BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. Jainism and their educational implication. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. and Jain system of education. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. The need. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. discusses the regional educational development in India. Lesson 5. 9 . regional imbalances and variations in different environment. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Lesson 2. In. Lesson 4.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world.

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2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1.3.1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1.1.6 Education during British Era 1.5.6.5.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1.6.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.6.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.LESSON 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.4.5 Jain system of education 1.6.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.5.1.1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1.4.1.6.1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1.1 1.3.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1.2 1.1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1.5.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.

The history of education passed through Buddhist.1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.1. India. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. but English in taste.1.6.8 1. “a class of persons.1.9 1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. That 12 . being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.6.7 1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.1. British system of education presented the modern western model.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.3.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. 1. Education in India. Muslim and British periods. describe the Jain system of Education 4. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. in morals and in the intellect”. 1. 1.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. Indian in blood and colour. has a long past history starting in vedic education. both present and future.1.1. you will be able to: 1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. in opinion. elucidate the education during British Era. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.

It was also moral. individually. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. No State Control on Education. Teacher as Parents. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Education was a private affair of the people. managed entirely by Brahmans. to light. It was not merely intellectual. Individual Teaching. Residential Schools. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. 12. the monitorial plan was followed. generally. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. 5. 11. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. with grants of land or money. questioning by the pupil. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Method of Instruction. Curriculum. 13. however.knowledge was real. Pupils were taught. as it is generally considered to be at present. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. from eternal to immorality 2. Role of Travel in Education. The immediate aim of education. High Status of Teachers. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 10. Immediate Aim Vocational. Education of Moral. 14. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. followed by explanation by the teacher. 6. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. from darkness. There was. Free and Accessible. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. not en masse by the class method. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. religious and spiritual. Religious and Spiritual. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 16. Where pupils were many. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. Forests as Centres of Education. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. 4. 8. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. 13 . if they thought fit to do so. and to agriculture and trade. Method of Study. 3. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. 9.

Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. It was suited to the needs of the society. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . It was freely available to all those who wanted.1. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. They were very cordial and intimate. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. 1. Wide-Spread Education in Women. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. lived a life of celebacy. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent.17. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. studied Vedas.

1. Education was imparted through the. use of cosmetics. Right means of livelihood 6. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. 15 . in which. the student had his head shaved of all hair.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. I take Refuge to Dharma. killing of any living being. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Right activity 5. 1. 2. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. except the Chandals. It was denied only to the ill. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. After attaining the age of 20. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. Consequently. Right memory 8. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. every class in society. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Right speech 4. the handicapped. partaking of food at prohibited times. watching dances or listening to music. he was qualified to become a monk. Right thought 3. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Right contemplation 1. He was then ordained to obey ten rules.4. impure conduct. the most significant of which were the following 1. medium of Pali. taking things without being offered. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. use of intoxicating things. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. Right endeavour 7. I take Refuge to Sangh. which included abstaining from theft. disease and death of the human beings. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. etc.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms.C. Right knowledge 2. had the right to receive education.

along with education in script writing. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. etc. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. Later on. These are called later Buddhist schools. meaning. approach. has no metaphysical value for life. agriculture.4. 5. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. Whatever its nature and extent. commerce. 2. Initially. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. bodily gestures. objectives of human life. education was impart in art. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. archery. 8. wear three items.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. elephant lore. beg for alms. be considered the aim of education It. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. depth and range. archery. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. medicine. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. etc. After this ritual. the science of taming and training animals. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. magic.3. military science. Hence. Life is in a flux. eat food thrice a day. 4. geology. 6. It comprehended education in writing. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline.. of clothes. 1. however. it is regarded as true”. arithmetic and religious discussion. the presence of the monks was essential. cottage industries. Even at this stage. As reality is becoming. 7. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. aspirations and. control over sensuous activities. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. therefore. assumptions. 3. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. and. a continuous change creating 16 . Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. handicrafts. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. nature. a change is not only total but also perpetual. women occupied a position inferior to men. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. changing the goals. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. animal husbandry. On this occasion. so long as it successfully does so. knowledge of reviving the dead. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. etc. nothing is of any permanent consequence. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period.

Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. 1.1. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. 5. Education must. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. whatever works are true and good. and to give it a shape that it has today. Write Eight fold path . Validity is effective and consequences. its pessimistic outlook on life. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. such as. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. In fact..5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. Its chief feature. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him.e.5. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. Jainism insists 17 . Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. i. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. goes to Vardhaman. therefore.new and peculiar situations. however. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. However. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. it is much older than the latter.

3. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. 6. c) Not to steal. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. 9. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. but on both. more stress on individual aims. b) Not utter falsehood.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. They are: a) Not to injure. 2. As such. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 5. Development of personality as an individual. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. and believe in happiness to all. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. b) Right knowledge. 2. 4. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. 18 . it has a foot in both the words. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 1. thought and deed. Hence. 8.1. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. c) Right conduct. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. and is to be redeemed and liberated. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. 7. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. 3.5. e) To renounce the world. 1. 10. d) To lead a celibate life.

1. 2.4. that would be socially desirable. education should develop sense of discrimination. 1. therefore. 19 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are Triratnas ? . Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. 4. Hence. 2. Teaching should be social and tolerant. 3. and should bring happiness to all.5. here and now.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. practised and not only aspired for. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. 3. success and love. Belief in transmigration of soul. Knowledge is through senses and meditation.5. 8. Teaching must develop these faculties. 5. Jiva is essentially karmic. the precious principles of life that bring happiness.

However. 1953).3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854.1. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. 1. philosophy and literature of Europe. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. Madras. and not for life.6.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. 1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. North West Province and Punjab. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. 2. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.6. Bombay.6. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts.6. primary 20 . 1. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. 1. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. To set up separate departments of. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.1.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. science. with rally and rout.

The universities dominated the secondary education.6. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. 1. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. 1. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). 1. To ensure qualitative improvement. namely. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. at the primary level. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education.6. Later on. • Secondary education. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. they named these schools as polytechnic schools.education was neglected. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. In 1882. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. secondary education became a step towards university. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams.6.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). Then the prevalent education was anti-national. self-respecting and competent. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. At that time M. • Universal free primary education. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.K.

Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? .7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. After this stage. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.1. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. all children are to have a common curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. 10. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians.At the primary stage (6-11 years). commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities.

military science. 4. Right means of livelihood. Right endeavour. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The immediate aim of education. Right speech. a. the science of taming and training animals. Right contemplation. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. It was suited to the needs of the society. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses.education of European literature. The system of education was well-organised. establishment of universities. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Right activity. 5. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. 1. Right memory. 23 . b. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. During the Buddhist period. 3. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 6.1. arithmetic and religious discussion. archery. 2. Right thought. handicrafts. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. science and English language. questioning by the pupil. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. etc. 2. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. followed by explanation by the teacher.. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. 3. along with education in script writing. education was impart in art. geology.1. Right knowledge.

1.K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 8.K. and Nath. Right knowledge.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. 1937 1. Y. 10.7.C. a. (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 11. (2007). History of Indian Education System. Aggarwal. Ltd. Y. (2009). Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Ltd. Hence.C. 24 . Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. 1882. b. Improvement of Literature. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. c. more stress on individual aims. 9. Development of personality as an individual. Right faith. J. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. a. R. Development of Educational System in India. Singh. Sharma. Right conduct. J. Sargent report 12. b. (1984).

1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.LESSON 1.2.2 1.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.1 1.5 1.3.2.3.2.2.7 1.2.2.2.2.2.9 1.4 1.2.6 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2.3.8 1.3.1 University Education Commission 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.2.2. The 25 .

The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. curriculum. explosion of enrolment.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. vocational education. 1. analyse the progress of education in free India. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. standard of teaching. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. Kothari (1964-66) 8. 2. diversification of courses of studies. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3.3. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. National Board of Teacher Education 10.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. examination system.2. girls and women education besides primary. There had been vast institutional expansion. Post-graduate 26 . Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. you will be able to: 1. technological engineering. medical and legal education. 1986 1.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. 1. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. expansion of vocational. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India.conditions of the teachers.2. National Council for Women’s Education 5. New Educational Policy. S. technical.2. secondary and higher education. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6.

S.2. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.3. 1986.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. research et. Problems of access. Kothari. quality. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. the New National Policy on Education. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. D. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. accumulated over the years. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education.3. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. 1. in January 1985. Therefore. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. However. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. quantity. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. The Essence and Role of Education.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. utility and financial outlay. Government of India.teaching. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. the chairman of University Grants commission. 3. A. 1952. Finally. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 .3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. A meaningfully Partnership.2. 1.2. National System of Education. 4. material and spiritual. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. Education is the key to our allround development. 2. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. Education for Equality. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. 1.3. 1966. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation.

Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. The UNESCO Report. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It can train practical aptitudes. the minorities and the handicapped. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. By working with hands. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1.2.” Thus.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. attitudes. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. Thus. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. 28 . particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. the concepts of work experience. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education.

” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. Besides. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. In 1955. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . it will conduce self. According to. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. co-ordinations.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. The Radhakrishnan Commission. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. As such. The Education Commission. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. the Commission. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. if he wishes. “The aim of these colleges. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. With adequate planning. “It may be described. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses.” The Mudaliar Commission.

As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. admission requirements to vocational courses. etc. The Central Advisory Board of Education. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. With a view to relating education to the life. the. Subsequently. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. for quality of life in the rural areas. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). Therefore. the rigid streaming of courses. the semester and credit system. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. raising the special facilities. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs.. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation.ot her.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. In addition. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses.

The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. meaningful. which swept the country for over two decades.and the world of work. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. etc. 1.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. giving importance to productivity in the national development. manual work resulting in either goods or services. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. The Father of Nation. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. meaningful. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. aimed at this goal. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. According to committee.defined S UP W as “purposive. The wave of Basic Education. which offer scientific. under the diversified curricula of seven streams.. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. In short. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. who conceived the System of Basic Education. technological courses including Agriculture. felt that education should be centred around a craft. 31 . Commerce. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.2. preferably spinning and weaving. which are useful to the community.

is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Clothing 5. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Some Hints to Teachers 1. so that it is educational in essence. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. locally available materials and tools. 3. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. 4. 32 . Educative and 3.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Productive 2. Community work and social service. Work practice. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. be that the work involved is: 1. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Experimentation with materials. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Culture and recreation 6. Food 3. 2. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Shelter 4. as far as possible. The teachers should make use of. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Health and Hygiene 2. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. tools and techniques and 3.

adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Check on educated unemployed 4. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. as far as possible. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. To make education more realistic. Productive Work 33 . Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. removal of illiteracy. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. Education through work The SUPW should. Community Service In-1972. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. improve discipline.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. the local community should be actively associated. It can become an instrument to build character. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another.2. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. slum clearance. etc. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Merits of the Programme 1. 1. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject.5. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. 6. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. inculcate a faith.

the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other .” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. if not productive. AICTE was set up in year 4. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The community. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. skills and better future for the children. should involve itself in the educational effort. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. in turn. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. helping the adults-in productive work. traffic control. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. offering first aid. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. etc. Define SUPW 34 .

1. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. e. 1. 35 . 2. f. Radhakrishnan 2. 1952 3. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a.2. 3. 1955 4. Dr. d. meaningful. 6. manual work resulting in either goods or services. Write short note on SUPW. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. which are useful to the community. 1. b.2. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.2. c.

and Rao. 36 .K. (2005). Y. P. R. (2007). J. B. Rao.K. and Nath. V. Amala. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. : Sharma.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.D.H. Publishing Corporation.P. Development of Educational System in India. Anupama.(2005). New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. History of Education. New Delhi: A. History and Problems of Indian Education.2. (2007). New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.P. History of Indian Education System. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.1. A. (2009).C. Y. Ltd. Singh.K..

for a total of 117.3. equality. 1949.9 1.3.369 words in the English language version.4 1. establishing the structure. democratic republic. containing 395 articles.3.3.1 Significance of DPSP 1.2 1. 37 . there is an official Hindi translation. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.6 1. procedures. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3.8 1. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.1 1.3. directive principles and duties of citizens.3. 1950.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. and liberty.7 1. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3.3. Being the supreme law of the country. Besides the English version. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. assuring its citizens of justice.3.3. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. it came into effect on January 26.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3.3.5 1.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.

According to the constitution. 4. 1947. you will be able to: 1. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”.3. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. Through them. for 166 days. in sessions open to public. understand our Indian constitution. 1947. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. social. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. Dr. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. 38 . it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved.3. 1950. 1. spread over a period of 2 years. 2. Two days later. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. After many deliberations and some modifications. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. the Drafting Committee was appointed. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. 1. learn the role of central and state government on education. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. 1. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. 3. legal and environmental. On August 29. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. economic.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy.In the August 14. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. The Assembly met.3.3. administrative. with Dr. political. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.

