point of view.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. While education is learning.3. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. In the former sense. there is a large number of communities. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. Both the processes are integrated. 5. living in the hilly area.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. the desert area. you will be able to: 1. it is identical wit h socializat ion. 5. state the meaning of curriculum 2. A g o o d curricu lu m.under the direction of the school. curriculum. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. In it. in Russia or in Japan. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. in fact . is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. new behaviour may be acquired. the plain area. Since the demands. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. the plateau area and 288 .
that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. differs from individual to individual. environment. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. it is. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. democratic and socialistic country. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. the learning capacity of children. irrespective of their needs and environment. according to modern trends in the educational process. too.3. It must differ from locality and from society to society. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. and 289 . if it is to educate the whole of the personality. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. 5. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. From a slave-country we became secular. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. therefore. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. Besides craft. However. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. In fact . Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. Again. customs and needs. studying therein.
e. social. aesthetic and spiritual development. Vocational Efficiency.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country.. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. 4. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. unsatisfactory. Self Realisation. eg. Knowledge Objective. individual or Social and so on. social. They may be ultimate or proximate. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. Goals of Primary Education. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education.g. aims. They are visionary goals e. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. The word “Curere” means 2. they depend on the political. 290 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. So it is inadequate.. They speak of immediate purposes of education. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. etc. They speak of perfect goals. unambiguous and functional. 5. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. 1. etc. They are achievable. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . 2.g. moral. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Application Objective.. general or specific. e. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes.. which may or may not be attained. specific. tangible.. emotional. in instructional objectives. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. uninspiring and unscientific. remote or immediate. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture.g. etc. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. of classroom. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. 3. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. National Integration. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. Goals of Secondary Education. Understanding Objective. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed.3.
The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. but it includes the totality of experiences. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. Crow and Crow remarks. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. abilities. on the playing fields. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. educationists. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. Raymont rightly says. According to Crow and Crow. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. capacities. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. in the class rooms. finding them very interesting and captivating. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. needs.3.” 291 . heavy fire. The interests.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others.5.
and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. urges. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. moral. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. time in a useful manner. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. mental.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . Due to these variations and differences. They often waste it or rather kill it. capacities and abilities. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. tendencies. aptitudes. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.
analysis and concretise the curricular elements. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. 2. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. 3. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. To ensure success of the process. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. 293 . make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. development of professional capability at all levels. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation.curricular. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. organized. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. Similarly. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. phased preparation.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. administrative programme need be planned.
curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1937 19.3. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. 12. 17. a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. 10. Child Centred Education b. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. 5. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Run. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. in the class room. 18. laboratory. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Relation with Life c. 5. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.3. principles of curriculum construction. workshop. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 11.3.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. library. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 .
(2001). S. (2007). (2007). S. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. New Delhi : Authorspress.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. N. Curriculum Development.K. 295 . Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Innovations in Education. Lakshmi. Curriculum and Instruction. and Sarita Kumari. (2007). P.3. D.5. Bhalla.S. New Delhi : Isha Books.
4.4.1 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 126.96.36.199 Developing scientific outlook 188.8.131.52.3 5.4.5 5.4.10 5.LESSON 5.4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 184.108.40.206 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.7.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.8 5.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.9 5.4.7 Scientific Attitude 220.127.116.11.6.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4 18.104.22.168.4.4.2 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.
297 . 5. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. 2. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. you will be able to: 1. open-mindedness. 4.4. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . We mean curiosity. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. honesty. 5. explain the concept of scientific attitude.5.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science.4. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. in the economic reconstruction of society. know the importance of science education. superstition or emotion. Gradually. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology.during the second half of this century. tolerance for the opinions of others. 3. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . newer and newer industries started growing. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century.
Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1.So that. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. 4. 6. 2. 5. Through examinations. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Selection for science education. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1.4. stipends and appreciations in various ways. 5. Central science workshop. 6. as well as of the society. 2. After such experience and training. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Through newspapers. 4. 5. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Love for truth enhances. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 7. Organisation of science fairs. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Principles are formulated. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Promotion of science clubs. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Schemes of teaching science.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Thinking and memory develops. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. seminars and symposiums.4. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 3. 3. 5. Devotion towards nature increases.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b.needs and conditions. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . each child to “enquiry skill building”. After presenting the problem. should provide opportunities to.4. They experience natural phenomenon. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. They ask many questions about the objects they see. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. 7. objectivity. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. In the inquiry approach. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. Enquiry teaching is. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. It is. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Write any two advantages of Science Education. 5. Training of science teachers. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other.4. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. essential that teachers. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. sex or religion. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. therefore. 5.6. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. For laboratory and workshop techniques. They encounter many social events as they grow. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. test.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. commands or orders. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 3. 2.6. 4. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.4. 5.books. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Giving less directions. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. 300 . 6. stern pursuit of accurate data. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. if they like. to ask questions and experience things. Evidence.Herma Wouk.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. 5. It requires consistent thinking. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Adopting creative models of teaching. 3.4. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. . Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Appreciating pupils ideas. 5. Social sciences. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.
friends. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . of vast resources running waste. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. For instance. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. critical thinking and suspended judgments.7. These include open mindedness. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. and emphasized during the learning process . therefore should be unbiased and objective. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. it must be encouraged. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. to develop among the learners. school and society at large. practiced. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. (Vaidya 2007). They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. neighbourhood.(Smith 2008). The students observation. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. To achieve this we should understand what it means. 5. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.4. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. keen observation.
Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. 2007). or superstitions. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. think and work it”. (Das. rumor. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. 5. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. 302 . understanding and logic. he studies all aspects of it. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. In considering a situation or a problem. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem.7. intuition or wishful thinking”. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. The intention to respect another’s point of view.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge.4. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions.
4. 5. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.4. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.7. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.7. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. • 5.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. but to begin only after careful planning.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.
Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. 5. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. 5. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. it must be encourages.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience.4. 304 .
New Delhi : Anmol Publications. a. The intention to respect another’s point of view. 3. 4.4. Wide reading b. 5. S. 2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools.S. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Adopting creative models of teaching. b. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.B (2008). the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.4. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. (2008). 305 . Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. (2000). a. objectivity. b. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. Proper example of the teacher c. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. Study of superstitions d.5.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Rao. M. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. D. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Vaidya. Love for truth enhances. b. a. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. N. Reflections on Scientific attitude. 5. 16. (2006). A text book on Science Teaching in Schools.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. a. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Planning of activities 5. Yadav. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.4.
LESSON 5.9 5.5.5. 306 .5. actively.11 5.5. areas of institutional planning.2 5. 2. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.10 5.5.7 5.1 22.214.171.124.8 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5.5 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.4 5. you will be able to: 1.3 5.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. objectives and characteristics.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. state the concept.5.5. 5.6 5.
because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy.5. which become the bases for further planning at the district. each teacher. executive as well as public. • to make planning development-oriented. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. and each student are regarded as separate entities.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. 5. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n.3. • To make institutional planning more successful. Institution should be regarded as the unit. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . and.5. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. in the task of educational planning. teachers and students is not lost sight of. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. and every student in the process of educational planning. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. 5. • to involve teachers and school administrators. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. State and national levels from below. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. every teacher. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. every parent. and supplement planning from above.
who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members.5.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. it becomes the basis for school inspection. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning.5. Syllabus. 5. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. council and. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Classwork.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.curricular Activities. (2) Co.• implemented. etc. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. approved after making necessary modifications. which will be discussed in the general. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. 308 . Co-curricular activities. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. and Personnel services. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. Examinations.
Preparation of instructional material. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. hobby-centres. 3. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Celebrating of national and international festivals. scientific and historical excursions. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children.No. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. etc. etc. Organisation of class-room libraries. etc. Organisation of Pupils. Improving the internal assessment. Editing the school magazine. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Undertaking remedial instruction services. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Conducting of educational. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Organisation of Self-Government Days. etc. Organising play-for-all programmes. charts and apparatus. Organisation of Students’ Association. etc. 2. Preparation of models. Courts. Running science clubs. Fair distribution of syllabi. 1. Equipping of laboratory and library.