Article 40. and in other cases of undeserved want. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Equal justice and free legal aid. and shall. Protecting health of the workers. That the health and strength of workers. Protecting children from exploitation. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Minimising inequalities in status. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. 39 . Article 39A. on the basis of equal opportunity. in particular. sickness and disablement. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. The State shall. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Organisation of village panchayat. provide free legal aid. Article 42. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Right to work. for workers. Equal pay for both sex.government. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. old age. men and women. The State shall endeavour to secure. Condition for dignity of children.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Article 41. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Article 43. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. No abuse of children. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Liking wage etc. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.

and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Article 47. (Original Article 45. [declared by or under law made by 40 . The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 48A. See also Article 21A). Provision for free and compulsory education for children. and. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Article 46. work. 2002 for “45. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Note: Subs. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 48. in particular. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. in particular. a living wage. by suitable legislation or in any other way. industrial or otherwise. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Article 44. Participation of workers in management of industries. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. The State shall endeavour to provide. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. in particular. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. agricultural. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Article 45. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. The State shall take steps. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. to all workers. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Uniform civil code for the citizens. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Article 43A. Article 49.

disfigurement. as the case may be.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. destruction. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Article 50. from spoliation. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2.3. Promotion of international peace and security. 1. Article-21A Right to Education. removal. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 .Parliament] to be of national importance. 2002. Article 51. 2. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Article 45 . “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Separation of judiciary from executive. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. disposal or export. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. may be law determine”. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.

in particular. race.” 42 . Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. 2002. language or any of them”. iii. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. and. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. if such person is a minor. ii. caste. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. his guardian has given his consent thereto. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. and shall protect them. 5. 6. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. from justice and all forms of exploitations. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. 7. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. 8. 4. 3. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds.

and by drawing. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. 2. Educational Reforms From time to time. 43 . to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. for its vocabulary.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country.3. the forms. The central government determines targets and promotes education.9. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Article 351 gives importance to 6. wherever necessary or desirable. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. & 1. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Provision for Education for minorities is given in .

Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. The following pilot projects. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. 5. 8. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. 7. So as to encourage education on right lines. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. So that they may work well.. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. All India Council of Medical Science. private agencies etc. By starting these projects. to achieve the desired ends. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. etc. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government.3. 6. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. the state governments. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. 4. Local bodies and private enterprise. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Production of suitable for children and adults f. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction.

reports etc. 9. 4. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 3. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Material concerning nation-wide interests. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. training and statistics. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. books. 12. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. 10. is the state responsibility. etc. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. 11.3. education for women. research. are published by it. 1. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. 1. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. handicapped. The 45 . Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms.

1. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3.3. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write short notes on a. articles in the Directive principles. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 1. 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Article 21A c. Article 46 4. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Explain Directive principles 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Article 45 b. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? .3. 46 . The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8.

Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. 4. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Article-21A Right to Education.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2002. Article 45 . 1. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Ambedkar 2. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 3. a.3. a. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 2002. Article 46 5. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. 47 . may be law determine”. Article 29 and 30 7. b. Development of Hindi Language 6. a. The Directive Principles of State Policy. Clearing House function 9. Dr. b.5. Describe the educational role of State Government. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”.

K and Narang C. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. N. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. (2007). (2009). 48 . (2004). B. K. S. (2008). Bhatia. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Dash. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.3. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Education in Emerging Indian Society.1. L. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. S. Ghosh.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta.

4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.7 1. Islam.4. Students should be 49 .1 Why Moral Education 1.4.3.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4.4.8 1. Jainism.6 1.4.5 1.2 1.3.4. Buddhism etc.4 Moral education 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.4.4.4.4.1 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4.4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. religious education should be broad based. Christianity.3.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.

integrity. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. Thus.4.” Education broadens human outlook. India' can produce men of character. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions.. enumerate the aims of religious education 4.4. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. beauty and goodness so that 50 .D. 1. religious education and the concept of secularism. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication.and dedication. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. "In A multireligious society like ours. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. you will be able to: 1. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. As result of which. know the position of religious education in our country 3.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. According to E. duty-consciousness. In the complicated and complex society of today. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. state meaning and need for moral education 1. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance.

if not regularly. religion and democracy are same. through religious practices and 51 .3. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. According to Article 19. 1947 we achieved our freedom. According to Article 22. 1. Children attend these organizations.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. at least occasionally. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate.3. it is clear that the State has no religion.” From the above. No religious tax can be imposed on them. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. all citizens are free to follow any creed. As our country is a country of diverse religions. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. realizes God in himself. castes and creeds. rancour. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. 1. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. Viewing the defects of religious education. In short. They thought that any kind of narrow. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. Hence. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. As a matter of fact.4.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August.4. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. Thus.

To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . what is done and what is not done etc. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. intellectual and physical faculties of children. when he becomes an adult. which can mould. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good.teachings. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. moral and spiritual values. If unreleased. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. one fully developed. and what is evil. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. aggressive. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. He also learns about social. Good education. It is religious education. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. which help him for the development of his character. As a result of which. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. It helps to modify habits attitudes.. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. for the development of the individual and the society. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. temperament etc.

This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way.3. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. 53 . Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. This should not be allowed to happen.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. 1. If we open the pages of history. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Therefore. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society.4. 3. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. towards the society. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. 2. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. which is the basic need of a democratic life. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man.

Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. they should be discussed in the right earnest. therefore.4. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. 9. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. fellow-feeling.5. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. examples of patriotism. churches and mosques 7. Life histories of great persons of the world. 11. 10. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write Article 22 2. Gurudwara as. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. stories of moral greatness.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. For this. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Since all religions have virtues.

Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). The content of the curriculum. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Brahmacharya (celebacy). 4. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 8. 4. let men see well of one another. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Non-injury. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Cultivation of emotions. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers.4. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). therefore. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 1. 2. Fearlessness. Service to others. is that which develops moral values. 8. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society.4. “Let all be happy and free from disease. Patriotism. Satyam (truth). 5. Purity. Aparigarha (Non. 3. 3. 6. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. 1. Moral education. Asvada (Control of palate). the methods of teaching. Without moral values.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Self sacrifice.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. It they learn what morality is in their early years. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations.acquisitiveness). They will play their role effectively. students.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 7. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 7. 6. 2. 55 . in the home. 5.

The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Sharivashram (Physical work). Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Discipline. Unity of mankind. Good temper. 2. 3.9. 4. religions may be included in the syllabus. 3. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. 1. 10. Efficiency. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. discipline. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. minutes in the morning for group singing. Good manners. 11. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Asatyam (Non-thieving). Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour.4. Integrity. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Secondary Stage 1. In the school programme. National unity and Spiritual values. 56 . The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Simple texts and stories concerning different. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage.

Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. love of humanity. 3. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. 57 . In this connection. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. Silent meditation should be encouraged. University Stage 1. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. patriotism and self-discipline. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. In other words. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. 5.4. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . should form a normal part of school programme. 5. 4. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. 2.

a. 2. Sri Prakasa 6 . b. 1.4. 1. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. For this.4. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. 58 .8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. a. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. a. the. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. 1959 5. 4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Discuss the aims of Religious education. b. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other.1. 2. Training of Character 3. minutes in the morning for group singing. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.4. In short.

Theory and Principles of Education. Pahuja. J. B. (2008). New Delhi : Siddiqui. N. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. Publishing Corporation. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2003).4.H.H. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2004). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. 59 . Bhatia. (2007).1. M. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A. N. K and Narang C.C. Anmol Publications Pvt. K.P. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Dash. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2008). P. L.

1 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5.5.5.5. disparities between provinces/States. Although.5.8 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. i.12 1.7 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan. 60 .5.9 1.5..LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.4 1.5.11 1.3 1.5.e.5 1.5.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.10 1.5.2 1.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.6 1.

3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics.5. 8. This leads to separatist movements. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. energy. work hard towards this end. Accordingly. 61 . roads. waters. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. etc. 6. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.5. 4. 1.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1.5. 7.5.1. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. for example. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. you will be able to: 1. 1. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. understand the regional educational development in India 3. 2. they take appropriate measures. 5. They therefore. know the education suited to different environments.

• Separate States (of course viable States). on the basis of regional development may be formed.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still.5. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. some average. Secularism. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. 3. 62 .6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. some States became educationally far advanced. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. Therefore. and. while others remained educationally backward. 2. 4. Tight security arrangements should be made.

freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. Mizoram. the State Governments. the Union Government. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. In the Central sector. Regional Centres of IGNOU. Guwahati.After the Planning Process has originated.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. 63 .. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters.5.84 crore was released in 2005-06. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. scholarships. However.480. etc. approved proposals worth Rs. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. library buildings. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Central Universities of Assam. Out of this. These projects are in various stages of implementation.392. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Itanagar. NERIST.14. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. and provision of informal education to enable those. while some States like Bihar. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. Tezpur. Nagaland and NEHU. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. since its inception in 1998-99.g. Silchar. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. After the attainment of independence. academic buildings. remained under developed.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. etc.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. 1. books. Funds amounting to Rs. Jammu and Kashmir. Even in each State. NIT. Rs.

Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). Moreover. 64 . while the northern region has only 20 per cent. During 2003-04.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.5.40. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.501.261.187.05 crore and Rs. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. Government expenditure on education. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Out of this an amount of Rs.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. Tezpur University. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.8 per cent in 05). is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. A provision of Rs. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.500. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.57 crore and Rs. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. too. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).

To add to the woes.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Karnataka. Karnataka. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Andhra Pradesh. notes the study. The Chandigarh Administration. Medical education. Kerala and Gujarat. too. 1. for which 16 sites. engineering and R&D. Tamil Nadu. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. for instance. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. pharma. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). telecom. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. too. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Listing the positives. English. Moreover. too.5.

In the same manner. while the former does not. in which the learners live. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. Hence it is called as need-based. For a learner living in a rural area. the curricular subjects. the needs. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. The living conditions. the working days: an academic . and so on. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Of course. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. taking the average in the middle. even actually looking at the watch. the vocations. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. 66 . Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. which a non-tribal person cannot do. the socio-physical conditions. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. life-oriented and environment slanted. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. the interests. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. Then education become realistic and idealistic. The working hours of educational institutions.year. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. when he will not be sure of time. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. the teaching methods.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life.

10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. 67 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. 2. 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to suit education to different environments? 1.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.5.5. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5. 2. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .

New Delhi: Anmol Publications. remained undeveloped 3. S.K. New Delhi: Authors press. some States have become more developed than others b. Education Scenario in India. Education in Developmental Arena.2. Dubey. 68 . and Nair. some of areas which were under the native rulers. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.N. S.G. during the British rule. (2001). 60% 1. C.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Salim. a. (2008). (2001). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.H. Educational Development in India. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. A. (2002). R.5. Giridhar.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. school community and mass media.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. semi literate and illiterates. National Integration. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. secularism and democracy through Indian education. 71 . The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. community development. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home.

1.1.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.4 2.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.2 2.1.6 Education for Secularism 2.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.LESSON 2.7 2.1.5.6.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.6.1.9 2.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.1.3 2.1 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1.5.6.8 2.1.1.

2. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. creed.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it.1. socialism and secularism 2. This is the political aspect of democracy. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. for the people by the people”. 73 . Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. there should be made no distinction of caste.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. In the matter of admitting students in schools. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. colour or wealth.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. you will be able to: 1. understand the concept of democracy. 2. 2. 3) Provision of Manual Work. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. socialism and secularism 2. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group.1. The students may be associated with the management of the school. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically.1. socialistic and secular state. Abraham Lincoln. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Democracy thus means power of the people. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.1.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia.. may be planned. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. Democracy means 2. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible.1. it soon spread all over the world. 12) Visits to Legislatures. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 11) Student Parliament. debates. declamation contest etc. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. There are different brands of socialism.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 2. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 74 .

8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. Under it. 75 . 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. oppression and disparity.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 2) Socialism aims at equality. free from exploitation. but on the path of non-violence. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low.1. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote.5. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. the wealthy and the poor. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 2.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools.1. service and cooperation. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. none high”. 7) Special facilities for girls. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 2. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. the prince and the peasant.5. the employer and the employee are all on the same level.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. Everyone says. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. secularism is being propagated. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. 5. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. Write any two main features of socialism. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. 76 . 11) State schools. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. “India is a secular-country. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. "which seeks the development of physical.” In every political and educational corner. According to Holydake.

trifles over petty religious matters are caused.opposed to religious education. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. In this type of prevailing situations. people have narrow mindedness. That is why. Moral values have to be imbibed. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. should be independent of religion. 3) It permits freedom of worship.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. people started believing in regionalism. 2) It permits freedom of religion. “Webster further says. the belief that the state morals.1.1. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. During the recent past. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. 5) It implies tolerance. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 2. 6) It has faith in rational thinking.6. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. There is need of making the people open minded.6. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. fraternity. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. education etc. A large number of people is uneducated. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. 77 . liberty. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. 9) It stress free inquiry. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. 8) It believes in co-existence.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. Equality.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities.

students belonging to different religions should be associated. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. There should be some internal checking of the material being. tours and trips may be organized. No doubt.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. While doing so. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. The very sight of the building. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. Patiala. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . education. In the celebration of each such function. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. 1) Moral Education. 2.6. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. In the hands of such teachers.1. Religious Education. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show.presented by the students in the gathering. that the central string of all religions is one. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based.

Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. The word “Seculum” means 7. No doubt. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. Define Secularism 9.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. The term secularism was first used by 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions.1.

In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. colour or wealth. 3. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. 5. Equal Opportunities for Admission. Tuition free education b. Power of the people 2. Abraham Lincoln. Socialism aims at social justice. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. d. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Since socialism stands for equality. 4. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. George Jacob Holydake 80 . Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Provision of Manual Work. there should be made no distinction of caste. 2. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. creed. This present age 7. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 6. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. The students may be associated with the management of the school.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. 3. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Socialism aims at equality. 4. b. for the people and the people”.1. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. a. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. a. Respect of Individual Personality. c. 5.

K. 81 .8. the belief that the state morals.1. It treats all religions on an equal footing. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Pahuja. K and Narang C. N. should be independent of religion. Mohanty. J. (2004). education etc. a. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society.C. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2007). It permits freedom of religion. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. b. 10. N.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. b. (2005). Bhatia. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theory and Principles of Education. P. Dash. a. L. Anmol Publications Pvt. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Ltd. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2003). J. (2008). B.” 9.

2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.5.2.10 2.2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.2.9 2.1 2.8 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.2.2.2 2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.3 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .6.2.LESSON 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.6.7 2.4 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.5.2.2.2.

understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2.2. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. social and moral aspects.an instructor of school children. as citizens. who are placed in his custody. understandings. a r e 1.generation to another. application. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. mental. you will be able to: 1. moral.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. skills. and 4. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. social. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. as it is t he aim o f modern education. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. as workers. The developmental roles of children. development.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. emotional. as learners. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. 83 .2. 3. therefore. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. 2. 2. aims and objectives of the school. A teacher is first and foremost. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. 2. It involves physical. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. as persons. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3.

The students live. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. The following are some of such roles described in brief. He has to look after their physical. Teacher as a Citizen Next. mental. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. socially.All education should lead to better behavioural development. and aesthetically to become. morally. inquisitive. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. 2. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. He is to become an active member. 1. 3. emotionally. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. morally. experiences and acceptance. mentally. economically effective. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. social and emotional health. intellectually. culturally confident.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. member of his community at the outset. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. physically fit for socially efficient. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. motivated. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. a part of their day in 84 . He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. 2.2. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a.

photographic clubs. fine art associations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out the role of teachers towards community development . and most of hours. faiths. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. languages and religions. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. science club.the school being under the custody of teachers.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. They will be spending with their parents. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. creeds. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. Unless. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. Dr. 4. 2. activities of the society into which he is born. solve them. It 85 . Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. India is a land of many castes.

keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. narrow-minded provincial. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr.” Regarding the role of education. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. a. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. the study of language and literature. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. b.” 2.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. At the primary stage the importance of stories. c. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. Nehruji has explained this as. national anthem and other national songs. The only process is the process of education. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 .emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. 1. stand up straight. this integration of the Indian people. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. folklore and teaching of social studies. ‘We should not become parochial. should be emphasised. It should broaden the outlook. Sampurnanand remarked. and make into one strong national unit. Radhakrishnan.2.5. with straight backs and look up at the skies. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. social studies. Let us. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. the citizens of the Republic of India. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform.is. therefore. poems. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. Political integration has already taken place to some extent.

it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. 87 . Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. militar y training like the NCC. 7. 3. dramatics and youth festivals. Singing of National Anthem. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. and picnics. Co-Curricular Activities. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. National Days—January 26. 6. debates. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. 9. 5. 8. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. t he st udent s and t he community. Student Camps. 2. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Uniform for School Children. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Scouts and Guides. sports. 4. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Textbooks. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Reverence of National Flag. 10. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. languages and literature. Taking Pledge.different social sciences. educational excursions. ACC. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. tours. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Celebrations of National Days. symposia.

Recognition of Institutions. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Open-Air Dramas. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged.11. 12. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Admissions to schools. Educational and Travel Documentaries. iv. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Students Exchange and Tours.5. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. colour. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. v. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. language. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. ii. ways of thinking and doing things. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. flora and fauna. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and .2. 14. School Projects. 2. Admissions. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 15. 13. 88 . Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. region or religion. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. iii. 16.

Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. 2.2. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. vii. Define National Integration 3.vi. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. viii. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Community dinners. cultures and races on equal bases. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. camps. irrespective of national boundaries. ix. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

F. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.friendships between children of different countries. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 4. Strong has observed.2. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. therefore. C.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. 3. 5. that war. 2. 6.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. patriotism is not enough.as important as that of a national citizenship. Radhakrishnan states. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.” 2. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. 2. In a very real sense. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.2. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. if it happens. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. Organising of debates and. Therefore.6.e.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. the international level. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. Dr. and the healthy development. This. (b) stories of children of other lands. often in connection with anniversaries. (c) fairly tales.6. Teachers 90 . of his body and mind..

They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Impartial in their Treatment.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should not be propagandists.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. a German. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. an Englishman. Russian. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Indian and American. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts.

come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. understand and indiscipline: 1. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. It does not prepare students for life. 3.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. Wide Spread Frustration . leading to.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. and help the students to over . out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 .7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. which results in agitation and aggression language. Chronic Poverty .2.2. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. majority of people are. 5. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. the education function can be carried. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. If this is done. 4. 2. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. there is wide spread frustration among all people. As the school is but a miniature society. Devaluation of Values . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.Another major. Defects of the educational System . Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .

List out the factors causing social tension in schools . love. co-operation.2. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development.2. fellow feeling. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. 2. 93 . sympathy and good will among the nations. 2. community development. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. 4. etc.democratic nature. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. 3. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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2. the invention of the printing press.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. To make them achieve their aim. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Museums. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. art galleries. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Hence.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Define community.3.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Crow and Crow write. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. In fact. books.V. During the course of time. Then came newspapers. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Now internet is being used. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. periodicals. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Moreover. are increasingly used in education. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. “All the citizens of the community. Emphasising this thing. He taught his students orally. led to the printing of books. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities.

discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them.6. current affairs and other areas. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. Students listen various talks. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. A lot of work by way of pre. the place of importance. 2. It stimulates curiosity and interests. It enlightens public opinion. music. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. In the emphasis is on sound.classroom teachers. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Reynolds. politics. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries.telecast. the teacher still occupies. It is also an important source of entertainment. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. Effective means of presenting music. art. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. 101 . Thus. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Various talks. social studies. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching.3. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. rather than on picture. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded.G. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. languages. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. 2. Important happening inventions. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Thus. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. dram appreciation. “Listening participation” in current history. In collaboration with the experts.

School concerts. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. at play. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. at any place. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. mathematics. Team-teaching demonstrations. informal and non-formal education. fol classical music. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. development of lessons. Making learning an open system. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. audibility and presentability. 3. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. travel talks. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. plays. speech. projects or creative activities. At present. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. style. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Participation of local teachers and pupils. at drawing room. at recreational centers. 102 . Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. 4. Before presenting the programme. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. 5.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4.4.4.4.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.LESSON 2.3.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.4.4.4.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.6 2.5 2.4.4.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4.3.3.4.7 2.1 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.2 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.4.8 2.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.3.4.4 Limitations of formal education 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.

the community. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. School is. 2. his mental alertness. 6. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions.4.3. 7.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. Education organised by some agency. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. you will be able to: 1. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. starting and ending at -a particular age. the mass media et. 8. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. Education associated with a degree or certificate. the family. To realize this objective of education. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 2. In ancient time in India.4. 4. 3. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. 110 . the temple. Education.4. it was mostly. open school.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises..4. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 5. imparted at the residence of the teacher. the most important agency of formal education.2. 3. 2. 9. say the Government or the private enterprise. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. 2. 4. the learner are acquainted. open university. compare formal and non formal system of education. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. 2.

It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. or academic degrees. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. such as a high school or secondary school. as well as vocational education and training. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Through early formal education. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal.2. diplomas. Some education systems have separate middle schools. third stage. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. 2. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling.3. depending on the jurisdiction. also called tertiary. In general.3. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing .4.4. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Higher Education: Higher education. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. capacity. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. the elements of language are first learned. or post secondary education. Concepts of proportion.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . structured education. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education.a secondary education.

Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . children with disabilities. late beginners etc.3. 3. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. is an important agency of formal education. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. What are levels of formal educational system? . and remote dwellers.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. 4.which will help for nation's development.4. 2.4. Agencies can be classified as 2.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. 2.

” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. it is a more effective tool for rural development. i.. Thus. It is much more responsive to needs and change. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. adding up to a true learning society. Open university. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. one could say that non-formal education is an active. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. It is deliberate.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. It is functional. systematic. to help themselves. financially supported life formal education. “Non-formal education should 113 .” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. However. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. Therefore. admissions. Non-formal education includes adult education. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems.learning client take some learning objectives. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education.formal education. it has its own valid claim to reality. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. place of instruction.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. open learning.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. until 1970 it had not been defined.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. Adiseshiah. planned. systematic. According to Malcolm A. It unlocks the doors of development plans. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. staffed. adults as well as children. continuing education and on the job oriented education. curriculum. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn.e.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. etc.

Part-time education. 3. Flexibility in various aspects of education. national integration. modes of teaching. Covering life span of an individual. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. evaluation etc.be marketable and vocationalised. 2. the Ideas of citizenship.” According to H. place of education. i. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs.4. 2.renewal. exploring. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. admissions.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. To help industrial workers to better their skills.e.4. co-curricular activities.S. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them.learning pattern. Process of sharing. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. age. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Preparation for future needs. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. It should lay emphasis on the self. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. 6. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. 7. 5.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter.4. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. self. socialism. To develop in the student.4.S. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. curriculum. international understanding.” 2. 4. 114 . To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. Lawrence.

To offer Secondary. Technical. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. 8. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. 2.4. Universalisation of primary education. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country.4. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 2. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Meeting the omissions of formal education. 4. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. 10. 6. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 5.4. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 5.4. 7. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. school dropouts. 9. Senior Secondary. Eradication of adult literacy. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. 3. 4. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. • 2. working adults. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. in villages and those who live in towns.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. publication and information dissemination. 3. 115 . To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2.

etc. public libraries. library. farm. open space. 2. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. To make if.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. effective in modern societal context. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras.4. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. others are formal and informal.4. training centres in factories. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. self-employment iii. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home.. factory. Again. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. 3.2. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. if organised in isolation. 4. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. etc. Therefore.4. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. centres of correspondence education. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 .5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. Institutions for formal education. All-round development i. 2. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. To better qualifications. To increase knowledge and 2. Radio and television.full time to learners – can be home.

Lecturing T. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. . Give examples of non formal education? . period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. 117 . Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Correspondence lesson. List out any two aims of non formal education. institution. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Teaching to face teaching.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. radio. 6.V. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define non formal education. 7. Face Contact programmes. Written tests.

Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. a.4. systematic. 2.” 6. Open University. Formal and Non Formal 2. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 7. 4. School 3. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Secondary level. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. 2. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education.4. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. adults as well as children. 3. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Primary level. The school. 5.4.2.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. 118 . 2. Pre-school level. Higher Secondary level and University level. Open School.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. b. the college and the university come under this category. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. a.

4. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2005). New Delhi : 119 . Education in Emerging India. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Bhatia.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. B. Pahuja. (2008). Mohanty.C. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ltd. Theory and Principles of Education. Modern Trends in Indian Education. S. Ltd. P.2. Gupta. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. N. K and Narang C. (2004). K. L. (2003). J. J. Dash. (2008). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N.

3.6 2.3.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.4 Need for Open University 2.4.LESSON 2.5.5.1 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5.5.5.2 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.3.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.5.4 Open University 2.3.3 Objectives of Open University 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.7 2.4.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.4.5.5 2.4.5.5.5.5.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.4.

But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. give the meaning.5. Any person. characteristics of open university 4.3. you will be able to: 1. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. economic field or such other fields. Thus. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. 2. 2. Under these circumstances.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. continuing education is a boon. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically.2. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 .5. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. 2. labourers and half educated individuals. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. It is a continuous process.5. For them. However. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. know the need and objectives of open university. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. This knowledge may be in political field. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. farmers. It is a lifelong process.5. industries.

our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons.directly related to his job. After the achievement of independence. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. are also contributing their might for the purpose. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Radio and T. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. On the other hand. For them too continuing education is essential. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Block Development Officers. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. On the other hand.3. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs.literate person. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. cultured and progressive. Radio. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Cinema. if he gets opportunity to develop them. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. 2. Persons engaged in health services. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks.5. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. deteriorating to his character and personality. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Throughout the country.V. Thus. Doctors.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation.V. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. T. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened.