group and out-group relationships are as given below i. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. co-operation.5. teacher-State. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. pupils.5. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. involving mainly human materials. and solidarity. and —pupil-pupil. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. understanding. pupil310 . teacherinspector. teachers.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. etc. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. teacher-managing body.” The human relationships in. Administrator-State. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. headmasters associations. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. administrator-pupil. administrator-administrator. teacher-pupil. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. teacher-teacher. ii. administrator-supervisor. parent-teacher associations. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. which are divided as the in. students’ associations. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. science teachers’ associations. parents. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.
have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. organisation. To administer means to manage. pupil-non-official functionaries. teacher-community leader. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. supervision. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. administrator. Good. It covers personnel and material management. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. pupil-parent. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It is also being modernized to become a technique. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. pupil-community leader. control. social sciences and other disciplines. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. now-a-days. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. V.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. to carry out. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. organisation and management. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. teacher-parent. pupil-inspector. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. According to C." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. and to serve. to accomplish. supervision and superintendence. 311 . etc. to attend. superintendence. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”.State.5.
3.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. low. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. Those. 4. Motiviation . If the cost benefit ratio is less. If it is more. 6. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. This is the latest democratic trend in management. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.The manager should have leadership traits.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. 8.Of all the approaches. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. Rapport between the Management and Employees .Any good management will always have good public relations. 9.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. Leadership . without this the efficacy will be handicapped. 13. Socio-Scientific Approach .Management should be efficient and economical 312 . It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. He should be an artist in human relationships. Democratic Management . The relationship should change from master. who occupy the managerial positions. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. Worker Participation . the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 7. Decision Making . 2. Liasion with the Public . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. Economic Management . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. Cost-Benefit Analysis .This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. Communication . Better Human Relationships . 5.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . 11. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. it is not worth-while. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. 12.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . 10.
14. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. characteristics and areas of institutional planning.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. 313 . Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. 5.These two are. objective. 18.too. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. 5. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. to improve the quality of education it provides. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions.5. 19. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. improvement of teaching methods. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance .5. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. enrichment of curricula. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning.g. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. and cooperative performance should be ensured. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution.
Educational Administration. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. b. 4. Co-curricular activities. 314 .5. Leadership c. a.M. (1995). Singh. b. it becomes the basis for school inspection. 2. c. Decision Making b. (2003).11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. (2001).5. d. a.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Tarachand and Prakash. Instruction. Examinations. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. S. In group and Out group 5. Classwork. and Personnel services. R. Communication 5. Motiviation d. H. e. Fundamental of Educational Management. NUEPA. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. f. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Syllabus.K. a. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. a.5. APH Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. b.
Article 45 .3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. women education and teacher education in India.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Community and Mass Media 2.Religious and Modern Education 1. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.3 Directive Principles . UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Balanced diet. Inspection and Supervision 3. 1.1 School Health Programme.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. First Aid. Examination reforms. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Preservation of nutrients. Realized the problems of school education. New evaluation procedures.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .Preventive measures.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. social Impact 3. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.5 Regional Educational Development in India .2 Secondary Education : Co-education. 4. physical education and environmental education 5.2 Nutritional deficiencies. School. Healthy Food Habit 4.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Common ailments of Children.4 India's Secular Policy .CORE PAPER . nutritional requirement. Buddhist and Jain system of education.3 Educational Influences of Home.1 Primary Education : Education for all.1 Gurukula system of education.I. Code of conduct for teachers. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . 2. population education.teachers should have : 1. Communicable diseases . Sex-education 4. wastage and Stagnation 3. higher education.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Economic 315 .Pre-service and In-services facilities.
New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. and Mohanty R. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Taneja V. Ghanta R. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.K. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Tagore 5. Prof.R. (1999) Culture.4. Delhi : University Publications 2. Realism. curriculum and teacher's role 5.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Curriculum and national goals . Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. Pandy V. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. T.K.Aim. Kalan Paper Packs 10. REFERENCE 1.N. Sharma.4 4. New Delhi: NCERT 3. 316 . Socialization. R. Naturalism and Pragmatism . (2004) Problems of Education in India. and Dash B.N.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. Mahatma Gandhi.K. Saraswathi T. and Sharma R. Ram S. 5.1 Idealism. Hemchand. (2005) Foundations of Education. Mishra. and Human Development. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.C.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.K. 7.S.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. B.