3. 2. (10) first aid.5. Inspite of the great efforts. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (8) psychology of adults. (13) psychology of child behaviour. (9) fundamentals of philosophy.V. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. 7. (2) basic religious matters. 4. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. 123 . (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (6) folk stories. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening.3. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (4) the fundamentals of economics. Of course. 2. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. 6. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life.. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. habits of people of other lands. especially women. (15) music.3.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (1) ancient history.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. These books are not very useful. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. and Radio. 5. (7) folk songs. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (17) modern international and national events. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy.5. 2. (16) liking. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. we have not been able to achieve our targets. (14) information about bringing up young children.

restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns.5. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e .5. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. NLM was launched in the year 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . It also attempts to pr ovide equality. of educational opportunities. attendance restrict ion. 2. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. lack of time etc. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What is the objectives of NLM? 3.

instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. d. Which was the first open university in India? .5. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. its education is not class room based but home based.4. 2. 5. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. IGNOU was established in the year 6. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. the higher the degree of openness. 2. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system.unobserved. it makes use of educational techno logy. and in teaching. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. c. b. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education is not a once for-all process. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . but 125 . e. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. No one is too old or too late to learn. 3.

T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all.5. supplementing the existing provision. 2.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.who did not get it. 2. 3. it a ims at wider and hig her. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities.4. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. Mo re o ver. 2. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. who were deprived of t he same earlier. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 6. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. or who realised too late that they need it.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. 4. 2. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 126 . t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. cho ice o f co ur ses. 3.5. 5.4. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 4.

In the present day world. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. List out any four methods of Open University? . Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Every day. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. cha ng e t heir life compet ence.2. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Tutor Comments. 127 . s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 7. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Therefore.5. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . a state or nation. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? .5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. 1. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. 4. 5.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 8. 2. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Laboratory works. 3. you have learnt the concept. Correspondence tuition. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Self instructional materials.5. a society.4. 6. semi – literates. school drop outs. 2. 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

need and characteristics of Open University. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. 1985. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 8. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 7. which may include house wives. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. a. 2. 4. (1) ancient history.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. 8. 9. its education is not class room based but home based. Explain the objectives. youth. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. 7. d. 1988. Broad casting lectures c. Television Lessons. (2) basic religious matters.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. aspirants for continuing education. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 2. a. a.ambitious learners. 128 . 6. unskilled workers and other professionals. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. b.5. agricultural and industrial workers. P r int med ia b.5. 3. (4) the fundamentals of economics. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.

5. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.2. Reddy. (2004). 129 . Modern Problems of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2007). Ltd.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2001). (2004).K.. S. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. R.S. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. Udaiveer. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. L. K. K and Narang C.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

wastage and stagnation. the education of women. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. examination. its causes and remedial measures. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. and teacher education. In Lesson 2. which may claim the attention of those concerned. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. Examination reform. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. Training teachers for all levels of education. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. 133 . All which is the need of the hour. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education.

134 .

1.3 New initiatives.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.LESSON 3.6 3.4 3.1 EFA – For whom? 3.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.2 EFA – How? 3.1. 135 .1.1.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.1 3.7 3.1.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3.1.3.8 3.1.2 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1.5 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.3.

Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures.3. Continuing Education (CE) 1. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. social.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. On the other hand. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). 2. Therefore. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. directed that. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. you will be able to: 1. economic or cultural. Eradication of Illiteracy. 3. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL).3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years.1. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. therefore. (EOI) 2. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. may be political. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). understands the country. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. education received added importance and significance. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. “The State shall 136 .

This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . the national Government under. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Three Stages for Universalization. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage.endeavour to provide. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. Continuing Education (CE). 3. 137 . within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. It enables the parents to send their children to School. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Universalization of Enrolment. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. Universalization of Retention. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Due to the adoption of democratic system. After the attainment of independence.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Therefore. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. rights and responsibilities. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties.

1995 (for upper primary stage). and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence.3. This target had to be revised to 1970. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. Write Article 45. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. 138 . What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development.1. present and future. later to 1988. 3. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. UNESCO Bulletin states. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. educational enterprise. Therefore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1990. It is safe to assure. then to 1976.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

11. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. 12. 3. nutrition education and sports and games. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Education of the Impaired. 3. Early childhood education should be streamlined. adolescent and adult. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. their social economic status and occupations. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). rural areas. Disabled. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre.1.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. 6. and Women’s education programme should be improved. 9. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. problem of literacy. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. etc. slum areas. Education of Girls. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. The Social Education. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. By undertaking survey. sex. NAEP. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. 5. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. FELF. Apart from primary education. 10. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. creed. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL).3. Jams and Jellies. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. their enrolment and retention. the art of preparing fruit-juice. 139 .The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. Emphasis must be given on health education. 8.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Wastage and Stagnation. 3. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. 4. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.1. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.3 NEW INITIATIVES. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4.e. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Expand MLL and SSA .3.

Familial Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . Personal Factors . School Factors .first stage of education. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. it is considered as wastage.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. Social Factors .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .

142 . . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. . Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Wastage.

relating to home.The following factors. Family Factors .1.3. Personal Factors . are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. school or society.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. in his home. School Factors .5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. rural or urban 3.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. Societal Factors . They are described hereunder :1.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.

stationary.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 144 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. mid-day meals. etc. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. Define Stagnation? 9. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. uniforms.

and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. a. 4. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA..1.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA.1. Hartog Committee. a. “The State shall endeavour to provide. b. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Universalization of Enrolment c. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. 4. 3. improvement of curriculum. directed that.3. Universalization of Provision b. 145 .6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. 3. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. therefore. Minimum Levels of Learning b. 2. 3. a. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.” 3. Universalization of Retention 2. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. 6. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment.

New Delhi: 146 . New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Social Factors 8. Problems of Elementary Education. School Factors d.N. 3. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. T. b.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. a. Sharma. (2007).1.K.7. Familial Factors c. S. Crescent Publishing Corporation. (2001). Personal Factor b. 9. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. introduce graded curriculum. a. (2008).K. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. S. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Hemchand. improve examination system.

2.2.5.2.5.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.6.5.7 Open book examination 3.2 3.2.2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2.3.2.2.2.2.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2.2.1 3.5.4.5.2.7 Let us sum up 147 .4.2.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.5.2.4.1 Problems of examination 3.5.2.5 New evaluation procedures 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2.4 Question banks 3.3.LESSON 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.2 Grade System 3.

2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .3.3.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. 3.8 3. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2. you will be able to: 1. Besides.2. 3. 4. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. 3.9 3.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. 3. suggest the new evaluation procedures.2. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.2. but on the other. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.2. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .

separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. which the educational authorities have to face. They develop secondary sex characteristics. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. 3. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. etc.3. etc. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. The following steps should be taken up.2. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances..2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. hostel facilities. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. waiting rooms for girl students. roadside Romeoism. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. schools for them wherever necessary. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. 149 . The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. They may cause problems relating to discipline. etc. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. If the students are in sufficient number. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions.

It is considered as a major sub-system. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. 3. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. teachers. assessment and Finance.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country.4. 150 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. appointment of paper-setters.2. conduct of internal examinations. Instruction. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. the examination system has an important role to play. public administrators and statesmen. public interested in education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them.2. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils.

scrutinizers. announcement of results. introducing objective-based testing. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 3. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. invigilators. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. examiners.2. establishing reliability.printing and distribution of question papers.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. reducing the domination of knowledge objective.4. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. validity and practicability. etc. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. etc. etc. values. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. tabulators. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. training of examiners. etc. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . etc. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness.

The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. Vagaries in making. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. lack of objectivity etc. takes the place of comprehensive learning.. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally.. 2) From the angle of content of education. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. halo-effect. also forbid the reliability of these examinations.2. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. which they are expected to study. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc.4. 7) In connection with the question papers. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. 3. Subjects. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. do not appeal to the students and parents. 3) With respect to method of teaching. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. 152 . may also discredit them. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. stereotyped questions. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. it s a common experience that subjectivity.. Rote memorisation.

Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Spot valuation. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. 153 . Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions.. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two merits of examination. re-numbering of answer scripts.a part of internal assessment.develop true love for education. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. revaluation. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. .Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. 4. etc. may be introduced. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques.

3.2. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. In actual practice. he is given extra credit points. Their interests. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. The students can take any course offered in any department. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. When a person chooses to work extra. The new scheme of assessment.2.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.2.3. In this system. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. skills are given importance. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.5. Every paper is treated equal. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . attitudes. It is complicated. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.5. Advantages More autonomy is given to students.

The human error of evaluation is ± 10. This system reduces comparison of marks. only the total credits to be earned is specified.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development.discipline. In the new system. These weightages are called credits. While designing syllabus. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper.5. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. An example is a seminar. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. Groupism is encouraged.2. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. v. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. courses can have weightages defined. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. poor.poor. or as a 4 credit course.good. 3. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses.

156 . the need for re-evaluation should not arise. However.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.2.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. 3. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.2.2. 3.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.5. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.5. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. 3. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.5.

List any four new evaluation procedures. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6. In the hierarchy. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India.2. . recruitment.2.3. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. 3. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • .5. However. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. Therefore. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. There are no proper procedures for selection. What is the reason for introducing grade system? .7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization.

. interpersonal relationships and so on. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision.6. of late. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. complaints and compliments. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. etc. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. in a sense. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. wherever necessary. disciplinary problems. whether the syllabus has been covered. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. books are followed. in contrast. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. qualifications. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. 1. finding out whether the prescribed text.. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. staff. library books. school buildings. submitting of the inspection reports. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools.qualified personnel. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. inspecting the class-room teaching. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning.2. Academic inspection. finding out the adequacy of. They are. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. being realised as two different functions. etc.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. laboratory equipment. 3. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. When they are fully realised. playgrounds. 158 . requirements. taking up the follow-up programmes. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance.

or. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. modern. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. course in either educational. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. at least.Ed. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. 159 . M. Insistence on specialisation in the B. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. once in five years.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher.2. In the case of departmental candidates. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. Similarly.. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought.. aptitude. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. In the light of these conceptualisation. courses. 3. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties.Ed. their professional knowledge. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo.

160 . Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. a.2. 3. 4. c. 2. assessment and Finance. Administration. Instruction. 3. d. 3. b. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. a. a. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Grade System. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. b.2. b. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. 3. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. 3.2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

2. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.4. K. a. (2005). (2002). R and Sharma. b. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Multiple sets of question paper. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. 5. K. New 161 . Vaidya. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. a. 3. Educational Reforms. c. b. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . a. 7. History and Problems of Education in India. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.a part of internal assessment. Question banks. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. S. (2004). Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. b. Open book examinations. Problems of Education in India. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.

3.5 3.4 3.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.8 3.6 3.3.10 3.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4. 3.1 3.LESSON 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3 3.3. 5.2 3. identify the needs of rural India and social.3.3.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3.3. 162 . Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. 2.9 3. you will be able to: 1.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.7 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. 3.3.

A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates.g. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination.. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . University Education.3. in Andhra Pradesh. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage.. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta.. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. the Banaras Sanskrit College. and 3 years of First Degree Course.e. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education.3. 10 years of general Secondary Education. etc.specialisation programmes 3. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre.e. e. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. The Calcutta Madras. Commission emphasised to continue. The. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. 2. 8 years of general education. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. Consequent on the recommendations. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. i. Similar is the case with some other States..

economical and political. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. cultural and economic development of the country. is also a plus point . to imbibe. 6. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities .confidence in students. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . 3. Provision for transfer of credits to students. 10. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. habits of hard work and develop . general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. b. who desire to change from one stream to another. and. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical.a sense of dignity of labour. 7. social.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.3. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. educational channels. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. to prepare. 5. 5) to help for the social. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. historical. 8. However.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved .

cultural and' religious tolerance. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. Psychologically. 1. Philosophically it is not the conception. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. social justice. cooperativeness. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. democratic living. Sociologically it is undesirable.3. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. 3.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum.national integration. and. etc. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . The General Educational Spectrum. and that required to enter the tertiary level. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. to develop national character. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. at the other.. on one hand. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. international understanding.

Science. In our country. commerce. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. professional. the rural areas have suffered very much. vegetable growing. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. In the matter of language. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. 166 . or other machinery. Commerce and other disciplines. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. medical plants. industrial agricultural production is growing. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. India is a land of villages. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. All these need for an. fish culture. horticulture. Biology. educational and cultural services. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. technological.3. 3. such as Agriculture. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. Agriculture is the main occupation. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. commerce. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. technical. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. rural health. and vocations based on dairy-farming.— tube-wells. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. In the vocational spectrum. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. 2. chemistry. physics or mathematics.

3. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. In this way. In this it may be concluded. can be ensured. social justice. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. There had been favourable reaction from the students. interests and aptitudes of the students. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. 3. the local resources available. 4. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. and 5. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely .etc. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised.. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. and the needs.. etc. In time.

objectives. B. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. Vocational Sepctrum. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. to imbibe. General Educational Spectrum and b. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Calcutta University Commission 2. 3.K.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.3. 3. (2001). J. S. J.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. (2005). Dash. Mohanty. 3. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Modern Trends in Indian Education.C. New Delhi : 168 .3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. N. (2007). habits of hard work and develop .3. Anmol Publications Pvt. a. b. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. we studied the history. Ltd.3. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2008). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. a. 2.a sense of dignity of labour.3. b. 3. a.

4. but the lighting of a fire”.4.4.8 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4.9 3.12 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.11 3.4.4.4.4.4. Education contributes to human development.6 3.3 3.4.4.LESSON 3.7 3.4.4.4.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.2 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.10 3.4.5 3.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3. social and 169 . skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.13 3.4.1 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.

A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. cultural and political development of the individual. For the first time in the history of India. Education .4. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. Dr. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. you will be able to: 1.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. 3. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. There is a close connection between education and development. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. analyze the women and distance education. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. Teaching and Fine Arts. particularly 170 . Nursing. 3. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. These courses were. higher education of girls developed immensely. In the post —independence period. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. community and nation is universally acknowledged.4. The relevance of women’s education to social. Home Economics.higher education in particular. family. While women constituted only 9.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. although we have miles to go. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. economic. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. During the year 1937.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .

Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.4. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. In 1950-51. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. The idea of women’s education for equality. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.2 22. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. Yet.9 27. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.1 31.T Women University. Coimbatore. Kodaikanal.2 29. out of 9200 and odd colleges. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.1 24.0 43.0 Today.4.women. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . levels and professions.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.N. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. 3.D. in our country. Even today.65 lakhs in 1994-95.4. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). 3.0 16.9 14.0 32.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. we have more than 1200 institutions. Mumbai. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. Mother Teresa Women University. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. In the rest of the country. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.

4. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . 3. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.that of boys.1 and 14.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.73 10.34 33.63 Female % 34.54 12.44 35. 3. 2.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.4. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .53 34. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.17 52. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.36 3.47 65.1 respectively.4%) prefer Arts subjects. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.4.66 66.83 47.46 82.27 89. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.56 64.

Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. They gave up their studies to enter home life.4. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. marriage is a very common I factor. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education.hinders the girls from getting higher education. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. distance of the college or university from home. Book banks should be established. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. 3. In every third family. what is the need for higher education for her. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. financial difficulty of the parents. and coeducation may spoil her character. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. In college. Thus. According to a survey. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. The major hurdles. she will only learn fashion. curriculum not suited to their requirements. Also. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. irrelevance of the content of education. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. particularly. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. etc. promoted and increased. 173 . The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the.

3.4. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. It is a productive investment. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. 3. Distance education is a boon to women. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women.4. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. There are constraints of time.economic disabilities faced by women. Education.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. Full-time employment. space. is the only tool for realising empowerment. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Geographic distance of educational institutions. Empowerment in a nutshell. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. and the limitations of the conventional education system.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. resources and socio . It also brings about 174 . Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. It enables to study. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation.

The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. on their own. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. This can be achieved through reflection. legal awareness and economic independence. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. empowerment means being assertive. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. 3. higher learning. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. Empowerment is an active.4. Women are partners in development. for full development of our human resources.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. The major objectives of women's higher education. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. education of women must be given priority in national plans. education of women is of paramount importance.

More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. The educational institutions. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. which had been the sole domain of men. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Reservation for women. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Better opportunities. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. especially so in the developing countries. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. The local administration. 3.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. which is pending for a long time. will encourage them to venture new grounds. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community.4. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. who are eager to take up courses. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. 176 . More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. has to be implemented at the earliest.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. But their number is small. Scholarships and concessions for women. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out.

Australia. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.000 women in the country. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. 3. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. talents. especially in developing countries like African countries. Also. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. IDP Education. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. engineering and related technologies (16.9%). there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100..4. But. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. capacities etc.3 percent.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. Chief Executive.1%) and architecture and building (38.8%). and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. According to Lindy Hyam.

Coimbatore. (2008). Women Education. a. Annakodi. 4.C. and Swain. 2. R. Mumbai. Kodaikanal. (2007). create the right attitude towards life. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. SNDT Women’s University. Coimbatore. 4. Pattanaikj. Rajasthan 5.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. R. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women.to the family. 3. and Suryalatha.4. 43% 6. S. 3. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. R. S. 3. 178 . (2000). individuals and society b. (2005). Explain the global perspective of women in higher education.K. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Women and Education.4. community and the nation. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. Mumbai. A. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Mishra. Mother Teresa Women University.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera.R. Women Education. Rao. SNDT Women’s University. A.4. Centre for Women’s Studies.

11 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5.5.4 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.7 3.5.personality of children in and out of school. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5. whole.LESSON 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.8 3.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5.5 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.6 3.9 3.3 3.5.2 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.1 3.10 3.5.5.5. They should be trained. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.

the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. know the pre service and in service training facilities. national consciousness. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has.5. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. understanding and strong desire for international peace. 3. equality and justice. social and emotional integration. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. Lack of physical facilities. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5. Dearth of new technology of teaching. understand the training teachers for Primary. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. 180 . you will be able to: 1.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. 4. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. international. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Shorter working hours. and national character.

Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. Lop-sided curriculum. it is called the Extension teacher Education. etc. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. the primary teacher education. inservice and extension education programmes.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. higher secondary teacher education. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . the secondary teacher education. At the diploma level. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them.Ed. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education.Less qualified teacher educators. the state Government.5. students. (NCERT) New Delhi. and the collegiate teacher education. 3. the centre.5. it is called the In-service teacher education. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education.. Depending on the levels. who have not been trained earlier. and M. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels.. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. Inadequate training in practical skills. If the student teachers are working teachers. a Diploma course and a Degree course. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. levels.Ed.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. 3.

• good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Education cells. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . collegiate cells. Also Guidance Bureaux. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . non-formal. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Educational teehnology cells. state Institutes of Educat ion. Science Education units.5. are established. Evaluation unit. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Expand NCERT 2. extensio n service. etc.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education.. 3. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. depart ments etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

audio visual aids. which should include experience in the primary schools too. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. laboratories. and so on. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. which help breaking isolation from one another . degree. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. to improve curricular programmes. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. to ensure teacher competence. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas.Ed. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . and 183 . Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. to offer consultative services. despite its vast expansion.. to prescribe conditions for recognition..• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. primary and secondary school teachers. should be improved on a top priority basis. material conditions relating to libraries.Ed. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed .post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities .. schools and sister institutions. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training .

though no pre-service training. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. Modern Methods of Evaluation. Meanwhile. Induction Courses. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. 184 . etc. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Modern Techniques of Teaching.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. not came up once again. To meet this exigency. Agriculture. The problem. Hence. Psychology of Students.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. etc. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. and XII. methodology and evaluation. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. Workshops. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. whether they should have professional education or. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training.secondary education. Organisation of Content Courses. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher .

University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. These facilities are available for regular students. For re-orienting the teachers. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.S.Ed. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.Ed. State Institutes of Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.Ed.’s for Ph. Ajmer.. (Education) and M..D.5.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. Pre-service training is for those.Ed. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.Ed. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.Ed. courses and M. in Education. Courses leading to B. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.. All B Ed. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.A. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.’s are elig ible for M. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Degree. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.A.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Post-Graduates also undergo B. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. M... training. 3. Degree and M.. (Education) are organized by 185 .

and B. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.). 3. However.A. of conduct—written or unwritten. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . they should be conscientious .A.5. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. established by tradition and teachers of the past. What is the role of ERIC? . Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . 6. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. (Ed). 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession... as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned.List any two code of conduct for teachers? .some Faculties of Education of some Universities. 186 . . (Ed. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. Hence the employability of M. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 5. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.

3. b.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 2. Ajmer.3. 187 . b. 6. 4. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 3. 3. National Council of Educational Research and Training. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Explain code of conduct for teachers. Dearth of new technology of teaching.5. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Bhopal.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. a. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. a. they should be conscientious. a. Shorter working hours. 3. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. However. The necessity is however this.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 2. 4.5. 5. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore.5.

Tewari. B.D. Teacher Education.3. and Teacher Education. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . Mohanty. (2009).N. Teacher Education. (2003). Ltd Aggarwal. Corporation. A. Publication Pvt.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. P. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. (2010).5. J.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

preservation of nutrients.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. In lesson 1. objectives. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. common ailments of children. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. communicable diseases and their prevention. The person’s environment is equally important. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. the focus is on the school health programmes. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. If the diet is poor. economic and educational developments. Since food is the source of nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important. 191 . objectives and role of the physical education. objectives. In lesson 4. nutritional deficiency diseases. need for population education and impact of population growth on social.

192 .

193 . for giving health education to the children under its custody.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1.11 4.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.4 4.e.1.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1.1.LESSON 4. emotional and social.1 4. It is a miniature society.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.10 4.1.1.7 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.5 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.2 4.1. mental. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.9 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important.3 4.1. physical.8 4.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.6 4.

describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.1. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 4. training of teachers and evaluation. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health.1.. 3. 7. know the need for sex education.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. 10. to his family and to the community at large. 4. 2. 5. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. To give information regarding health rules. 8. list the common ailments of children 3. explain the importance of First aid 5. To develop healthy health habits among children. content of health education. cleanliness and healthful living.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. understand school health programmes 2. training in first aid and etc. 194 . Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. e. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. To develop certain skills concerning health. 11. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. 9. you will be able to: 1. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. Instruction. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 4.g. 6.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

is imperative. proper doors and windows. inoculation against cholera. etc.C. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. First aid facilities should be made readily available. (xii) smoking education etc. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. (vii) physio logy o f exercises.4. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. B. (viii) first aid. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body.. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. The flooring should not be damp. suitable furniture. 3. (ii) communit y healt h. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. 2. There should be regular water supply. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs.1. The school buildings should be spacious.coming or absence.G. Triple Antigen Vaccination. organisation of school health days. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. There should be good drainage facilities. vaccination. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. typhoid. ( iii) sanit at io n. (xl) mental health. (v) safety education. minimizing the travelling distance. excusing late. direct lighting. play festivals. The surroundings of schools should be clean. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene.. Arranging better transportation facilities. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. 5. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. B. 4. (vi) nutrition education. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. “Play-for-all” programmes.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. cleanliness weeks. 2. Vaccination for small pox. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. as described below 1. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students.

Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. sports and games in the interest of their health. cuts. and other accidents. D.. fainting (epileptic fit). • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. dislocations. • Keep all rooms clean. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. wounds. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. isolate and notify. scalds. • Find out the cases. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. insect stings. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. 196 . drowning. • Take nutritious food. if epidemic is wide-spread. burns. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. etc. fractures. • Close the schools. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. • Have adequate rest and sleep. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. • When sleeping in groups.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. bleeding. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. C. poisons.

The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. Mention the school health programmes. asthma. polio. They are: i) The incubation stage. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. List out the Health curriculum 3. measles etc.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. 4. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • .6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. which are – cold. Once these germs get into the body. These diseases are called communicable diseases. pain in the joints. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. There are three stages in any communicable disease. 2. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 4. chicken pox. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. cough. water or bodily contact. fever. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. tuberculosis. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. So they easily get illnesses. backache. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. headache.1.

Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Hence it is called a killer disease.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. 198 . Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. etc.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. sugar and water. unhygienic bottle feeding. Children catch cold from persons having cold. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Mumps . unhygienic living conditions. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Measles . The symptoms include cold. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. After three or four days of fever. Scabies . Diarrhoea . nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Others make the children very weak. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Tonsilitis . cough and fever. Ear Infections . This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink.When a child suffers from scabies. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief.This disease is caused by bacteria. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. The following are the common communicable diseases. eating food which is not clean. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. head-ache and cough. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Common Cold . Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose.It is caused by measles virus. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Throat is affected. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Hence liquid diet is recommended. This is caused by cold virus. The child may have fever.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus.

It begins with fever. Enlist the common ailments of children. separate. Expand DPT . The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. the child is not able to breathe. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. 5. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. What are communicable diseases? 6. By scratching he causes secondary infections. The child may also have diarrhoea.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. raised pink spots appear on head. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. the child may die. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. If proper treatment is not given. Shortly.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given.• • • • Chicken Pox . As the disease progresses. 199 . The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. face and waist. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Typhoid .This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. Diphtheria .

5. exciting and body-oriented. bleeding.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. drowning. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. and Community Work and Social Service. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. 4. wounds. Sprains .7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. 2. 4.1. bruises.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. sprains. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. films and jokes. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. Sex is popular. 200 . eye injury. and films. Wounds .It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. simple fractures. fainting. man-woman behaviours. scorpion stings. 3. fiction. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. snakebites.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. Drowning .g.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. It is both biological and psychological.1. sprains. cuts. etc. it is a subject of art. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. Cuts and Bruises .Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. so-called sex books and periodicals. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. dislocation. head injury.4. swelling. It has its rightful place in education too. In such cases.

In secondary schools. The home. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems.. The values of life. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . they would be treading the path of sure doom. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. in their ignorance. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. the school. try experimenting with their bodies. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. In today's liberal and interactive society. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. B. Should the boys and girls. health. sex education is being recommended in schools. the religious organisations. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life.old values. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. 2. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. Hence. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. 3. but preserve them from disaster and disease. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. celibacy are age. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease.

first aid and sex education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. hence.1. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. 202 . but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. when the courses are already overloaded. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. the school health programmes.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. Teacher education institutions are. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. What are the major components of Sex Education. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. there will no crisis in its implementation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. common ailments of children. C. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. communicable diseases and their prevention.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. 209 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the food nutrients 2.

E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s.2. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied.4. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . If you look at the definition carefully.2. 210 . Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s .6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Let us talk about each of these aspects. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. minerals. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned.

This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. paratha and poori. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body.6. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. Preferences/customs are also important. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. In the case of adults. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. construction labourer). But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress).2. sex. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. moderate or heavy work. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. People in the east of our country prefer rice. Even within given States there is considerable variation. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. dosa are typical of the south.one in the morning and the other at night. the social and religious practices of that region. These are: region where the person resides and income.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. 4. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. for example.g. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). it is also specific to a given activity level . Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. A balanced diet is specific firstly. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e.g. activity level and physiological stress. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. There is no point.sedentary. In other words. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .

however. These determine the acceptability of foods. income plays a vital role. Judicious selection of food is. vegetables and fruits. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. As income increases. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. however. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. customs. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. If you think of your own religious group. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. However. In addition to these. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked.planning the diet. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. nuts and dry fruits. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. taboos related to food may play an important role. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. for example. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. Including these 212 . As you read this discussion. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. while another may hate them. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. Among the social factors. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. as important for the rich as for the poor. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. One must. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. One person may be fond of milk products. fat and sugar tend to increase. Even among flesh foods. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. however. Having more money. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another.

plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 8. Define balanced diet. etc. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . over-eating or under. mouth. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. eggs .eating is hazardous. fruits. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. 17. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. For this. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . meat. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. green leaves. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. 213 . Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. if the teachers have good food habits. but they should be thrown away. 8) Walk a while after eating. List out any two healthy food habits.

d.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Bitot’s spots. 4. Conjuctival xerosis. 4. Discuss good food habits. a. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. In fact.2. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. When the diet is inadequate. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 .9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Beri Beri 4. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. b. c. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Corneal xerosis.2. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Keratomalacia 3. preservation of nutrients. Night blindness.4. e. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. good nutrition is essential for good health.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Vitamin D 5. Explain food nutrients 4.

a. b. mouth. Nutrition Science. (2009). C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. (2008). 7. minerals. a . R.C. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Nutrition and Dietetics.N. Food and Nutrition Education. R. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.6. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . S. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Chopra. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. Sri Lakshmi B. Food should be consumed after eating well. 4. Food and Nutrition Education. (2004). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. A Text Book of Foods. (2008). Hands.M. b. P. (2005). 8. Health and Nutrition Education.2. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s .

1 4.5 4.3.3.11 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3.3.7 4.3.10 4.2 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.6.3.3.2 Impact on economic development 4.9 4.3.3 4.3.12 4.3.6.4 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3 Impact on Education 4.3.3.8 4.3.3.LESSON 4.13 4.3.3.6.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings. 216 .

describe the impact of population growth on social. his family. population characteristics. you will be able to: 1. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4.3. objectives and need for population education 2. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. and the consequences of these processes.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. Population Education. family planning and sex education etc.4. It is a much wider co ncept. characteristics and changes for himself. 4. understand the importance of small family norm 5. It is not sex education. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. state the meaning. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. 4. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. community. economic and educational development 3. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. aims at providing the younger generation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. There is some difference.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control.3. the causes of population change. therefore. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. his societ y and the world.3. Whenever we talk of sex education. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. 217 . “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. the stress is.

5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the nation and the world. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. the society.4. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. 4. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. List out any two objectives of Population Education. the family. Define Population Education 2.3.

Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. With the larger families.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. economic and educational development of the country. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. 4. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. When the family is small. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Family is considered as a social unit. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. the family programmes are also handicapped. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty.6. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. Every second two thousand children are being born. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.3. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age.3.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. which will not be possible without population control. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. 4. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. 219 . They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. health and happiness of its citizens.

will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. pollution of the environment. 4. 4. toilets. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. Swollen cities.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. in cinema halls and theatres.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. in parks and other places of public gatherings. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.6. lack of proper health care. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. Many students herded in a small room.3. organization index and material index. In developing countries.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt.6. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. heavy intern I migration etc.. unemployment.e. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. i. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. and so on. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. 220 . there is an inverse relationship between population and development. facility for drinking water. in buses and trains. teacher index. The gulf between them is widening further.3.

Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. can be taken up. thus. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. even text books would be in short supply. less budget for education.3. bar graphs etc. Social Studies Statistics on population education. blank verses etc. can be studied in science and health education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. and laboratory equipments.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. There would be poor library facilities.. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. essays. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. There would be very few audiovisual aids. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. Regional Language. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. less space facilities. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. 221 . Hindi and English. reproduction. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. family planning etc. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff.

causes of deaths etc. area and average density of population. 11. Canada. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. 13. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 15. 10. 2.3. Children with the help of parents. 3. Uttar Pradesh. 8. Children may compare two families.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1.4. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. deaths. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . They may arrange them as per average density of population. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. United States of America. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. West Bengal. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. 9. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 14. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 12. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. 4. 7. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Brazil. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Bihar. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. China. 5. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences.

The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. values and role children etc.3. we have no right to stop 223 . How will you correlate Population Education? 5. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. 16. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. age at marriage. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. The question. 17. Comparing life in various respects in two families. preferences for sex. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. 18. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.be opened in their schools. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education.

India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . 4.4-6. Since the program's inception.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. “He who is responsible for population growth. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage.to emphasize family planning services.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.. which education can only do. especially the expansion of child immunization services . is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. More than 45 years ago. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. continued . The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). at varying places in different regions.3.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. fertility levels have declined throughout the country.their entry into the world”. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. however. and the child survival components of the news: program.were implemented 224 . The Family Welfare Program. on an overall basis. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.

but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. reliance on local women as community health workers. expansion of services to unmarried women. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. men. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. the community appears willing to pay for services. a focus on health promotion. Local programs vary in their approaches. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. and nominal fees for services. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . In April 1996.earlier than the safe motherhood components. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. In October 1997. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. Therefore. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. and the World Conference on Women. At these meetings. Moreover.

3. What are the goals of RCH? 4.3.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. community. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Its main purposes are to create awareness. 4. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. family.emphasizing the needs of the client. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 226 . involving the community. Describe the impact of population growth on social. 1997). 3. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. economic and educational development 4. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. nation and the world. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank.

Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. 7. Canada.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 6. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. his society and the world. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 227 . characteristics and changes for himself. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Brazil.” 2. population characteristics. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. China. 3.4. less space facilities. a. his family. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. b. 5. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. the causes of population change. bar graphs. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. and the consequences of these processes. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. a. a. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 4.3. b. less budget for education. area and average density of population. United States of America. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers.

New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Udaiveer. Ltd.K. Coimbatore. Ltd. (2002). V. Reddy. J. Modern Problems of Education. (2005). T. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.3. Bhende. Principles of Population Studies. (1992). Centre for Women’s Studies. (2004). N. Jayapoorni.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. 228 . New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. A. Kantikar. Changing attitudes to Education in India. (2005). New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.4. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development.

4.8.4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4 4.3 Indigenous games 4.4.11 19.4.9 4.5 4.4.8.4.10 4.4.4.4.2 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.8.2 Major games 4.3 4.8.4 Lead up games 4.4.4.1 4.1 Minor games 4.LESSON 4.4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.6 4.4.7 4.

It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. mental alertness. full records of physical activities should be maintained. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. moral fitness and emotional fitness. you will be able to: 1. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. perseverance. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.4. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. social fitness. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. 4. as it should 230 . Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. leadership and balance in defect. The concept of physical education has been made broader. 4.4. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”.4. which forms its most valuable assets.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. the youth of the country. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. classify the different types of games.4. team spirit.

They are inseparably united together. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Therefore. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . They go hand in hand. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. leadership. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Every individual is a part of society. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. team spirit. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. The educational efforts at home. obedience to rules. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. To be more precise. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. moderation in victory and balance in defeat.

4.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. Regarding the significance of physical education. nor body but the whole man. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. Physical exercises. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. Buck has observed that 232 . Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. pleasing manners. mo ral. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. ment al. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. game and sports. Just like Education. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain.4. H.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. a sound health. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. C.” The Secondary Education Commission.” Montaigue writes. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. Rousseau states.

“If we wish to develop the whole being. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively.a properly directed physical education should result in health. strength. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. initiative. Froebel says. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. elegance. coordinative abilities. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. 233 . etc. resourcefulness and smartness. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.” In brief. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. endurance. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. speed. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. happiness. flexibility and power. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. efficiency and character. we must exercise the whole human being.4. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life.” 4.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief.

” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. 234 (i) (ii) . Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. its adherents and its enemies. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. these fundamental things have always been present. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. plagues and famines.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. systems of government. poetry and painting. including all racial groups and historical ages. Tournaments foster this sentiment. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Every age has its artists. While wars. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. should help in the spiritual development of the student. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. they may form gangs. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. in greater or lesser degree.

and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 235 . to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline.sacrifice. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3.\ to develop perseverance. bravery and interest in games and sports. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. obedience. etc. to develop tolerance. self. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . Write any two importance of Physical Education. respect for rules. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. B. 2.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements.

and. 4. 5. 236 1. 6. is essential. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. 13. 4. Haag. and readmission after they have recovered. 3. . Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 2. 9. Keep the field ready for the activities. 16. 12. Be in the uniform. 15. Always keep the whistle ready. Be sportive. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Be well-prepared.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 10. 7. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 14. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. students. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 11. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. 8.4.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J.4. Posture screening should be done. Usually parents.H. Act as a leader. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Inform health principles. injuries among pupils should be made. Be punctual. Be self-confident. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. defects. Emergency care procedures should be followed. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured.

their development is handicapped. 3. Moreover.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. 4. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. 1. Such inst incts as imitation. Lead up games. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. Indigenous games.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.8.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. 4. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. 2. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. 237 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the play. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. chasing. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. As such they are well enjoyed by children. less equipment and less expense. 4.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. frolic and jo y.4.

With a very few rules. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. over ball pass Relay. Jump the stick clay and so on. 238 . the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. zig zag relay. The dimension of the posts and nets. on sea-shore. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. some of them are played indoors. hitting. For each game the rules are many. pitching. They are rules approved by the International Associations. spiking. Shuttle Badminton. Jumping. with implements or without implements.8. Cricket. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. finding the partner. Khokho. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. While many of them are played in the open playfields.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. 4. Ball Badminton. Kabaddy etc.4. heading. Tennis. Hockey. the games can be modified according to convenience. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. wherever the kids assemble. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. muffling. On lawns. the play equipment. Except a few games. Dodging. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. Basket Ball. catching. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. the number of players and substitutes. Tennikoit. Soft Ball. benefit in playing minor games.. snatching the kerchief. couple tag. on hard courts. skipping. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. boosting. dribbling. driving. trapping. Volley Ball. These games require varied skills such as running. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. on mountain tops and on river beds. stopping. bowling etc. women take part most of the games. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. They are played for a shorter duration. under ball pass Relay. Hopping. Throwing.

8.4. List out some major games. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Kho-kho. and . birth. they are in existence. 4. festivals connected with religion and public functions. Games may be classified as 6. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. these games being popular.4. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. death. On occasions like marriage. 7. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. For example. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. An example for indigenous game is 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They have an abundant social value.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . While observing the players in action. All the fundamental tactics.4.

It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. d. 4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. a. 4. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Briefly discuss the different types of games. b.4. 2. to develop physical stamina.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Minor and Major 240 .4. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. c. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 4. b. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. 3. Posture screening should be done. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 4. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. a. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. aims and objectives and need of physical education.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. a. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. to secure physical health b. a. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. 5. 3. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. 2. b.4.

J. (2009). Mohanty. 241 . Handbook of Physical Education. Kabaddy 7. Health. Ball Badminton. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Soft Ball.C. J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K.6.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Tennis. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. 4. Volley Ball. G. Physical Education and Sports. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. (2005). Hockey. J. Krishna murthy. Khokho 8. Ltd. Foot-ball.4. Cricket. Aggarwal. (2008). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Khokho. Basket Ball. Shuttle Badminton. (2008). Tennikoit.

5.5.5.4 4.6 4.5.1 4.5.5.5.9 4.5.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.7 4.11 4.5.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.2 Manmade Environment 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1 Natural Environment 4.5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.8 4.5.3 4.5.2 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.LESSON 4.10 4.5.

strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. role of teacher in environmental conservation. The best place to start such learning is school. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. population explosion and resource depletion could be.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. aesthetic and educational factors. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. 6.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast.5. 4. Broadly. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. political. it covers the following elements: 1. 5. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. Evaluation Ability.5. education about the environment and education through the environment. 243 .educat ion for the environment. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Knowledge. 4. Skills. you will able to: 1. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Participation. list out the types of environment 3. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Details are given below: I. Attitude.5. social. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 3. Awareness. 2. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Essential knowledge about the Environment. economic. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4. 2.

244 . its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Oxidants Other pollutants. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. D. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen.B. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. heat sink and wind flow in cities. • Biological magnification E. F. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. 2. a.

Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. c. economic. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Sterilisation. Socio-economic measures. B. Intrauterine device iii. 4. Control of population growth a. The pill ii. Family planning ii. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. The human ecosystem II. Birth control through education b. Abortion iv. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1.3. Persuasion: i. 2. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Use of medical science i. 2. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . 3. III.

1983). Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 3. (UNESCO. Define Environmental Education. 246 . e) Recycling. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Water pollution abatement. 2. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Air pollution abatement ii.

This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . Biological environment The biological environment.5.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. includes the plants. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. They interact with each. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.5. to his needs. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 .4. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. b. Any constituent or condition of the environment.other components of the environment. telex.5.5. fax agricultural apparatus. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.5. He modifies according”. way is called environmental or ecological factor.5. 4. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. These are biotic components. A change in one brings about a change in the other. animals and other organisms (biotic). Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. a. -other.

The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. use of medicinal plants. mineral survey. air pollutants from industries. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. explosion deforestation. importance of nitrogen cycle. (ii) Air pollution. etc. effects o f CFC. sources of pollut ion. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. nuclear energy. role of trees in building economy. industrial survey. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . natural way of controlling pests. balance of nature. windmills. trees reducing noise pollution. desertification 248 . extinction of species. ozone layer deplet ion.. excellent recreation sites. need for conservation. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. over exploitation of ground water. acid rain. relation between population and pollution. change in climate may be added. preserving the watersheds. ozone depletion. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. supplying timber for various uses. water scarcity. use of pesticides. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. preventing siltation of dams. reasons. of civilizations. are the topics which may be taught in History. effects. industrial pollut io n. greenhouse effect. noise control. evolution. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. solar cookers. t heir role in preventing pollution. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. nuclear warfare. population. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. noise pollution. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. food chain and food-web. sources. etc. river systems. History The rise and fall. maintaining the ecological diversity. social studies.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. biogas plants. need for bio-diversity. wars and hazards of war. alternate sources of energy.

Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 7. 13. 4. aims and scope.5. Peepal and Tulsi. 11. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Providing. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 14. 9. 8. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Organising conferences. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 249 . 10. 6. group discussions and seminars. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 2. 12. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 5. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 4. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant.may be inc ded in Geography. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 3. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. animal and plants. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education.

Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. used oils down the drain. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. especially plastics. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. all these can cause serious pollution. World Environmental falls on 250 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Don’t burn any waste. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. If it is done. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Use public transport wherever it is possible. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Reuse carrier bags. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. it will cause pollution. 6.Send their waste oil. Never put any left over chemicals. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden.

prevention of irretrievable loss of species. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. potable water.mat erials. The groups may exchange.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. loss of bio-diversity. To provide reference materials for children’s use. deforestation. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio .). Att itudes of balance towards nature. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. diversity and stability. nuclear wars. To arrange for visiting speakers. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. Conservation of natural resources. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. CFCs. etc. and 251 . concern for others). (cleanliness.5. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil.. depletion of ozone. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. Concern for species. To provide materials needed for practical work. orderliness and beauty). developing desirable attitudes. values and habits. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. dest roying nat ural habitats. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. rather than conquest and mastery. To arrange visits or expeditions. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions.4. Social responsibilit y (common good. viz. Harmony with the nature . etc.

interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. 4.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. 252 . Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. preserving natural cycles.5. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.5.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. 4. 8. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.

To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Environment and Human Rights.K. new problems from science and technology. 5. Providing. New Delhi : Sharma..K. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. b. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 6. Kuldeep. reasons. group discussions and seminars. Social responsibilit y (common good. Environmental Education. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.5. sources of pollution. (2007). 4. Organising conferences. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Knowledge. a. S. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Anmol Publications Pvt. explosion deforestation. June 5 7. (2004). 8. New Delhi : Authors Press. concern for others). ozone layer deplet ion. a. To provide reference materials for children’s use. relat ion between population and pollution. water scarcity. effects. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. (1997). Nanda. T. Publications Pvt. Awareness.K. acid rain. (2007). b.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . greenhouse effect. b. Education for values. air pollutants from industries.2. population. Rapid population growth. over exploitation of ground water. S. 3. importance of nitrogen cycle. Y. Modern Problems of Education. b. (ii) Air pollution. To provide materials needed for practical work. Udaiveer.K. Environmental Education. a. Ltd.\ 4. sources. a.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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should be universal in nature.our life.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. moral. enrichment and transmission of culture. the emancipation of spirit. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. It is self-realisation.” 5. Education must contribute to development of culture. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. According to Rusk'. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. Universal Education. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. promote and transmit it to rising generation. The universe is regarded as a thought process." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. Therefore. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. in fact.1. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 .3. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. Spiritual Development.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. man is essentially a moral being. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. Education according to idealism.

Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. 5. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race.3.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. For intellectual development. should be there. subjects like Languages.3. However. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection.1. He sets the environment in which education takes place. hygiene.” He is thus. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. affecting (feeling). the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. 2. So health. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. no doubt. 4. It considers teacher as. Philosophy. Learning through reading. and collation (striving) should find due place. 5. a spiritual guide for the child. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. the school is a garden.” 5. So he should embody. According to Frobel. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. friend and guide. Learning through discussion. Learning through lecturing. The teacher serves as a living model for the students.the spiritual qualities of mankind. Science. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. Mathematics etc. So cognition (knowing). According to idealism. Ethics.1. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. Learning through questioning. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. He carries the child from darkness to light.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. an indispensable necessity. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. History. so subjects like Religion. For this no particular method has been suggested. 3. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . The plant can grow. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. Learning through imitation. Herbert advocated instruction method.

1. text books. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century.perfection and beauty.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. 5. In the words of Ross. Perfection of Human Machine. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.preservation. Ross explains.1. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. "Education should make 263 • . formal lessons or examinations. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. 5. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. time tables. curricula. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.4. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.

Botany etc Language. Zoology.4. In all. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. education should develop the child into Joyous. Literature. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. “Education finds its purpose. Naturalistic curriculum. 264 . Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. It stresses basic sciences. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Education should. It emphasises physical and health education 5. is based on the nature of the child. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. useful and mature child.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment.1. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Education also aims at helping the individual t. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. It is based on the psychology of the child. rational harmoniously balanced. Therefore. Arithmetic. Chemistry. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. therefore. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. subjects like history. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Biology. There is no place for religious and moral education.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. • 5. 4. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction.

Learning through observation.5.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. It discards all rigid.1. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Dalton Plan. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . the stage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. he should be taught by experience alone.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. In the .4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Learning by doing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. 5.1. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. 4. 3. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. 5. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally.4. Learning through experience. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Rousseau says. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.1. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. 2. Heuristic method.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. a provider of an ideal environment. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. a supplier of materials and opportunities.4. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning.

is true. Social Science. The individual has not only to adjust himself. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Continuous Growth. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Sciences. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Physical training.5. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Subjects. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. 5. All Round Development of an Individual. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. History. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Social Efficiency. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. The aim of educational development.absolutism of idealism. intellectual. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning.5. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Agriculture. diversified and flexible.1. Personal Social Adjustment. Vocational and 266 .1.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. social and moral aspects. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. 5. Geography. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism.

Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. a teacher occupies an important position. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. alert and resourceful.5. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. should find proper place. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching.5. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher.Technical Education. activities and experience should be integrated properly. He must be trained.1. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. 5. The subjects. a senior partner and a sincere guide. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. He has to be active. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Learning by Doing. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism.1. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.” 5.

5. 2. specific.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism.1. intellectual. 3. Biology. Chemistry. 3. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood.6. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. practical. rich and happy. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. literary or humanistic education. scientific and psychological education. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 4.1. Art. Crafts. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life.5. Literature. 5. It favours child-centered. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Psychology. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Geography are unnecessary 268 . but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Mathematics. 5. Education is preparation for a complete living. 4. Music and Dance. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. History.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Biography Philosophy. Astrology.1. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. liberal. 2. The basic tenets of realism are 1. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Sex Education.6. Population Education. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Study of Subjects like Language.

4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. certainly and clearly.1.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. easily and pleasantly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.5.1.

Learning through questioning. b. naturalism. 3. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Physical training. Geography. Languages. Social Science. pragmatism and realism. & curriculum. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. d. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Learning through reading. Learning through discussion. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Learning through lecturing. Universal Education 2. Rousseau 5. in this lesson. 6. History.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Experimentation d. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3.1.1. Education according to pragmatism. e. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. a. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Sciences. Learning through imitation. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Self preservation & Self expression 4. 5.5. has no end other than growth. Vocational and Technical Education. Self Realisation b. 5. Agriculture. Tours / Excursion e. a. 5. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization.1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. Learning through experience b. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Child centered c. c.

(2007).5.P.1. R. Publishing corporation. New Delhi : A. Pahuja.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. N. of Pathak. Narang C. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. Anmol Publications Pvt. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. O. Ltd. (2003).P. P. K. 271 . (2007). Theory and Principles of Education.H. P. New Delhi : Bhatia. (2004). L. Foundations of Education. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.

3 Methods of Teaching 5.2 5.4. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.3.2.4 Views about teacher 5.5.2.5.2.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.4 Views about teacher 5.4.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2.4.2.2.2.5.2.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.3.3.2.1 5.3.2.2.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2.3.4.3.3 Methods of teaching 272 .1 Aims of Education 5.2 Curriculum 5.2.2.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2.4.3 Methods of teaching 5.2 Curriculum 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.LESSON 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.

2. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.2.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. 2.2.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. economic and political reconstruction in our country. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.6 5.4 Role of the teacher 5. mind and spirit. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.2. Gandhiji was primarily a social.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. 5.2. content and methods.2. 3.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.7 5. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. Tagore was a poet. you will able to: 1. 5. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.5. an artist. 273 . He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.2. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.8 5.2.

righteousness. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. it is education of life. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. It really provides opportunity for character building. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education.supporting." Dignity of Labour. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. strength of mind. self-restraint and service of humanity. nor the gross animals body.2.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. In the words of Gandhiji. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. 'Man is neither mere intellect. mind and soul of children He further observed. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.3. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. "I attach more. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. His scheme of education is life centred. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. 5. 274 . Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. through life and for life. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect.

3. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . General Sciences. leather work have been suggested. 5. the realization of the ultimate reality. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy.Training for Leadership. gardening. metal work. According to Gandhi. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Only good individual forms a better society. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. Music. development of the whole all were directed: towards.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Mother-tongue.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. wood work. Art. "Development of the moral character. Drawing and Hindustani. Individual and Social Aims.2.

expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.3.trained.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.2. men of 276 . Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Basic education is other wise known as 4. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. proficient.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.

He also advocates freedom for the child. 5. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.2. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. 3.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Education must be child centered.knowledge. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. That is why. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education.

6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. He was deadly against untouchability.” Like all other ideals. • Ideal of citizenship. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. 5. 5. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.2. Gandhi in 1937. • Cult of non-violence. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. He believed in the oneness of humanity. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .K.2. he was a true Vedantist 5. • Education should involve manual work.4.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.2. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. He was a true patriot.

Chemistry. stronger in power than ever before.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners.2.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. deeper in.4. That way only. Zoology. wider in range. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. he said. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. It should help the learner have good physique. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Civics. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth.Language and Literature . English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. 279 . them solve problems of day to day life. sentiment. complete manhood could be attained. Dance. Therefore." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. International understanding. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Religion and Psychology. (vi) Philosophy. could help in forging unity among all. Music. "Mankind must realise a unity. Botany. etc. International Understanding. Tagore said. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. It should help. Geography. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. the more dedicated and devoted.

In 1921. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.2. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.4. 280 . Let individualised methods be used for teaching. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”.2." 5.4. Tagore rightly says. 5.4. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. 5. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.” He further says.2. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. Activity Method Heuristic Method.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.

Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. 10. It is open to all irrespective of country. 9. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. race. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. 281 .g.

character forming and assimilation of ideas. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Education should make a person self-reliant. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace.2.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Freedom. 4. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. 2. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. Purity of thought. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.5. man making. Education for Self-realization. He believed in to learning or selflearning. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. 3. Book learning. Concept of Education. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1." He was against the theoretical type of education.” 5.5. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. According to him. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. work and deeds come out of it. Education for Self-reliance. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. Education for strong Moral Character.2. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life.

A physically strong person is the need of the society. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Secondly he wanted Science. 6.2. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Education for Physical Development.2. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. Education should help in the physical development of an individual.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Thirdly he wished that games.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Swami. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. engineering and technical subjects. Of course. Religion. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. 283 . And above all. Philosophy and Theology. philosopher and guide to the students He. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. 5. That will serve the purpose of education fully. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. The teacher should be the facilitator.the learners on different students in the discussion. 5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts.5.2. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Discussion Method.5. 5. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses.5. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.5.

Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. of course. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. 2. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. and pragmatist .2. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. 12. legs.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Gandhiji as a Idealist.Substantiate your answer. 5. Their educational ideas. in this lesson. ears and eyes. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. 284 .2. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. naturalist. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. We have seen that Tagore.6 LET US SUM UP We have. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. Write short notes on Basic education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Ideal of citizenship. 10. Explain Vishwabharathi. a. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. a. Self realization. 8. f. 11. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Learning by Doing c.2. 5. Heuristic Method. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. a. leather work have been suggested. 2. wood work. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Meditation and concentration c. Activity Method d. d. Nai Talim 4. 5. c.4. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. metal work. a. b. gardening. Debate and Discussion Method. 3. Self-Study b. c. 1937 7. Discussion Method 285 . A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Basic education. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Activity Method b. Technique of Correlation 6. 5. Teaching while Walking b. 9. Education should involve manual work. e.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Cult of non-violence.

New Delhi : A. Theory and Principles of Education. Dhiman. 286 . K and Narang C. B. Pahuja. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. K.H. N. J. (2004). (2003). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Foundations of Education. O. C. P.P. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2002). on Bhatia. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Publishing Corporation.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. (2007).5. N. P. Ltd. (2007). L.2. New Delhi : Aggarwal. Anmol Publications Pvt. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.

1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.3.11 5.3.9 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3 5.6 5.3.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.8 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.4 5.3.10 5.1 5.3.2 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.3.LESSON 5.5 5.7 5. In this lesson.3.3.

new behaviour may be acquired. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . the plain area. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. in Russia or in Japan. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion.under the direction of the school. the plateau area and 288 .3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. A g o o d curricu lu m. living in the hilly area. in the U.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. Since the demands. there is a large number of communities. state the meaning of curriculum 2. Both the processes are integrated. In the words of Kerney and Cook. in the form of new experience. is a means to the process. maintained or eliminated. you will be able to: 1. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. in fact . the desert area. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4.. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used.A. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely.3. it is identical wit h socializat ion.3. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. Curriculum is intimately related to education. 5. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. In it. curriculum also offers a wide contrast.3. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. From the latter point of view. In the former sense. present behaviour may be modified. While education is learning. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. While education is a process. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. Then in a big country like India. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child.S. 5. curriculum.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. curriculum signifies situations for learning.

(v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. environment. too. irrespective of their needs and environment. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. Besides craft. 5.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. However. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. and 289 . from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. It must differ from locality and from society to society. differs from individual to individual. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. Again. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. democratic and socialistic country. the learning capacity of children. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. From a slave-country we became secular. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. studying therein. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. therefore. In fact . A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. customs and needs. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. it is. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all.3. according to modern trends in the educational process. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission.

uninspiring and unscientific. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception.. Vocational Efficiency. Understanding Objective. general or specific. They speak of immediate purposes of education. social. The word “Curere” means 2. of classroom. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed.g. etc. 2. So it is inadequate. aesthetic and spiritual development. 290 . they depend on the political. individual or Social and so on. moral. emotional. etc. They speak of perfect goals.. Self Realisation. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. unambiguous and functional. e. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. e. remote or immediate. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Goals of Secondary Education.. 4. Goals of Primary Education. 5. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. etc.. Application Objective. 1.3. eg. They may be ultimate or proximate.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. unsatisfactory. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students.. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. They are visionary goals e. National Integration. which may or may not be attained. aims. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. social. in instructional objectives. tangible. Knowledge Objective.g.g. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. 3.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. specific. They are achievable.

The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. heavy fire. but it includes the totality of experiences.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. The interests. Raymont rightly says. in the class rooms.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. on the playing fields. According to Crow and Crow. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. abilities. educationists. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other.5.3.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” 291 . Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. Crow and Crow remarks. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. capacities. finding them very interesting and captivating. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. needs.

They often waste it or rather kill it. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. capacities and abilities. mental. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. Due to these variations and differences. time in a useful manner. moral. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. urges. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. tendencies. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. aptitudes. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner.

elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. development of professional capability at all levels. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. Similarly. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. phased preparation. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. 293 . 2. organized. administrative programme need be planned.curricular. 3. To ensure success of the process.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1.

3. workshop. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. 17. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. 1937 19. 5. 10. principles of curriculum construction.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 .10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. library. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Relation with Life c. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. 5. in the class room. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. laboratory.3.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Run. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. Child Centred Education b. 12. a. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 11. 18. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16.

D.3. (2007). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 295 . S. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. Lakshmi. New Delhi : Isha Books. N. P. and Sarita Kumari. S. Bhalla. Curriculum and Instruction. Innovations in Education. New Delhi : Authorspress. Curriculum Development.K. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. (2001).S.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2007).5. (2007).

4.4.4.4.4.LESSON 5.4.9 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.7.4.4.4.7.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.2 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.3 5.4.10 5.1 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.6.4.7.4 5.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.5 5.7.8 5.4.6.

5. tolerance for the opinions of others. 297 . 5. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. 3.4. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. 2. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. open-mindedness. superstition or emotion. know the importance of science education. explain the concept of scientific attitude.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.during the second half of this century. honesty. We mean curiosity.4. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. Gradually.4. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . yet real advancement in this area was achieved . They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. in the economic reconstruction of society. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. newer and newer industries started growing. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. you will be able to: 1.

After such experience and training.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. seminars and symposiums. 2. Thinking and memory develops. Principles are formulated. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs.4. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 5. 4. 6. 7. Promotion of science clubs. 5. Through newspapers. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Selection for science education. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Schemes of teaching science.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. as well as of the society. 5.So that. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 5. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 3. 2. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Organisation of science fairs. Love for truth enhances. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. 4. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 3. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 6. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. stipends and appreciations in various ways. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships.4. Through examinations. Central science workshop. Devotion towards nature increases. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations.

The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. 7.needs and conditions.4. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Enquiry teaching is. objectivity.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. For laboratory and workshop techniques. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. should provide opportunities to. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. They encounter many social events as they grow. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. therefore. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste.6. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. They ask many questions about the objects they see. 5. It is. essential that teachers. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.4. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. In the inquiry approach. After presenting the problem. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. sex or religion. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. each child to “enquiry skill building”. Training of science teachers. They experience natural phenomenon. Write any two advantages of Science Education. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

Giving less directions. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. . 3. Social sciences.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. .2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. 5. if they like.Herma Wouk. It requires consistent thinking.books. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. 6. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. commands or orders. Appreciating pupils ideas. 4.4. stern pursuit of accurate data.6. Adopting creative models of teaching. 5. to ask questions and experience things. Evidence.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 300 . 5. 3. test. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. 2. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe.

open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”.(Smith 2008). It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. to develop among the learners. The students observation. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. school and society at large. keen observation. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. For instance. These include open mindedness. practiced. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed.7.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. neighbourhood. and emphasized during the learning process . see and feel the need of developing this attitude. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. 5. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. therefore should be unbiased and objective. (Vaidya 2007). critical thinking and suspended judgments. friends. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. it must be encouraged. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . To achieve this we should understand what it means.4. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. of vast resources running waste. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience.

Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. The intention to respect another’s point of view. (Das. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes.7. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. 2007). Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. intuition or wishful thinking”. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. understanding and logic. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. 5. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. or superstitions. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. he studies all aspects of it. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. In considering a situation or a problem. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. rumor. 302 . He is patient and reserved in his judgement.4. think and work it”.

7. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. but to begin only after careful planning.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. • 5. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.7. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.4.4. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. 5. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.

304 . Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. it must be encourages. 5. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. 5.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.4. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

3. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Yadav. Love for truth enhances. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 16. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. a.5. 305 . The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Study of superstitions d. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Wide reading b. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. N.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Adopting creative models of teaching. S.S. (2000). Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 4. 2.4. objectivity. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. b.4. 5. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. M. a.B (2008). A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Proper example of the teacher c. Discuss the importance of science education 14. (2008). Planning of activities 5. D. b. Rao. Reflections on Scientific attitude. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. (2006). Vaidya. a. b. a.4. 5. The intention to respect another’s point of view.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

3 5.8 5. state the concept.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.5 5. 306 . you will be able to: 1.5.10 5.5.5.4 5. objectives and characteristics. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population. 2.11 5. actively.6 5.1 5.5.LESSON 5.5.5.7 5.5. 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions. areas of institutional planning.5.5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5.5.5.5.9 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5.2 5.

which become the bases for further planning at the district. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. Institution should be regarded as the unit. 5. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. State and national levels from below. every parent. • to make planning development-oriented. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. and supplement planning from above. and. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions.5. every teacher.3. 5. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. • to involve teachers and school administrators. • To make institutional planning more successful. each teacher. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. teachers and students is not lost sight of. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . and every student in the process of educational planning.5. in the task of educational planning. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. and each student are regarded as separate entities. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. executive as well as public.

having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. etc. (2) Co. council and.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. 5.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers.curricular Activities. 308 . Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. approved after making necessary modifications. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. Syllabus. Co-curricular activities. Classwork. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. and Personnel services. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. Examinations.5. it becomes the basis for school inspection.5. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. which will be discussed in the general.• implemented.

Organisation of Pupils. etc. Organisation of Students’ Association. 3. Preparation of instructional material. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Running science clubs. charts and apparatus. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Preparation of models. Improving the internal assessment. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. etc. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Conducting of educational. 2. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Improving the subject competence of teachers. Celebrating of national and international festivals. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. scientific and historical excursions. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Fair distribution of syllabi. Courts. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Editing the school magazine. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Undertaking remedial instruction services. etc. Equipping of laboratory and library. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Organising play-for-all programmes. hobby-centres.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Organisation of class-room libraries. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. etc.No. etc.

The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. teacher-teacher. headmasters associations. teacher-pupil. etc. teacher-managing body. teacher-State. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. science teachers’ associations. administrator-pupil.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. administrator-administrator. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. and —pupil-pupil. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. parent-teacher associations. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. pupil310 . The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. understanding. administrator-supervisor.5. Administrator-State. which are divided as the in. parents. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. ii. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. pupils. and solidarity. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. teachers. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body.5. involving mainly human materials.” The human relationships in. co-operation. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. teacherinspector. students’ associations.

to attend. pupil-community leader. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. pupil-parent. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. administrator. and to serve. To administer means to manage. 311 . It covers personnel and material management. organisation. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. teacher-community leader. control. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. According to C. to accomplish." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. organisation and management. V. etc. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. superintendence. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. to carry out.State. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. supervision and superintendence. now-a-days. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. teacher-parent. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. supervision. pupil-non-official functionaries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. pupil-inspector. social sciences and other disciplines. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. Good. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. It is also being modernized to become a technique. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes.

Democratic Management . 5.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. Economic Management . He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. The relationship should change from master. 11. Leadership .This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. Motiviation . Rapport between the Management and Employees .lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. 7. Worker Participation . 9. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. Decision Making . This is the latest democratic trend in management. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. it is not worth-while. Better Human Relationships .This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.Of all the approaches. without this the efficacy will be handicapped.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. If it is more. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. Liasion with the Public . 13. who occupy the managerial positions.The manager should have leadership traits. 6. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . Communication .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. He should be an artist in human relationships. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 4. 10. 3. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. 8.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Those.Any good management will always have good public relations. Socio-Scientific Approach . 12. Cost-Benefit Analysis . low. 2. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. If the cost benefit ratio is less.

Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. 313 . 14. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to improve the quality of education it provides. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. 19. 5. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. improvement of teaching methods. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc.These two are. characteristics and areas of institutional planning.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.too. objective. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.g. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. enrichment of curricula. and cooperative performance should be ensured. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions.5. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. 18. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. 5. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education.

Tarachand and Prakash. 4. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. c. Fundamental of Educational Management. Classwork. a. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Educational Administration. Communication 5. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. (2003). Examinations. it becomes the basis for school inspection. b. S. e. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House.5. a. NUEPA. Syllabus. f. a. to introduce decentralization of educational planning.M. Motiviation d. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. APH Publishing Corporation. R.5. Instruction. and Personnel services. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. 2.5. Singh. (1995). In group and Out group 5. b.K. Leadership c. b. a. 314 . Co-curricular activities. (2001). Decision Making b. H.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. d.

1 School Health Programme.1 Primary Education : Education for all.Article 45 .1 Inculcation of Socialism.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.3 Educational Influences of Home. Preservation of nutrients.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Communicable diseases .I. higher education.5 Regional Educational Development in India . 4. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.CORE PAPER . UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.1 Gurukula system of education.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Examination reforms.2 Nutritional deficiencies. Healthy Food Habit 4.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Economic 315 . Education by Christian Missionaries 1.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Code of conduct for teachers. Balanced diet.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Inspection and Supervision 3. women education and teacher education in India. 2. population education. Buddhist and Jain system of education.Religious and Modern Education 1.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. New evaluation procedures.teachers should have : 1.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .Pre-service and In-services facilities. Community and Mass Media 2. School. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. nutritional requirement. physical education and environmental education 5. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. First Aid.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Common ailments of Children. Realized the problems of school education.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . social Impact 3.Preventive measures.4 India's Secular Policy . 1.3 Directive Principles .2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Sex-education 4. wastage and Stagnation 3.

5.4. (1999) Culture.N.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Ram S. Delhi : University Publications 2. 7. Tagore 5. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. curriculum and teacher's role 5.S.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. Mishra. Prof.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.K.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. (2004) Problems of Education in India. (2005) Foundations of Education.N. Realism. and Human Development. T. Pandy V. 316 . Kalan Paper Packs 10.Aim.K.K. Ghanta R. Saraswathi T. and Sharma R. R.4 4.1 Idealism. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Hemchand. Mahatma Gandhi.R. Sharma. REFERENCE 1. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9.K. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Socialization.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. and Dash B. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. and Mohanty R. B. Taneja V. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5.C. Naturalism and Pragmatism . Curriculum and national goals .

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